Science.gov

Sample records for 1977 78 heating season

  1. Open Doors/1977-78. Report on International Educational Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Alfred C., Ed.; And Others

    Results are provided of surveys taken during the 1977-78 academic year of all two-year and four-year institutions listed in the "Education Directory 1976/77." Information is presented on: number and location of foreign students, 1954/55-1977/78; distribution of students by type of institution; distribution of foreign students in U.S. by major…

  2. 1977-78 Evaluation Findings. Publication Number: 77.59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    Summaries are presented of all research and evaluation work conducted by the Austin Independent School District during the 1977-78 school year. Summaries are divided into the following areas: 1978 at a glance; district priorities; basic skills achievement; systemwide achievement profiles; low socioeconomic status (SES) achievement; professional…

  3. In Retrospect: 1977-78. Special Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Daniel J.; And Others

    The document contains a composite of the summaries written for every Texas special education research and evaluation project in the 1977-78 school year. Sections address the following projects: Evaluation of the Implementation of Individualized Educational Plans, Project Help-Screening, Project KIDS (Kindling Individual Development Systems),…

  4. 1977-78 Graduate Student Survey. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    The 1977-78 annual Graduate Student Survey analyzes information supplied by graduate physics students and also includes graduate astronomy students. Highlights of the findings are: a continuing decline in the number of graduate physics degree recipients; the reassurance of a steadily improving job market for new physicists with graduate degrees; a…

  5. Washington Community Colleges Factbook. Addendum A: Student Enrollments, Academic Year 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terre; Story, Sherie

    In order to reveal trends in community college enrollments in Washington, student demographic and enrollment data for academic year 1977-78 were compiled and compared with figures for previous years. The report provides annualized averages for full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollments for the system for the years 1967 to 1977, and for FTE students by…

  6. Program Enrollment: 1973-1977. Research Report 78-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Judee

    This report presents weekly student contact hours (WSCH) by discipline and instructional program for day and evening students enrolled in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) for fall semesters 1973-1977. In fall 1977, the district offered 224 instructional programs compared to 215 in fall 1973; 18 programs had been deleted and 26…

  7. Joint Ventures: Marshall University, Ashland Oil, Inc., and Huntington Alloys, Inc., 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Lynne S.

    Two retreat seminars were held between Marshall University and Ashland Oil, Inc. of Ashland, Kentucky and Marshall University and Huntington Alloy, Inc., of Huntington, West Virginia during 1977-78 to identify key problems of mutual concern and prepare a set of recommendations for consideration by the management of both institutions. This report…

  8. Massachusetts Statewide Educational Assessment 1977-78. Technical Report. Career and Occupational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorth, William P.; And Others

    The 1977-78 Massachusetts statewide assessment of Career and Occupational Development (COD) involved the testing of 2,238 thirteen-year-olds and 2,201 seventeen-year-olds. The assessment design required developmental activities aimed at the production of (1) customized achievement tests referenced to important COD objectives, (2) student…

  9. Massachusetts Statewide Education Assessment 1977-78. Summary and Interpretations. Career and Occupational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorth, William P.; And Others

    The 1977-78 Massachusetts statewide assessment of Career and Occupational Development (COD) included the development of test instruments, administration of the tests to a sample of thirteen- and seventeen-year-olds throughout the state, analysis and interpretation of the data, and dissemination of the results. The COD test was objective-referenced…

  10. Alabama Student Assistance Program. Third Annual Report. 1977-78. Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    The Alabama Student Assistance Program, a state/federal cooperative aid program to provide financial assistance to residents of the State of Alabama for undergraduate postsecondary education at institutions within the State of Alabama, is described in this annual report for the 1977-78 academic year. A total of 15,710 applications for aid were…

  11. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Betty J.

    Summary statistics on revenues for elementary and secondary education during the 1977-78 school year, broken down by state, are reported in this publication. It also contains data on operating expenditures, capital outlay, and level of debt service for local school districts. Table four includes all current expenditures for elementary education,…

  12. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    Enrollment data are provided for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1977-78. In one section, the schools are classified by discipline, and within each discipline the schools are sorted alphabetically by state; discipline totals are also…

  13. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1977-78. General Report. Office of Research Report Series. Volume One/Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busbee, Cyril B.

