Science.gov

Sample records for 1977 78 heating season

  1. Status Report on TICCIT--1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwilliger-Brown, Gloria, Ed.

    This report reviews the status and use of the Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Television (TICCIT), a computer-assisted instructional tool, at Northern Virginia Community College. During 1977-78, 100 terminals were available for student use and 20 for course development and faculty use. Courses available on TICCIT were Algebra I and II…

  2. Open Doors/1977-78. Report on International Educational Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Alfred C., Ed.; And Others

    Results are provided of surveys taken during the 1977-78 academic year of all two-year and four-year institutions listed in the "Education Directory 1976/77." Information is presented on: number and location of foreign students, 1954/55-1977/78; distribution of students by type of institution; distribution of foreign students in U.S. by major…

  3. 1977-78 Evaluation Findings. Publication Number: 77.59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    Summaries are presented of all research and evaluation work conducted by the Austin Independent School District during the 1977-78 school year. Summaries are divided into the following areas: 1978 at a glance; district priorities; basic skills achievement; systemwide achievement profiles; low socioeconomic status (SES) achievement; professional…

  4. Mississippi Public Junior Colleges Statistical Data, 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, George V.; Busby, M. Ray

    Data relating to the 16 public junior college districts in Mississippi were compiled from the 1977-78 Annual Report to the Junior College Commission, the 1980 budget requests to the Commission on Budget and Accounting, and other sources available to the Division of Junior Colleges, Mississippi State Department of Education, so that Mississippi…

  5. California Teachers Salaries and Salary Schedules 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California School Boards Association, Sacramento.

    This publication presents the complete 1977-78 salary schedule and the placement of full-time teachers on that schedule for each California school district and county office of education that responded to a statewide survey conducted by the California State Department of Education. Approximately 99 percent of the full-time teachers in California…

  6. National Comparison, Local School Costs, 1977-78. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Market Data Retrieval, Westport, CT.

    The cost of education climbed to $1,587.42 per student in 1977-78, exhibiting a significant 13.9 percent increase over the previous year. The increase was brought about largely by rising costs for instruction, especially teacher salaries. The only budget categories showing decreases were administration and attendance services. The national average…

  7. Washington Community Colleges Factbook. Addendum A: Student Enrollments, Academic Year 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terre; Story, Sherie

    In order to reveal trends in community college enrollments in Washington, student demographic and enrollment data for academic year 1977-78 were compiled and compared with figures for previous years. The report provides annualized averages for full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollments for the system for the years 1967 to 1977, and for FTE students by…

  8. Massachusetts Statewide Educational Assessment 1977-78. Technical Report. Career and Occupational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorth, William P.; And Others

    The 1977-78 Massachusetts statewide assessment of Career and Occupational Development (COD) involved the testing of 2,238 thirteen-year-olds and 2,201 seventeen-year-olds. The assessment design required developmental activities aimed at the production of (1) customized achievement tests referenced to important COD objectives, (2) student…

  9. Massachusetts Statewide Education Assessment 1977-78. Summary and Interpretations. Career and Occupational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorth, William P.; And Others

    The 1977-78 Massachusetts statewide assessment of Career and Occupational Development (COD) included the development of test instruments, administration of the tests to a sample of thirteen- and seventeen-year-olds throughout the state, analysis and interpretation of the data, and dissemination of the results. The COD test was objective-referenced…

  10. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    Enrollment data are provided for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1977-78. In one section, the schools are classified by discipline, and within each discipline the schools are sorted alphabetically by state; discipline totals are also…

  11. Year End Activities Evaluation for the National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The report presents evaluation data on the activities of the National Committee for Arts for the Handicapped (NCAH) during the 1977-78 school year. Status of NCAH objectives is detailed for four objectives (sample findings in parentheses): national awareness activities (formation of a National Arts Forum; development of a national training…

  12. Joint Ventures: Marshall University, Ashland Oil, Inc., and Huntington Alloys, Inc., 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Lynne S.

    Two retreat seminars were held between Marshall University and Ashland Oil, Inc. of Ashland, Kentucky and Marshall University and Huntington Alloy, Inc., of Huntington, West Virginia during 1977-78 to identify key problems of mutual concern and prepare a set of recommendations for consideration by the management of both institutions. This report…

  13. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1977-78. General Report. Office of Research Report Series. Volume One/Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busbee, Cyril B.

    The results and methodology of the South Carolina 1977-78 statewide spring testing program for grades 3, 6, and 11 are presented and discussed. The discussion of the results focuses on a comparison of the 1978 results to national norms, a comparison of 1978 to 1977 results, a performance comparison across grade levels, and a comparison of skill…

  14. New Mexico Dropout Study, 1977-78 and 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William R., III

    Based on surveys tallying statewide enrollment and dropout figures by grade, sex, ethnicity, school and district, of 83,832 students enrolled in 1977-78 in 147 schools in 86 districts, 9,059 students (9.75%) were dropouts; of 86,117 enrolled in 150 schools in 88 disricts in 1978-79, 8,069 students (8.56%) dropped out of school. For both years,…

  15. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  16. Food Consumption: Households in the Northeast, Spring 1977. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. H-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents data for spring 1977 from the household portion of the Nationwide Food Consumption survey in the Northeast conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture during April 1977 through March 1978. Statistics are presented on food consumption by consumers with incomes ranging from under $5,000 through $20,000 and over. Information…

  17. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  18. Experienced-Based Career Education, Part D, 13.502. Final Report, Year 2 [1977-78].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Ivan D.; Coombs, C. Garn

    During the 1977-78 school year, students from four Utah high schools participated in the evaluation of an experience-based career education (EBCE) project. The 228 students (115 girls and 113 boys) enrolled in EBCE were designated the experimental group and a randomly selected English class from each high school was treated as the control group.…

  19. Sudan: national health programme and primary health care 1977/78-1983/84

    PubMed Central

    Idriss, A. A.; Lolik, P.; Khan, R. A.; Benyoussef, A.

    1976-01-01

    As a follow-up to the national health programming process developed in 1975 in Sudan, a primary health care programme for the whole country was formulated with assistance from WHO. In this article the methods used in the programming and formulation are described and discussed. These methods ensured an intersectoral approach on which technical, cultural, socioeconomic, financial, and political considerations were based. Areas in the field of health and rural development requiring government and community action during the period 1977/78-1983/84 are identified. Details on the strategies for population coverage of rural and nomadic communities with primary health care are given. Fundamental to these strategies is community participation in the development of primary health care within community development as a whole. The guiding principles of these strategies are their technical, political, social and financial feasibility. The social relevance of the primary health care programme for the community and the developmental sectors is emphasized. PMID:1086739

  20. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  1. Atmospheric modeling of air pollution. 1977-78 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1977-1978

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-06-01

    Lower atmospheric modeling of air pollution from both mobile and stationary sources are covered in the bibliography. Models cover local diffusion, urban heat islands, precipitation washout, worldwide diffusion, climatology, and smog. Stratospheric modeling concerning supersonic aircraft are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 216 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage in mines

    SciTech Connect

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-07-01

    The solar assisted heat supply of building offers a great technical potential for the substitution of fossil energy sources. Central solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) supply 100 and more buildings and reach a solar fraction of 50% or more of the total load with far less specific heat costs [$/kWh{sub solar}] compared to small domestic hot water systems (DHW) for single-family houses. However, the construction of seasonal storage is too expensive. At the Ruhu University Bochum the use of mines for a seasonal storage of low temperature heat is examined in cooperation with industrial partners. The use of available storage volumes may lead to a decrease of investment costs. Additional geothermal heat gains can be obtained from the warm surrounding rock; therefore a high efficiency can be achieved.

  3. Higher Education Enrollments: Community Colleges, Fall 1977. Report No. 78-3A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Denis; Johnson, Jackie

    This report reviews trends in Washington State community college system enrollments from fall 1973 through fall 1977. The first section presents changes in total enrollments by full-time equivalent (FTE) students and by headcount in academic, occupational, and community service areas. The second section deals with enrollment changes for the years…

  4. Grading Patterns at L.A.C.C. 1955-1977. Research Study #78-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    Using grade distributions for fall semesters for odd-numbered years from 1955 to 1977, this study presents statistics on grading practices at Los Angeles City College. For each year in the day and evening divisions, the number of A, B, C, D, F, W (withdrawn), WF (failing at the time of withdrawal), WU (dropped for non-attendance), INC…

  5. Graduate Science Enrollment Stabilized in 1977. Science Resource Studies Highlights, NSF 78-307.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Growth in the number of graduate students enrolled in science programs appears to have halted in fall 1977; estimates indicate a possible one percent downturn. The slowdown in both full- and part-time enrollment at the graduate level may be attributed in part to a steady increase in the number of job opportunities available to graduates below the…

  6. Solar heating with seasonal storage (SHSS) prefeasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    Large annual solar fractions are possible with full capacity of active thermal collectors for room heating and DHW with seasonal storage. Urban housing schematic designs studied with heat load ranges include: townhouses (100 units) and apartments (3,4,5, and 10 story). Performance and economics are predicted with Seasonal.EES software for Madison, WI. Annual solar fractions of 82% and 75% resulted for a 3-story 138 apartment complex with 3.5 BTU/ft{sup 2}{sup {minus}}FDD room heating and 21,600 liters/d DHW, with rooftop flat-plate liquid collectors (tauAlpha{sub n} = .88 and .76) (3620 m{sup 2}/38,965 ft{sup 2}), and insulated cylindrical water storage tank (8482m{sup 3}/2.24 milgals). Influence of solar heating with seasonal storage (SHSS)(aka CSHPSS) to cold-grey climate big city building/urban sustainable design is discussed.

  7. Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples (L'Association Canadienne d'Appui aux Populations Autochtones), Annual Report, 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples (CASNP) seeks to promote wider awareness and understanding among non-Native Canadians for Native objectives and to assist Native peoples to develop programs and resources to further these objectives. During 1977-78 the CASNP carried out a number of programs fulfilling these dual roles. The…

  8. Salaries Paid Professional Personnel in Public Schools, 1977-78. Part 2 of National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools. ERS Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    This publication, part 2 of a three-part report, discloses the annual salaries actually being paid to persons employed in 21 professional positions by 1,146 public school systems for school year 1977-78. These include salaries paid superintendents, deputy or associate superintendents, assistant superintendents, and personnel in certain other…

  9. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  10. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation. PMID:19131626

  11. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing supplemental proposals for early... waterfowl seasons. On July 26, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 45376) a third...

  12. Storm-water data for Bear Creek basin, Jackson County, Oregon 1977-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittenberg, Loren A.

    1978-01-01

    Storm-water-quality samples were collected from four subbasins in the Bear Creek basin in southern Oregon. These subbasins vary in drainage size, channel slope, effective impervious area, and land use. Automatic water-quality samplers and precipitation and discharge gages were set up in each of the four subbasins. During the period October 1977 through May 1978, 19 sets of samples, including two base-flow samples, were collected. Fecal coliform bacteria colonies per 100-milliliter sample ranged from less than 1,000 to more than 1,000,000. Suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from less than 1 to more than 2,300 milligrams per liter. One subbasin consisting of downtown businesses and streets with heavy vehicular traffic was monitored for lead. Total lead values ranging from 100 to 1,900 micrograms per liter were measured during one storm event. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Hagen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd

  14. Analyses of native water, bottom material, and elutriate samples of southern Louisiana waterways, 1977-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupuy, Alton J.; Couvillion, Nolan P.

    1979-01-01

    From March 1977 to July 1978 the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a series of elutriate studies to determine water quality in selected reaches of major navigable waterways of southern Louisiana. Sample were collected from the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet areas; Mississippi River, South Pass; Baptiste Collette Bayou; Tiger Pass area; Baou Long; Bayou Barataria and Barataria Bay Waterway area (gulf section); Bayou Segnette Waterway, Lake Pontchartrain near Tangipahoa River mouth; Bayou Grand Caillou; Bayou la Carpe at Homa; Houma Navigation Canal and Terrebonne Bay; Bayou Boeuf, Bayou Chene, and Baou Black, Atchafalaya River Channel, Atchafalaya Bay; Old River Lock tailbay; Red River below mouth of Black River; Freshwaer Canal; Mermentau River and Lake Arthur Mermentau River outlet; and Calcasieu Ship Channel. The studies were initiated at the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in those waterways. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Geological Survey collected 189 samples of native water and 172 samples of bottom (bed) material from 163 different sites. A total of 117 elutriates (Mixtures of native water and bottom material) were prepared. The native water and elutriate samples were analyzed for selected metals, pesticides, nutrients organics, and pysical constituents. Particle-size determinations were made on bottom-material samples. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. Organochlorine and metal residues in eggs of waterfowl nesting on islands in Lake Michigan off Door County, Wisconsin, 1977-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Heinz, G.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Moore, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    One egg from each of 114 red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) nests in 1977 and 92 nests in 1978 was collected and later analyzed for organochlorines, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated styrenes (PCSs). and metals. One egg was also collected from each of the dabbling duck nests located: Twenty-nine of these eggs were analyzed for organochlorines and metals in 1977; 10 eggs were analyzed in 1978. All merganser eggs contained DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin; all but one egg collected in 1978 contained DDT. DDE and PCB levels had declined since 1975 to a geometric mean of 7.4 ppm DDE and 20 ppm PCBs in 1977 and 7.6 ppm DDE and 19 ppm PCBs in 1978. Dieldrin residues in eggs had not declined from 1975 Ievels; the geometric mean was 0.78 ppm in 1977 and 0.76 ppm in 1978. Other organochlorines were present at low levels. Mercury residues averaged >0,50 ppm in merganser eggs and had not declined since 1975. Other metals were present at low levels. Dabbling ducks generally had much lower organochlorine and Hg residues than mergansers; DDE and PCBs were the only organochlorines present in the majority of eggs. Geometric means of PCBs and DDE in dabbling duck eggs did not exceed 2.0 ppm and 1.0 ppm, respectively. PBBs and PCSs were detected only in a few merganser eggs, at low levels. Eggshell thickness for red-breasted merganser eggs averaged 0.359 mm in 1977 and 0.355 mm in 1978, which is only 2%-3% below pre-1946 thicknesses. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggshell thicknesses averaged 0.331 mm in 1977 and 0.337 mm in 1978.

  16. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Schedule for 2013 On April 9, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend... discontinuous and appear incomplete. On June 14, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35844) a... FR 45838). Special September teal/wood duck seasons in Florida, Tennessee and Kentucky have...

  17. Seasonality of the urban heat island effect: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a rigorous analysis of the drivers of seasonality in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Many studies report annual cycles in UHI intensity and have attributed those patterns to various hypotheses, including seasonal trends in wind and clouds, prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions, soil moisture, and day length. But to our knowledge, those hypotheses have never been tested, leaving a substantial gap in our basic understanding of the urban climate. We tested these and other hypotheses using two years of continuous temperature measurements from an array of 150 sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin USA, an urban area of 407,000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. This is one of the best replicated urban climate arrays ever deployed, which allowed us to characterize the UHI in rich spatial and temporal detail and rigorously assess the biophysical and synoptic drivers of its seasonal variation. UHI intensities were typically highest in summer and lowest in winter. Seasonal trends in wind speed and cloud cover generally tracked annual trends in UHI intensity, with the clearer, calmer conditions conducive to stronger UHIs more common in summer. This is consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal trends in wind, clouds, and anti-cyclonic conditions drive UHI seasonality. However, clear, calm summer nights still had higher UHI intensities than clear, calm winter nights, indicating that some background factor shifted baseline UHI intensities throughout the year. We found that regional vegetation and snow cover conditions set distinct seasonal baselines for UHI intensity, with nighttime intensities averaging 4°C in summer and 1°C in winter. Synoptic and biophysical factors that vary on shorter time scales (e.g. wind, clouds, soil moisture, relative humidity) modified daily UHI intensity around those baselines by 1-3°C but were not the primary drivers of UHI seasonality, contrary to the most common

  18. Seasonal and interannual variation in water vapor and heat fluxes in a West Siberian continental bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, K.; Hiyama, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Inoue, G.

    2003-10-01

    The seasonal and interannual variation in the energy fluxes of a West Siberian continental bog were measured from April to October in 1999 and 2000 using the eddy covariance method. The energy balance closure rate (=[sensible + latent heat fluxes]/[available energy]) ranged from ˜0.8 to 0.9 and showed a better energy balance and less scattering using the soil heat flux estimated from an area-averaged soil thermal parameter rather than from a plot-based measurement. The net radiation (Rn) increased drastically after snowmelt because the surface albedo (a) dropped from its highest value to its lowest value over the course of the snowmelt. The snowmelt water raised the water table (zwt) to its highest level; it then gradually decreased. The seasonal and interannual variation in a, which ranged from 0.09-0.19, depended on zwt, because surface wetness was closely related to zwt through the capillary uptake of Sphagnum moss. The seasonal variation in the latent heat flux (lE) was similar to that in Rn. The largest lE was observed in the middle of June, and was ˜120 Wm-2 (4.2 mm d-1) in both years. Conversely, the sensible heat flux (H) did not show an obvious seasonal pattern and was lower than lE during the growing season. The Bowen ratio (Br) in the early growing season was 0.57 and 0.60, and the values in the peak growing season were 0.65 and 0.78, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The lower Br was related to the higher zwt; specifically, it was due to the wetter surface conditions. An interannual comparison of the monthly mean atmospheric water vapor deficit (δe) and lE showed a significant relationship with a higher lE observed in the year with a higher δe. Therefore in the bog studied the interannual variation in the water vapor flux was controlled mainly by zwt and δe.

  19. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  20. Declines in organochlorines in eggs of red-breasted mergansers from Lake Michigan, 1977-78 versus 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Miller, D.S.; Ebert, B.J.; Stromborg, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    From 1977-1978 to 1990, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most organochlorine pesticides declined in eggs of red-breasted mergansers (M ergus serrator) nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan. Total PCBs decreased 60% (from 21 ppm in 1977-1978 to 8.5 ppm in 1990) and p, p'-DDE decreased 66% (from 6.5 to 2.2 ppm). Dieldrin decreased only 16% (from 0.82 to 0.69 ppm). In 1990, 79.1 % of incubated eggs hatched, which was not significantly different from the 83.5% that hatched in 1977-1978.

  1. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  2. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  3. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  4. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-06

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  5. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-06

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service's survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  6. Spatial and seasonal patterns in abundance and age-composition of Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank: 1977 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meise, C. J.; O'Reilly, J. E.

    The mean seasonal cycle and distribution of various life history stages of C. finmarchicus throughout the Georges Bank (GB)-Gulf of Maine (GOM) region were characterized based on 5966 MARMAP zooplankton samples collected during 106 surveys over a 10-year period (autumn 1977-autumn 1987). A high degree of seasonal and spatial variability in C. finmarchicus abundance throughout the region was evident in contoured portrayals of data, grouped into standard stations and 2-month "seasons". Eight subareas of the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region were identified through cluster analysis of standard stations having similar seasonal patterns in mean abundance of C. finmarchicus stages C3, C4, C5 and adults. These were the northern Gulf of Maine (Northern GOM); southern Gulf of Maine (Southern GOM); Scotian Shelf-coastal Gulf of Maine (Scotian-Coastal GOM); Mass Bay; tidally mixed Georges Bank (Mixed GB); tidal front on the Bank separating mixed from seasonally stratified water (Tidal Front GB); seasonally stratified water on the Bank (Stratified GB) and the Continental Slope adjacent to Georges Bank (SLOPE). A distinct seasonal abundance cycle was present in all subareas, but, the magnitude and timing of annual maxima varied greatly among subareas. Peak abundance was reached early (March-April) in Mixed GB, Tidal Front GB and Mass Bay, and late (July-August) in Northern GOM and Scotian-Coastal GOM. Remaining subareas had maxima in May-June. Abundance increased 10-fold from January-February to March-April and decreased sharply from July-August to September-October in all areas except southern GOM and northern GOM. The amplitude of the annual cycle was weakest in northern GOM and southern GOM, where high concentrations of C. finmarchicus persisted year-round, and strongest in the tidally mixed shallow water on GB, where the sparsest densities of C. finmarchicus occurred most of the year. Abundance curves for the various areas converged in March-April, when C. finmarchicus was

  7. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a background and overview of... Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing supplemental proposals for early- and late-season... in the Federal Register (78 FR 45376) a third document specifically dealing with the...

  8. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  9. Tuition & Required Fees. New Jersey Colleges & Universities: 1977-78 Through 1983-84. ORM Volume 4: Brief Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delehanty, Kathleen

    1983-01-01

    Recent historical trends (1977-1978 through 1983-1984) in tuition and required fee charges in New Jersey colleges and universities are presented. Differences among New Jersey collegiate sectors and among different types of students (full- and part-time, undergraduate and graduate, resident and nonresident) are analyzed in terms of dollar and…

  10. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  11. Seasonal heat and freshwater cycles in the Arctic Ocean in CMIP5 coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Steele, Michael; Hakkinen, Sirpa

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the processes governing the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcings as they appear in historical simulations of 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled climate models. In both models and observations, the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most of these models, sea ice melt dominates. Seasonal horizontal heat flux divergence driven by the seasonal cycle of volume transport is only important locally. In models and observations, the dominant terms in the basin-average seasonal freshwater budget are the storages of freshwater between the ocean and sea ice, and the exchange between the two. The largest external source term is continental discharge in early summer, which is an order of magnitude smaller. The appearance of sea ice (extent and volume) and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and provides two mechanisms for feedback. One consequence of such an interaction is the fact that models with strong/weak seasonal surface heating also have strong/weak seasonal haline and temperature stratification.

  12. Some Characteristics and Opinions of L.A.C.C. Entering Students, Fall, 1977: A Report on Responses to the A.C.E. 1977 Student Information Form. Research Study #78-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Vance

    Los Angeles City College (LACC), a predominantly minority, inner-city community college, administered the ACE "1977 Student Information Form" to 3,000 incoming students for fall 1977. The form allowed students to express opinions on current issues; the generated information was used in comparing student characteristics and attitudes with those of…

  13. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  14. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  15. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  16. Seasonal changes in the atmospheric heat balance simulated by the GISS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.; Chow, S.; Helfand, H. M.; Quirk, W. J.; Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the ability of numerical general circulation models to simulate the atmosphere have focussed so far on simulations of the January climatology. These models generally present boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature, but this does not prevent testing their ability to simulate seasonal changes in atmospheric processes that accompany presented seasonal changes in boundary conditions. Experiments to simulate changes in the zonally averaged heat balance are discussed since many simplified models of climatic processes are based solely on this balance.

  17. Seasonal Cycles of Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Tong; Marotzke, Jochem

    1998-01-01

    A general circulation model of the Indian Ocean is fitted to monthly averaged climatological temperatures, salinities, and surface fluxes using the adjoint method. Interannual variability is minimized by penalizing the temporal drift from one seasonal cycle to another during a two-year integration. The resultant meridional overturning and heat transport display large seasonal variations, with maximum amplitudes of 18 and 22 (x 10(exp 6) cubic m/s) for the overturning and 1.8 and 1.4 (x 10(exp 15) W) for heat transport near 10 S and 10 N, respectively. A dynamical decomposition of the overturning and heat transport shows that the time-varying Ekman How plus its barotropic compensation can explain a large part of the seasonal variations in overturning and heat transport. The maximum variations at 10 deg N and 10 deg S are associated with monsoon reversal over the northern Indian Ocean and changes of the easterlies over the southern Indian Ocean. An external mode with variable topography has a moderate contribution where the Somali Current and the corresponding gyre reverse direction seasonally. Contribution front vertical shear (thermal wind and ageostrophic shear) is dominant near the southern boundary and large near the Somali Current latitudes. The dominant balance in the zonally integrated heat budget is between heat storage change and heat transport convergence except south of 15 S. Optimization with seasonal forcings improves estimates of sea surface temperatures, but the annual average overturning and heat transport are very similar to previous results with annual mean forcings. The annual average heat transport consists of roughly equal contributions from time-mean and time-varying fields of meridional velocities and temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean. indicating a significant rectification to the heat transport due to the time-varying fields. The time-mean and time-varying contributions are primarily due to the overturning and horizontal gyre

  18. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  19. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined. PMID:26347537

  20. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  1. Comparison of General Purpose Heat Source testing with the ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) sealed source standard

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1998-03-26

    This analysis provides a comparison of the testing of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and RTG components with the testing requirements of ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) ``Sealed Radioactive Sources, Categorization``. The purpose of this comparison is to demonstrate that the RTGs meet or exceed the requirements of the ANSI standard, and thus can be excluded from the radioactive inventory of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building in Los Alamos per Attachment 1 of DOE STD 1027-92. The approach used in this analysis is as follows: (1) describe the ANSI sealed source classification methodology; (2) develop sealed source performance requirements for the RTG and/or RTG components based on criteria from the accident analysis for CMR; (3) compare the existing RTG or RTG component test data to the CMR requirements; and (4) determine the appropriate ANSI classification for the RTG and/or RTG components based on CMR performance requirements. The CMR requirements for treating RTGs as sealed sources are derived from the radiotoxicity of the isotope ({sup 238}P7) and amount (13 kg) of radioactive material contained in the RTG. The accident analysis for the CMR BIO identifies the bounding accidents as wing-wide fire, explosion and earthquake. These accident scenarios set the requirements for RTGs or RTG components stored within the CMR.

  2. The role of atmospheric heat transport in the seasonal carbon dioxide cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, James R.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out numerical experiments with a general circulations model (GCM) and energy balance model of the martian atmosphere to define the importance of heat transported to the polar regions in determining the amount of CO2 condensed on the surface during the fall and winter seasons and the amount sublimated during the spring and summer seasons. In so doing, we performed both sensitivity experiments, in which the dust opacity was varied over the full range of its observed values, and annual simulations, in which the dust opacity varied continuously with seasonal data, in accord with measurements taken at the Viking landers. Dust opacity represents the key variable for determining the contribution of atmospheric heat advection to the energy budget in the polar regions. The amount of heat advected to the winter polar regions increases monotonically as the dust opacity at low and middle latitudes increases. However, the increase is sharpest between optical depths of 0 and 1 tends to level off at still higher optical depths. Heat advection is more important at times of CO2 condensation than CO2 sublimation, since the temperature gradients are much steeper in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Because dust opacity is much higher during northern winter than during southern winter, atmospheric heat advection reduces the amount of CO2 that condenses in the north by a much larger factor than it does in the south.

  3. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  4. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  5. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  6. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

  7. Seasonal patterns of surface wind stress and heat flux over the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winant, Clinton D.; Dorman, Clive E.