    The results and methodology of the South Carolina 1977-78 statewide spring testing program for grades 3, 6, and 11 are presented and discussed. The discussion of the results focuses on a comparison of the 1978 results to national norms, a comparison of 1978 to 1977 results, a performance comparison across grade levels, and a comparison of skill…

  14. Food Consumption: Households in the Northeast, Spring 1977. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. H-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents data for spring 1977 from the household portion of the Nationwide Food Consumption survey in the Northeast conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture during April 1977 through March 1978. Statistics are presented on food consumption by consumers with incomes ranging from under $5,000 through $20,000 and over. Information…

  15. 1977-78 Evaluation of the Title VII Bilingual Program Project Exito at the Ann Street Bilingual School of Hartford, Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Public Schools, CT.

    Evaluation results for Hartford, Connecticut's 1977-78 Title VII Bilingual Education Program at Ann Street School are presented. Student and staff accomplishments, a section on selected curricular activities, a restatement of the 1977-78 results in terms of the Title VII proposal objectives, and conclusions and recommendations for consideration of…

  16. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  17. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  18. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  19. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  20. Net energy analysis of district solar heating with seasonal heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.; Kangas, M. T.

    1983-10-01

    A net energy analysis of district solar heating using seasonal heat storage has been performed. The use of seasonal heat storage is of great importance in northern latitudes when the solar contribution is to be increased. Different system alternatives were considered. Net energy ratios for the most favorable options were found to be between 3 and 5.

  1. Grading Patterns at L.A.C.C. 1955-1977. Research Study #78-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    Using grade distributions for fall semesters for odd-numbered years from 1955 to 1977, this study presents statistics on grading practices at Los Angeles City College. For each year in the day and evening divisions, the number of A, B, C, D, F, W (withdrawn), WF (failing at the time of withdrawal), WU (dropped for non-attendance), INC…

  2. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  3. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.

  4. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation. PMID:19131626

  5. Sediment discharge and channel change in the North Fork Teton River, 1977-78, Fremont and Madison counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Rhea P.

    1979-01-01

    The Teton Dam failure flood of June 5, 1976, severely disrupted the geomorphic character of North Fork Teton River in Idaho. Extensive channel restoration was required to contain expected normal spring flows. Six principal sites were established on the 17-mile reach of the river to study sediment transport and channel change during 1977-78. During April 1 to September 30, 1977, total water discharge at Teton Island bridge was 97,530 acre-feet; 4,360 tons of total sediment were transported. Total water discharge, April 1 to September 30, 1978, was 191,940 acre-feet; 10,680 tons of total sediment were transported. Analyses of data indicated several trends of erosion and deposition. Minimal channel change in the upper 7 miles of the river indicated equilibrium may temporarily exist between hydraulic-flow properties and channel shape. Streambed profiles indicated little change in streambed elevations. Erosional tonnage at mid-study reaches was 4,260 tons. One-half mile downstream, an increase of 4,150 tons of suspended and 1,050 tons of bedload sediment probably was partly derived from upstream bank erosion. An estimated 5,870 tons was deposited within the next subreach downstream. Virtually the entire bedload was redeposited before the last subreach, 4.4 miles downstream measured bedload was 91 tons. Suspended-sediment discharge transported past the last site was 16,470 tons. Lateral erosion and deposition in the lower 10 miles of the river indicate that subreaches now shortened by manmade channel alinements may begin to meander. Future deposition of coarse material at upstream gravel and concrete impoundments may trigger instability in the entire river. (Kosco-USGS)

  6. Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Hagen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd

  7. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a background and overview of... Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing supplemental proposals for early- and late-season... in the Federal Register (78 FR 45376) a third document specifically dealing with the...

  8. Analyses of native water, bottom material, and elutriate samples of southern Louisiana waterways, 1977-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupuy, Alton J.; Couvillion, Nolan P.