    1997-03-01

    Patterns of wind stress and heat flux between the atmosphere and the ocean over the Southern California Bight are described based on observations from buoys and ships. During the winter, the wind stress is spatially homogeneous and temporally variable, with strong events corresponding to low-pressure systems sweeping through the area. During the summer, spatial patterns are more persistent, with large gradients. Inshore of a line running approximately between Point Conception and Ensenada, Mexico, winds are weak. Offshore wind speeds are comparable in magnitude to those found over the continental shelf north of Point Conception. The boundary is the location of maximum wind stress curl, and the spatial resolution afforded by California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI) observations suggests maximum wind stress curls over 3 times larger than the values proposed by Nelson [1977]. Net heat flux estimates derived from the CalCOFI measurements are somewhat larger than the values proposed by Nelson and Husby [1983], due to differences in latent heat flux estimates. Possible mechanisms responsible for the spring-summer spatial structure in the wind and the relationship between these gradients and the properties of the underlying ocean are discussed.

  8. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  9. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  10. Seasonal variations of physiological responses to heat of subtropical and temperate natives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihzuka, H.; Hori, S.; Akamatsu, T.

    1986-06-01

    In an attempt to compare the physiological responses of subtropical natives to heat with those of temperate natives, seasonal variations in physiological responses to heat were observed in young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa, subtropical zone (group O) and young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland, temperate zone, but moved to Okinawa in less than two years (group M). In both seasons, group O showed less sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat, lower rise in rectal temperature and less increase in heart rate during heat exposure than group M. In both groups, greater sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat and lower rise in rectal temperature in summer than in winter were observed. Seasonal differences in Na concentration in sweat, rise in rectal temperature and increase in heart rate for group O were smaller than those for group M. It was assumed the efficiency of sweat for cooling the body for group O was better than that for group M, and heat tolerance for group O was superior to that for group M.

  11. Seasonal adjustment of solar heat gain independent of coat coloration in a desert mammal.

    PubMed

    Walsberg, G E; Weaver, T; Wolf, B O

    1997-01-01

    Despite the apparent importance of solar radiation as a source of heat for free-living animals, there exists no substantial body of empirical data describing physiological responses to solar radiation under the range of convective conditions likely to occur in nature. We therefore quantified effects of simulated solar radiation and wind on metabolic heat production in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus. This diurnal mammal inhabits the Sonoran Desert and seasonally replaces its pelage in a fashion in which it retains constant external appearance but incorporates optical and structural changes that are thought to significantly alter heat-transfer properties of the coat. At a given wind speed, the presence of 950 W m-2 of simulated solar radiation reduces metabolic heat production by 15% (at a wind speed of 4 m s-1) to 37% (at a wind speed of 0.25 m s-1). Independent of effects of irradiance, metabolic heat production significantly increases with wind speed such that as wind speed is increased from 0.25 m s-1 to 4.0 m s-1, metabolic heat production is elevated by 66% (sunlight absent) or 88% (sunlight present). Previous analyses demonstrated that when exposed to identical radiative and convective environments rock squirrels with summer pelages accrue solar heat loads 33%-71% lower than those experienced by animals with winter coats. This reduction of solar heat gain during the extremely hot Sonoran Desert summer apparently constitutes a previously unappreciated mode of thermal adaptation by seasonal adjustment of radiative heat gain without changes in the animal's appearance. PMID:9231387

  12. Seasonal variation of the upper ocean responding to surface heating in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunjeong; Noh, Yign; Qiu, Bo; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variations of the upper ocean, such as mixed layer depth (MLD) and sea surface temperature (SST), responding to the atmospheric forcing in the North Pacific (10°N-50°N), are investigated by analyzing the Argo and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1 data. The OAFlux data are also used for comparison. During the early heating period in the high-latitude ocean north of 30°N, where a seasonal thermocline is formed above the deep mixed layer under strong surface heating, the MLD h is found to be scaled as h∝>(Lλ>)1/2, where L is the Monin-Obukhov length scale and λ is the Ekman length scale. On the other hand, in the low-latitude ocean south of 30°N, where the preexisting MLD is shallow and surface heating is weak, h is found to be scaled by λ. It is found that a large amount of heat flux across the MLD occurs, especially in the high-latitude ocean during the late heating period, in which h is small. It suggests the contribution by turbulent mixing across the MLD in addition to radiation penetration, and the eddy diffusivity in the high-latitude ocean is estimated as Kv ˜ 10-4-10-3 m2 s-1. The heat budget of the mixed layer reveals that the contribution from the ocean heat transport is much smaller than the surface heat flux in the high-latitude ocean except in the Kuroshio region, but it is sometimes comparable in the low-latitude ocean.

  13. Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Kanda, M.

    2004-11-01

    Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime had little seasonal variation, irrespective of significant seasonal change of net all-wave radiation Rn. 2) The latent heat flux in the summer daytime was large despite the small areal fraction of natural coverage (trees and bare soil). The estimated local latent heat flux per unit natural coverage was 2 times the available energy (Rn - G), which indicates that the “oasis effect” was significant. 3) The CO2 flux was always upward throughout the year and the magnitude was larger in winter, mainly because of an increase of fossil fuel consumption. The annual total CO2 flux was 6 times the downward CO2 flux at a typical temperate deciduous forest.


  14. Latent Heating Retrievals Using the TRMM Precipitation Radar: A Multi-Seasonal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, S.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle and is a primary heat source for the atmosphere. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied by rainfall, modulates the large-scale circulations of the tropics and in turn can impact midlatitude weather. This latent heat release is a consequence of phase changes between vapor, liquid, and solid water. Present largescale weather and climate models can simulate latent heat release only crudely, thus reducing their confidence in predictions on both global and regional scales. This paper represents the first attempt to use NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall information to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to October 2000. The Goddard Convective-Stratiform. Heating (CSH) algorithm and TRMM precipitation radar data are used for this study. We will examine and compare the latent heating structures between 1997-1998 (winter) ENSO and 1998-2000 (non-ENSO). We will also examine over the tropics. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental; Indian oceans vs west Pacific; Africa vs S. America) will be also examined and compared. In addition, we will examine the relationship between latent heating (max heating level) and SST. The period of interest also coincides with several TRMM field campaigns that recently occurred over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and in the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed Q1 budgets from these experiments could provide a means of validating the retrieved profiles of latent heating from the CSH algorithm.

  15. The effect of ocean heat flux on seasonal ice growth in Young Sound (Northeast Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sergei; Dmitrenko, Igor; Babb, David; Rysgaard, Søren; Barber, David

    2015-07-01

    The seasonal ice cover plays an important role in the climate system limiting the exchange of heat and momentum across the air-water interface. Among other factors, sea ice is sensitive to the ocean heat flux. In this study, we use in situ oceanographic, sea ice, and meteorological data collected during winter 2013/2014 in Young Sound (YS) fjord in Northeast Greenland to estimate the ocean heat flux to the landfast ice cover. During the preceding ice-free summer, incident solar radiation caused sea surface temperatures of up to 5-6°C. Subsequently, this heat was transferred down to the intermediate depths, but returned to the surface and retarded ice growth throughout winter. Two different approaches were used to estimate the ocean heat fluxes; (i) a residual method based on a 1-D thermodynamic ice growth model and (ii) a bulk parameterization using friction velocities and available heat content of water beneath the ice. The average heat flux in the inner YS varied from 13 W m-2 in October-December to less than 2 W m-2 in January-May. An average heat flux of 9 W m-2 was calculated for the outer YS. Moreover, we show that the upward heat flux in the outer fjord is strongly modulated by surface outflow, which produced two maxima in heat flux (up to 18-24 W m-2) during 26 December to 27 January and from 11 February to 14 March. By May 2014, the upward ocean heat flux reduced the landfast ice thickness by 18% and 24% in the inner and outer YS, respectively.

  16. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. PMID:26787477

  17. Seasonal variations in heat and carbon dioxide fluxes observed over a reed wetland in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jia, Qingyu; Liu, Jingmiao

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in sensible heat flux (Hs), latent heat flux (LE), and CO2 flux (Fc) during 2006 over a reed wetland ecosystem in Northeast China, as well as their relationships with environmental factors, were investigated based on micrometeorological observations and turbulence data, measured using the eddy covariance technique. The results showed that the LE values were significantly larger (>400 W m-2) in summer (June, July, and August) than those in other seasons because of the summertime abundant precipitation and strong evapotranspiration, whereas the Hs values were smaller (<100 W m-2) in summer but larger in spring (>300 W m-2) and autumn (>200 W m-2). The cumulative evapotranspiration in 2006 was 577.1 mm that was mostly controlled by radiation at surface throughout the whole year but also limited by water supply during the non-growing season. Most of the Fc values ranged between -1.0 mg m-2 s-1 (sometimes close to -2.0 mg m-2 s-1) during daytime and 0.3 mg m-2 s-1 at night during the growing season (May to September) but varied around zero in the non-growing season, and the CO2 mass concentration was in the range of 600-800 mg m-3. Monthly cumulative CO2 flux for the growing season was negatively largest in July (-520 mg m-2 month-1) and smallest in May (-65 mg m-2 month-1), making this reed wetland a net CO2 sink in 2006. The daytime CO2 flux in the growing season was positively correlated with atmospheric stability |z/L| under unstable condition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed, but depended less on air temperature, relative humidity and soil water content on a several-day time scale. However, over a longer time scale, a comparison of March-April conditions during 2005 and 2006 suggested that cooler conditions can result in reduced CO2 production before the growing season.

  18. Infestation and seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Maghreb mouse-eared bat, Myotis punicus Felten, 1977, in northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bendjeddou, Mohammed Lamine; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair S; BaniHani, Rihan

    2016-06-01

    Infestation of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 on Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 from two sites (Trios Tunnel and Sidi Trad cave) in northeastern Algeria was studied. An overall infestation of 41.4% for all stages was found among bats collected from both sites. By stage, a total of eight females, 70 nymphs, and 107 larvae were recovered from both populations. The number of females recovered per bat at Sidi Trad ranged from 0-1, for nymphs 0-2, and for larvae 0-2. While no female ticks were collected at Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs ranged from 0-2 and for larvae 0-2. At Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs was significantly higher during April and June but not for July and September. On the other hand, the number of larvae increased from July to November, while at Sidi Trad cave, female ticks were recovered during April and May and then disappeared until the end of the study period. Significant differences were noted during all the months when compared with all stages. Nymphs infested bats significantly during April and May, declined in June and July, and then became steady until October. Larvae peaked in July, with low frequency in April, and then fluctuated from August to November. PMID:27232132

  19. Seasonal patterns of heat loss in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Erin M; McLellan, William A; Westgate, Andrew J; Wells, Randall S; Blum, James E; Pabst, D Ann

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated patterns of heat loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, where water temperatures vary seasonally from 11 to 33 degrees C. Simultaneous measurements of heat flux (HF) and skin surface temperature were collected at the body wall and appendages of dolphins during health-monitoring events in summer (June 2002-2004) and winter (February 2003-2005). Integument thickness was measured and whole body conductance (W/m(2) degrees C) was estimated using HF and colonic temperature measurements. Across seasons, HF values were similar at the appendages, but their distribution differed significantly at the flipper and fluke. In summer, these appendages displayed uniformly high values, while in winter they most frequently displayed very low HF values with a few high HF values. In winter, blubber thickness was significantly greater and estimated conductance significantly lower, than in summer. These results suggest that dolphins attempt to conserve heat in winter. In winter, though, HF values across the body wall were similar to (flank) or greater than (caudal keel) summer values. It is likely that higher winter HF values are due to the steep temperature gradient between the body core and colder winter water, which may limit the dolphin's ability to decrease heat loss across the body wall. PMID:18183404

  20. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  1. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 21, 2013. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons......

  2. A heating season comparison test of two solar air heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thacher, E.F.; Wen, C.

    1987-06-01

    An outdoor, comparison performance test of two solar air-heating systems was performed between December 1, 1985 and May 17, 1986, near Potsdam, in northern New York. Each system was installed in a small test cell and operated in the direct heating mode. An identical third test cell served as a control. Infiltration air was blown into the cells at 0.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The solar fractions obtained were low, ranging from 0.116 to0.213, with the north cell's fraction somewhat lower than the south cell's. The average solar fraction of both cells in each control range increased as the temperature control range widened. Simulation of the experiment in Albany, Buffalo, Potsdam, and Syracusae using TRNSYS gave solar fractions of similar magnitudes and the same trend. An economic analysis comparing the solar systems to five different conventional energy sources showed no payback during the 20-year term of the analysis.

  3. Infrared measurements of HF and HCl total column abundances above Kitt Peak, 1977-1990 - Seasonal cycles, long-term increases, and comparisons with model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Levine, J. S.; Goldman, A.; Sze, N. D.; Ko, M. K. W.; Johnson, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total column measurements, their estimated long-term rates of increase, seasonal cycles, and variability, deduced from the analysis of a set of high-resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at Kitt Peak. The Kitt Peak observations and methods of analysis are described, the results are presented and compared with previously reported measurements and trends. The data is analyzed by using a multilayer nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. Model-calculated hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns obtained with a two-dimensional model are discussed, and the model results are compared with the measured hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns, seasonal cycles, and trends. It is pointed out that the observed trends of both molecules are in satisfactory agreement with the model results calculated from emission histories and photooxidation rates for the source molecules.

  4. Report on the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1977-78 Survey of Graduate Enrollment. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. Leslie

    A survey of graduate school enrollments provided responses from 309 of the 359 member schools of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States. Data are provided on 1976 and 1977 enrollments and percent changes in enrollments by discipline area, first-time enrollment, male and female enrollment, and ethnic group enrollment. Percent changes…

  5. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  6. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

  7. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  8. Post-burning regeneration of the Chaco seasonally dry forest: germination response of dominant species to experimental heat shock.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Díaz, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Plant species of the Chaco seasonally dry forest of central Argentina have presumably been under a low evolutionary pressure to develop specialized fire-response traits, such as heat-stimulated germination. Nevertheless, other historical factors such as seasonal drought and/or endozoochorus dispersal could have led some species to develop heat-tolerant seeds. Therefore, heat-tolerant germination should be more common than heat-stimulated or heat-sensitive germination. To test this, we exposed seeds of 26 dominant species from the Chaco region to a broad range of experimental heat treatments and incubated them for 30 days at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiod. We then scored the percent germination and classified them as heat-stimulated, heat-tolerant or heat-sensitive based on their germination following heat treatments relative to control. Seventeen species showed heat-tolerant germination, including all native graminoids. Seven species showed heat-stimulated germination, under the less-intense heat treatments. Only two species showed heat-sensitive germination. Endozoochory had no influence on germination responses. We suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, fire was not a major evolutionary force in the development of Chaco forests, and our results provide greater understanding of the potential response of Chaco plant communities in the face of increasingly frequent fires. PMID:25421096

  9. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  10. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  11. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...This final rule establishes opening dates and adjusts quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or underharvests experienced during 2013 and previous fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS establishes season opening dates based on adaptive management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing......

  12. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  13. Ocean Net Heat Flux Influences Seasonal to Interannual Patterns of Plankton Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tim J.; Allen, Icarus; Atkinson, Angus; Bruun, John T.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Pingree, Robin D.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the net heat flux (NHF) into the ocean have profound impacts on global climate. We analyse a long-term plankton time-series and show that the NHF is a critical indicator of ecosystem dynamics. We show that phytoplankton abundance and diversity patterns are tightly bounded by the switches between negative and positive NHF over an annual cycle. Zooplankton increase before the transition to positive NHF in the spring but are constrained by the negative NHF switch in autumn. By contrast bacterial diversity is decoupled from either NHF switch, but is inversely correlated (r = −0.920) with the magnitude of the NHF. We show that the NHF is a robust mechanistic tool for predicting climate change indicators such as spring phytoplankton bloom timing and length of the growing season. PMID:24918906

  14. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  15. Seasonal thermal signatures of heat transfer by water exchange in an underground vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Morat, Pierre; Yoshino, Toshio; Sano, Osam; Utada, Hisashi; Gensane, Olivier; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2004-07-01

    The temperature of a 10-point vertical profile at the rock-atmosphere interface has been monitored since 2000 September in an underground vault at Aburatsubo, Japan, where resistivity variations have been reported in association with earthquakes. The non-ventilated vault is characterized by an annual temperature variation of about 1.2 °C peak to peak, compatible with thermal diffusion in the surrounding tuff rock, and by a long-term temperature increase of about 0.1 °C per year, possibly due to a local or global climate change. Owing to a careful relative calibration of the 10 thermistors used in this experiment, these data establish that the ceiling temperature is higher than the floor temperature by 0.04 to 0.28 °C. Transient temperature variations are observed in association with human presence or with typhoons, with a characteristic spatial pattern revealing structural heterogeneity. Variations with periods ranging from 1 day to 1 week, with an amplitude two time larger and a phase advance on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from November to May. Variations with periods larger than 1 week, with an amplitude two times smaller and a phase lag on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from June to October. These cycles are linked to the sign of the seasonal heat flux. We propose an interpretation in which heat transfer in the cavity is dominated by diffusion of water vapour from June to October (heat flux downwards, summer regime) and by convective water transport from November to May (heat flux upwards, winter regime). The water flow inferred from this model can be used to predict the water saturation of the rock as a function of time. Because of a permanent radiative heat flux from top to bottom, the upward water flow in the winter regime is larger than the downward water flow in the summer regime, resulting in a slow depletion of water from the rock below the cavity. This unbalanced water flow could contribute to an observed

  16. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  17. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat flux during the warm season at FLUXNET sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kell B.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Aubinet, Marc; Berbigier, Paul; Bernhofer, Christian; Dolman, Han; Falge, Eva; Field, Chris; Goldstein, Allen; Granier, Andre; Grelle, Achim; Halldor, Thorgeirsson; Hollinger, Dave; Katul, Gabriel; Law, B. E.; Lindroth, Anders; Meyers, Tilden; Moncrieff, John; Monson, Russ; Oechel, Walter; Tenhunen, John; Valentini, Riccardo; Verma, Shashi; Vesala, Timo; Wofsy, Steve

    2002-12-01

    The warm season (mid-June through late August) partitioning between sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux, or the Bowen ratio (β = H/LE), was investigated at 27 sites over 66 site years within the international network of eddy covariance sites (FLUXNET). Variability in β across ecosystems and climates was analyzed by quantifying general climatic and surface characteristics that control flux partitioning. The climatic control on β was quantified using the climatological resistance (Ri), which is proportional to the ratio of vapor pressure deficit (difference between saturation vapor pressure and atmospheric vapor pressure) to net radiation (large values of Ri decrease β). The control of flux partitioning by the vegetation and underlying surface was quantified by computing the surface resistance to water vapor transport (Rc, with large values tending to increase β). There was a considerable range in flux partitioning characteristics (Rc, Ri and β) among sites, but it was possible to define some general differences between vegetation types and climates. Deciduous forest sites and the agricultural site had the lowest values of Rc and β (0.25-0.50). Coniferous forests typically had a larger Rc and higher β (typically between 0.50 and 1.00 but also much larger). However, there was notable variability in Rc and Ri between coniferous site years, most notably differences between oceanic and continental climates and sites with a distinct dry summer season (Mediterranean climate). Sites with Mediterranean climates generally had the highest net radiation, Rc, Ri, and β. There was considerable variability in β between grassland site years, primarily the result of interannual differences in soil water content and Rc.

  19. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  20. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat–health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  1. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability. PMID:27351357

  2. Urban heat island by means of city clusters: a statistical assessment of size influence and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, influence factors of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect have been intensively investigated and further broadened through a variety of studies around the world. Briefly, compared to non-built surroundings, built-up areas of cities differ considerably in albedo, thermal capacity, roughness, etc. which can significantly modify the surface energy budget and make downtown areas of cities hotter than their vicinities. Most previous studies were built upon a limited number of cities, and suffered from inconsistency and instability with regard to the urban-rural definition, which hinders the inter-comparison between results. To overcome this limitation in the number of considered cities, we perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) intensity by means of land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. After defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover based on CORINE data, we determine a boundary around the urban cluster of approximately equal area to the cluster area. SUHI intensity is thus defined as the difference between the mean temperature in the cluster and that of the surroundings. We investigate the relationships of the SUHI intensity, respectively with the cluster size and with the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the SUHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a pronounced seasonality of the SUHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. Characterizing the shape by means of Fourier series approximation and consequential work of clustering, we identify apparent regional patterns which suggest a climatological basis for the heterogeneity of UHI.

  3. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  4. Vertical characteristics of PM2.5 during the heating season in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Zhang, Yu-fen; Han, Su-qin; Wu, Jian-hui; Bi, Xiao-hui; Shi, Guo-liang; Wang, Jiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zi-ying; Liu, Jing-le; Feng, Yin-chang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected at four heights (10m, 40m, 120m and 220m) at a meteorological tower in the daytime and nighttime during the heating season in Tianjin, China. The vertical variation and diurnal variability of the concentrations of PM2.5 and main chemical compositions were analyzed in clear days and heavy pollution days. Generally, mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the chemical compositions showed a decreasing trend with increasing height, while mass percentages of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and OC showed an increasing trend with increasing height. Concentrations of ion species and carbon compound in PM2.5 samples in the daytime were higher than those collected at night, which was due to intense human activities and suitable meteorological condition in the daytime. The ratios of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) and OC/EC were also considered, and we have observed that their levels on heavy pollution days were higher than those on clear days. In addition, source apportionments were identified quantitatively using the CMB-iteration model. The results indicated that contributions of secondary ion species increased with increasing height, while contributions of other pollutant sources decreased, and contributions of vehicle exhaust were relatively high on clear days. PMID:25863506

  5. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  6. 78 FR 38584 - Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 Season, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks... Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 season. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of...

  7. 78 FR 29025 - Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San...

  8. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Mexico regions. In the final rule establishing quotas for the 2013 shark season (77 FR 75896; December 26... overfishing occurring, or have an unknown status. The porbeagle shark management group was not opened in 2013... shark (SCS) management groups, which have been determined not to be overfished and have no...

  9. Reactive force field development for magnesium chloride hydrates and its application for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; van Duin, Adri C T; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-06-21

    MgCl2 hydrates are considered as high-potential candidates for seasonal heat storage materials. These materials have high storage capacity and fast dehydration kinetics. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis may occur. Hydrolysis is an irreversible reaction, which produces HCl gas thus affecting the durability of heat storage systems. In this study, we present the parameterization of a reactive force field (ReaxFF) for MgCl2 hydrates to study the dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O. The ReaxFF parameters have been derived by training against quantum mechanics data obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations consisting of bond dissociation curves, angle bending curves, reaction enthalpies, and equation of state. A single-parameter search algorithm in combination with a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm is successfully used for this ReaxFF parameterization. The newly developed force field is validated by examining the elastic properties of MgCl2 hydrates and the proton transfer reaction barrier, which is important for the hydrolysis reaction. The bulk moduli of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O obtained from ReaxFF are in close agreement with the bulk moduli obtained from DFT. A barrier of 20.24 kcal mol(-1) for the proton transfer in MgCl2·2H2O is obtained, which is in good agreement with the barrier (19.55 kcal mol(-1)) obtained from DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations using the newly developed ReaxFF on 2D-periodic slabs of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O show that the dehydration rate increases more rapidly with temperature in MgCl2·H2O than in MgCl2·2H2O, in the temperature range 300-500 K. The onset temperature of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter in seasonal heat storage systems, is observed at 340 K for MgCl2·H2O, which is in agreement with experiments. The HCl formation is not observed for MgCl2·2H2O. The diffusion coefficient of H2O through MgCl2·H2O is lower than through MgCl2·2H2O, and can

  10. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  11. Official Policy Positions of the National Congress of American Indians for Convention Year 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Congress of American Indians, Washington, DC.

    During its convention year of 1977-78, the National Congress of American Indians held an annual convention in Dallas in September, 1977, an executive council meeting in Washington in January, 1978, a special conference on federal recognition and the impact of the Oliphant decision in Nashville, Tennessee in March, 1978, and a mid-year conference…

  12. Fiscal year 1977 scientific and technical reports, articles, papers, and presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, O. L. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists 78 NASA technical memoranda, notes, papers, and reports presented by Marshall Space Flight Center personnel in FY 1977. In addition, 525 papers by contractors to that facility are cited along with 129 papers cleared for presentation.

  13. School Law Update--1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 26 addresses made at the 23rd annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. It discusses issues surrounding school law in elementary, secondary, and higher education in 1977 and before. Some of the topics covered include collective bargaining, employee layoff, sex discrimination and…

  14. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  15. Carolina Counselor 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gary M., Comp.; Rotter, Joseph C., Comp.

    This publication contains eight research papers presented and discussed at the April 1977 second annual Carolina Counselors' Spring Symposium. They cover a wide range of topics: (1) self-concept as it relates to adjustment in the blind; (2) open-space school and its guidance strategies; (3) death education and counseling; (4) the locus of control…

  16. Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

  17. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results described in the report represent but a few of the projects supported by the Office of Research and Development in 1977. The program ranges from direct support to EPA's regulatory functions, such as cancer assessment and drinking water purification, to investigations ...

  18. Heat transfer in high temperature fluidized beds with immersed tubes for coal combustion service. Final report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The project involved two parts: analytical and experimental. The progression of work includes the following major divisions: analytical studies involving studies of heat transfer, hydrodynamics of gas flow within the bed, and some considerations of bubble and adjacent tube influences on the heat transfer; experimental apparatus including the instrumented tubes for heat transfer measurements, digital data acquisition, and the high temperature fluidized bed test facility; experimental results; and experimental validation of the analytical model.

  19. Impact of the seasonal cycle on the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic volume and heat transport under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic ocean circulation is projected to change considerably with future climate change. Here, we investigate whether changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the meridional heat transport (OHT) result in changes in their decadal predictability. In MPI-ESM-LR, we generate two hindcast ensembles with 20 start dates and 10 ensemble members per start date for (i) the present climate state in the CMIP5 historical simulation extended with RCP4.5 starting in 1995 and (ii) a future climate state in RCP4.5 starting in 2045. These two hindcast ensembles are compared against the historical simulation and RCP4.5 as control simulation, respectively, using the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and the Brier skill score (BSS) decomposition in combination with reliability diagrams. The analysis is performed for yearly means and multiyear seasonal means of the AMOC and the OHT. Our results show a decrease in predictability of the AMOC and the OHT from the present climate state to the future climate state in RCP4.5. Both, changes in the AMOC and the OHT decadal predictability are largest at latitudes where the mean seasonal cycle of both AMOC and OHT is projected to change. For example around 25°N, the AMOC shows a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.5 Sv and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead times from up to 10 years to 2 years in the ACC. For the OHT, we find a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.1 PW and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead time from up to 4 years to 2 years in the ACC around 25°N. Similarly, the BSS and reliability diagrams show a reduction in skill from the present climate state to the future climate state. For multiyear seasonal means, summer months dominate the predictability in the present and future climate. Even though the changes in the decadal predictability of AMOC and OHT are small in general, their

  20. Measures of Public Service: The Past Decade (1977-1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    Professional and vocational licensing and registration information is presented for the New York State fiscal years 1977-78 through 1986-87. For each fiscal year, the total number of new licenses, certificates or registrations, and total number of licensees registered to practice in the state, and the current registration period are provided for…

  1. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, António C.; Borges, José; Cabral, J. Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V.

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  2. The anomalous Mesopause region temperatures of the 2003-2004 winter season measured from Svalbard (78N 16E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrland, M. E.; Sigernes, F.; Mulligan, F.; Deehr, C. S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on the temperature and dynamics of the hydroxyl layer at approx. 87km measured over Longyearbyen (78N 16E) during the 2003-2004 winter. Optical spectra obtained by a Ebert-Fastie spectrometer were used for the temperature derivation. The high number of spectra available enabled spectral analysis of both the hourly and daily averaged temperatures. We were able to identify both the presence of a 16 day wave and a quasi 27 day oscillation in the mesopause region (approx. 87 km) temperatures from this season. The average daily temperature was 228K with a standard deviation of 17K. This is exceptionally high compared to previous and later years reported in the 23 year old time series from Svalbard. The observed temperatures have been compared to temperature data from other height regions above the Arctic (troposphere and stratosphere) and to satellite data from the satellite instrument SABER. In early January 2004 a major stratospheric warming event led to a nearly 2 month long vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere and correspondingly high temperatures. The upper stratospheric temperatures of the same period were unusually low, while mesopause temperatures were high. The regions of alternating low and high temperatures throughout the atmosphere and the dynamics of these, are clearly coupled through gravity wave activity and general atmospheric circulation. We try to put our data into context with other authors' reports on the anomalous state of the atmosphere during the 2003-2004 boreal winter.

  3. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  4. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  5. The seasonal variation of the Hough modes of the tidal components of ozone heating evaluated from Aura/MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Smith, Anne; Jiang, Guoying; Yuan, Wei; Gao, Hong

    The global distribution of atmospheric ozone from Aug. 2004 to Dec. 2008 observed by Aura/MLS is used to calculate the variation of the ozone heating rate with the local time. The heating rates are calculated using the Strobel/Zhu parameterized model. The harmonic components of the heating rate, which include the daily mean, the 24-hour, the 12-hour, the 8-hour and the 6-hour periodicities are calculated. Each harmonic component of the heating is then decomposed into Hough modes. And the annual (AO), semiannual (SAO), and quasi-biennial (QBO) periodicities of each Hough mode are presented. The results show that, for the diurnal component, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the symmetric (1,-2), (1,1) and (1,-4) modes. The largest propagating mode (1,1) and the largest trapped mode (1,-2) have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The forcing of the propagating (1,1) mode by ozone heating is larger during solstices than during equinoxes. The strongest annual vari-ation takes place in the (1,-1) mode. For the semi-diurnal and ter-diurnal components, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the several initial symmetric modes, such as, (2,2), (2,4), (2,6), (3,3), and (3,5). These modes have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The strongest annual variation takes place in the asymmetric modes, such as, (2,3), (2,5), (2,7), (3,4), (3,6), and (3,8). New parameterizations of these components of the heating rate, which covers the vertical range from 10 km to 70 km, are developed based on the seasonal variations in each Hough mode.

  6. Climate–vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  7. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a... Federal Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing supplemental proposals for early- and late..., 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 45376) a third document specifically dealing with...

  8. All Season-DX Cooling and Gas Heating. GCS3 Series - Horizontal and Down-Flo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    The Lennox single package all-season rooftop unit and mounting frame is described in detail. This piece of equipment is designed primarily for rooftop installation with bottom handling of conditioned air. In addition, an installation with end handling of conditioned air makes possible three air distribution patterns. Areas discussed are--(1) unit…

  9. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  10. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  11. Preliminary design study of a central solar heating plant with seasonal storage at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, D. S.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1991-04-01

    This report documents the design development and selection of the final preliminary design of a Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) for the University of Massachusetts in Amherst (UMass). The effort has been performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at UMass under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. Phase 1 of this project was directed at site selection for the CSHPSS project and was reported earlier. This report focuses on the Phase 2 development of the site conditions and analytical study of project design, performance, and cost. The UMass site presents an excellent opportunity of a CSHPSS project in terms of land availability for a large collector array, a 100 foot deep deposit of soft, saturated clay for seasonal thermal energy storage, and appropriate low temperature heating loads. The project under study represents the first implementation of this solar technology in the United States and results from the International Energy Agency collaboration on CSHPSS since 1979. The preliminary design calls for a large 10,000 m(exp 2) parabolic trough collector array, 70,000 m(exp 3) storage volume in clay with heat transfer through 900 boreholes. Design optimization is based on computer simulations using MINSUN and TRNSYS. The design is expected to provide 95 percent of the 3500 MWh heating and hot water load. A project cost of $3.12 million (plus $240,000 for HVAC load retrofit) is estimated, which provides an annualized cost of $66.2/MWh per unit solar energy delivered. The project will proceed into an engineering phase in Spring 1991.

  12. Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

  13. Development and Implementation of Training Curriculum/Program in Solar Heating and Cooling at the Technician Level, December 1, 1976 - November 30, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Carl J., Jr.

    The program proposal is designed to address the increasing demand for trained personnel to support the installation and maintenance of solar energy systems at residential and commercial sites. The three main objectives of the proposed program are: (1) to develop a flexible curricula to train a solar heating and cooling workforce; (2) to identify…

  14. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  15. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  16. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  17. Fluctuations in annual cycles and inter-seasonal memory in West Africa: rainfall, soil moisture and heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, B.; Louvet, S.; Roucou, P.

    2007-01-01

    Annual cycle and inter-seasonal persistence of surface-atmosphere water and heat fluxes are analyzed at a 5-day time step over the West African Monsoon (WAM) through observational precipitation estimates (CMAP), model datasets (NCEP/DOE level 2 reanalyses) and a Soil Water Index (SWI) from the ERS scatterometer. Coherent fluctuations (30-90 days) distinct from supra-synoptic variability (10-25 day periods) are first detected in the WAM precipitation and heat fluxes over the period 1979-2001. During all the northward excursion of the WAM rain band, a succession of four active phases (abrupt rainfall increases) occurs. They are centered in the first days of March, mid-April, the second half of May and from the last week of June to mid-July (the Sahelian onset). A simple statistical approach shows that the Spring to Summer installation of the monsoon tends to be sensitive to these short periods. Other analyses suggest the existence of lagged relationship between rainfall amounts registered in successive Fall, Spring (active periods) and Summer (top of the rainy season) implying land surface conditions. The spatial extension of the generated soil moisture anomalies reaches one maximum in March, mainly at the Guinean latitudes and over the Sahelian belt where the signal can persist until the next monsoon onset. Typically after abnormal wet conditions in September-October two signals are observed: (1) more marked fluctuations in Spring with less (more) Sahelian rainfall in May (June and after) at the Sahelian-Sudanian latitudes; (2) wetter rainy seasons along the Guinean coast (in Spring and Summer with an advance in the mean date of the ‘little dry season’). The reverse arises after abnormal dry conditions in autumn.

  18. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E). PMID:25518559

  19. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  20. 78 FR 71676 - Submission for Review: 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...The Retirement Services, Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other Federal agencies the opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express Interactive Voice Response (IVR) System and the Open Season Web site, Open Season Online. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act......

  1. Variation of daily warm season mortality as a function of micro-urban heat islands

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, A; Goldberg, M S; Plante, C; Fournier, M; Baudouin, Y; Kosatsky, T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little attention has been paid to how heat-related health effects vary with the micro-urban variation of outdoor temperatures. This study explored whether people located in micro-urban heat islands are at higher risk of mortality during hot summer days. Methods: Data used included (1) daily mortality for Montreal (Canada) for June–August 1990–2003, (2) daily mean ambient outdoor temperatures at the local international airport and (3) two thermal surface images (Landsat satellites, infrared wavelengths). A city-wide temperature versus daily mortality function was established on the basis of a case-crossover design; this function was stratified according to the surface temperature at decedents’ place of death. Results: The risk of death on warm summer days in areas with higher surface temperatures was greater than in areas with lower surface temperatures. Conclusions: This study suggests that measures aimed at reducing the temperature in micro-urban heat islands (eg, urban greening activities) may reduce the health impact of hot temperatures. Further studies are needed to document the variation of heat-related risks within cities and to evaluate the health benefits of measures aimed at reducing the temperature in micro-urban heat islands. PMID:19366997

  2. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS: AUGUST 1977-OCTOBER 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 1977 - October 1977 issue of Oil Spill and Oil Pollution Reports is a quarterly compilation of oil pollution publications and ongoing project summaries. Presented in the report are: (a) summaries and citations of published literature and patents; (b) summaries and stat...

  3. Annual and seasonal trends of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days in coastal regions of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Khan, Shamsuddin

    2011-06-01

    The present study utilizes daily maximum and minimum values of temperature for a period of 37 years from 1970-2006 in five coastal cities for the estimation of monthly and annual totals of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days at base temperatures of 18°C and 24°C, 18°C and 20°C, 7°C, and 13°C, respectively. Increasing trends were observed in case of annual total cooling degree-days (CDD) and industrial degree-days over the period of study at all base temperatures. Furthermore, well-defined seasonal trends were seen with increasing values from January to July and then decreasing towards the end of the year. The heating degree-days (HDD) analysis indicated slight heating during January to March and in December. The annual total HDD showed decreasing trends at both base temperatures. It is worth mentioning that the rate of increase of annual CDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan with an exception at Yanbo, where it was higher than at Al-Wejh. On the other hand, the rate of decrease of annual HDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan. The seasonal and annual values of cooling degree-days were found to be comparable with corresponding values for stations like international airports in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Musqat, and Cairo with similar types of climatic conditions.

  4. Chemical composition of aerosol particles and light extinction apportionment before and during the heating season in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Du, Wei; Sun, Chengzhu; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts into characterization of the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution in the megacity of Beijing, the response of aerosol composition and optical properties to coal combustion emissions in the heating season remain poorly understood. Here we conducted a 3 month real-time measurement of submicron aerosol (PM1) composition by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor and particle light extinction by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction monitor in Beijing, China, from 1 October to 31 December 2012. The average (±σ) PM1 concentration was 82.4 (±73.1) µg/m3 during the heating period (HP, 15 November to 31 December), which was nearly 50% higher than that before HP (1 October to 14 November). While nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed relatively small changes, organics, sulfate, and chloride were observed to have significant increases during HP, indicating the dominant impacts of coal combustion sources on these three species. The relative humidity-dependent composition further illustrated an important role of aqueous-phase processing for the sulfate enhancement during HP. We also observed great increases of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA) during HP, which was attributed to higher emissions at lower temperatures and coal combustion emissions, respectively. The relationship between light extinction and chemical composition was investigated using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed that the largest contributors to particle extinction were ammonium nitrate (32%) and ammonium sulfate (28%) before and during HP, respectively. In addition, the contributions of SOA and primary OA to particle light extinction were quantified. The results showed that the OA extinction was mainly caused by SOA before HP and by SOA and CCOA during HP, yet with small contributions from HOA and cooking aerosol for the entire study period. Our results elucidate substantial changes of aerosol

  5. Peer Dynamics 1977-78 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shada, Marsha; Winger, Joan

    This is an evaluation of the second year of a program designed to reduce the incidence of destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g., drug-alcohol abuse and juvenile delinquency) among school-age youth. Background research indicates that peer group pressure is the single most important factor in dictating the presence or absence of juvenile…

  6. Urban Education Studies, 1977-78 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, Washington, DC.

    This pilot-year report comments on the efficiency and current status of strategies for improved urban education. By pooled judgement and survey methodologies, program data from thirty cities, student interviews from site visits, and study team observations of five city districts (Atlanta, Dallas, Milwaukee, Oakland and Toledo) are examined. Urban…

  7. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  8. Scaffolding Classroom Discourse in an Election Year: Keeping a Cool Mood in a Heated Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; May, Laura A.; Stenhouse, Vera L.; Meyers, Laura E.; Holbrook, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Certainly, teaching about politics can be daunting, especially as the political climate in the United States becomes increasingly partisan as a result of heated political rhetoric amplified through a variety of media outlets. However, elementary teachers can help students develop the respectful dispositions they will need as young adults living in…

  9. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates. PMID:27000955

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variability of surface urban heat island phenomena in Warsaw (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawuć, Lech; Struzewska, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of urbanization is an important environmental and social issue that modern society has to face. According to current estimates half of world's population lives in urban areas. It is expected that urban population will grow in the future. Urbanization and subsequent release of anthropogenic heat pollution lead to formation of an urban heat island (UHI). Development of UHI is a highly non-linear process (Kato et al., 2007) that depends on a number of factors such as magnitude of the anthropogenic heat flux, the texture of the city, local geophysical conditions and mesoscale meteorology (Sailor and Lu, 2004 after Narumi et al., 2003). We will present analyses of the magnitude and spatial extend of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) in the capital of Poland, Warsaw. SUHI characteristics will be identified based on the Land Surface Temperature (LST) product derived for MODIS observations, which will be collected for time-series for April 2009 (34 acquisitions) and November 2011 (33 acquisitions). We will present maps of SUHI for morning, evening and night hours, for April and November separately. Several locations representing different types of land cover will be selected in order to analyze the temporal variability and amplitude of surface temperature in various parts of the city. In addition, air temperature from six automatic stations, maintained by Voivodeship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection, for periods coincident with satellite observations will be collected. Air and land temperature comparisons will be performed in order to investigate correspondence between surface UHI and air UHI. Impact of the synoptic conditions will be also discussed, with a particular caution for those terms when effect of UHI will be the strongest.

  11. Difference in the influence of Indo-Pacific Ocean heat content on South Asian Summer Monsoon intensity before and after 1976/1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yujie; Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-05-01

    Monthly ocean temperature from ORAS4 datasets and atmospheric data from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I/II were used to analyze the relationship between the intensity of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and upper ocean heat content (HC) in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. The monsoon was differentiated into a Southwest Asian Summer Monsoon (SWASM) (2.5°-20°N, 35°-70°E) and Southeast Asian Summer Monsoon (SEASM) (2.5°-20°N, 70°-110°E). Results show that before the 1976/77 climate shift, the SWASM was strongly related to HC in the southern Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean. The southern Indian Ocean affected SWASM by altering the pressure gradient between southern Africa and the northern Indian Ocean and by enhancing the Somali cross-equatorial flow. The tropical Pacific impacted the SWASM through the remote forcing of ENSO. After the 1976/77 shift, there was a close relationship between equatorial central Pacific HC and the SEASM. However, before that shift, their relationship was weak.

  12. The satellite-determined thermal structure of heat low during Indian south-west monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Desai, Pranav S.

    One of the important climatic features of the south-west (SW) monsoon period in the Indian subcontinent is the appearance of a shallow heat low centred around Pakistan region. The details of this system are not easy to observe, as the region lies mostly over a desert area. However, satellite soundings provide a frequent and synoptic view of the system. We have undertaken a study of the properties of this system through lower level and upper level thermal structure around the region using NOAA temperature soundings. The results for the months of April, May and June in the year 1982 are presented here. The temperature changes in the region are studied in relation to the date of the onset of SW-monsoon and its activity in the Indian sub-continent.

  13. Warm-season diurnal circulations and heat extremes over the northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew C.

    Summer synoptic circulations over the northwest U.S., and their interactions with regional terrain, land/water contrasts, and surface heating, give rise to a variety of fascinating meteorological phenomena, many of which have yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how projected future warming associated with increased greenhouse gases will modify these important features. The work herein seeks to ameliorate this with a comprehensive examination of two important aspects of northwest U.S. summer weather and climate: diurnal circulations and changes to the conditions associated with extreme temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. To simulate regional diurnal circulations, GFS model output was obtained for July and August 2009-2011. These data were categorized into hour of the day, composited, and the resulting files were used to initialize and provide boundary conditions to a WRF (version 3.5) model run. It was shown that, when compared to observations, this WRF run sufficiently simulates average diurnal variability. Using this simulation, the diurnal circulations of the region were described, including several important wind features within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Snoqualmie Pass, and the Columbia River Gorge. Also, regional nocturnal low-level wind maxima are described, including one over the northern Willamette valley and another over the high plateau of eastern Oregon. Recent work by the authors has elucidated the physical mechanisms that drive heat extremes over the northwest U.S., including the necessity of a ridge aloft, with associated subsidence and advection warming. Also, easterly flow is crucial for keeping the marine air at bay, and producing downslope flow and adiabatic warming on the western slopes of regional north-south terrain barriers. Given the rising temperatures projected under anthropogenic global warming, how are these conditions, and associated low-level temperature distributions, projected to change? As a

  14. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  15. Investigations of Dust Radiative Heating Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains During the Pre- Monsoon Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, R.; Hsu, C.; Tsay, S.; Lau, W.; Kafatos, M.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite and ground observations show maximum column aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) during the pre-monsoon period (April-May-June) caused by wind-blown dust storms that originate in deserts around the Arabian Peninsula. High dust loading significantly affects aerosol optical properties and the radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere and surface. The frequency of dust storms over IGP peaks during May and long- term satellite data show strong positive trend in the aerosol loading over desert regions around the IGP. We use multi-satellite and ground observations obtained from MODIS, CERES, AIRS and AERONET data along with radiative transfer simulations to calculate the radiative forcing due to dust aerosols and analyze changes in temperature profiles caused by the heating associated with dust aerosols over the IGP during the pre-monsoon period. Long-term analysis of the mid-tropospheric temperature obtained from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) data indicates a significant upward trend over the IGP. This positive trend is found to be highest in May with an increase of ~2.0º C in the last 25 years. In addition, higher values of temperature were found in the AIRS profile data on heavy dust loading days compared to low dust environment. This effect was particularly observed in the mid-troposphere from AIRS data. Radiative transfer model simulations combined with inputs from ground measurements of aerosol optical properties from AERONET data and CERES fluxes in conjunction with Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) modeled values of aerosol properties are used to estimate the radiative heating associated with dust aerosols.

  16. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  17. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  18. Seasonal variation of wave activities near the mesopause region observed at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changsup; Kim, Yong Ha; Kim, Jeong-Han; Jee, Geonhwa; Won, Young-In; Wu, Dong L.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed the neutral wind data at altitudes of 80-100 km obtained from a VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station (KSS, 62.22°S, 58.78°W), a key location to study wave activities above the stratospheric vortex near the Antarctic Peninsula. The seasonal behavior of the semidiurnal tides is generally consistent with the prediction of Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM02) except in the altitude region above ~96 km. Gravity wave (GW) activities inferred from the neutral wind variances show a seasonal variation very similar to the semidiurnal tide amplitudes, suggesting a strong interaction between gravity waves and the tide. Despite the consistent seasonal variations of the GW wind variances observed at the adjacent Rothera station, the magnitudes of the wind variance obtained at KSS are much larger than those at Rothera, especially during May-September. The enhanced GW activity at KSS is also observed by Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) from space in its temperature variance. The observed large wind variances at KSS imply that the Antarctic vortex in the stratosphere may act as an effective filter and source for the GWs in the upper atmosphere.

  19. Heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes at the first Vietnamese eddy covariance site in tropical seasonal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskaya, Olga; Anichkin, Alexandr; Avilov, Vitaly; Duy Dinh, Ba; Luu Do, Phong; Novichonok, Artem; Huan Tran, Cong; Kurbatova, Juliya

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange is one of important issue concerning the understanfing of ecosystem functioning in conditions of global climate change. In this study the first results of eddy covariance observations in semievergreen tropical seasonal forest in Southern Vietnam, Cat Tien national park (N 11°27', E 107°24', 134 m a.s.l.), in 2011-2012 are presented. Three characteristic months (December, March, September) were chosen for comparing of fluxes in different meteorological conditions. According to Keppen-Geiger climate classification Southern Vietnam has tropical monsoon climate with dry-warm...hot winter and rainy-warm summer. December, the month of the first part of dry period, had lowest (24.0°?) average canopy temperature, not so big precipitation rate (49.8 mm) and medium soil moisture content (25 %vol.). March was the hottest month (26.9°?) in the end of dry period with both lowest precipitation (24.1 mm) and soil moisture content (15 %vol.). September was the peak of rainy season (607.6 mm of rain per month) with flooding of vast areas in Cat Tien and highest soil moisture content (38 %vol.). Highest radiation sums were recorded in March (426.0 MJ m-2 mon-1). December and September sums (336.7 and 342.1 MJ m-2 mon-1) were not so high due to increased hade of sunlight in the first case and cloudiness in the second case. Sensible heat flux (H) rate rose sharply in the second half of dry season (from about 35 MJ m-2 mon-1 in December and September to 155.4 MJ m-2 mon-1 in March). Evapotranspiration (LE) dominated considerably in the heat expenditures during all the year (216.7...271.6 MJ m-2 mon-1). Bowen ratio (H/LE) varied from 0.13 in September to 0.71 in March. For the whole period of observation, the tropical forest was a slight carbon sink from the atmosphere (calculation included u*-correction with threshold of 0.4 m s-1, which appreciably heighten NEE value). Highest rate of CO2 absorption was observed in

  20. Seasonal sensitivity of the eddy-driven jet to tropospheric heating in an idealized atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Marie C.

    A dry dynamical core is used to investigate the seasonal sensitivity of the circulation to two idealized thermal forcings--a tropical upper tropospheric forcing, and a polar lower tropospheric forcing. The circulation is modified using a set of perpetual simulations to simulate each month of the year, while the thermal forcings are held constant. The circu- lation responses to tropical warming and polar warming are studied separately, and then the response to the simultaneously applied forcings is analyzed. Finally, the seasonality of the internal variability of the circulation is explored as a possible mechanism to explain the seasonality of the responses. The primary results of these experiments are: 1) There is a seasonal sensitivity in the circulation response to both the tropical and polar forcings. 2) The jet position response to each forcing is greatest in the transition seasons, and the jet speed response exhibits a seasonal sensitivity to both forcings although the seasonal sensi- tivities are not the same. 3) The circulation response is nonlinear in the transition seasons, but approximately linear in the summer and winter months. 4) The internal variability of the unforced circulation exhibits a seasonal sensitivity that may partly explain the seasonal sensitivity of the forced response. The seasonality of the internal variability of daily MERRA reanalysis data is compared to that of the model, demonstrating that the broad conclusions drawn from this idealized modeling study may be useful for understanding the jet response to anthropogenic forcing.

  1. Effects of Heating Season on Residential Indoor and Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Particulate Matter in an Urban Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM)2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n=334) living in New York City’s Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into Σ8PAHsemivolatile (MW 178–206), and Σ8PAHnonvolatile (MW 228–278)), Abs, and PM2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater Σ8PAHnonvolatile (p<0.001) and Abs (p<0.05), and lower levels of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of Σ8PAHnonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, Σ8PAHnonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration (p<0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends. PMID:20938487

  2. Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM) 2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5-6 year old children ( n = 334) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into ∑ 8PAH semivolatile (MW 178-206), and ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile (MW 228-278)), Abs, and PM 2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile ( p < 0.001) and Abs ( p < 0.05), and lower levels of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration ( p < 0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends.

  3. Time series decomposition of remotely sensed land surface temperature and investigation of trends and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jinling; Zhan, Wenfeng; Chen, Yunhao; Wang, Mengjie; Wang, Jinfei

    2016-03-01

    Previous time series methods have difficulties in simultaneous characterization of seasonal, gradual, and abrupt changes of remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST). This study proposed a model to decompose LST time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components. The trend component indicates long-term climate change and land development and is described as a piecewise linear function with iterative breakpoint detection. The seasonal component illustrates annual insolation variations and is modeled as a sinusoidal function on the detrended data. This model is able to separate the seasonal variation in LST from the long-term (including gradual and abrupt) change. Model application to nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/LST time series during 2000-2012 over Beijing yielded an overall root-mean-square error of 1.62 K between the combination of the decomposed trend and seasonal components and the actual MODIS/LSTs. LST decreased (~ -0.086 K/yr, p < 0.1) in 53% of the study area, whereas it increased with breakpoints in 2009 (~0.084 K/yr before and ~0.245 K/yr after 2009) between the fifth and sixth ring roads. The decreasing trend was stronger over croplands than over urban lands (p < 0.05), resulting in an increasing trend in surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII, 0.022 ± 0.006 K/yr). This was mainly attributed to the trends in urban-rural differences in rainfall and albedo. The SUHII demonstrated a concave seasonal variation primarily due to the seasonal variations of urban-rural differences in temperature cooling rate (related to canyon structure, vegetation, and soil moisture) and surface heat dissipation (affected by humidity and wind).

  4. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite. PMID:26314033

  5. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal or State minimum wage, whichever is higher.'' The collection is also required by regulations for... legal federal or State minimum wage rate, whichever is highest unless special procedures apply to the... Agricultural In-Season Wage Report and ETA Form 232-A, Wage Survey Interview Record, Extension with...

  6. 78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability AGENCY: National... Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view the... draft document, ``Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and...

  7. Seasonal cycle of oceanic mixed layer and upper-ocean heat fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea from in-situ observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, Loïc; Testor, Pierre; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Estournel, Claude; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    Heat fluxes across the ocean-atmosphere interface play a crucial role in the upper turbulent mixing. The depth reached by this turbulent mixing is indicated by an homogenization of seawater properties in the surface layer, and is defined as the Mixed Layer Depth (MLD). The thickness of the mixed layer determines also the heat content of the layer that directly interacts with the atmosphere. The seasonal variability of these air-sea fluxes is crucial in the calculation of heat budget. An improvement in the estimate of these fluxes is needed for a better understanding of the Mediterranean ocean circulation and climate, in particular in Regional Climate Models. There are few estimations of surface heat fluxes based on oceanic observations in the Mediterranean, and none of them are based on mixed layer observations. So, we proposed here new estimations of these upper-ocean heat fluxes based on mixed layer. We present high resolution Mediterranean climatology (0.5°) of the mean MLD based on a comprehensive collection of temperature profiles of last 43 years (1969-2012). The database includes more than 150,000 profiles, merging CTD, XBT, ARGO Profiling floats, and gliders observations. This dataset is first used to describe the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer depth on the whole Mediterranean on a monthly climatological basis. Our analysis discriminates several regions with coherent behaviors, in particular the deep water formation sites, characterized by significant differences in the winter mixing intensity. Heat storage rates (HSR) were calculated as the time rate of change of the heat content integrated from the surface down to a specific depth that is defined as the MLD plus an integration constant. Monthly climatology of net heat flux (NHF) from ERA-Interim reanalysis was balanced by the 1°x1° resolution heat storage rate climatology. Local heat budget balance and seasonal variability in the horizontal heat flux are then discussed by taking into account

  8. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  9. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  10. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  11. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S., III; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  12. Student Characteristics Report, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    As part of a continuing survey of student characteristics at the Metropolitan Community Colleges, this report presents data from 14,918 regular credit enrollment students for fall 1977 and compares them to data from 1972. For the first time in the district's history, the majority of students (54%) were female, a shift that has only occurred in the…

  13. Employment Survey 1977. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    Employment opportunities for physics and astronomy graduates were surveyed in December 1977. At that time the graduates of 1976-77 had explored the job market for at least six months or had held their positions long enough to evaluate them and offer advice to prospective graduates. The time required for new graduates to obtain the first…

  14. Gateway Report, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community School District 22, Brooklyn, NY.

    This annual report delineates Brooklyn District 22's program goals and activities for the school year 1977-1978. Included are reports on language arts programs, the district ecology center, science education, math education, staff development, social studies, consumer education, libraries, Title IX, education for the gifted, guidance services, art…

  15. Ames Research Center publications, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography lists 786 formal NASA publications, journal articles, books, chapters of books, patents, and contractor reports which appeared during 1977 or which were not included in previous annual bibliographies. Citations are arranged by directorate, type of publication, and author. Each NASA report is identified by a technical report and accession number to facilitate ordering. An author index is provided.