    1979-01-01

    From March 1977 to July 1978 the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a series of elutriate studies to determine water quality in selected reaches of major navigable waterways of southern Louisiana. Sample were collected from the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet areas; Mississippi River, South Pass; Baptiste Collette Bayou; Tiger Pass area; Baou Long; Bayou Barataria and Barataria Bay Waterway area (gulf section); Bayou Segnette Waterway, Lake Pontchartrain near Tangipahoa River mouth; Bayou Grand Caillou; Bayou la Carpe at Homa; Houma Navigation Canal and Terrebonne Bay; Bayou Boeuf, Bayou Chene, and Baou Black, Atchafalaya River Channel, Atchafalaya Bay; Old River Lock tailbay; Red River below mouth of Black River; Freshwaer Canal; Mermentau River and Lake Arthur Mermentau River outlet; and Calcasieu Ship Channel. The studies were initiated at the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in those waterways. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Geological Survey collected 189 samples of native water and 172 samples of bottom (bed) material from 163 different sites. A total of 117 elutriates (Mixtures of native water and bottom material) were prepared. The native water and elutriate samples were analyzed for selected metals, pesticides, nutrients organics, and pysical constituents. Particle-size determinations were made on bottom-material samples. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Organochlorine and metal residues in eggs of waterfowl nesting on islands in Lake Michigan off Door County, Wisconsin, 1977-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Heinz, G.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Moore, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    One egg from each of 114 red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) nests in 1977 and 92 nests in 1978 was collected and later analyzed for organochlorines, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated styrenes (PCSs). and metals. One egg was also collected from each of the dabbling duck nests located: Twenty-nine of these eggs were analyzed for organochlorines and metals in 1977; 10 eggs were analyzed in 1978. All merganser eggs contained DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin; all but one egg collected in 1978 contained DDT. DDE and PCB levels had declined since 1975 to a geometric mean of 7.4 ppm DDE and 20 ppm PCBs in 1977 and 7.6 ppm DDE and 19 ppm PCBs in 1978. Dieldrin residues in eggs had not declined from 1975 Ievels; the geometric mean was 0.78 ppm in 1977 and 0.76 ppm in 1978. Other organochlorines were present at low levels. Mercury residues averaged >0,50 ppm in merganser eggs and had not declined since 1975. Other metals were present at low levels. Dabbling ducks generally had much lower organochlorine and Hg residues than mergansers; DDE and PCBs were the only organochlorines present in the majority of eggs. Geometric means of PCBs and DDE in dabbling duck eggs did not exceed 2.0 ppm and 1.0 ppm, respectively. PBBs and PCSs were detected only in a few merganser eggs, at low levels. Eggshell thickness for red-breasted merganser eggs averaged 0.359 mm in 1977 and 0.355 mm in 1978, which is only 2%-3% below pre-1946 thicknesses. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggshell thicknesses averaged 0.331 mm in 1977 and 0.337 mm in 1978.

  10. Seasonality of the urban heat island effect: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a rigorous analysis of the drivers of seasonality in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Many studies report annual cycles in UHI intensity and have attributed those patterns to various hypotheses, including seasonal trends in wind and clouds, prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions, soil moisture, and day length. But to our knowledge, those hypotheses have never been tested, leaving a substantial gap in our basic understanding of the urban climate. We tested these and other hypotheses using two years of continuous temperature measurements from an array of 150 sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin USA, an urban area of 407,000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. This is one of the best replicated urban climate arrays ever deployed, which allowed us to characterize the UHI in rich spatial and temporal detail and rigorously assess the biophysical and synoptic drivers of its seasonal variation. UHI intensities were typically highest in summer and lowest in winter. Seasonal trends in wind speed and cloud cover generally tracked annual trends in UHI intensity, with the clearer, calmer conditions conducive to stronger UHIs more common in summer. This is consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal trends in wind, clouds, and anti-cyclonic conditions drive UHI seasonality. However, clear, calm summer nights still had higher UHI intensities than clear, calm winter nights, indicating that some background factor shifted baseline UHI intensities throughout the year. We found that regional vegetation and snow cover conditions set distinct seasonal baselines for UHI intensity, with nighttime intensities averaging 4°C in summer and 1°C in winter. Synoptic and biophysical factors that vary on shorter time scales (e.g. wind, clouds, soil moisture, relative humidity) modified daily UHI intensity around those baselines by 1-3°C but were not the primary drivers of UHI seasonality, contrary to the most common

  11. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  12. Declines in organochlorines in eggs of red-breasted mergansers from Lake Michigan, 1977-78 versus 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Miller, D.S.; Ebert, B.J.; Stromborg, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    From 1977-1978 to 1990, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most organochlorine pesticides declined in eggs of red-breasted mergansers (M ergus serrator) nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan. Total PCBs decreased 60% (from 21 ppm in 1977-1978 to 8.5 ppm in 1990) and p, p'-DDE decreased 66% (from 6.5 to 2.2 ppm). Dieldrin decreased only 16% (from 0.82 to 0.69 ppm). In 1990, 79.1 % of incubated eggs hatched, which was not significantly different from the 83.5% that hatched in 1977-1978.