  16. National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1977. Bulletin 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication summarizes results of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' 18th annual salary survey of selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry as of March 1977. The survey provides nationwide salary averages (not including Alaska and Hawaii) and distributions for 78 work-level categories covering…

  17. The Budget Development Process: A Case Study of the Philadelphia School District, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Debra S.

    This study analyzes the process used in developing the 1977-78 operating budget of the Philadelphia school district. The purpose of the study was to determine what changes are required to assure greater efficiency and effectiveness in resource allocations in the face of increasingly scarce funds available to urban public school systems. Using a…

  18. 78 FR 20148 - Reporting Procedure for Mathematical Models Selected To Predict Heated Effluent Dispersion in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Reporting Procedure for Mathematical Models Selected To Predict Heated Effluent Dispersion in... Mathematical Models Selected to Predict Heated Effluent Dispersion in Natural Water Bodies.'' The guide is... mathematical modeling methods used in predicting the dispersion of heated effluent in natural water bodies....

  19. 78 FR 37124 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon: Heat Smart Program and Enforcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...). In a proposed rule published on February 11, 2013 (78 FR 9651), the EPA proposed to approve these... 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does not impose an information collection burden under the... Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); is not...

  20. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change. PMID:23417331

  1. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  2. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... pool heaters that operate with electricity (including heat pump pool heaters) or oil. 76 FR 63211... electric pool heaters (including heat pump pool heaters). 74 FR 65852, 65866-67 (Dec. 11, 2009). In the... energy consumption of these products, as required under EPCA.\\3\\ 75 FR 52892. DOE published...

  3. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  4. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  5. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  6. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  7. Seasonal gonadal development and age-related maturity patterns of introduced pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758) in a heated thermal reservoir and an adjacent river reach.

    PubMed

    Valente, E; Masson, G; Maul, A; Fox, M G; Meyer, A; Pihan, J C

    2016-05-01

    Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0.73, P<0.001). GSI of females in the reservoir increased with the stage at maturity, but GSI was not significantly correlated with total length, age or growth rate of the individual. All sampled individuals of both sexes were mature at age 1 in the heated reservoir, whereas 48% of age 1 males and 57% of age 1 females were not mature in the river. GSI patterns suggest that males in the reservoir adopted one of two reproductive strategies (nesters or cuckolders), whereas no small males with large enough testes to be considered cuckolders were apparent in the river. The warm thermal regime of Mirgenbach Reservoir led to precocial maturity, early season reproduction, and the greater prevalence of apparent cuckolder males than would normally occur in this climatic zone. PMID:27157335

  8. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  9. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general design criteria (GDC) that are applicable to the ultimate......

  10. 29 CFR 1977.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introductory statement. 1977.1 Section 1977.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.23 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State plans. 1977.23 Section 1977.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.11 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testimony. 1977.11 Section 1977.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  13. 29 CFR 1977.11 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testimony. 1977.11 Section 1977.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  14. 29 CFR 1977.23 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State plans. 1977.23 Section 1977.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  15. The Hired Farm Working Force of 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gene

    The report presents data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the approximately 2.7 million persons 14 years old and over who did hired farmwork during 1977. Data, taken from a probability sample survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census as a supplementary part of the December 1977 Current Population Survey, include each…

  16. The Development of Urban Heat Islands in the Southeast Region of the United States in the Winter Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Jan

    The study of the urban heat island has gained increased importance due to its relation to global warming. The effect of urbanization and land use changes in general on thermometer readings can bias long-term records resulting in a false global warming signal. Therefore, understanding the urban heat island phenomenon is important for an assessment of the global warming magnitude. A modeling approach has been chosen since it can overcome some restrictions of "conventional" methods (in situ and satellite observations), such as limited spatial and temporal resolution and topography effects. Models can provide better resolution and extend our understanding of the underlying physics of urban heat island development. In order to demonstrate this concept, the city of Atlanta was selected for numerical simulation under clear sky conditions on 6-7 and 25-26 February 1988. A mesoscale model developed by Pielke (1974) was employed in the numerical simulation. The first step was determination of the soil thermal inertia and moisture availability using AVHRR satellite-derived skin surface temperatures in a technique developed by Carlson et al. (1981). The thermal inertia exhibited elevated values over the city in both cases. The moisture availability field showed a larger degree of variability. The case of 25-26 February 1988 exhibited lower values of moisture availability in the city as compared to the rural surroundings, which is considered to be a typical situation. However, the case of 6-7 February 1988 showed extremely high moisture availability in the city. A possible explanation can be found in the cumulative rainfall, which shows a positive correlation between 14 -day cumulative rainfall amount and the moisture availability. A technique proposed by Hjelmfelt (1982) was used to simulate the urban effect. The urban heat island itself was investigated in terms of the skin surface and 2-m height temperatures. The horizontal and temporal evolution of these variables was

  17. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; López-Baca, M A; Vicente, R; Mejía, A; Álvarez, F D; Correa-Calderón, A; Meza-Herrera, C A; Mellado, M; Guerra-Liera, J E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress. PMID:26715136

  18. Estimating seasonal crop ET using calendar and heat unit based crop coefficients in the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network utilizes a heat unit-based approach (growing degree day concept) in the timing of various crop growth stages along with crop coefficients for computation of crop water use with the newly standardized ASCE/EWRI reference evapotranspiration (E...

  19. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  20. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  1. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  2. A Project to Communicate and Replicate a Model Career Education Program. Final Report, July 1, 1977-June 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimple, James, Jr.; And Others

    The overall goal of the Jobs for Youth/Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education (JFY/FIPSE) project was the testing of JFY Educational Services (ES) as a model work-related literacy program capable of being replicated in situations other than New York City. First-year activities (1977-78) focused on replication of the ES Replication…

  3. Heating Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from heating equipment, such as the furnace, fireplace, wood stove, or portable heater. • Only use heating equipment ... into the room and burn only dry, seasoned wood. Allow ashes to cool before disposing in a ...

  4. Restoration of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Stephens, M. K.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow probes were deployed on the Apollo 15 and 17 missions as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). At each landing site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The holes were 1- and 1.5-m deep at the Apollo 15 site and 2.5-m deep at the Apollo 17 sites. The probes monitored surface temperature and subsurface temperatures at different depths. At the Apollo 15 site, the monitoring continued from July 1971 to January 1977. At the Apollo 17 site, it did from December 1972 to September 1977. Based on the observations made through December 1974, Marcus Langseth, the principal investigator of the heat flow experiments (HFE), determined the thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith by mathematically modeling how the seasonal temperature fluctuation propagated down through the regolith. He also determined the temperature unaffected by diurnal and seasonal thermal waves of the regolith at different depths, which yielded the geothermal gradient. By multiplying the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity, Langseth obtained the endogenic heat flow of the Moon as 21 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 15 and 16 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 17.

  5. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  6. Passive thermosyphon solar heating and cooling module with supplementary heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A collection of three quarterly reports from Sigma Research, Inc., covering progress and status from January through September 1977 are presented. Three heat exchangers are developed for use in a solar heating and cooling system for installation into single-family dwellings. Each exchanger consists of one heating and cooling module and one submerged electric water heating element.

  7. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

  8. Physiological and performance adaptations to an in-season soccer camp in the heat: associations with heart rate and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Voss, S C; Nybo, L; Mohr, M; Racinais, S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between adaptive responses to an in-season soccer training camp in the heat and changes in submaximal exercising heart rate (HRex, 5-min run at 9  km/h), postexercise HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV). Fifteen well-trained but non-heat-acclimatized male adult players performed a training week in Qatar (34.6 ± 1.9°C wet bulb globe temperature). HRex, HRR, HRV (i.e. the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability measured from Poincaré plots SD1, a vagal-related index), creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma volume (PV) changes, and post-5-min run rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at six occasions in temperate environmental conditions (22°C). Players also performed the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in the same environmental conditions (22°C), both at the beginning and at the end of the training week. Throughout the intervention, HRex and HRV showed decreasing (P < 0.001) and increasing (P < 0.001) trends, respectively, while HRR remained unaffected (P = 0.84). Changes in HRex [-0.52, 90% confidence limits (-0.64; -0.38), P < 0.001] and SD1 [0.35 (0.19; 0.49), P < 0.001] were correlated with those in PV. There was no change in RPE (P = 0.92), while CK varied according to training contents (P < 0.001), without association with HR-derived measures. Yo-Yo IR1 performance increased by 7 ± 9% (P = 0.009), which was correlated with changes in HRex [-0.64 (-0.84; -0.28), P = 0.01]. In conclusion, we found that an in-season soccer training camp in the heat can significantly improve PV and soccer-specific physical performance; both of which are associated with changes in HRex during a 5-min submaximal run. PMID:22092960

  9. PARTICULATE SAMPLING SUPPORT: 1977 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities supporting the particulate sampling efforts of EPA/IERL-RTP during FY 1977. Twenty technical directives were issued in seven categories: cascade impactors (7), cyclones (5), sampling electrostatic precipitators (1), guidelines and manuals (3), ...

  10. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1977: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a chronology of events during the year 1977 in the fields of aeronautical and space research, development, activity, and policy. It includes appendixes, an index, and illustrations. Chronological entries list sources for further inquiry.

  11. Hit Record Trends, 1940-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines trends in popular music by analyzing the number one recordings from 1940 to 1977 in terms of the relationships among four variables: manufacturer (market concentration), song type (musical genre), artist type (performance mode), and lyric content (vocal message). (JMF)

  12. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  13. Recession of Martian north polar cap - 1977-1978 Viking observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The regression curve for the 1977-1978 sublimation of the north polar cap of Mars is extracted from Viking orbiter imaging data. The recession observed during the spring season is quite consistent with previous observations and is in excellent agreement with telescopic data obtained concurrently. A receding late winter boundary is identified, but owing to hood obscuration this boundary cannot be definitely attributed to a surface cap.

  14. Case study of a tropical-extratropical interaction and associated heat low development during the AMMA SOP 2006 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; Pohle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical Extra-tropical Interactions (TEIs) are often observed in association with an upper-level subtropical trough that penetrates into the tropics and, therefore, interacts with the tropical circulation. As a visible sign, a mid- to upper-level cloud band at the eastern flank of the trough and its related Subtropical Jet, named Tropical Plume (TP), is identifiable in infrared satellite imagery. McGuirk et al. (1987) gave a definition of Tropical Plumes and described the cloud bands as a northern hemisphere winter time phenomena. Previous studies identified TPs throughout the year with being rare in the June-mid- September period. Results of convection dynamics influenced/caused by TEIs during a pre-monsoon season event between 19 and 30 May 2006 will be presented. This case is characterized by two different investigation regions affected by TEI: During the first half of the event high precipitation amounts south-east of the cloud band over Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, and Ivory Coast are observed caused by thermal forcing and dynamical maintenance by trough related good upper-level outflow conditions due to ageostrophic acceleration towards the trough and low inertial stability, or even inertial instability. This presentation is focused on the second half of this TEI event, which is characterized by the development of a pronounced heat low (HL) south-east of the upper-level trough over tropical West Africa, followed by convection south-east of the low pressure centre. A modified form of the pressure tendency equation (PTE) used by Knippertz and Fink (2008) is a diagnostic tool to investigate, which processes cause pressure drop near the Mali-Burkina Faso border by using both, the operational ECMWF Analysis and the AMMA EU re-analysis. The latter contains additionally the diabatic heating tendencies. Therefore, all terms of the PTE were calculated and will be discussed.

  15. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  16. Communication Characteristics of Students Entering MSSD 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nancy S.; And Others

    A communication profile of each student entering the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD) is composed of rankings in five areas: expressive manual communication including signing, fingerspelling, and synchronization; speech intelligibility; articulation; speech reading, including words and sentences; and audiometric test performance…

  17. Comprehensive Education Plan. School Year 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Office of Instruction.

    This comprehensive plan is presented within a context that includes the ccmpletion of a year-long awareness program on competency-based education (CBE), instructional goals that were revised and prioritized through a system-wide needs assessment, student population projections, and budgeting practices. The comprehensive plan is focused on the…

  18. New Jersey Teacher's 1977-78 Salary Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The New Jersey teacher's average salary continues to be well into the highest 20 percent of teacher average salaries nationally. Here are recently released figures from the U.S. Department of Commerce on a county by county basis showing the minimum and maximum salaries for teachers with 4-, 5-, and 6-year training levels. (Editor/RK)

  19. Metropolitan Planning Project, 1977-78. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoff, Steven M.

    This document provides a description of the Metropolitan Planning Project (MPP), its objectives, strategies, and an evaluation of its implementation in the Boston area. In order to encourage the voluntary elimination, reduction, and prevention of minority group isolation in elementary and secondary schools in Boston, the project focuses on two…

  20. NATIONWIDE FOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY (NFCS), 1977-78

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nutritional well being of the Nation is important to consumers, educators, health professionals, program policy planners, food manufacturers, and farmers. One mission of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is to determine the amount, cost, and nutritive value of foods used by ...

  1. George Mason University Faculty Handbook, 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA.

    Contents include descriptions of university organization (with organizational charts); faculty roles and responsibilities; the academic departments; policies for appointments, promotions, and tenure, and for compensation and benefits; and other general information about services and facilities. The appendixes contain the charter of the faculty…

  2. Report for Florida Community Colleges, 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Community Colleges.

    Focusing on the goals, organization, characteristics, and financial status of the Florida community colleges, this report attempts to answer the questions most frequently asked by legislators, state agencies, external agencies, citizens, administrators, faculty, and students. Introductory sections describe the Florida public community college…

  3. 78 FR 8992 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ....regulations.gov/#!docketDetail ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO%252BSR;rpp=10;po=0;D=EERE- 2011-BT-TP-0054. This web... published on January 2, 2013. (78 FR 152) (January 2013 NOPR). In today's SNOPR, DOE considers inquiries... Federal Register on September 14, 1977 (September 1977 Final Rule). 42 FR 46145, 46146, 46150....

  4. Corporate Support of Higher Education, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Financial Aid to Education, New York, NY.

    Some of the results of the fourth Annual Survey of Corporate Contributions are presented in this report on corporate support of higher education for 1977. Usable questionnaires were returned by 816 companies. A discussion of national trends considers corporate support of higher education vs. college and university expenditures, increased student…

  5. 1977 Annual Report - Appalachian Regional Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Narrative and tabular data, maps, and photographs comprise this annual report for fiscal 1977 on the Appalachian Regional Commission. Among highlights reported for the year were: completion of half the mileage in the Appalachian Development Highway system, further reducing inhabitants' isolation from jobs, schools, and markets; continued reversal…

  6. Kentucky College and University Enrollments. Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Center for Education Statistics, Frankfort.

    Fall 1977 enrollment data from the Kentucky state-supported and independent colleges and universities, seminaries, proprietary business colleges and Eagle University are presented. Total enrollment in the state and independent colleges and universities was 126,162. Of this total, 108,546 students were enrolled in the state universities and…

  7. National Conference on Catholic School Finance, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenzinski, Mary, Ed.

    This book is a summary of papers presented at the Third National Conference on Catholic School Finance held in March, 1977. The topics discussed include the board's repsonsibility for finance, current trends, long-range planning, school reorganization, expansion and building of new schools, marketing, foundations, educational development, funding,…

  8. Institute of International Education. Annual Report 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Covering the 12-month period beginning October 1, 1976 and ending September 39, 1977, this annual report reviews the activities of the Institute of International Education in both narrative and statistical form. Part 1 presents a general review of the year. Part 2 deals with educational services (communication, cooperation, planning, and…

  9. Houston Public Libraries Annual Report, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Public Library, TX.

    Primary focus in this 1977 annual report of the Houston Public Library system is the library's nine-month program, "City...Our Urban Past, Present and Future," which was funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Aspects of the first four months of the program that are described include its lecture series, exhibits, reading…

  10. Master Contract, July 1977-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University. Inst. of Urban Research.

    The master contract between the San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/CTA/NEA and the Board of Trustees of the San Joaquin Delta Community College District for July 1977 to June 1980 is presented in full. Thirty articles include: Agreement, Recognition, Definitions, Negotiation Procedures, Non-Discrimination, Association Rights,…

  11. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K.

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  12. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  13. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  14. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made in the development of a solar hot water and space heating system is described in four quarterly reports. The program schedules, technical status and other program activities from 6 October 1976 through 30 September 1977 are provided.

  15. Early season spring small grains proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D. E.; Trichel, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    An accurate, automated method for estimating early season spring small grains from Landsat MSS data is discussed. The method is summarized and the results of its application to 100 sample segment-years of data from the US Northern Great Plains in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1979 are summarized. The results show that this estimator provides accurate estimates earlier in the growing season than previous methods. Ground truth is required only in the estimator development, and data storage, transmission, preprocessing, and processing requirements are minimal.

  16. The 1977 intertropical convergence zone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G. (Editor); Page, W. A. (Editor); Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented from the 1977 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Experiment conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977. Measurements were made daily over a 16-day period when the ITCZ moved across the Canal Zone. Two aircraft (Learjet and U-2) flew daily and provided data from horizontal traverses at several altitudes to 21.3 km of ozone, temperature, pressure, water vapor, aerosols, fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitric acid. Balloonsondes flown four times per day provided data on ozone, wind fields, pressure, temperature, and humidities to altitudes near 30 km. Rocketsondes provided daily data to altitudes near 69 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

  17. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  18. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  19. The Natural Human IgM Antibody PAT-SM6 Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Multiple Myeloma Cells by Targeting Heat Shock Protein GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Rasche, Leo; Duell, Johannes; Morgner, Charlotte; Chatterjee, Manik; Hensel, Frank; Rosenwald, Andreas; Einsele, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other haematological malignancies, targeted immunotherapy has not entered standard treatment regimens for de novo or relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) yet. While a number of IgG-formatted monoclonal antibodies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials in MM, our study aimed to investigate whether the fully human IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 that targets a tumour-specific variant of the heat shock protein GRP78 might be an attractive candidate for future immunotherapeutic approaches. We here show that GRP78 is stably and consistently expressed on the surface on tumour cells from patients with de novo, but also relapsed MM and that binding of PAT-SM6 to MM cells can specifically exert cytotoxic effects on malignant plasma cells, whereas non-malignant cells are not targeted. We demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis and, to a lesser extent, complement dependent cytotoxicity is the main mode of action of PAT-SM6, whereas antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity does not appear to contribute to the cytotoxic properties of this antibody. Given the favourable safety profile of PAT-SM6 in monkeys, but also in a recent phase I trial in patients with malignant melanoma, our results form the basis for a planned phase I study in patients with relapsed MM. PMID:23667612

  20. The natural human IgM antibody PAT-SM6 induces apoptosis in primary human multiple myeloma cells by targeting heat shock protein GRP78.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Leo; Duell, Johannes; Morgner, Charlotte; Chatterjee, Manik; Hensel, Frank; Rosenwald, Andreas; Einsele, Hermann; Topp, Max S; Brändlein, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other haematological malignancies, targeted immunotherapy has not entered standard treatment regimens for de novo or relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) yet. While a number of IgG-formatted monoclonal antibodies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials in MM, our study aimed to investigate whether the fully human IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 that targets a tumour-specific variant of the heat shock protein GRP78 might be an attractive candidate for future immunotherapeutic approaches. We here show that GRP78 is stably and consistently expressed on the surface on tumour cells from patients with de novo, but also relapsed MM and that binding of PAT-SM6 to MM cells can specifically exert cytotoxic effects on malignant plasma cells, whereas non-malignant cells are not targeted. We demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis and, to a lesser extent, complement dependent cytotoxicity is the main mode of action of PAT-SM6, whereas antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity does not appear to contribute to the cytotoxic properties of this antibody. Given the favourable safety profile of PAT-SM6 in monkeys, but also in a recent phase I trial in patients with malignant melanoma, our results form the basis for a planned phase I study in patients with relapsed MM. PMID:23667612

  1. Estimated water use in Florida, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

  2. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season. PMID:21562167

  3. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...This guidance provides safety precautions and recommended guidance for persons responsible for unloading or transloading \\1\\ hazardous materials from rail tank cars, specifically those persons heating a rail tank car to prepare its hazardous material contents for unloading or transloading. Further, this guidance reminds such persons of current regulatory requirements addressing this type of......

  4. 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Everett Carll, Jr.; And Others

    The development and data validation of the 1977 Ladd-Lipset national survey of the American professoriate are described. The respondents were selected from a random sample of colleges and universities and from a random sample of individual faculty members from the universities. The 158 institutions in the 1977 survey were selected from 2,406…

  5. 29 CFR 1977.4 - Persons prohibited from discriminating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons prohibited from discriminating. 1977.4 Section 1977.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.18 - Arbitration or other agency proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arbitration or other agency proceedings. 1977.18 Section 1977.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  7. 29 CFR 1977.15 - Filing of complaint for discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing of complaint for discrimination. 1977.15 Section 1977.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  8. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  9. 29 CFR 1977.15 - Filing of complaint for discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of complaint for discrimination. 1977.15 Section 1977.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.2 - Purpose of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of this part. 1977.2 Section 1977.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.2 - Purpose of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose of this part. 1977.2 Section 1977.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  13. 29 CFR 1977.18 - Arbitration or other agency proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arbitration or other agency proceedings. 1977.18 Section 1977.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT...

  14. Catheter-related infection and septicemia: impact of seasonality and modifiable practices from the DOPPS.

    PubMed

    Lok, Charmaine E; Thumma, Jyothi R; McCullough, Keith P; Gillespie, Brenda W; Fluck, Richard J; Marshall, Mark R; Kawanishi, Hideki; Robinson, Bruce M; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2014-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) catheter-related infection (CRI) and septicemia contribute to adverse outcomes. The impact of seasonality and prophylactic dialysis practices during high-risk periods remain unexplored. This multicenter study analyzed DOPPS data from 12,122 HD patients (from 442 facilities) to determine the association between seasonally related climatic variables and CRI and septicemia. Climatic variables were determined by linkage to National Climatic Data Center of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data. Catheter care protocols were examined to determine if they could mitigate infection risk during high-risk seasons. Survival models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of septicemia by season and by facility catheter dressing protocol. The overall catheter-related septicemia rate was 0.47 per 1000 catheter days. It varied by season, with an AHR for summer of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19-1.80) compared with winter. Septicemia was associated with temperature (AHR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02-1.13; p < 0.001). Dressing protocols using chlorhexidine (AHR of septicemia = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39-0.78) were associated with fewest episodes of CRI or septicemia. Higher catheter-related septicemia in summer may be due to seasonal conditions (e.g., heat, perspiration) that facilitate bacterial growth and compromise protective measures. Extra vigilance and use of chlorhexidine-based dressing protocols may provide prophylaxis against CRI and septicemia. PMID:24400803

  15. Estimating seasonal changes of land cover, surface wetness and latent heat flux of wet polygonal tundra (Samoylov Island, Lena-Delta, Siberia) with high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral CHRIS Proba satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation cover, land cover and surface wetness are few of the many factors exerting control on the partitioning of energy to latent, sensible and ground heat flux. Spatial estimates of these factors can be inferred from remote sensing data. The fractionated polygonal tundra landscape of Samoylov Island of wet and dry surfaces induces strong spatial variations of resistance to evapotranspiration. The development of low-centered ice-wedge polygons results in a prominent microrelief that is the most important factor for small-scale differences in vegetation type and near surface soil moisture. Depressed polygon centers alternate with elevated polygon rims with elevation differences of up to 0.5 m over a few meters distance. In the depressed polygon centers, drainage is strongly impeded due to the underlying permafrost resulting in water-saturated soils or small ponds. A process-based understanding of the surface energy balance, however, needs to consider both the temporal and the spatial variations of the surface. In the course of the summer season, the surface wetness changes significantly since the water table falls about 5 cm below the surface. This change in surface wetness is likely to be associated with changing evapotranspiration rates. We consider the effect of seasonal changes in land cover, vegetation cover and surface wetness on latent heat flux by investigating a time-series of high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral satellite imagery and comparing them to ground-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent heat flux. Two sets of aerial images from August 15 and September 11, 2008 in the VNIR provide detailed information of the polygonal landscape with a resolution of 0.3m. CHRIS Proba imagery provides hyperspectral data with 18 spectral bands in the VNIR range (400 - 1050 nm) and a resolution of 17 m. Acquisition dates are June 21, July 23 and September 10, 2008. Daily point-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent

  16. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  17. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  18. US Beryllium Case Registry through 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Sprince, N.L.; Kazemi, H.

    1980-02-01

    A synopsis of the cases reported to the Beryllium Case Registry between 1973 and 1977 is presented. As of 1973, there were 832 cases of beryllium disease entered into the Registry. In the five years since that report, 55 additional cases have been added, 40 men and 15 women. Exposures occured in the electronics and nuclear industries in the production and use of beryllium containing alloys and beryllium oxide ceramis. Pathological changes in the lung tissue are described. Cases continue to be reported in which the diagnosis was sarcoidosis until the history of beryllium exposure led to the finding of beryllium in the lung tissue or mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Data from the Registry support the fact that chronic beryllium disease is a continued occupational hazard.

  19. Helioseismic observations at Stanford, 1977-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, H. M.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of low degree modes of solar oscillations were made at the Wilcox Solar Observatory for more than a decade. The set of observations from 1977 through 1986 are reexamined. The stability of the p-mode frequencies for modes of degree l=2-5 in each year is tested. A marginally significant trend of a decrease in p-mode frequencies of 0.06 microHz per year is found. The continuity of the observed signal at 160.01 minutes are also examined. It was found that the previously reported phase stability is no longer present. However, due to uncertainties in calibration, the reality of the reported signal can not be excluded.

  20. Skeletal cryptococcosis from 1977 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heng-Xing; Lu, Lu; Chu, Tianci; Wang, Tianyi; Cao, Daigui; Li, Fuyuan; Ning, Guangzhi; Feng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal cryptococcosis, an aspect of disseminated cryptococcal disease or isolated skeletal cryptococcal infection, is a rare but treatable disease. However, limited information is available regarding its clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. This systematic review examined all cases published between April 1977 and May 2013 with regard to the factors associated with this disease, including patient sex, age, and epidemiological history; affected sites; clinical symptoms; underlying diseases; laboratory tests; radiological manifestations; and delays in diagnosis, treatment, follow-up assessments, and outcomes. We found that immune abnormality is a risk factor but does not predict mortality; these observations are due to recent Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii (CNVG) outbreaks (Chaturvedi and Chaturvedi, 2011). Dissemination was irrespective of immune status and required combination therapy, and dissemination carried a worse prognosis. Therefore, a database of skeletal cryptococcosis cases should be created. PMID:25642211

  1. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  2. Early Childhood Component of the 1977-1978 Boston Elementary Enrichment Program (an E.S.E.A. Title I Project of the Boston Public School System). Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Planning and Research, Boston, MA.

    The Title I Early Childhood Component of Boston's Elementary Enrichment Program (1977-78) was intended to provide children (including the hearing impaired) with enriched educational experiences that would contribute to socialization skills and general readiness for school and later life experiences. The Component was also intended to provide…

  3. Redox flow cell development and demonstration project, calendar year 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Research and development on the redox flow cell conducted from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 1977, are described in this report. The major focus of the effort during 1977 was the key technology issues that directly influence the fundamental feasibility of the overall redox concept. These issues were the development of a suitable ion exchange membrane for the system, the screening and study of candidate redox couples to achieve optimum cell performance, and the carrying out of systems analysis and modeling to develop system performance goals and cost estimates.

  4. The 1977 eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Helz, R.T.; Dzurisin, D.; Eaton, G.P.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Lipman, P.W.; Lockwood, J.P.; Puniwai, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Kilauea volcano began to erupt on September 13, 1977, after a 21.5-month period of quiescence. Harmonic tremor in the upper and central east rift zone and rapid deflation of the summit area occurred for 22 hours before the outbreak of surface activity. On the first night, spatter ramparts formed along a discontinuous, en-echelon, 5.5-km-long fissure system that trends N70??E between two prehistoric cones, Kalalua and Puu Kauka. Activity soon became concentrated at a central vent that erupted sporadically until September 23 and extruded flows that moved a maximum distance of 2.5 km to the east. On September 18, new spatter ramparts began forming west of Kalalua, extending to 7 km the length of the new vent system. A vent near the center of this latest fissure became the locus of sustained fountaining and continued to extrude spatter and short flows intermittently until September 20. The most voluminous phase of the eruption began late on September 25. A discontinuous spatter rampart formed along a 700-m segment near the center of the new, 7-km-long fissure system; within 24 hours activity became concentrated at the east end of this segment. One flow from the 35-m-high cone that formed at this site moved rapidly southeast and eventually reached an area 10 km from the vent and 700 m from the nearest house in the evacuated village of Kalapana. We estimate the total volume of material produced during this 18-day eruption to be 35 ?? 106 m3. Samples from active vents and flows are differentiated quartz-normative tholeiitic basalt, similar in composition to lavas erupted from Kilauea in 1955 and 1962. Plagioclase is the only significant phenocryst; augite, minor olivine, and rare orthopyroxene and opaque oxides accompany it as microphenocrysts. Sulfide globules occur in fresh glass and as inclusions in phenocrysts in early 1977 lavas; their absence in chemically-similar basalt from the later phases of the eruption suggests that more extensive intratelluric degassing

  5. Floods of July 19-20, 1977 in the Johnstown area, western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brua, Stan A.

    1978-01-01

    Intense rainfall on the evening of July 19 and early morning hours of July 20, 1977, resulted in moderate to record flooding throughout much of an eight-county area of southwest Pennsylvania. In a 400-square-mile area directly north and east of Johnstown, rainfall totals of 6 to 12 inches were measured in a six to eight-hour period. Flood peaks having recurrence intervals greater than 100 years were recorded at several sites, primarily in the Conemaugh River basin. Runoff rates were as high as 2,390 cubic feet per second per square mile, in a 5.86-square-mile drainage area in the Little Conemaugh River basin. The Conemaugh River at Seward, which drains 715 square miles, had a peak discharge of 161 cubic feet per second per square mile. The flood waters claimed at least 78 lives and caused total losses in excess of $300 million. Also, seven earthfill dams, used mainly for water supply in the Johnstown area, failed. This report describes the storm and the associated flooding. A tabulation of peak gage heights and discharges for the July 1977 flood and for the maximum flood previously known is included for 57 sites. Data pertaining to the dams that failed are included also. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. 31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman Document 55, NYC: January 4, 1838. PLANS FOR CROSSING THE HARLEM RIVER BY CAST IRON PIPES OR INVERTED SYPHON. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  7. Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for the City of San Jose in cooperative agreement with the California Department of Transportation (from the San Jose Historical Museum) - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  8. 5. Photocopied December 1977, from Charles B. Stuart, Lives and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied December 1977, from Charles B. Stuart, Lives and Works of Civil and Military Engineers, New York, 1871. PORTRAIT OF MAJOR DAVID BATES DOUGLASS. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  9. 46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF DAMAGE AND NOT QUITE AS WIDE AN ANGLE VIEW. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  10. A Study of School Without Schools: The Columbus, Ohio Public Schools During the Natural Gas Shortage, Winter, 1977. Volume I and Volume II, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The energy crisis, specifically a shortage of natural gas, caused by the unusually cold winter of 1977, resulted in the Columbus, Ohio, schools being closed for a month. Schools heated with gas were closed, but students met one day a week in school buildings that used coal, oil, or electricity. The educational program continued with school…

  11. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  12. Columbia Glacier, Alaska: changes in velocity 1977-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.; Vaughn, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Columbia Glacier, a grounded, iceberg-calving tidewater glacier near Valdez, Alaska, began to retreat about 1977. Drastic retreat occurred in 1984, and by early 1986, retreat amounted to 2km. The glacier has thinned more than 100m since 1974 at a point 4km behind the 1974 terminus position. Between 1977 and 1985 the lower glacier ice velocity increased from 3-8m/d to 10-15m/d. -from Authors

  13. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical publications announced in 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes over 780 technical reports resulting from the scientific and engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1977. All the publications were announced in the 1977 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Documents cited include research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1977 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Spatio-temporal changes in biomass carbon sinks in China's forests from 1977 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Li, Pin; Li, Nuyun; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-07-01

    Forests play a leading role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. Detailed assessment of the temporal and spatial changes in C sinks/sources of China's forests is critical to the estimation of the national C budget and can help to constitute sustainable forest management policies for climate change. In this study, we explored the spatio-temporal changes in forest biomass C stocks in China between 1977 and 2008, using six periods of the national forest inventory data. According to the definition of the forest inventory, China's forest was categorized into three groups: forest stand, economic forest, and bamboo forest. We estimated forest biomass C stocks for each inventory period by using continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method for forest stands, and the mean biomass density method for economic and bamboo forests. As a result, China's forests have accumulated biomass C (i.e., biomass C sink) of 1896 Tg (1 Tg=10(12) g) during the study period, with 1710, 108 and 78 Tg C in forest stands, and economic and bamboo forests, respectively. Annual forest biomass C sink was 70.2 Tg C a(-1), offsetting 7.8% of the contemporary fossil CO2 emissions in the country. The results also showed that planted forests have functioned as a persistent C sink, sequestrating 818 Tg C and accounting for 47.8% of total C sink in forest stands, and that the old-, mid- and young-aged forests have sequestrated 930, 391 and 388 Tg C from 1977 to 2008. Our results suggest that China's forests have a big potential as biomass C sink in the future because of its large area of planted forests with young-aged growth and low C density. PMID:23722235

  16. Maternal mortality in Malawi, 1977–2012

    PubMed Central

    Colbourn, Tim; Lewycka, Sonia; Nambiar, Bejoy; Anwar, Iqbal; Phoya, Ann; Mhango, Chisale

    2013-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5) targets a 75% reduction in maternal mortality from 1990 to 2015, yet accurate information on trends in maternal mortality and what drives them is sparse. We aimed to fill this gap for Malawi, a country in sub-Saharan Africa with high maternal mortality. Methods We reviewed the literature for population-based studies that provide estimates of the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Malawi, and for studies that list and justify variables potentially associated with trends in MMR. We used all population-based estimates of MMR representative of the whole of Malawi to construct a best-fit trend-line for the range of years with available data, calculated the proportion attributable to HIV and qualitatively analysed trends and evidence related to other covariates to logically assess likely candidate drivers of the observed trend in MMR. Results 14 suitable estimates of MMR were found, covering the years 1977–2010. The resulting best-fit line predicted MMR in Malawi to have increased from 317 maternal deaths/100 000 live-births in 1980 to 748 in 1990, before peaking at 971 in 1999, and falling to 846 in 2005 and 484 in 2010. Concurrent deteriorations and improvements in HIV and health system investment and provisions are the most plausible explanations for the trend. Female literacy and education, family planning and poverty reduction could play more of a role if thresholds are passed in the coming years. Conclusions The decrease in MMR in Malawi is encouraging as it appears that recent efforts to control HIV and improve the health system are bearing fruit. Sustained efforts to prevent and treat maternal complications are required if Malawi is to attain the MDG 5 target and save the lives of more of its mothers in years to come. PMID:24353257

  17. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  18. 29 CFR 500.78 - Information in foreign language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... English or, as necessary and reasonable, in Spanish or another language common to migrant or seasonal... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information in foreign language. 500.78 Section 500.78... § 500.78 Information in foreign language. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural employer...

  19. Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah S.; Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-01-01

    Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers’ perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively). Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ≤ 0.001) and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ≤ 0.001), especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses. PMID:26729144

  20. Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah S; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2016-01-01

    Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers' perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively). Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ≤ 0.001) and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ≤ 0.001), especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses. PMID:26729144

  1. Seasonal and interannual variability of atmospheric heat sources and moisture sinks as determined from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis: Part II variability associated with ENSO

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tomohiko; Yanai, Michio

    1997-11-01

    The link between the Asian monsoon and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been demonstrated by a number of studies. This study examines two ENSO withdrawal periods and discusses if the Asian monsoon played a role in the differences between them. The 1986 event occurred in the later half of 1986 and retreated in 1988. The 1951 and 1991 events were similar to each other and seemed to continue to the second year after onset and not to have the clear La Nina phase after the events. In the central and eastern Pacific, three variables progress in phase as the ENSO cycle: sea surface temperature (SST), heat source (Q1), and divergence. Correlation coefficients were calculated and examined with the mean SST on the equator and with the standard deviation of the interannual components of SST. In the central and eastern Pacific, the standard deviation is large and three correlation coefficients are large (over 0.6). Strong air-sea interaction associated with ENSO cycle is deduced. In the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific, the correlation coefficients with SST become small rapidly, while the correlation coefficient between Q1 and the divergence is still large. The interannual variability of SSt may not be crucial for those of Q1 and of the divergence in this region because of the potential to generate well organized convection through the high mean SST. This suggests that various factors, such as effects from mid-latitudes, may modify the interannual variability in the region. To examine the effects of the Asian winter monsoon, the anomalous wind field at 850 hPa was investigated. The conditions of the Asian winter monsoon were quite different between the withdrawal periods in the 1986 and 1991 ENSO events. The Asian winter monsoon seems to be a factor to modify the ENSO cycle, especially in the retreat periods. In addition, the SST from the tropical Indian Ocean to western Pacific may be important for the modulation of the ENSO/monsoon system. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Public Health Concerns Associated with the New York City Blackout of 1977.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2016-08-01

    The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems. The 1977 blackout occurred during an extended heat wave. An analysis of total deaths and deaths due to pulmonary and cardiovascular/renal diseases by day correlated with temperatures. However, there was no direct correlation with the blackout itself, in part perhaps because of the confounding influence of high temperatures. The increase of deaths on very hot days outside of the blackout period lends strong support to the relationship between increased deaths and high ambient temperatures. The 1977 New York City blackout was distinguished from those of 1965 and 2003 by violence, arson, and looting that occurred in several areas. These acts resulted in 204 civilian injuries, 436 police injuries, 80 firefighter injuries, and 1037 fires. The violence, arson, and looting caused extensive long-term physical and functional damage to certain areas of two boroughs of the city, Brooklyn and the Bronx. Although the New York City Department of Health had not previously established a disaster preparedness plan, its professionals quickly rose to the occasion because they were able to draw upon vast public health practice experience and ingenuity. PMID:27220853

  3. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... on OCS leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water season (78 FR 12542). NMFS... whether to issue an IHA. NMFS refers the reader to the February 22, 2013, Federal Register notice (78...

  4. Channel erosion surveys along the TAPS route, Alaska, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeffler, Robert M.; Childers, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Channel surveys were made along the trans-Alaska pipeline system (TAPS) route during 1977 at the same 28 sites that were studied in 1976. In addition, a new site at pipeline mile 22 near Deadhorse (alignment No 134) along the Sagavanirktok River was put under surveillance. Except for changes wrought by the completion of construction, most of the sites showed very little change. Significant events include virtual completion of all construction activities along the pipeline, the pipeline startup , and the breakup flood along the Sagavanirktok River which breached many river-training structures. In general, 1977 saw heavy flooding on streams draining the north and south slopes of the Brooks Range and only moderate flooding on streams further south. Aerial photogrammetric surveys were used again in 1977 on the same seven sites as in 1976. Results document the applicability of the method for channel erosion studies. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Seasonal evapotranspiration patterns in mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Jordan G.; DeLonge, Marcia S.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2014-04-01

    Diurnal and seasonal controls on water vapor fluxes were investigated in a subtropical mangrove forest in Everglades National Park, Florida. Energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes was highly variable during the 2004-2005 study period. During the dry season, the mangrove forest behaved akin to a semiarid ecosystem as most of the available energy was partitioned into sensible heat, which gave Bowen ratio values exceeding 1.0 and minimum latent heat fluxes of 5 MJ d-1. In contrast, during the wet season the mangrove forest acted as a well-watered, broadleaved deciduous forest, with Bowen ratio values of 0.25 and latent heat fluxes reaching 18 MJ d-1. During the dry season, high salinity levels (> 30 parts per thousand, ppt) caused evapotranspiration to decline and correspondingly resulted in reduced canopy conductance. From multiple linear regression, daily average canopy conductance to water vapor declined with increasing salinity, vapor pressure deficit, and daily sums of solar irradiance but increased with air temperature and friction velocity. Using these relationships, appropriately modified Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor models reliably reproduced seasonal trends in daily evapotranspiration. Such numerical models, using site-specific parameters, are crucial for constructing seasonal water budgets, constraining hydrological models, and driving regional climate models over mangrove forests.

  6. Reports of planetary geology program, 1976 - 1977. [abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. (Compiler); Wahmann, R. (Compiler); Howard, J. H., III

    1977-01-01

    One hundred seventeen investigations undertaken in the NASA Planetary Geology Program in 1976-1977 are reported in abstract form. Topics discussed include solar system formation; planetary interiors; planetary evolution; asteroids, comets and moons; cratering; volcanic, eolian, fluvial and mass wasting processes; volatiles and the Martian regolith; mapping; and instrument development and techniques. An author index is provided.

  7. WOODRAT MOUNTAIN STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1972-1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1972 through 1977, 8 streams in the Woodrat Mountain area of Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) were monitored to collect water quality data. The purpose of the study was to obtain baseline data on the drainages prior to the development of a Kyanite mining and milling oper...

  8. 1. Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for the City of San Jose in cooperative agreement with the California Department of Transportation (from the San Jose Historical Museum). - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  9. The double solar flare of October 6, 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valnichek, B.; Vedrenne, G.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Likin, O. B.; Morozova, E. I.; Niel, M.; Pisarenko, N. F.; Farnik, F.; Hurley, K.; Chambon, G.

    Prognoz-6 data are used to examine the energetic and temporal characteristics of the 1N double solar flare of October 6, 1977. The energetic characteristics are determined on the basis of an analysis of the parameters of charged-particle propagation in interplanetary space. The energy yield of the flare in the region of thermal and bremsstrahlung X-rays is calculated.

  10. Courses in Media Ethics. A Spring 1977 Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christians, Clifford G.

    A questionnaire regarding the teaching of media ethics courses was sent to communication program administrators in 1977. This paper reports the responses obtained from 237 programs (96% response rate). For the 27% of schools reporting specific courses in ethics, the paper notes the number and types of schools with ethics courses, the place of…

  11. Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. Summary Report 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M.

    A brief summary of data gathered from the Survey of Earned Doctorates during the academic year 1976-1977 is presented in this, the eleventh in a series of yearly summaries of data, a series that began in 1967. Data was obtained from questionnaires filled out by the graduates as they completed all requirements for their doctoral degrees, and refers…

  12. Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: A Checklist, 1961-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh R., Comp.

    This checklist brings together the bulk of the materials relating to libraries and librarianship in Papua New Guinea, including several that have not been identified previously. The 121 citations for papers, reports, and periodical articles published between 1961 and 1977 are listed in chronological order. Excluded are newspaper reports, official…

  13. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  14. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), Jervis Library. INITIAL BRIDGE DESIGN FOR CROSSING MILL RIVER. STRUCTURE NOT BUILT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Culvert, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  15. Rural and Urban Government Fiscal Trends, 1977-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.

    This report examines trends in local government revenues, expenditures and debt from 1977-82. During the period, local governments were subject to cuts in federal aid, severe economic recession and restrictions on revenues and spending, necessitating a fiscal response. Spending reductions were common, especially in big cities. Rural governments…

  16. State of Washington Population Trends, 1977. Washington State Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management, Olympia.

    As of April 1, 1977, Washington's population was estimated at 3,661,975--an increase of 248,725 since 1970. Prepared yearly, this report presents data on the official April 1 population estimates for cities, towns, and counties; components of population change; planned population forecasting activities; procedures which help make the housing unit…

  17. Coordinating Board, Texas College and University System, 1977 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Kenneth H.

    The annual report of the Coordinating Board, Texas College and University System for the fiscal year ending August 31, 1977 is presented. An overview of Board activities provides information on institutional authorization, higher education budget requests, institutional units in the College and University System, supply-and-demand career…

  18. 275. Photocopy of drawing (1977 civil engineering drawing by the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    275. Photocopy of drawing (1977 civil engineering drawing by the Strategic Air Command, VAFB, USAF) SITE PLAN, LOCATION MAP, AND CONTOUR MAP, ALSO TABLE OF CONTENTS AND GENERAL NOTES, SHEET 1 OF 10 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Morning Star Cycle Two (1977-1979): Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, L. V.

    Evaluation of cycle two of the (1977-1979) Morning Star program (a 2-year Native teacher education program at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) used a systems model to collect data on 24 variables for the 33 participating students, the academic program, and first and…

  20. The File. Case Study in Correction (1977-1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Serge

    In reaction to the 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate by Everett C. Ladd and Seymour Martin Lipset, Serge Lang began a file of letters expressing concern over and opposition to the study. The controversy began when Lang wrote a letter to the researchers expressing his opposition, with copies to members of the academic community,…

  1. Significant achievements in the planetary program, 1976 - 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1977 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  2. An Evaluation of the 1977 Canadian Firearms Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauser, Gary A.; Holmes, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A pooled cross-section time series model is used to evaluate the effect of the 1977 Canadian firearms legislation on the provincial homicide rate between 1969 and 1989. Results agree with most studies that indicate no significant effect of this legislation on homicide rates. (SLD)

  3. Social Science Research Council Annual Report, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.

    The report summarizes membership, activities, and finances of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) for the year 1976-1977. SSRC is a nonprofit corporation which has as its purpose the advancement of research in the social sciences. It endeavors to stimulate the development of theory and empirical knowledge concerning human behavior through…

  4. 276. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by the Strategic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    276. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by the Strategic Air Command, VAFB, USAF) STRUCTURAL PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND DETAILS FOR THE THEODOLITE STATIONS, SLC-3, SHEET 2 OF 10 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Written Communication in Business: A Selective Bibliography, 1967-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Ann; Stamas, Joan D.

    Designed for use by teachers and students of business communication, writers working in business, and librarians in academic, business, and public libraries, this annotated bibliography lists more than 800 books and articles published from 1967 to 1977. It includes entries on the writing of business letters, memos, reports, employee publications,…

  6. 264. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by the Space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    264. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by the Space and Missile Test Center, VAFB, USAF) NITROGEN AND HELIUM PUMPING SYSTEMS INSTALLATION SITE PLAN AND DETAILS, SHEET 3 OF 9 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting. 1977 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) in its fiscal year ending September 30, 1977 are described in terms of television, radio, and other educational activities, as well as technology, legislation, long-term funding, human resources development, and general financing of public broadcasting. Other information includes CPB…

  8. DRY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1976-1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality samples were collected monthly at one station in Water Year 1977 to determine the water quality status of Dry Creek in Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho (17040212). The stream was sampled near the mouth upstream from Murtaugh Lake. The section of Dry Creek abo...

  9. Students and Drugs at NCSU: 1977-1978 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Earl H.

    A survey conducted in 1977 at North Carolina State University on drugs was designed to measure usage rates for four types of drugs: marijuana, hallucinogens (such as LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin); amphetamines and barbituates; and narcotics (heroin, opium, and morphine). The questionnaire was also designed to determine student attitudes on…

  10. Chronic active hepatitis experience of Groote Schuur Hospital, 1964 - 1977.

    PubMed

    Poreh, S; Kirsch, R E; Terblanche, J; Saunders, S J

    1980-06-14

    From 1964 to 1977, 54 patients with clinical, biochemical and histological criteria of chronic active hepatitis were seen at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. Our experience with this disease is reviewed, and the diagnosis and mangement are commented on. PMID:7404076

  11. Hearing-Impaired Children under Age 6: 1977 and 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildroth, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    A review of annual survey data revealed that hearing impaired children under age 6 reported in 1984, when compared to those reported in 1977, tended to be younger; had higher percentages of heredity, meningitis, and prematurity as causes of hearing loss; and were more likely to have additional handicaps. (CL)

  12. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: 1977 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The national programs in aeronautics and space made steady progress in 1977 toward their long-term objectives. In aeronautics the goals were improved performance, energy efficiency, and safety in aircraft. In space the goals were: (1) better remote sensing systems to generate more sophisticated information about the Earth's environment; (2)…

  13. Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. I-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…

  14. Global Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamerius, James

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low specific humidity conditions facilitate the transmission of the influenza virus in temperate regions and result in annual winter epidemics. However, this relationship does not account for the epidemiology of influenza in tropical and subtropical regions where epidemics often occur during the rainy season or transmit year-round without a well-defined season. We assessed the role of specific humidity and other local climatic variables on influenza virus seasonality by modeling epidemiological and climatic information from 78 study sites sampled globally. We substantiated that there are two types of environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: "cold-dry" and "humid-rainy". For sites where monthly average specific humidity or temperature decreases below thresholds of approximately 11-12 g/kg and 18-21 °C during the year, influenza activity peaks during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter) when specific humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. For sites where specific humidity and temperature do not decrease below these thresholds, seasonal influenza activity is more likely to peak in months when average precipitation totals are maximal and greater than 150 mm per month. Based on these findings, we develop Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIRS) models forced by daily weather observations of specific humidity and precipitation that simulate the diversity of seasonal influenza signals worldwide.

  15. The Library of Congress, 1977. A Brief Summary of Major Activities for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

    A summary of statistical information and user service programs provided by the Library of Congress (LC) during the 1977 fiscal year is presented. The Library's Congressional Research Service (CRS) provides immediate response to research queries from members of Congress, as well as undertaking special studies and research projects and holding…

  16. Reports from the International Conference on Education, 1977. Rapports de la Conference internationale de l'education, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This dual-language catalog contains abstracts of 188 documents prepared for the 1977 International Conference on Education. The documents describe educational policies toward development, major trends in education, and the problem of information at the national and international levels posed by the improvement of educational systems. Abstracts are…

  17. 78 FR 29032 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Tennessee: Revisions to Volatile Organic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Register on August 25, 1997 (62 FR 44900) and April 9, 1998 (63 FR 17331) adding the 16 compounds listed... ozone (42 FR 35314, July 8, 1977). EPA determines whether a given carbon compound has ``negligible... Comments On February 19, 2013 (78 FR 11583), EPA published a direct final action and parallel...

  18. The Arctic Ocean's seasonal cycle must change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James; Ding, Yanni

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses anticipated changes to the seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean along with Arctic surface climate due to the reduction of seasonal sea ice cover expected in the 21st century. Net surface shortwave radiation is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric transparency as well as solar declination. Recent observational studies and modeling results presented here strongly suggest that this excess heat in the summer is currently being stored locally in the form of ocean warming and sea ice melt. This heat is lost in winter/spring through surface loss through longwave and turbulent processes causing ocean cooling and the refreezing of sea ice. A striking feature of Arctic climate during the 20th century has been the enhanced warming experienced during winter in response to increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of surface air temperature is declining by gradually warming winter temperatures relative to summer temperatures. Bintanja and van der Linden (2013) show this process will eventually cause the 30C seasonal change in air temperature to reduce by half as seasonal sea ice disappears. The much weaker seasonal cycle of ocean temperature, which is controlled by the need to store excess surface heat seasonally, is also going to be affected by the loss of sea ice but in quite different ways. In particular the ocean will need to compensate for the loss of seasonal heat storage by the ice pack. This study examines consequences for the Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation in a suite of CMIP5 models under future emissions scenarios relative to their performance during the 20th century and to explore a range of model ocean responses to declining sea ice cover on the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  20. Impact of Seasonal Conditions on Quality and Pathogens Content of Milk in Friesian Cows.