  13. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Schedule for 2013 On April 9, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend... discontinuous and appear incomplete. On June 14, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35844) a... FR 45838). Special September teal/wood duck seasons in Florida, Tennessee and Kentucky have...

  14. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-09-21

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future.

  15. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China’s central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960–2011, resulting in a decline of HL (−2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China’s central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  16. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  17. Performance evaluation of the hydronic heat pump system. Volume 1: Heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Stoltz, S.

    1995-01-01

    A hydronic heat pump system has been developed under EPRI sponsorship as a potential substitute for conventional residential forced-air heat pumps. The use of a hydronic thermal distribution system of circulating water to distribute the output of a residential heat pump compares favorably with other methods of distribution. To evaluate the performance of a hydronic heat pump compared to a conventional forced-air system, EPRI retained GEOMET Technologies, Inc., to test a prototype hydronic system in the controlled environment of an unoccupied research house. A prototype multizone hydronic system, developed and assembled by the Tecogen Division of Thermal Power Corporation, was tested in one of GEOMET`s two research houses during the 1992--1993 heating season and in the 1993 cooling season. The prototype hydronic system was tested to examine its efficiency and reliability. It was tested under several scenarios having different combinations of setpoints while the internal doors were either open or closed. The test data were analyzed to compare the hydronic system`s energy consumption, comfort, and efficiency to those of a conventional forced-air heat pump system. The hydronic system ran smoothly, and there were no operational problems in the heating mode, though the hydronic system required more energy than the conventional system under comparable test conditions. However, the hydronic system provided better thermal comfort than the conventional system, especially in the test mode where all the inside doors were closed. Overall energy efficiency of the hydronic system might be improved with minor modifications in the operating/control scheme; to increase low-speed compressor operation, reduce compressor cycling and circulating the water through the system only when heating or cooling is required in any of the zones. This report describes the heating-season tests of the hydronic heat pump system.

  18. Seasonal predictability of the 2010 Russian heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Varlas, G.; Papadopoulou, E.; Mavromatidis, E.

    2014-06-01

    The atmospheric blocking over eastern Europe and western Russia that prevailed during July and August of 2010 led to the development of a devastating Russian heat wave. Therefore the question of whether the event was predictable or not is highly important. The principal aim of this study is to examine the predictability of this high-impact atmospheric event on a seasonal timescale. To this end, a set of dynamical seasonal simulations have been carried out using an atmospheric global circulation model (AGCM). The impact of various model initializations on the predictability of this large-scale event and its sensitivity to the initial conditions has been also investigated. The ensemble seasonal simulations are based on a modified version of the lagged-average forecast method using different lead-time initializations of the model. The results indicated that only a few individual members reproduced the main features of the blocking system 3 months ahead. Most members missed the phase space and the propagation of the system, setting limitations in the predictability of the event.

  19. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  20. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  1. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  2. Spatial and seasonal patterns in abundance and age-composition of Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank: 1977 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meise, C. J.; O'Reilly, J. E.

    The mean seasonal cycle and distribution of various life history stages of C. finmarchicus throughout the Georges Bank (GB)-Gulf of Maine (GOM) region were characterized based on 5966 MARMAP zooplankton samples collected during 106 surveys over a 10-year period (autumn 1977-autumn 1987). A high degree of seasonal and spatial variability in C. finmarchicus abundance throughout the region was evident in contoured portrayals of data, grouped into standard stations and 2-month "seasons". Eight subareas of the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region were identified through cluster analysis of standard stations having similar seasonal patterns in mean abundance of C. finmarchicus stages C3, C4, C5 and adults. These were the northern Gulf of Maine (Northern GOM); southern Gulf of Maine (Southern GOM); Scotian Shelf-coastal Gulf of Maine (Scotian-Coastal GOM); Mass Bay; tidally mixed Georges Bank (Mixed GB); tidal front on the Bank separating mixed from seasonally stratified water (Tidal Front GB); seasonally stratified water on the Bank (Stratified GB) and the Continental Slope adjacent to Georges Bank (SLOPE). A distinct seasonal abundance cycle was present in all subareas, but, the magnitude and timing of annual maxima varied greatly among subareas. Peak abundance was reached early (March-April) in Mixed GB, Tidal Front GB and Mass Bay, and late (July-August) in Northern GOM and Scotian-Coastal GOM. Remaining subareas had maxima in May-June. Abundance increased 10-fold from January-February to March-April and decreased sharply from July-August to September-October in all areas except southern GOM and northern GOM. The amplitude of the annual cycle was weakest in northern GOM and southern GOM, where high concentrations of C. finmarchicus persisted year-round, and strongest in the tidally mixed shallow water on GB, where the sparsest densities of C. finmarchicus occurred most of the year. Abundance curves for the various areas converged in March-April, when C. finmarchicus was