    PubMed

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel Aziz, Rabie L; Mohammed, Asmaa N; Bernabucci, Umberto

    2016-08-01

    Heat stress negatively affects milk quality altering its nutritive value and cheese making properties. This study aimed at assessing the impact of seasonal microclimatic conditions on milk quality of Friesian cows. The study was carried out in a dairy farm from June 2013 to May 2014 at Beni-Suef province, Egypt. Inside the barn daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded and used to calculate the daily maximum temperature-humidity index (mxTHI), which was used as indicator of the degree of heat stress. The study was carried out in three periods according to the temperature-humidity index (THI) recorded: from June 2013 to September 2013 (mxTHI>78), from October 2013 to November 2013 (mxTHI 72-78) and from December 2013 to April 2014 (mxTHI<72). Eighty Friesian lactating dairy cows were monitored in each period. The three groups of cows were balanced for days in milk and parity. Milk quality data referred to somatic cell count, total coliform count (TCC), faecal coliform count (FCC), Escherichia coli count, percentage of E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, percentage of fat, protein, lactose, total solid and solid non-fat. Increasing THI was associated with a significant decrease in all milk main components. An increase of TCC, FCC, and E. coli count from mxTHI<72 to mxTHI>78 was observed. In addition, the isolation rate of both S. aureus and E. coli increased when the mxTHI increased. The results of this study show the seriousness of the negative effects of hot conditions on milk composition and mammary gland pathogens. These facts warrant the importance of adopting mitigation strategies to alleviate negative consequences of heat stress in dairy cows and for limiting related economic losses. PMID:27165021

  1. Impact of Seasonal Conditions on Quality and Pathogens Content of Milk in Friesian Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M. A.; Abdel Aziz, Rabie L.; Mohammed, Asmaa N.; Bernabucci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress negatively affects milk quality altering its nutritive value and cheese making properties. This study aimed at assessing the impact of seasonal microclimatic conditions on milk quality of Friesian cows. The study was carried out in a dairy farm from June 2013 to May 2014 at Beni-Suef province, Egypt. Inside the barn daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded and used to calculate the daily maximum temperature-humidity index (mxTHI), which was used as indicator of the degree of heat stress. The study was carried out in three periods according to the temperature-humidity index (THI) recorded: from June 2013 to September 2013 (mxTHI>78), from October 2013 to November 2013 (mxTHI 72–78) and from December 2013 to April 2014 (mxTHI<72). Eighty Friesian lactating dairy cows were monitored in each period. The three groups of cows were balanced for days in milk and parity. Milk quality data referred to somatic cell count, total coliform count (TCC), faecal coliform count (FCC), Escherichia coli count, percentage of E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, percentage of fat, protein, lactose, total solid and solid non-fat. Increasing THI was associated with a significant decrease in all milk main components. An increase of TCC, FCC, and E. coli count from mxTHI<72 to mxTHI>78 was observed. In addition, the isolation rate of both S. aureus and E. coli increased when the mxTHI increased. The results of this study show the seriousness of the negative effects of hot conditions on milk composition and mammary gland pathogens. These facts warrant the importance of adopting mitigation strategies to alleviate negative consequences of heat stress in dairy cows and for limiting related economic losses. PMID:27165021

  2. Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Kayano, Mary T.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 2012, and 2014.

  3. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  4. Drought in California; water resources data for 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Leonard N.; Pearce, Verrie F.

    1978-01-01

    The 2-year dry period 1976-77 was the most severe drought in northern California 's history, and the quantity and quality of all water-supply sources in the State were affected. This report contains special water-resources data collected by the Geological Survey during 1977. These data include: streamflow at 11 selected stations, comparing the 1977 mean monthly and yearly flow to the period-of-record medians; base-flow measurements at 189 selected sites; water quality at 131 selected sites; ground-water levels in wells and river stages along a 158-mile reach of the Sacramento River; and, finally, graphs showing the effect of tidal action on suspended-sediment concentration at the stream-gaging station on the Sacramento River at Sacramento. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  6. The Use of Space for Instruction, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Edward; Chakupurakal, Thomas

    The use of space for formal instruction in fall 1977 at the Center and South campuses of Macomb County Community College was examined for five time spans: prime time day (weekdays, 8 a.m.-1 p.m.), prime time night (Monday-Thursday, 6 p.m.-10 p.m.), prime time week (prime time day and night), afternoon (Monday-Thursday, 1 p.m.-6 p.m.), and schedule…

  7. Trajectory selection for the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, J. S.; Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of decision analysis to facilitate a group decision-making problem in the selection of trajectories for the two spacecraft of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project. A set of 32 candidate trajectory pairs was developed. Cardinal utility function values were assigned to the trajectory pairs, and the data and statistics derived from collective choice rules were used in selecting the science-preferred trajectory pair.

  8. The 1977 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The papers presented were derived from transcripts taken at the Tenth Annual Battery Workshop held at the Goddard Space Flight Center, November 15-17, 1977. The Workshop was attended by manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest results of testing, analysis, and development of the sealed nickel cadmium cell system. The purpose of the Workshop was to share flight and test experience, stimulate discussion on problem areas, and to review the latest technology improvements.

  9. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  10. Dry season streamflow persistence in seasonal climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems exhibit periods of high water availability followed by extended intervals during which rainfall is negligible and streamflows decline. Eventually, such declining flows will fall below the minimum values required to support ecosystem functions or services. The time at which dry season flows drop below these minimum values (Q*), relative to the start of the dry season, is termed the "persistence time" (). The persistence time determines how long seasonal streams can support various human or ecological functions during the dry season. In this study, we extended recent work in the stochastic hydrology of seasonally dry climates to develop an analytical model for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the persistence time. The proposed model accurately captures the mean of the persistence time distribution, but underestimates its variance. We demonstrate that this underestimation arises in part due to correlation between the parameters used to describe the dry season recession, but that this correlation can be removed by rescaling the flow variables. The mean persistence time predictions form one example of the broader class of streamflow statistics known as crossing properties, which could feasibly be combined with simple ecological models to form a basis for rapid risk assessment under different climate or management scenarios.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  12. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  13. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M.; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1–100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air–sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1–10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below. PMID:25897832

  14. Controls on the CO2 seasonal cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Forget, F.; Haberle, Robert M.; Schaeffer, J.; Lee, H.

    1993-01-01

    Surface pressure measurement performed by the Viking landers show substantial variations in pressure on seasonal timescales that are characterized by two local minima and two local maxima. These variations have widely been attributed to the seasonal condensation and sublimation of CO2 in the two polar regions. It has been somewhat of a surprise that the amplitude of the minimum and maximum that is dominated by the CO2 cycle in the north was much weaker than the corresponding amplitude of the south-dominated extrema. Another surprise was that the seasonal pressure cycle during years 2 and 3 of the Viking mission was so similar to that for year 1, despite the occurrence of two global dust storms during year 1 and none during years 2 and 3. An energy balance model that incorporates dynamical factors from general circulation model (GCM) runs in which the atmospheric dust opacity and seasonal date were systematically varied was used to model the observed seasonal pressure variations. The energy balance takes account of the following processes in determining the rates of CO2 condensation and sublimation at each longitudinal and latitudinal grid point: solar radiation, infrared radiation from the atmosphere and surface, subsurface heat conduction, and atmospheric heat advection. Condensation rates are calculated both at the surface and in the atmosphere. In addition, the energy balance model also incorporates information from the GCM runs on seasonal redistribution of surface pressure across the globe. Estimates of surface temperature of the seasonal CO2 caps were used to define the infrared radiative losses from the seasonal polar caps. The seasonal pressure variations measured at the Viking lander sites were closely reproduced.

  15. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development.

    PubMed

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations. PMID:26842331

  16. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  17. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  18. Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Daniel R.; Sonnefeld, Sally T.; McKusick, David R.; Arnett, Ross H.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, concern has increased over the rapid growth of health care spending, especially spending on behalf of the aged. In 1987, those 65 years or over comprised 12 percent of the population but consumed 36 percent of total personal health care. This article is an examination of the current and future composition of the population and effects on health care spending. National health accounts aggregates for 1977 and 1987 are split into three age groups, and the consumption patterns of each group are discussed. The variations in spending within the aged cohort are also examined. PMID:10313274

  19. Residual Gravity Changes at Kilauea: 1977-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    Microgravity surveys on volcanoes provide insight into the mechanisms of volcanic eruptions. Typically gravity is measured repeatedly over a dense network of stations using one or more meters. Raw gravity measurements corrected for effects of earthtides, instrumental drift, and concurrent elevation changes give residual gravity. Successive surveys give residual gravity changes reflecting mass redistributions within volcanoes affected by dynamic magmatic and/or hydrothermal systems. At Kilauea Volcano a network about 65 stations was most recently reoccupied by Johnson and Eggers in October and November 2003, and by Johnson in 1999 and 1998. Data from 1977 and 1981 surveys (by H.V.O. staff) are included in this study. The reduced gravity data (precision about 10 microgals) show residual gravity has consistently and steadily increased by more than 300 microgals since 1977 in a semicircular area several hundred meters in diameter, centered on the SE rim of Halemaumau Crater. Residual gravity change anomalies for the intervals 1999-2003, 1981-1999, and 1977-1981 have respective amplitudes of approximately 100, 140, and 100 microgals. Because of lower station density and lack of station-to-station continuity over time anomalies representing the two earlier intervals are less well defined. Half-widths at half-heights of the anomalies from each interval indicate a source depths for the masses producing the gravity change of 550 to 700 m below the caldera floor. Mogi point mass interpretations, assuming a 600 m depth, using the 100, 140, and 100 microgal respective amplitudes suggest a cumulative mass addition of about 18x10^9 kg since 1977. Mass has apparently been added to a shallow chamber below the caldera floor at 0.7x10^9 kg/yr on the average throughout most of the Pu'u `O'o eruption. From 1983-2002 magma throughput in the Kilauea/Pu'u `O'o system has averaged about 3.5x10^1^1kg/yr (Sutton et al 2003). This magma throughput represents only 83-87% of the primary magma

  20. Temporal variations of the anomalous oxygen component, 1977 - 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Klecker, B.; Galvin, A. B.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is of the long term temporal variations of 6.6 to 12 MeV/nucleon anomalous oxygen at 1 AU covering the period 1977 to 1984. This time interval included the recent solar maximum, with the recovery at neutron monitor energies beginning in 1982. During this time interval, 6.6 to 12 MeV/nucleon 0 fluxes decreased by at least a factor of 50, and indeed remained below the instrumental detection threshold after 1979. By late 1984, neutron monitors had recovered to roughly 1979 levels from the 1982 solar maximum, and anomalous O still remained below the detection threshold.

  1. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Osborn J, Raetz J, Kost A. Seasonal ...

  2. Temporal trends of bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry (1977-1997) in a small forested area, Krusne hory, northern Bohemia, Czech Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Cerny, J.; Havel, M.; Krejci, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Krusne hory (Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains) has been heavily affected by high atmospheric pollutant deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion in an adjacent Tertiary coal basin. Long-term routine sampling of bulk precipitation (1977-1996) and stream water (1977-1998) in a forested area on the south-eastern slope of the mountains were used to evaluate trends and patterns in solute concentration and flux with respect to controlling processes. From 1977 to 1996, the annual volume-weighted Ca2+ and SO42- concentrations decreased in bulk precipitation. However, after 1989, when a pronounced and continuous decrease occurred in coal production, annual volume-weighted concentrations decreased for most solutes, except H+. The concentration decreases were marked, with 1996 levels at or below 50% of those in 1989. The lack of a trend in H+ is attributed to similar decreases in both acid anions and neutralizing base cations. Stream water concentrations of most solutes, i.e. H+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and NO3-, were highest at the onset of sampling in 1977, decreased markedly from 1977 to 1983 and decreased more gradually from 1983 to 1998. The spruce forest die-back and removal reduced dry deposition of these solutes by reducing the filtering action, which was provided by the forest canopy. A notable decrease in stream water Ca2+ concentrations occurred after 1995 and may be due to the depletion of Ca2+, which was provided by catchment liming in 1986, 1988 and 1989. Solute flux trends in bulk atmospheric deposition and stream water generally were not significant and the lack of trend is attributed to the large interannual variability in precipitation quantity and runoff, respectively. All solutes except Na+ varied seasonally. The average seasonal concentrations varied between the solutes, but for most solutes were highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer, correlating with the seasonal trend and runoff. For Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42-, the concentration minimum occurs in

  3. Long-term evolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into a subsurface urban heat island.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp; Schaffitel, Axel; Bayer, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Anthropogenic alterations in urban areas influence the thermal environment causing elevated atmospheric and subsurface temperatures. The subsurface urban heat island effect is observed in several cities. Often shallow urban aquifers exist with thermal anomalies that spread laterally and vertically, resulting in the long-term accumulation of heat. In this study, we develop an analytical heat flux model to investigate possible drivers such as increased ground surface temperatures (GSTs) at artificial surfaces and heat losses from basements of buildings, sewage systems, subsurface district heating networks, and reinjection of thermal wastewater. By modeling the anthropogenic heat flux into the subsurface of the city of Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1977 and 2011, we evaluate long-term trends in the heat flux processes. It revealed that elevated GST and heat loss from basements are dominant factors in the heat anomalies. The average total urban heat flux into the shallow aquifer in Karlsruhe was found to be ∼759 ± 89 mW/m(2) in 1977 and 828 ± 143 mW/m(2) in 2011, which represents an annual energy gain of around 1.0 × 10(15) J. However, the amount of thermal energy originating from the individual heat flux processes has changed significantly over the past three decades. PMID:23895264

  4. An Evaluation of Title VII Bilingual/Bicultural Program, 1977-78 School Year, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Judith S.; Bicks, Patricia

    This report is concerned with bilingual bicultural education programs in Spanish and Creole French, offered in District 22, Brooklyn, New York. Student selection, class structure, staff characteristics, and monitoring of student progress are described. Curriculum materials are listed for the following: (1) bilingual French classes in reading,…

  5. 1977-78 Cost Analysis for Florida Schools and Districts. Statistical Report. Series 79-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Public Schools.

    This statistical report describes some of the cost analysis information available from computer reports produced by the Florida Department of Education. It reproduces examples of Florida school and school district financial data that can be used by state, district, and school-level administrators as they analyze program costs and expenditures. The…

  6. Pediatric Language Laboratory--A Day Care Center Program During 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Susan; And Others

    The document describes the Pediatric Language Laboratory, a day care center which provides day care and therapeutic services to 20 mild to moderate communicatively delayed children, 1 to 4 years old. Initial sections address program philosophy; program components (diagnostics, remedial services, typical services, parent education, and community…

  7. Connecticut Assessment of Educational Progress Citizenship/Social Studies 1977-78 Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Sherry; Sorce, Patricia

    The document describes an instrument used to measure citizenship social studies achievement and skills for 9-, 13-, 17-, and 26 to 35-year-olds in Connecticut. Based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (ED 049 113), objectives were to collect baseline data for future use in determining knowledge, to compare results with national…

  8. Art for the Middle School. Curriculum Bulletin, 1977-78 Series, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Shirley

    The elements and principles of design are taught through art experiences which are built upon pupil interest. A range of suggested activities makes it possible for teachers to plan lessons that meet the needs of each student. Each chapter includes activities appropriate for varying student ability levels. The focus of activities in grades five and…

  9. A Vocational Program for Recreational Vehicle Maintenance/Repair. A Report, 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    This report contains a secondary school curriculum guide designed to be used by vocational teachers in a one- or two-year recreational vehicle maintenance/repair program. In the preliminary pages, a description is given of the project that developed the curriculum, outlining its objectives and procedures in formulating the model interdisciplinary…

  10. Project CLIMB (Career Ladder Infusion Model Building). [Volume I: Final Report, 1977-78].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villoni, Shirley

    A project was designed to develop, field test, and publish a career infusion unit curriculum for grades 10-12 in the Garden Grove Unified School District. Students at one project school, two transport schools, and a comparison school formed the study sample. A third party evaluated the accomplishments of objectives for the following program…

  11. Hydrologic reconnaissance of western Arctic Alaska, 1976 and 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.; Loeffler, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Reconnaissance water-resource investigations were conducted on the western Alaskan Arctic Slope during April 1976 and August 1977; these months are times of winter and summer low flow. The information gathered is important for coordinated development in the area. Such development has been spurred by oil and gas discoveries on the North Slope, most notably at Prudhoe Bay. Little water resources information is currently available. The study area extended from the Colville River to the vicinity of Kotzebue. It included the western Arctic Slope and the western foothills of the Brooks Range. Nine springs, nine lakes and eleven rivers were sampled during the April 1976 reconnaissance trip. Its purpose was to locate winter flow and describe its quantity and quality. Field water-quality measurements made at these sites were: ice thickness, water depth, discharge (spring and streams), specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity (bicarbonate, HOC3), and pH. A followup summer trip was made in August 1977 to determine flood characteristics of twenty selected streams. Bankfull and maximum evident flood-peak discharges were determined by measuring channel geometry and estimating channel roughness. Aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at springs and flood survey sites visited during both reconnaissance trips. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Teaching with the Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Describes a natural science course designed to teach students that nature is nearby rather than somewhere else. Students learn about local flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor the progression of the seasons. The course uses no textbook, regularly uses the outdoors as a classroom, and follows the seasons' phenology as the…

  13. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons protected by section 11(c). 1977.5 Section 1977.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF...

  14. Graduate Science Education: Student Support and Postdoctorals, Fall 1977. Technical Notes and Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The fall 1977 survey of Graduate Science Student Support and Postdoctorals (GSSSP) covered graduate science and engineering departments at doctorate-granting institutions, including medical schools, and departments in institutions that grant a master's as the highest degree. The 1977 universe consisted of 370 doctorate institutions with 7,951…

  15. 29 CFR 1977.9 - Complaints under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Complaints under or related to the Act. 1977.9 Section 1977.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF...

  16. 40 CFR 35.910-6 - Fiscal Year 1977 public works allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fiscal Year 1977 public works allotments. 35.910-6 Section 35.910-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-6 Fiscal Year 1977 public...

  17. 29 CFR 1977.9 - Complaints under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaints under or related to the Act. 1977.9 Section 1977.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  18. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  19. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons protected by section 11(c). 1977.5 Section 1977.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  20. 29 CFR 1977.10 - Proceedings under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proceedings under or related to the Act. 1977.10 Section 1977.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  1. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  2. 29 CFR 1977.10 - Proceedings under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings under or related to the Act. 1977.10 Section 1977.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  3. 29 CFR 1977.16 - Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination. 1977.16 Section 1977.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.16 - Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination. 1977.16 Section 1977.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  5. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1977, With Trends From Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    Data collected in the fourth annual survey of use of residence hall facilities in the fall of 1977, as well as summary data from fall 1974 through fall 1977 is presented in tabular form. The study includes all state-operated institutions which have residence hall facilities except facilities available at locally sponsored community colleges under…

  6. 27 CFR 19.77 - Installation of meters, tanks and other apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tanks and other apparatus. 19.77 Section 19.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative... and other apparatus. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to require the proprietor to...

  7. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  8. Publications of Los Alamos research, 1977-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, C.J.; Garcia, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1977-1981. Papers published in those years are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted - even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-Laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers either published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  9. Features of spinal cord injury in Taiwan (1977-1989).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Y S; Lee, S T; Lui, T N; Fairholm, D J; Chen, W J; Wong, M K

    1993-09-01

    In order to establish an etiological and statistical base for spinal cord injuries, 1,617 spinal cord injured patients admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan during the period of 1977 to 1989 were reviewed. The most common causes of injury were pedestrian (29.31%) and motorcycle (28.88%) accidents. The greatest incidence of injury was in the 26-35 year age group. The complete tetraplegic patients had the highest mortality rate (26.5%). Additional features studied were the time of occurrence and pattern of injury. Information gathered from this study suggest the need to establish a Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Program, to develop a Prehospital Care System and set up comprehensive Spinal Cord Injury Units in Taiwan. We expect this study to be adaptable to other similar developing countries. PMID:8221290

  10. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  11. Observations of neutral carbon in the NGC 1977 bright rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wootten, A.; Phillips, T. G.; Beichman, C. A.; Frerking, M.

    1982-01-01

    Strong neutral carbon emission at 610 microns (492 GHz) has been detected from a bright-rimmed cloud abutting the H II region NGC 1977. The similarity of velocity and width between (C-13)O and C I lines suggests that both lines originate in the same region. A model for the density and temperature structure of the cloud, based on (C-13)O and (C-12)O observations, has been used to estimate the carbon abundance. The abundances of both C I and (C-13)O increase with depth into the cloud away from the rim. The carbon abundance reaches its peak value nearer the rim than does the (C-13)O abundance. This variation in the relative abundance distributions of CO and C I confirms the importance of photodissociation in the chemistry of molecular clouds, and of the C I line to studies of the interaction of hot stars with clouds.

  12. Follow-up of the 1977 Georgia Outbreak of Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Akstein, Ricardo B; Hlavsa, Michele C; Lopez, Adriana S; Wilson, Mariana; Holland, Gary N

    2016-06-01

    In 1977, an outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurred among 37 persons associated with exposure to an indoor horse arena. Cat feces containing the organism were most likely stirred up when horses ran on the dirt floor, and were inhaled or ingested by riders and observers. After 25 or more years, we attempted to locate persons from the outbreak and offer them an eye examination. Of the 37 persons in the outbreak, 18 (49%) were located; four had died, and the remaining 14 agreed to an examination. Among the 14 persons examined, three (21%) were found to have lesions typical of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. If these three persons were the only ones with ocular disease among the 37 persons in the outbreak, the disease rate would still be high (8%). As a result of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii during this outbreak, a relatively high percentage of persons developed ocular disease. PMID:27044565

  13. Lightning deaths: a retrospective review of New Mexico's cases, 1977-2009.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Jennifer L; Lathrop, Sarah L; Briones, Alice J; Andrews, Sam W; Aurelius, Michelle B

    2015-01-01

    To better understand lightning deaths, a retrospective review of electronic records from New Mexico's Office of the Medical Investigator database was performed between 1977 and 2009 to update and assess current risk factors. Information on demographics, circumstances, autopsy, and death certificates were collected and analyzed. Fifty-four decedents were identified, ages 2-71 years old (mean 34 years old), 42 males and 12 females. Common racial/ethnic groups were non-Hispanic Whites and American Indians (together comprising 72% of all cases). Physical findings were often related to the heat carried by the electrical current including clothing alterations (29.6%) and burning of skin (53.7%). Most deaths occurred on weekend afternoons in summer months, associated with recreational activities or agricultural work, and rural locations (77.8%). Utilizing the demographic information, clustered events, and associated outdoor activities will assist in creating public awareness and provide a framework to support targeted warnings in an attempt to prevent future deaths. PMID:25053421

  14. The changing seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, J.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of Arctic Ocean temperature is weak due to the insulating and light scattering effects of sea ice cover and the moderating influence of the seasonal storage and release of heat through ice melting and freezing. The retreat of sea ice and other changes in recent decades is already warming surface air temperatures in winter. We our analysis of future change with an examination of the dominant processes in the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcing as they appear in historical simulations of 14 CMIP5 climate models. In both models and observations the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most models sea ice melt dominates. The dominant balance in the seasonal freshwater budget is the exchange of freshwater between the liquid ocean and sea ice. At its peak this rate of exchange exceeds 2Sv. The appearance of sea ice and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and two mechanisms for feedback. Our analysis of the seasonal cycle in the coming centuries suggests that the loss of sea ice will dramatically increase the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature in the Arctic Ocean. Depending on the rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gases the seasonal range in Arctic sea surface temperature may exceed 10°C by year 2300, greatly increasing the stratification of the summer mixed layer.

  15. Mortality of aluminum reduction plant workers, 1950 through 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, G.W.

    1985-10-01

    The mortality experience of 5,406 men (cohort I) employed at one aluminum smelter on Jan. 1, 1950, and 485 men employed at a second plant (cohort II) on January 1, 1951, is reported. For each man, the total number of years of exposure to tars, the number of years since first exposure to tars, and an index of exposure to tars expressed in tar-years were calculated. More than 99% of the men in the first cohort and 98% of the men in the second cohort were traced. Of the 1539 men in cohort I who were deceased as of December 31, 1977, death certificates were obtained for 1432 (93%). Of the 92 men in cohort II who were deceased as of December 31, 1977, death certificates were obtained for 80 (87%). The results showed that men in cohort I died of the following causes at approximately the same rate as or less frequently than men of similar age in the Province of Quebec: tuberculosis; circulatory disease; hypertensive heart disease; trauma; leukemia and aleukemia; and malignant neoplasms of the pancreas, genital organs, brain, intestine, and rectum and other abdominal areas. There were no deaths from pneumoconiosis or Alzheimer's disease. Although the observed and expected numbers of deaths in some of the cause-of-death categories were small, men in cohort I died of the following causes more frequently than did men of similar age in the Province of Quebec: respiratory disease; pneumonia and bronchitis; malignant neoplasms (all sites); malignant neoplasms of the stomach and esophagus, bladder, and lung; other malignant neoplasms; Hodgkin's disease; and other hypertensive disease. Mortality from malignant neoplasms of the bladder and lung was meaningfully related to numbers of tar-years and of years of exposure. Exposure-response relationships were less clear for malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach and for other malignancies.

  16. Department of Energy 1977--1994: A summary history

    SciTech Connect

    Fehner, T.R.; Holl, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 created perhaps the most interesting and diverse agency in the Federal Government. The new department brought together for the first time not only most of the government`s energy programs but also defense responsibilities that included the design, construction, and testing of nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy incorporated a score of organizational entities from a dozen departments and agencies, each with its own history and traditions. Uniting these seemingly disparate entities and programs was a common commitment to performing first rate science and technology. The Department of Energy sought--and continues to seek--to be one of the Nation`s premier science and technology organizations. The Department of Energy, 1977--1994, is a summary history of the origins, goals, and achievements of the Department and selected major programs. Beginning with the various fuels policies on the energy side and the Manhattan project on the defense side, the study details how the Department was born of the energy crisis of the early and mid-1970s. The history then surveys the Department and its programs from the Carter through the Clinton administrations. As the energy crisis eased, the Department played a central role on issues as dissimilar as the Strategic Defense Initiative and the Superconducting Super Collider. With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy further transformed itself, moving from the building of bombs to partial dismantlement of the nuclear weapons complex and to an increased emphasis on environmental activities and technology transfer efforts.

  17. 78 FR 32179 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... framework action and requested public comment (78 FR 20292). The proposed rule and the framework action... closure date of the red snapper recreational fishing season in the EEZ off individual states (78 FR 17882... the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and the Caribbean (78 FR 22950). That interim final rule did...

  18. Controlling Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of asthma and allergic diseases. Immune Tolerance Network (ITN): The ITN is an international ... mold spores can cause seasonal allergic reactions. The immune system is ... Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ( ...

  19. PMC from 2009 Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (AIM-CIPS) instrument for the 2009 season in the northern polar region. The North Pole (90N...

  20. Seasonality of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-02-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  1. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  2. Seasonal changes in interstitial salinities and seasonal movements of subtidal benthic invertebrates in the Fraser River estuary, B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Peter M.; Brinkhurst, Ralph O.

    1981-01-01

    The subtidal benthic fauna of the lower Fraser River, a salt-wedge estuary, was sampled monthly from June 1977 to August 1978 in mud substrates at six stations ranging from oligohaline to polyhaline. Subtidal interstitial salinities were also measured and were related to the seasonal distribution of the estuarine benthic fauna. Interstitial salinities of silty sediments do not vary diurnally, but the transition zone between salt and fresh interstitial water is cyclically shifted up- and downstream in relation to freshwater discharge, leading to seasonal shifts in the distribution of benthic infaunal species. Seasonal shifts are shown to occur in the oligochaetes Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Tubifex tubifex, Tubificoides gabriellae, Paranais litoralis, Specaria fraseri, Nais communis and Nais elinguis, and of the polychaetes Eteone longa, Amphicteis sp. and Polydora kempi japonica. These species comprised over 25% of the total taxa collected and over 60% of the individuals collected. The data on other species distributions do not conflict with the hypothesis of cyclic changes related to seasonal interstitial salinities. The changes vary in extent in relation to runoff, and appear to be a feature of salt-wedge estuaries in general.