  3. Tuition & Required Fees. New Jersey Colleges & Universities: 1977-78 Through 1983-84. ORM Volume 4: Brief Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delehanty, Kathleen

    1983-01-01

    Recent historical trends (1977-1978 through 1983-1984) in tuition and required fee charges in New Jersey colleges and universities are presented. Differences among New Jersey collegiate sectors and among different types of students (full- and part-time, undergraduate and graduate, resident and nonresident) are analyzed in terms of dollar and…

  4. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  5. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a background and overview of... Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing supplemental proposals for early- and late-season... in the Federal Register (78 FR 45376) a third document specifically dealing with the...

  6. 78 FR 64287 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement Open Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ..., DOT. ACTION: Notice of open season for enrollment in the VISA program. SUMMARY: The Maritime... Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) program will run for 30 days beginning today and ending... that are not currently enrolled in the VISA program to apply. This is the only planned...

  7. Infrared measurements of HF and HCl total column abundances above Kitt Peak, 1977-1990: seasonal cycles, long-term increases, and comparisons with model calculations.

    PubMed

    Rinsland, C P; Levine, J S; Goldman, A; Sze, N D; Ko, M K; Johnson, D W

    1991-08-20

    Series of high-resolution (approximately 0.01 cm-1) solar absorption spectra recorded with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, 31.9 degrees N, 111.6 degrees W) have been analyzed to deduce total column amounts of HF on 93 different days and HCl on 35 different days between May 1977 and June 1990. The results are based on the analysis of the HF and H35Cl (1-0) vibration-rotation band R(1) lines which are located at 4038.9625 and 2925.8970 cm-1, respectively. All of the data were analyzed using a multilayer, nonlinear least squares spectral fitting procedure and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. The results indicate a rapid increase in total HF and a more gradual increase in total HCl with both trends superimposed on short-term variability. In addition, the total columns of both gases undergo a seasonal cycle with an early spring maximum and an early fall minimum, with peak-to-peak amplitudes equal to 25% for HF and 13% for HCl. In the case of HF, the changes over the 13 years of measurement are sufficiently large to determine that a better fit is obtained assuming a linear rather than an exponential increase with time. For HCl, linear and exponential models fit the data equally well. Referenced to calendar year 1981.0 and assuming a sinusoidal seasonal cycle superimposed on a linear total column increase with time, HF and HCl increase rates of (10.9 +/- 1.1)% yr-1 and (5.1 +/- 0.7)% yr-1 and total columns of (3.17 +/- 0.11) x 10(14) and (1.92 +/- 0.06) x 10(15) molecules cm-2 (2 sigma) are derived, respectively; the corresponding best fit mean exponential increase rates are equal to (7.6 +/- 0.6)% yr-1 and (4.2 +/- 0.5)% yr-1 (2 sigma). Over the 13-year observing period, the HF and HCl total columns increased by factors of 3.2 and 1.8, respectively. Based on HF and HCl total columns deduced from measurements on the same day, the HF/HCl total columns ratio increased from 0.14 in May 1977 to 0.23 in June 1990

  8. Seasonal heat and freshwater cycles in the Arctic Ocean in CMIP5 coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Steele, Michael; Hakkinen, Sirpa

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the processes governing the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcings as they appear in historical simulations of 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled climate models. In both models and observations, the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most of these models, sea ice melt dominates. Seasonal horizontal heat flux divergence driven by the seasonal cycle of volume transport is only important locally. In models and observations, the dominant terms in the basin-average seasonal freshwater budget are the storages of freshwater between the ocean and sea ice, and the exchange between the two. The largest external source term is continental discharge in early summer, which is an order of magnitude smaller. The appearance of sea ice (extent and volume) and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and provides two mechanisms for feedback. One consequence of such an interaction is the fact that models with strong/weak seasonal surface heating also have strong/weak seasonal haline and temperature stratification.