  3. Extended Development of Variable Conductance Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Edwards, D. K.; Luedke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    A high-capacity vapor-modulated heat pipe was designed and tested. In 1977, a program was undertaken to use the aforementioned heat pipe to study protection from freezing-point failure, increase control sensitivity, and transient behavior under a wide range of operating conditions in order to determine the full performance potential of the heat pipe. A new concept, based on the vapor-induced-dry-out principle, was developed for passive feedback temperature control as a heat pipe diode. This report documents this work and describes: (1) the experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of the vapor-modulated heat pipe; and (2) the design, fabrication and test of the heat pipe diode.

  4. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  5. Wear resistant alloys for coal handling equipment. Final technical report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W.M.; Parker, E.R.; Misra, A.; Finnie, I.

    1981-01-01

    In the progress report for 1977-1979, an extensive literature survey was completed in the areas of abrasive wear mechanisms, wear testing and microstructural effects on abrasive wear. Definitions of the various abrasive wear processes were clarified. A laboratory wear tester capable of simulating high stress two-body abrasive wear and low stress three-body wear was designed, constructed and calibrated. Experiments were run on some standard metals and alloys in the annealed, work hardened, and heat treated conditions under both two-body and three-body wear. In the 1979 to 1980 period, a detailed analysis of the abrasive size effect was performed based on the observations made on two- and three-body abrasion and erosion. It was concluded that the size effect was due to a shallow surface layer exhibiting higher flow stress than the bulk material when the material is abraded or eroded. The effect of certain variables on the wear resistance of different pure metals was compared for two-body abrasion, three-body abrasion and erosion. The variables studied are annealed hardness of the worn metal, the increase in hardness of the worn metal before the wear process due to work hardening and heat treatment, applied load, distance travelled, the abrasive particle size and abrasive hardness. The effect of most of these variables is similar for the three different wear processes. The existing low-stress, open three-body abrasive wear tester was modified and calibrated for testing abrasive wear up to 600/sup 0/C. Some standard materials were tested and in the case of pure aluminum it was found that the wear rate decreased with increase in temperature.

  6. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  7. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes the structure and function of major HSPs, recent research progress on the association of HSPs with grass tolerance to heat stress, and incorporation of HSPs in heat-tolerant grass breeding. PMID:22084689

  8. Effects of seasonal acclimatization on temperature dependence of cardiac excitability in the roach, Rutilus rutilus.

    PubMed

    Badr, A; El-Sayed, M F; Vornanen, M

    2016-05-15

    Temperature sensitivity of electrical excitability is a potential limiting factor for performance level and thermal tolerance of excitable tissues in ectothermic animals. To test whether the rate and rhythm of the heart acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes, thermal sensitivity of cardiac excitation in a eurythermal teleost, the roach (Rutilus rutilus), was examined. Excitability of the heart was determined from in vivo electrocardiograms and in vitro microelectrode recordings of action potentials (APs) from winter and summer roach acclimatized to 4 and 18°C, respectively. Under heat ramps (3°C h(-1)), starting from the acclimatization temperatures of the fish, heart rate increased to maximum values of 78±5 beats min(-1) (at 19.8±0.5°C) and 150±7 beats min(-1) (at 28.1±0.5°C) for winter and summer roach, respectively, and then declined in both groups. Below 20°C, heart rate was significantly higher in winter than in summer roach (P<0.05), indicating positive thermal compensation. Cardiac arrhythmias appeared with rising temperature as missing QRS complexes, increase in variability of heart rate, episodes of atrial tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia and complete cessation of the heartbeat (asystole) in both winter and summer roach. Unlike winter roach, atrial APs of summer roach had a distinct early repolarization phase, which appeared as shorter durations of atrial AP at 10% and 20% repolarization levels in comparison to winter roach (P<0.05). In contrast, seasonal acclimatization had only subtle effects on ventricular AP characteristics. Plasticity of cardiac excitation appears to be necessary for seasonal improvements in performance level and thermal resilience of the roach heart. PMID:26994185

  9. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. G.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.

    2004-04-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity during the last three hundred years reveals that volcanic eruptions exhibit seasonality to a statistically significant degree. This remarkable pattern is observed primarily along the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and locally at some individual volcanoes. Globally, seasonal fluctuations amount to 18% of the historical average monthly eruption rate. In some regions, seasonal fluctuations amount to as much as 50% of the average eruption rate. Seasonality principally reflects the temporal distribution of the smaller, dated eruptions (volcanic explosivity index of 0-2) that dominate the eruption catalog. We suggest that the pattern of seasonality correlates with the annual Earth surface deformation that accompanies the movement of surface water mass during the annual hydrological cycle and illustrate this with respect to global models of surface deformation and regional measurements of annual sea level change. For example, seasonal peaks in the eruption rate of volcanoes in Central America, the Alaskan Peninsula, and Kamchatka coincide with periods of falling regional sea level. In Melanesia, in contrast, peak numbers of volcanic eruptions occur during months of maximal regional sea level and falling regional atmospheric pressure. We suggest that the well-documented slow deformation of Earth's surface that accompanies the annual movements of water mass from oceans to continents acts to impose a fluctuating boundary condition on volcanoes, such that volcanic eruptions tend to be concentrated during periods of local or regional surface change rather than simply being distributed randomly throughout the year. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment and volcanoclimate feedback mechanisms.

  10. National Conference on New Juvenile Justice Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Haar, Alice C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the standards on rights of minors, abuse and neglect, non-criminal behavior, and schools and education which were adopted at the National Conference on New Juvenile Justice Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977. (Author)

  11. 4. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING (ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER). - Salem Manufacturing Company, Arista Cotton Mill, Brookstown & Marshall Streets, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC

  12. NASA Tech Briefs Index, 1977, volume 2, numbers 1-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Announcements of new technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA are presented. Abstracts, and indexes for subject, personal author, originating center, and Tech Brief number are presented for 1977.

  13. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  14. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  15. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  16. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  17. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  18. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  19. Effectiveness of seasonal 2010/11 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines in preventing influenza infection in the United Kingdom: mid-season analysis 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Pebody, R; Hardelid, P; Fleming, Dm; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; Thomas, Dr; Sebastianpillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm

    2011-01-01

    This study provides mid-season estimates of the effectiveness of 2010/11 trivalent influenza vaccine and previous vaccination with monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in the United Kingdom in the 2010/11 season. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 34% (95% CI: -10 - 60%) if vaccinated only with monovalent vaccine in the 2009/10 season; 46% (95% CI: 7 - 69%) if vaccinated only with trivalent influenza vaccine in the 2010/11 season and 63% (95% CI: 37 - 78%) if vaccinated in both seasons. PMID:21329644

  20. Seismic Excitation of the Polar Motion, 1977-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin Fong; Gross, Richard S.; Han, Yan-Ben

    1996-01-01

    The mass redistribution in the earth as a result of an earthquake faulting changes the earth's inertia tensor, and hence its rotation. Using the complete formulae developed by CHAO and GROSS (1987) based on the normal mode theory, we calculated the earthquake-induced polar motion excitation for the largest 11,015 earthquakes that occurred during 1977.0-1993.6. The seismic excitations in this period are found to be two orders of magnitude below the detection threshold even with today's high precision earth rotation measurements. However, it was calculated that an earthquake of only one tenth the size of the great 1960 Chile event, if happened today, could be comfortably detected in polar motion observations. Furthermore, collectively these seismic excitations have a strong statistical tendency to nudge the pole towards approximately 140deg E, away from the actual observed polar drift direction. This non-random behavior, similarly found in other earthquake-induced changes in earth rotation and low-degree gravitational field by CHAO and GROSS (1987), manifests some geodynamic behavior yet to be explored.

  1. Rupture distribution of the 1977 western Argentina earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, C.J.; Hartzell, S.

    1996-01-01

    Teleseismic P and SH body waves are used in a finite-fault, waveform inversion for the rupture history of the 23 November 1977 western Argentina earthquake. This double event consists of a smaller foreshock (M0 = 5.3 ?? 1026 dyn-cm) followed about 20 s later by a larger main shock (M0 = 1.5 ?? 1027 dyn-cm). Our analysis indicates that these two events occurred on different fault segments: with the foreshock having a strike, dip, and average rake of 345??, 45??E, and 50??, and the main shock 10??, 45??E, and 80??, respectively. The foreshock initiated at a depth of 17 km and propagated updip and to the north. The main shock initiated at the southern end of the foreshock zone at a depth of 25 to 30 km, and propagated updip and unilaterally to the south. The north-south separation of the centroids of the moment release for the foreshock and main shock is about 60 km. The apparent triggering of the main shock by the foreshock is similar to other earthquakes that have involved the failure of multiple fault segments, such as the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake. Such occurrences argue against the use of individual, mapped, surface fault or fault-segment lengths in the determination of the size and frequency of future earthquakes.

  2. Elemental composition of solar energetic particles in 1977 and 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.; Trainor, J. H.; Webber, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the elemental composition of energetic nuclei with atomic numbers between 2 and 28 from seven major solar flares from September 1977 to May 1978 are presented. The abundance observations were made with the Low Energy Telescope systems of the cosmic ray detector systems on board the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft between 1 and 3 AU. Examination of the abundance ratios of the flare nuclei relative to oxygen reveals significant variations from event to event and between energetic nuclei and photospheric abundances, with an average composition, except for C and N, very similar to that of the galactic cosmic ray source. For the four flare events for which the elemental abundances exhibit no significant energy dependence in the energy range observed, it is found that the enhancement of energetic nuclei relative to their photospheric abundance are similar and not monotonic with atomic number, with the metallic nuclei showing an enhancement factor of approximately 5 and the volatiles showing one closer to 1.

  3. Invertebrate predators of zooplankton on Georges Bank, 1977 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Barbara K.; Meise, Carol J.

    Chaetognaths, primarily Sagitta elegans, were the most abundant and widespread invertebrate predator on Georges Bank during 1977-1987 MARMAP surveys. They were present in 79% of samples collected, and their average abundance was nearly an order of magnitude greater than that of any other predator taxon. hydrozoan and scyphozoan medusae, euphausiid shrimp, and gammarid and hyperiid amphipods were also abundant. Diversity and abundance of predators was highest in the central, well-mixed region of the bank. In this region numbers of chaetognaths and cnidaria increased following increased abundances of Calanus finmarchicus. However, on a larger scale the density of C. finmarchicus populations was inversely correlated with number of predators because this herbivore was most abundant in deeper waters surrounding Georges Bank where predators were least numerous. Chaetognaths and cnidaria were more abundant in 1978-1979 than in other years, and there was a statistically significant decline in the abundance of chaetognaths over the 10 year period. Abundance of both these groups was inversely correlated with temperature. Average numbers of chaetognaths in summer were low following a warm winter. Abundance of cnidaria in summer decreased with increasing summer temperatures.

  4. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia, 1968--1977.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. W.; Kannan Kutty, M.; Dharmalingam, S. K.; Ponnudurai, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A record of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia is complete for 10 years from 1968 to 1977. Special efforts in case-finding were made in the State of Selangor where conditions are optimal. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 16.5 and 7.2 per 100,000, among Malay males and females 2.3 and 0.7 and among Indian males, 1.0. There were no significant changes in incidence rates over the 10-year period for sex and ethnic groups, or for Chinese subethnic groups. In Chinese subethnic groups, rates were highest among Cantonese, moderate among Khek and lowest among Hokkien and Teochiu. Standardized incidence ratios using Selangor as the standard population indicate considerable under-reporting in the less urban states of Malaysia, particularly among females. In Selangor, incidence rates were similar for urban and rural residents, but the frequency of cases was higher among Chinese working in industry and living in poor neighbourhoods. PMID:497106

  5. 78 FR 40697 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...) and annual specifications for the 2013 Pacific sardine fishing season off the U.S. West Coast (78 FR...://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/fmd/cps/ ; or by contacting Joshua Lindsay, Southwest Region, NMFS, (562)...

  6. Assessing hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    With the official conclusion of the Atlantic hurricane season on 29 November, Irene was the only hurricane to strike the United States this year and the first one since Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas in 2008, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Irene “broke the ‘hurricane amnesia’ that can develop when so much time lapses between landfalling storms,” indicated Jack Hayes, director of NOAA's National Weather Service. “This season is a reminder that storms can hit any part of our coast and that all regions need to be prepared each and every season.” During the season, there were 19 tropical storms, including 7 that became hurricanes; 3 of those were major hurricanes, of category 3 or above. The activity level was in line with NOAA predictions. The agency stated that Hurricane Irene was an example of improved accuracy in forecasting storm tracks: NOAA National Hurricane Center had accurately predicted the hurricane's landfall in North Carolina and its path northward more than 4 days in advance.

  7. Teaching Science: Eclipse Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for a three-dimensional model as an aid for teaching students why eclipses do not occur every two weeks, as falsely indicated by two-dimensional models such as books, chalkboards, and computer screens. Describes procedure to construct the model. Indicates question related to seasons likely to arise from such a model and…

  8. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  9. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  10. Seasonal Change Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The author describes how the yearlong Investigating Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…

  11. The seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James A.; Ding, Yanni; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal cycle of Arctic Ocean temperature is weak due to the insulating and light-scattering effects of sea ice cover and the moderating influence of the seasonal storage and release of heat through ice melting and freezing. The retreat of sea ice and other changes in recent decades is already warming surface air temperatures in winter. These meteorological changes raise the question of how the seasonal cycle of the ocean may change. Here we present results from coupled climate model simulations showing that the loss of sea ice will dramatically increase the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature in the Arctic Ocean. Depending on the rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gases, the seasonal range in Arctic sea surface temperature may exceed 10°C by year 2300, greatly increasing the stratification of the summer mixed layer.

  12. Computer simulation of inner magnetospheric dynamics for the magnetic storm of July 29, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.A.; Harel, M.; Spiro, R.W.; Voigt, G.; Reiff, P.H.; Chen, C.

    1982-08-01

    We present preliminary results of applying the Rice convection model to the early main phase of the magnetic storm of July 29, 1977. The computer model self-consistently computes electric fields and currents, as well as plasma distributions and velocities, in the inner-magnetosphere/ionosphere system. In the equatorial plane, the region modeled includes geocentric distances less than about the magnetopause standoff distance. Particle loss, parallel electric fields, and neutral winds are neglected. On the basis of solar wind parameters and the AL index as input, the model predicts the injection of plasma-sheet plasma to form a substantial storm time ring current. The total strength of the model-predicted ring current agrees accurately with the observed Dst index. Comparison of the model results with electric fields and Birkeland currents measured by S3-3 shows qualitative agreement but interesting quantitative discrepancies. During this event, region 1 currents, which in standard convection theory would connect to the outer magnetosphere, are observed as low as 60/sup 0/ invariant latitude at dawn and dusk. We examine the possibility that the magnetic field might be so highly inflated that 60/sup 0/ field lines extend to the outer magnetosphere. In the model, distortion of the inner edge of the plasma sheet by the magnetospheric compression associated with the sudden commencement temporarily disturbs the normal Birkeland-current pattern. The normal tendency for the plasma sheet's inner edge to shield low L alues from the convection electric field is also temporarily disrupted. Normal Birkeland currents and shielding reassert themselves after about an hour. Time-integrated Joule heating in the model ionosphere over the first 5.5 hours of the storm main phase is about half the increase in model ring-current energy.

  13. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Food habits of grizzly bears were studied for 11 years in the Yellowstone area of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho by analyzing scats. Ungulate remains constituted a major portion of early-season scats, graminoids of May and June scats, and whitebark pine seeds of late-season scats. Berries composed a minor portion of scats during all months. The diet varied most among years during May, September, and October, and was most diverse during August. Defecation rates peaked in July and were low in April through June. Among-years differences in scat content were substantial; estimates of average scat composition took 4-6 years to stabilize. Major trends in diet were evident and reflected long-term variation. We suggest that long-term studies are necessary to adequately document bears' food habits in variable environments; the Yellowstone grizzly bears' diet varied with seasonal and yearly availability of high-quality foods, lack of berries and large fluctuations in the size of pine seed crops were major factors limiting bear density in the Yellowstone area, and the availability of edible human refuse buffered the limitations imposed by inadequate berry and pine seed crops prior to the 1970s.

  14. Inter-annual Variation in Growing Season Length of a Tropical Seasonal Forest in Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshifuji, N.; Tanaka, N.; Suzuki, M.; Tantasirin, C.

    2007-12-01

    Growing season length is an important factor affecting energy balance and water and carbon cycling at deciduous forests. The impact of its inter-annual variation on annual energy and carbon exchange is likely to be critical especially in tropical region because of high radiant energy throughout the year; however, few studies investigated inter-annual variation in growing season length of tropical deciduous forests. This study revealed year-to-year variations in the canopy duration and transpiration period as measures of growing season length using time series data of radiative transmittance and heat pulse velocities of canopy trees in a teak plantation in northern Thailand from 2001 to 2006. This study also examined whether year-to-year variation in growing season revealed by field measurements could be detected by satellite NDVI data, as a first step to investigate the inter- annual variation in growing season length of deciduous forests over tropical monsoon region. Leaf-out and transpiration commenced earlier in 2001 than other years following exceptionally heavy rainfall in the late dry season, suggesting that enhanced soil moisture advanced leaf unfolding and start of transpiration. Leaf-fall and decline in transpiration at the beginning of 2003 were late in coming in correlation with a prolonged rainy season. Declines in transpiration were directly controlled by soil moisture at the beginning of the dry season. These results revealed that soil moisture is a major cause of large inter-annual variation in the growing season at this site. Seasonal variation in NDVI corresponded to that of LAI, while transpiration declined earlier than LAI and NDVI in the dry season. Year-to-year variation in canopy duration could be also detected by NDVI. The variation in canopy duration and transpiration period of this site from 2001-2006 spanned about 60 days. This was much larger than the inter-annual variations previously reported in temperate deciduous forests, implying a

  15. Towards custom made seasonal/decadal forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlstein, Irina; Spirig, Christoph; Liniger, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Climate indices offer the possibility to deliver information to the end user that can be easily applied to their field of work. For instance, a 3-monthly mean average temperature does not say much about the Heating Degree Days of a season, or how many frost days there are to be expected. Hence, delivering aggregated climate information can be more useful to the consumer than just raw data. In order to ensure that the end-users actually get what they need, the providers need to know what exactly they need to deliver. Hence, the specific user-needs have to be identified. In the framework of EUPORIAS, interviews with the end-user were conducted in order to learn more about the types of information that are needed. But also to investigate what knowledge exists among the users about seasonal/decadal forecasting and in what way uncertainties are taken into account. It is important that we gain better knowledge of how forecasts/predictions are applied by the end-user to their specific situation and business. EUPORIAS, which is embedded in the framework of EU FP7, aims exactly to improve that knowledge and deliver very specific forecasts that are custom made. Here we present examples of seasonal forecasts and their skill of several climate impact indices with direct relevance for specific economic sectors, such as energy. The results are compared to the visualization of conventional depiction of seasonal forecasts, such as 3 monthly average temperature tercile probabilities and the differences are highlighted.

  16. 78 FR 64287 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement Open Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ..., vessel space, intermodal systems and equipment, terminal facilities, and related management services, to... regarding the operations and U.S. citizenship of the applicant company. A copy of the VISA document as... applicant company must provide an affidavit that demonstrates that the company is qualified to document...

  17. Impact of land-surface initialization on sub-seasonal to seasonal forecasts over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodhomme, Chloé; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Bellprat, Omar; Dutra, Emanuel

    2016-08-01

    Land surfaces and soil conditions are key sources of climate predictability at the seasonal time scale. In order to estimate how the initialization of the land surface affects the predictability at seasonal time scale, we run two sets of seasonal hindcasts with the general circulation model EC-Earth2.3. The initialization of those hindcasts is done either with climatological or realistic land initialization in May using the ERA-Land re-analysis. Results show significant improvements in the initialized run occurring up to the last forecast month. The prediction of near-surface summer temperatures and precipitation at the global scale and over Europe are improved, as well as the warm extremes prediction. As an illustration, we show that the 2010 Russian heat wave is only predicted when soil moisture is initialized. No significant improvement is found for the retrospective prediction of the 2003 European heat wave, suggesting this event to be mainly large-scale driven. Thus, we confirm that late-spring soil moisture conditions can be decisive in triggering high-impact events in the following summer in Europe. Accordingly, accurate land-surface initial conditions are essential for seasonal predictions.

  18. Heat Waves

    MedlinePlus

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  19. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  20. Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 35. State and Local Government R&D Expenditures, FY 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented are data on State and local government research and development (R&D) expenditures for fiscal year 1977. State agency R&D and R&D plant expenditures are compared graphically for the years 1964, 1968, 1973, and 1977 in both 1977 and constant 1972 dollars, and the trend of State support to R&D is analyzed. A graph of total State agency R&D…

  1. Seasonal issues can chill powerplant profits

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, R.

    1996-07-01

    Profitable operation requires minimizing the seasonal constraints imposed by weather. This article describes how forward-thinking operators review their plans for winterization and hot-weather operation--before the thermometer darts toward either extreme. new cooling towers (CTs) are no longer oversized, leaving little room for fouling that can shoot up in hot weather. Also, powerplants are no longer being designed with surplus heat exchangers and redundant pumps--features that can help a plant get through extreme temperatures. And at a growing list of plants, the CTs are eliminated altogether, in favor of air-cooled (AC) condensers--which can have their own trouble holding condenser vacuum when the outdoor thermometer skyrockets; and, like their CT cousins, can suffer serious failures if improperly operated in winter`s freeze. Although design margins are being stretched thin, seasoned operations and maintenance (O and M) teams can minimize the constraints imposed by mother nature.

  2. Health issues of migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Donohoe, Martin

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes the socioeconomic conditions under which the 3 to 5 million migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the United States live. Health consequences resulting from occupational hazards and from poverty, substandard living conditions, migrancy, language and cultural barriers, and impaired access to health care are described. Specific problems include infectious diseases, chemical- and pesticide-related illnesses, dermatitis, heat stress, respiratory conditions, musculoskeletal disorders and traumatic injuries, reproductive health problems, dental diseases, cancer, poor child health, inadequate preventive care, and social and mental health problems. By increasing awareness among health care professionals of the plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the authors hope to encourage development of a stronger public health infrastructure and to improve the health status of these individuals. PMID:12739296

  3. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  4. The Reemergent 1977 H1N1 Strain and the Gain-of-Function Debate

    PubMed Central

    Rozo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 1977-1978 influenza epidemic was probably not a natural event, as the genetic sequence of the virus was nearly identical to the sequences of decades-old strains. While there are several hypotheses that could explain its origin, the possibility that the 1977 epidemic resulted from a laboratory accident has recently gained popularity in discussions about the biosafety risks of gain-of-function (GOF) influenza virus research, as an argument for why this research should not be performed. There is now a moratorium in the United States on funding GOF research while the benefits and risks, including the potential for accident, are analyzed. Given the importance of this historical epidemic to ongoing policy debates, we revisit the evidence that the 1977 epidemic was not natural and examine three potential origins: a laboratory accident, a live-vaccine trial escape, or deliberate release as a biological weapon. Based on available evidence, the 1977 strain was indeed too closely matched to decades-old strains to likely be a natural occurrence. While the origin of the outbreak cannot be conclusively determined without additional evidence, there are very plausible alternatives to the laboratory accident hypothesis, diminishing the relevance of the 1977 experience to the modern GOF debate. PMID:26286690

  5. Season and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stallybrass, C. O.

    1928-01-01

    The seasonal variations in disease, as is the case in the spread of infective diseases generally, depend upon three primary factors: (1) the presence of the micro-organisms of adequate virulence and infectivity; (2) the means of transmission to (3) the susceptible tissues of the susceptible individual. All other factors, in this relation largely climatic, can act directly only through these three primary factors and are therefore termed secondary. The paper is largely an attempt to express the effect of the variations in the secondary factors in terms of the alterations they produce in the primary factors. The total effect of the three primary factors in the spread of infection is termed “dispersability” and a ratio or measure of dispersability is described. This ratio emphasizes occurrences in the pre-epidemic period. The relationship of temperature and humidity to the alimentary, respiratory and percutaneous diseases and to the ectodermoses, is investigated. In the autumnal group of infections, attention is drawn to the action of carriers in causing a rise in dispersability in the spring and the frequent occurrence of a double wave of dispersability. The effect of climatic changes is often cumulative, and this is most evident in the autumnal group of infections, the seasonal occurrence of which cannot be directly explained by temperature changes, or even by the action of light on phagocytes. The possibility of vitamin deficiency or excess producing cumulative effects is considered. Secular changes in seasonal periodicities are investigated and these are associated with other changes, such as the intrinsic periodicities, mode of spread, etc., the combined changes being described by the terms aggradation and degradation of disease. Slides covering the majority of the infective diseases of temperate climates and exhibiting the secular changes in Liverpool, and various geographical differences, in some 175 curves displayed. PMID:19986502

  6. The Discovery of the b Quark at Fermilab in 1977: The Experiment Coordinator's Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yoh, J.

    1997-12-01

    I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon ({Upsilon}) particle (the first member of the b-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the {Upsilon} in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288 the {mu}{mu}II phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of {mu}{mu}II and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgement list end this brief historical note.

  7. Low-energy particles in interplanetary magnetic field near the sectorial boundary on September 26, 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeldovich, M. A.; Kuzhevskii, B. M.

    Prognoz-6 data are used to examine effects of the sign reversal in the interplanetary magnetic field of September 26, 1977 on the 70-keV to 40 MeV proton fluxes, and the 10-30 keV and 40-500 keV electron fluxes. The sectorial boundary of interplanetary magnetic field traversed the earth at 2300 UT, and in that period the interplanetary space was filled with the solar cosmic ray particles generated in the flare of September 24, 1977, whose intensity decreased in time. Results indicate that the event of September 26, 1977 was the first observation where effects of the sectorial boundary were traced up to proton energies of 40-50 MeV.

  8. The discovery of the b quark at Fermilab in 1977: The experiment coordinator`s story

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, J.

    1997-12-01

    I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon ({Upsilon}) particle (the first member of the b-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the {Upsilon} in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288 the {mu}{mu}II phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of {mu}{mu}II and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgement list end this brief historical note.

  9. The Temporal Evolution of the Albedo of Seasonal Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, D. K.; Polashenski, C.; Eicken, H.; Grenfell, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    The ice-albedo feedback mechanism plays a key role in the heat budget of the Arctic sea ice cover and has climate implications. Seasonal ice is now the dominant Arctic ice type and has a significant impact on the large-scale albedo. The albedo of shorefast, seasonal ice was measured from April through late June for five field seasons. There was considerable interannual variability in the seasonal evolution of albedo, and consequently the solar heat input to the ice and upper ocean. In one year there was a monotonic decrease in areally averaged albedo after the onset of melt, while in others there were significant fluctuations of up to 0.4 over periods of only a few days. For all of the different evolutionary pathways there were two key drivers of albedo; the timing of the onset of melt and the areal coverage of melt ponds. Melt ponds on undeformed seasonal ice have been observed to reach coverages as large as 80% in only a few days. Just as rapidly coverages have been observed to drop to 7% as the ponds drained. The evolution of melt ponds is the key to understanding the evolution of seasonal ice albedo during the early stages of melt.

  10. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  11. Seasonal influenza: an overview.

    PubMed

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity are estimated to cost US$10.4 billion in direct medical expenses and US$16.4 billion in lost potential earnings. Given the enormous burden of seasonal influenza and the important role that school-age children play in the cycle of disease, school nurses need to be knowledgeable about all aspects of this condition, including its clinical course and how it is transmitted; the range of options for preventing and treating the disease; and steps that can be taken to improve the rates of immunization against influenza. School nurses also can help by making sure that they themselves are vaccinated in a timely manner. PMID:19197008

  12. A thermal model for the seasonal nitrogen cycle on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal N2-cycle model presently used to characterize such observed phenomena on Triton as atmospheric pressure and surface albedo features at the time of the Voyager encounter incorporates diurnal and seasonal subsurface heat conduction, and can account for the heat capacity of N2 frost deposits. The results obtained by this model differ from those of previous studies in that they do not predict the seasonal freezing-out of the Triton atmosphere; even for a wide range of input parameters, the bright southern polar cap is seen as rather unlikely to be N2. The results support the microphysical arguments for the presence of either dark or smooth translucent N2 frosts on the Triton surface.

  13. Springing into Inquiry: Using Student Ideas to Investigate Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid

    2012-01-01

    Although inquiry is more engaging and results in more meaningful learning (Minner, Levy, and Century 2010) than traditional science classroom instruction, actually involving students in the process is difficult. Furthermore, many students have misconceptions about Earth's seasons, which are supported by students' prior knowledge of heat sources.…

  14. Dieldrin and heptachlor residues in dead gray bats, Franklin County, Missouri--1976 versus 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; LaVal, R.K.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Lethal dieldrin concentrations were found in the brains of dead gray bats (Myotis grisescens) collected during 1976 and 1977 beneath a maternity roost in a Missouri cave. In addition, residues of heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor increased significantly in both brains and carcasses of bats collected during 1977. These increases appear to reflect a switch by local farmers from aldrin, dieldrin's parent compound, to heptachlor for the control of cutworms. They also constitute an additional threat to this colony of this endangered bat species.

  15. Astrometric observations of the satellites of the outer planets. I - The Galilean satellites in 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ianna, P. A.; Seitzer, P.; Levinson, F.

    1979-01-01

    Astrometric observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter performed around the opposition of 1977 with a 67-cm photovisual refractor are reported. The measurements are reduced to absolute and intersatellite positions by two different methods: a linear least-squares plate-constant solution to the AGK3 reference-star frame and the trail-scale method of Pascu (1977). Results of a plate-constant reduction are also presented for two observations of JV (Amalthea). Comparison of the data with Liske's (1978) theoretical predictions for the intersatellite positions indicates no systematic bias in the data; a probable scatter of about 15 arcsec in both right ascension and declination is estimated.

  16. AmeriFlux CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.. Site Description - Regenerated jack pine (Pinus banksiana) following fire in 1977; canopy height 6 m and LAI = 2.8. Some black spruce understory developing. Trees tend to be clumpy, with some clear spaces that can be easily walked thorugh, and other areas are thick. Fire killed coarse woody debris on the ground, that is soft and decomposing. Very few perched trunks. Understory are short shrubs such as Vaccinium and Arctostaphylus uva-ursi.

  17. Human acclimation and acclimatization to heat: A compendium of research, 1968-1978. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciaraffa, D.; Fox, S. C.; Stockmann, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts and annotations of the majority of scientific works that elucidate the mechanisms of short-term acclimation to heat in men and women are presented. The compendium includes material from 1968 through 1977. Subject and author indexes are provided and additional references of preliminary research findings or work of a peripheral nature are included in a bibliography.

  18. MODELING OF WATER QUALITY IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND THE EFFECT OF THE ANOMALOUS ICE COVER OF 1976-1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    An intensive survey of water quality parameters was conducted on Lake Michigan during 1976 and 1977. A nutrient-phytoplankton model (MICH1) was developed and calibrated to data from 1976. MICH1 was then applied to data from 1977 in an attempt to simulate an observed phosphorus de...

  19. Report to OECD/CERI Policy Group from Pacific Circle Consortium on Phase 1 Activities: 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Helen; Wells, Marguerite

    Established in 1977, the Pacific Circle Consortium is a group of national-level educational research and development agencies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Pacific region countries engaged in cooperative projects intended to improve international understanding and relations. From 1977 to 1980 the Consortium…

  20. Historical perspective of statewide streamflows during the 2002 and 1977 droughts in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Since 1890, Colorado has experienced a number of widespread drought periods; the most recent statewide drought began during 1999 and includes 2002, a year characterized by precipitation, snowpack accumulation, and streamflows that were much lower than normal. Because the drought of 2002 had a substantial effect on streamflows in Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study in 2004 to analyze statewide streamflows during 2002 and develop a historical perspective of those streamflows. The purpose of this report is to describe an analysis of streamflows recorded throughout Colorado during the drought of 2002, as well as other drought years such as 1977, and to provide some historical perspective of drought-diminished streamflows in Colorado. Because most streamflows in Colorado are derived from melting of mountain snowpacks during April through July, streamflows primarily were analyzed for the snowmelt (high-flow) period, but streamflows also were analyzed for the winter (low-flow) period. The snowmelt period is defined as April 1 through September 30 and the winter period is defined as October 1 through March 31. Historical daily average streamflows were analyzed on the basis of 7, 30, 90, and 180 consecutive-day periods (N-day) for 154 selected stations in Colorado. Methods used for analysis of the N-day snowmelt and winter streamflows include evaluation of trends in the historical streamflow records, computation of the rank of each annual N-day streamflow value for each station, analysis for years other than 2002 and 1977 with drought-diminished streamflows, and frequency analysis (on the basis of nonexceedance probability) of the 180-day streamflows. Ranking analyses for the N-day snowmelt streamflows indicated that streamflows during 2002 were ranked as the lowest or second lowest historical values at 114-123 stations, or about 74-80 percent of the stations; by comparison, the N-day snowmelt

  1. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  2. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  3. Ceramic heat pipe wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin (Inventor); Swanson, Theodore (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is disclosed. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, silicon dioxide/aluminum oxide inorganic ceramic foam having a silica fiber ratio, by weight, of about 78 to 22, respectively, a density of 6 lbs/cu ft, and an average pore size of less than 5 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Inc.'s HTP 6-22. This material is fully compatible with the freons and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids, and others, in capillary loops.

  4. Seasonal Contrasts in the Surface Energy Balance of the Sahel

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Ron; Slingo, A.; Barnard, James C.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.

    2009-03-14

    Over most of the world ocean, heating of the surface by sunlight is balanced predominately by evaporative cooling. Even over land, moisture for evaporation is available from vegetation or the soil reservoir. However, at the ARM Mobile Facility in Niamey, Niger, soil moisture is so depleted that evaporation makes a significant contribution to the surface energy balance only at the height of the rainy season, when precipitation has replenished the soil reservoir. Using observations at the Mobile Facility from late 2005 to early 2007, we describe how the surface balances radiative forcing. How the surface compensates time-averaged solar heating varies with seasonal changes in atmospheric water vapor, which modulates the greenhouse effect and the ability of the surface to radiate thermal energy directly to space. During the dry season, sunlight is balanced mainly by longwave radiation and the turbulent flux of sensible heat. The ability of longwave radiation to cool the surface drops after the onset of the West African summer monsoon, when moist, oceanic air flows onshore, increasing local column moisture and atmospheric opacity at these wavelengths. After the monsoon onset, but prior to significant rainfall, solar heating is compensated mainly by the sensible heat flux. During the rainy season, the magnitude of evaporation is initially controlled by the supply of moisture from precipitation. However, by the height of the rainy season, sufficient precipitation has accumulated at the surface that evaporation is related to the flux demanded by solar radiation, and radiative forcing of the surface is balanced comparably by the latent, sensible, and longwave fluxes. Radiative forcing of the surface also varies on a subseasonal time scale due to fluctuations in water vapor, clouds, and aerosol concentration. Except at the height of the rainy season, subseasonal forcing is balanced mainly by sensible heating and longwave anomalies. The efficacy of the sensible heat flux

  5. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    This annotated bibliography identifies 137 selected educational materials from Egypt published during 1977. The materials are drawn from Egyptian newspapers, journals, government publications, and university research reports. Entries are organized into 80 categories, including Agricultural Education, Child Psychology, Children's Culture,…

  6. Patterns of Injury Mortality among Athabascan Indians in Interior Alaska 1977-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andon, Helen B.

    1997-01-01

    During 1977-87, almost half of all deaths in rural interior Alaska resulted from accidents, suicide, or homicide. These causes of death were significantly higher among Natives compared to non-Natives or to other Alaska Native populations, among males compared to females, and among adolescents and young adults compared to other age groups. Includes…

  7. Texas Student Information System Graduate/Completer 1977 Sub-System. A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVault, Mike; Lee, Marilyn

    A follow-up study was conducted of students who received a degree, diploma, or certificate from Austin Community College (ACC) in May 1977 to determine their level of satisfaction; 63% (N=189) of the surveyed group responded. Results were tabulated for the group as a whole and for the following subgroups: those receiving Associate of Arts,…

  8. Child Abuse: Where Do We Go From Here? Conference Proceedings, February 18 - 20, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arshack, Susan, Ed.

    The document presents the proceedings of the conference on "Child Abuse: Where Do We Go From Here?" held at the Children's Hospital National Medical Center in 1977. Six chapters focus on corporal punishment, etiology of child abuse, sex abuse, treatment modalities, court reform, and parental rights and civil liberties. Among the entries are the…

  9. Enrollment and Attendance: 1967-1977. Research Report 77-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Judee; Weiser, Irv

    Longitudinal data on enrollment, weekly student contact hours (WSCH), and average daily attendance for 1967-1977 provide the following findings: (1) an overall ten year enrollment growth of 53.5% for fall and 57.6% for spring semesters; (2) day enrollment increases of 82.7% for fall and 83.6% for spring as compared with evening enrollment…

  10. Changes in the Composition of the Health Professions Applicant Pool: 1977-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Health Professions.

    The report synthesizes and summarizes trends in the numbers and characteristics of persons who have applied to selected health professions schools (i.e., allopathic medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine) from 1977 to 1987. It is based primarily on data made available by the professional associations of the schools and…

  11. Left-Handed Fastballers: Scouting and Training America's Grass-Roots Leaders, 1966-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, David

    From 1966 through 1977, 700 men and women were selected, primarily because they had demonstrated some capacity for personal initiative, to be fellows in the $11 million Leadership Development Program (LDP) supported by the Ford Foundation to develop new leadership in rural America. To operate LDP a decentralized organization with offices in Maine,…

  12. British University Libraries 1977-1987: Some Observations on the Challenges of Declining Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Elizabeth M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights some of the developments in the following areas that have taken place during the period 1977-87 in British university libraries: (1) library resources; (2) automation; (3) collection building; (4) technical services; (5) reader services; (6) management and staffing; and (7) cooperation. (71 references) (MES)

  13. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. I, Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF SING SING KILL BRIDGE, SHOWING ORIGINAL PLAN FOR AN 80-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  14. Why Accepted Students Decline to Attend the College at Geneseo, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, James L.; Story, Richard W.

    A sample of 450 accepted non-enrolling Fall 1977 freshman were surveyed to determine their reasons for applying to but not attending the State University of New York (SUNY) College of Arts and Science at Geneseo. The sample was evenly distributed across the range of Regents Scholarship Examination (RSE) scores and 208 (46.2 percent) responded. The…

  15. Connect, Unesco-UNEP Environmental Education Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 2, July 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Joseph, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This newsletter on environmental education discusses the Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education held in Tbilisi, USSR in October, 1977. Presented are accounts of the preparations and consultations relative to the conference. A provisional agenda and discussion thereof is presented. Also included in the newsletter are analyses of…

  16. Research and Development in Industry 1977. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    The National Science Foundation sponsored Survey of Industrial Research and Development for 1977 was conducted by the Bureau of the Census in January 1978. Approximately 1,500 R&D-performing companies participated in the survey. Remarks attributed to company officials were based on discussions with representatives from leading R&D-performing…

  17. Citation Networks of Communication Journals, 1977-1985: Cliques and Positions, Citations Made and Citations Received.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the citation pattern among all communication journals covered by the first nine years of the "Journal Citation Reports" volume of the "Social Sciences Citation Index" (1977-1985). Notes that the communication field exhibits clustering and inbreeding, consisting of cliques of interpersonal journals, mass media journals, and residual…

  18. Changing Employment Patterns of Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Manufacturing Industries: 1977-80. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis of science, engineering, and technician (SET) employment within manufacturing industries based on data from the 1977 and 1980 Occupational Employment Statistics survey. The purposes of the report are to: (1) summarize employment data for detailed SET occupations in manufacturing to describe demand patterns; (2)…

  19. Fish Health Section: The first five years (1973 to 1977) and a little before that

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: A history of the establishment of the Fish Health Section, the first section of the American Fisheries Society, and the first five years of its operation (1973 to 1977) is given. Jim Warren, a USFWS biologist stationed at Genoa, Wisconsin, was the driving force behind the formation of th...

  20. Texas State Library: Library Services and Construction Act. Annual Report, FFY 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.

    Texas State Library activities for 1977 which were funded under the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) are reported, including administrative expenses for LSCA; administrative tape conversion--to duplicate books recorded on open reel tapes to cassettes for use by the blind; continuing education and consulting for librarians; special…

  1. Views from a Distance: A Nephological Model of the CCCC Chairs' Addresses, 1977-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Derek N.

    2012-01-01

    Views from a Distance is a series of word clouds rendered from 35 chairs' addresses delivered at CCCC conventions from 1977 to 2011. The digital installation invites explorations of word-level patterns and anomalies within this widely recognized collection of speeches. The installation itself is underpinned with the assumption that distinctive…

  2. The South Carolina Education Finance Act of 1977: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilo, Marvin R.

    The South Carolina Education Finance Act of 1977 aims toward equalization of public school finance in South Carolina. A major goal is the state provision of 70 percent of school funding. The bill contains three other major provisions: the Defined Minimum Program (DMP), the Index of Taxpaying Ability, and the Weighted Pupil/Base Pupil calculation.…

  3. Conventional Weapons Transfers: Report on a Hearing for Iowa Congressmen, February 12, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    This publication expresses the major concerns and opinions of legislators and others on the topic of world trade in conventional arms. The Congressional Hearing where these testifiers expressed their opinions was held in 1977, at Des Moines Community College in Ankeny, Iowa. Testimony was given by high school students, university professors,…

  4. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials Vol. 2, No. 1, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    A total of 176 English language notations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1977, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,…

  5. 260. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by StearnsRoger Incorporated) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    260. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by Stearns-Roger Incorporated) SECTIONS AND DETAILS OF WATER DELUGE SYSTEM FOR FLAME BUCKET, SHEET 501-P10 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services, 76. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide supplement provides users with up-to-date information on Army enlisted and warrant officer military occupational specialties (MOS's), including recommendations for all MOS's evaluated through October 1977. Following an introductory section on how to use the guide, the remaining content is in two sections. The first contains over 600…

  7. ANALYSIS OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS DURING THE 1977 ANCLOTE KEYS PLUME STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological conditions are described and analyzed for nine experimental observation periods of the Anclote Keys Plume Study, which was conducted near Tampa, Florida during February 1977. The primary objective of the Plume Study was to investigate both the short and long range ...

  8. ANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS: OCEAN DUMPING IN THE UNITED STATES – 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the calendar year 1977 and notes that the total amount of material permitted for ocean dumping declined for the first time by 12%. The table of activities for the year includes the Final Revision of Ocean Dumping Regulations and Criteria and the Final EIS on Pr...

  9. Profiles of Career Education State Planning Projects. Fiscal Year 1976 Funding and Fiscal Year 1977 Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas Buffington and Associates, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents profiles of the federally funded career education state planning projects that were conducted in forty-nine states and five territories during fiscal years 1976 and 1977 under the provisions of the Education Amendments of 1974. The fifty-four profiles, arranged alphabetically by state and varying in length (from one to…

  10. An Analysis of Education in the People's Republic of China: Briefings and Discussions, Summer, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliom, M. Eugene

    This document consists of transcripts that were taken from tape recordings made during a tour of China by U.S. social studies education students and their professor in 1977. The transcripts record briefings that the tour group received at educational institutions, briefings that the tour group received at educational institutions, factories and…

  11. Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion for Faculty in the Humanities 1977-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginther, Donna K.; Hayes, Karen J.

    2003-01-01

    From the humanities sample of the Survey of Doctoral Recipients 1977-95, a cross-sectional sample of tenured/tenure-track faculty and a longitudinal sample of doctoral recipients 1975-89 were studied. Gender salary differences were largely explained by rank. Substantial gender differences in tenure were found, with a slight decline in the gap for…

  12. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  13. Source position loci for the gamma-ray bursts recorded October 20 and November 10, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estulin, I. V.; Cline, T. L.; Vedrenne, G.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Mersov, G. A.; Niel, M.; Novak, B. L.; Hurley, K.

    1979-01-01

    Further constraints are imposed on the sites of the gamma-ray bursts recorded Oct. 20 and Nov. 10, 1977 with the Prognoz 6 satellite and the Helios 2 spacecraft. The loci of the burst sources are 1.7-arcmin-wide bands in which no X-ray sources, pulsars, supernova remnants, or galaxies brighter than 13m occur.

  14. Interplanetary magnetic cloud from the solar flare of Nov. 22, 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, K. G.; Stiazhkin, V. A.; Kharshiladze, A. F.

    1989-04-01

    Attention is given to experimental Bx, By, and Bz profiles of the IMF measured by the Prognoz-6, ISEE-2, and IMP-8 satellites during the passage of a magnetic cloud from the intense solar flare of Nov. 22, 1977. These profiles are compared with a theoretical model of a force-free diffusion-pinch magnetic field.

  15. Science and Technology in the White House, 1977 to 1980: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Frank

    1981-01-01

    This is the second half of a two-part article on administration science and technology policy during the period 1977 to 1980. It focuses on activities of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) related to national security and foreign policy, space, energy, and the environment, health and agriculture, and OSTP advisory mechanisms and…

  16. 40 CFR 35.910-7 - Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-7 Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments. (a... (secondary treatment, more stringent treatment required to meet water quality standards, and interceptor... Construction of Publicly Owned Waste Water Treatment Facilities—1974 Needs Survey”; (3) 25 percent on...

  17. 40 CFR 35.910-7 - Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-7 Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments. (a... (secondary treatment, more stringent treatment required to meet water quality standards, and interceptor... Construction of Publicly Owned Waste Water Treatment Facilities—1974 Needs Survey”; (3) 25 percent on...

  18. 40 CFR 35.910-7 - Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments. 35.910-7 Section 35.910-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-7 Fiscal...

  19. 40 CFR 35.910-7 - Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-7 Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments. (a... (secondary treatment, more stringent treatment required to meet water quality standards, and interceptor... Construction of Publicly Owned Waste Water Treatment Facilities—1974 Needs Survey”; (3) 25 percent on...

  20. 40 CFR 35.910-7 - Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-7 Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments. (a... (secondary treatment, more stringent treatment required to meet water quality standards, and interceptor... Construction of Publicly Owned Waste Water Treatment Facilities—1974 Needs Survey”; (3) 25 percent on...

  1. Public Employee Work Stoppages in the United States: 1968-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, William D.

    1980-01-01

    Displays data concerning the number of government work stoppages for each major issue across the several political subdivisions in the United States from 1968 to 1977. Also speaks to the involvement of third party interests in collective negotiations as a way of reducing these work stoppages. (Author/IRT)

  2. America's Changing Attitudes toward Homosexuality, Civil Unions, and Same-Gender Marriage: 1977-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Alison; Chase, Justin; Johansson, Linda; Litvak, Samantha; Montero, Darrel; Wydra, Michael

    2007-01-01

    On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-gender marriage. From California to Missouri, nearly all states now face legislative challenges to the once firmly entrenched notion that marriage can only exist between a man and a woman. Public opinion polls conducted from 1977 to 2004 found that Americans' attitudes toward…

  3. Change in Work-Family Conflict among Employed Parents between 1977 and 1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from two national surveys (N = 2,050), this paper examines what accounts for the increase in the sense of work-family conflict among employed parents between 1977 and 1997. Decomposition analysis indicates that the increases in women's labor force participation, college education, time pressure in completing one's job, and the decline…

  4. Texas State Documents Depository Survey, 1977: Findings and Results. Documents Monograph Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Robert; Propp, Dale

    This monograph presents phase two of a project initiated in January 1977 to examine the treatment of state documents in the 51 official state depository libraries in Texas. Each depository was sent a detailed 73 items questionnaire investigating that library's handling of state documents in the following areas: document acquisition, program…

  5. Biennial Report of the New York State Science Service, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Contained within this report are summaries of activities of the New York State Science Service for the years 1977-1978. Within the introduction, the specific goals for the Science Service are listed. Activities within the following categories are summarized: services and advisory activities, education in honorarium and volunteer programs, grant or…

  6. 263. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by StearnsRoger Incorporated) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    263. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by Stearns-Roger Incorporated) NOAA MODIFICATION, SECTIONS FOR NITROGEN SUPPLY CABINET FOR INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT, SHEET 501-P8 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. New Nation, New History: The History Workshop in South Africa, 1977-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    Describes the background and impact of the History Workshop at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, on the role of history in shaping South African society since 1977. Asserts that a revolution in historical writing has taken place and that it has reached the general public through public conferences. (CFR)

  8. Black Employees in Traditionally White Institutions in the "Adams" States, 1975 to 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Anne S.

    Annual reports submitted to the federal government by eight states for 1975 and 1977 in compliance with criteria established by the Adams case were examined. Employment data from 232 formerly all-white institutions in the 8 states were evaluated, with emphasis on the public institutions in Arkansas, Georgia, Florida, and Maryland. The other states…

  9. 226. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by StearnsRoger Incorporated) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    226. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by Stearns-Roger Incorporated) SEASAT MODIFICATIONS, PNEUMATIC AND PROPELLANT LINES FOR THE UMBILICAL MAST, SHEET 511-P3 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 227. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by StearnsRoger Incorporated) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    227. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by Stearns-Roger Incorporated) LVXM MODIFICATIONS, FACING REWORK FOR THE UMBILICAL MAST, SHEET 501-S29 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. Profiles of Career Education Projects. Third Year's Program: Fiscal Year 1977 Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas Buffington and Associates, Washington, DC.

    This report is one of two documents which provide short summaries of career education projects funded under the provisions of Section 406 of Public Law 93-380 during fiscal year 1977. Each project summary follows a similar format which includes identifying information (title, grantee, project director), major objectives, project activities,…

  12. The First Three Years, 1977-1979, Western Australian Post Secondary Education Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Australia Post Secondary Education Commission, Nedlands.

    A report on the first three years (1977-79) of the Western Australian Post Secondary Education Commission is presented. After a description of the commission's role, information is presented on key educational issues, the Partridge Report, ongoing planning and course development/accreditation, and special inquiries. Recommendations of the…

  13. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; I, Chlorophyll distributions and hydrographic properties, July 1977-December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea E.; Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the distribution of phytoplankton biomass and selected hydrographic properties measured in the San Francisco Bay Estuary, on a near-monthly basis, from July 1977 through December 1979. Parameters measured were: chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, in-vivo fluorescence, turbidity, size distribution of phytoplankton, salinity and temperature. (USGS)

  14. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials. Vol. 3, No. 4, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    Over 130 citations of books, journals, government publications, and newspapers dealing with education in Egypt are included in this annotated bibliography. Materials cited were published in 1977. Sixty-two alphabetically arranged categories cover such topics as agricultural schools, Arabic language, basic education, child care, curricula,…

  15. 21. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by StearnsRoger Incorporated) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by Stearns-Roger Incorporated) TWO-TON CAPACITY BRIDGE CRANE PLANS AND SECTIONS FOR VEHICLE SUPPORT BUILDING, SHEET 511-533 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Educational Measurement & the Law. Proceedings of the 1977 ETS Invitational Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    At the 1977 Educational Testing Service (ETS) Invitational Conference, the ETS Measurement Award was presented to Anne Anastasi. In view of the convergence of measurement and the law, the conference focused on six related issues. Barbara Lerner explored the screening procedures of American professional and graduate schools in "Equal Protection and…

  17. Chiara Lubich's 1977 Templeton Prize Acceptance Speech: Case Study in the Mystical Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cali, Dennis D.

    1993-01-01

    Illuminates Kenneth Burke's characteristics of a mystical rhetoric as they issue from "purpose" as a dominant dramatistic element. Offers a case study in mystical rhetoric by identifying the essential qualities of a mystical narrative and demonstrating how these qualities operate in Chiara Lubich's 1977 Templeton Prize Acceptance Speech. (SR)

  18. Children of Working Mothers, March 1977. Special Labor Force Report 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1979-01-01

    This special labor force report, focusing on children of working mothers, summarizes findings from the 1977 annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers in the population who are 16 years old and over. Data are given on: the numbers of children of various ages with working mothers, the percentages of black and white children…

  19. Trichiniasis among the animals in North Eastern Iran (1), 1969, 1976, 1977.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A N

    1979-01-01

    In 1969, 1976 and 1977, 1,039 rodents and carnivores collected from North East Iran were examined for Trichinella spiralis. Eighty four per cent of golden jackals, 30 per cent of red foxes and nine per dent of dogs were found to be infected. The importance of wild boar Sus scrofa as the source of infection is discussed. PMID:318000

  20. Vocational Education Research and Examplary Projects in Indiana, 1977. Project Abstracts. Information Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenhausen, Nancy E., Ed.

    This report abstracts and summarizes seventy-eight Indiana research and development projects funded in 1977 with moneys allocated by parts C and D of the 1968 Vocational Education Amendments. The projects are grouped into the subject categories of innovative approaches, needs assessment, performance-based vocational education (PBVE), placement and…