  9. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of geothermal heat pump during the cold season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrașcu, G.; Dumencu, A.; Horbaniuc, B.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is analysing the performances (COP, power and, heating heat rate function of time) for a ground-coupled heat pump that is used to heat a space during winter, for a period of 180 days. The analysis purpose is to evaluate the time based changes in values of COP and, energy transfers of a geothermal heat pump, considering a scenario for the variation of the ambient temperature in time and an analytical solution for the time dependence of the soil one. The temperatures and the energy transfer rates were determined on the basis of the irreversible entropy balance equation.

  11. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  12. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  13. Comparison of General Purpose Heat Source testing with the ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) sealed source standard

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1998-03-26

    This analysis provides a comparison of the testing of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and RTG components with the testing requirements of ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) ``Sealed Radioactive Sources, Categorization``. The purpose of this comparison is to demonstrate that the RTGs meet or exceed the requirements of the ANSI standard, and thus can be excluded from the radioactive inventory of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building in Los Alamos per Attachment 1 of DOE STD 1027-92. The approach used in this analysis is as follows: (1) describe the ANSI sealed source classification methodology; (2) develop sealed source performance requirements for the RTG and/or RTG components based on criteria from the accident analysis for CMR; (3) compare the existing RTG or RTG component test data to the CMR requirements; and (4) determine the appropriate ANSI classification for the RTG and/or RTG components based on CMR performance requirements. The CMR requirements for treating RTGs as sealed sources are derived from the radiotoxicity of the isotope ({sup 238}P7) and amount (13 kg) of radioactive material contained in the RTG. The accident analysis for the CMR BIO identifies the bounding accidents as wing-wide fire, explosion and earthquake. These accident scenarios set the requirements for RTGs or RTG components stored within the CMR.

  14. Seasonal Cycles of Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Tong; Marotzke, Jochem

    1998-01-01

    A general circulation model of the Indian Ocean is fitted to monthly averaged climatological temperatures, salinities, and surface fluxes using the adjoint method. Interannual variability is minimized by penalizing the temporal drift from one seasonal cycle to another during a two-year integration. The resultant meridional overturning and heat transport display large seasonal variations, with maximum amplitudes of 18 and 22 (x 10(exp 6) cubic m/s) for the overturning and 1.8 and 1.4 (x 10(exp 15) W) for heat transport near 10 S and 10 N, respectively. A dynamical decomposition of the overturning and heat transport shows that the time-varying Ekman How plus its barotropic compensation can explain a large part of the seasonal variations in overturning and heat transport. The maximum variations at 10 deg N and 10 deg S are associated with monsoon reversal over the northern Indian Ocean and changes of the easterlies over the southern Indian Ocean. An external mode with variable topography has a moderate contribution where the Somali Current and the corresponding gyre reverse direction seasonally. Contribution front vertical shear (thermal wind and ageostrophic shear) is dominant near the southern boundary and large near the Somali Current latitudes. The dominant balance in the zonally integrated heat budget is between heat storage change and heat transport convergence except south of 15 S. Optimization with seasonal forcings improves estimates of sea surface temperatures, but the annual average overturning and heat transport are very similar to previous results with annual mean forcings. The annual average heat transport consists of roughly equal contributions from time-mean and time-varying fields of meridional velocities and temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean. indicating a significant rectification to the heat transport due to the time-varying fields. The time-mean and time-varying contributions are primarily due to the overturning and horizontal gyre

  15. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  16. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  17. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage. Evaluation of systems concepts based on heat storage in aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Chant, V.G.; Breger, D.S.

    1984-10-01

    The work undertaken by the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage team from the USA and Canada is documented. The analytic effort was divided between heat pump systems and systems without heat pumps. The aquifer-based system configurations that have been analyzed are defined, and the approach and methodology employed in this analysis are outlined. Principal results are presented in terms of optimum designs for reference cases, and sensitivity results around the reference cases for selected variables. Characteristics of system designs are given for a wide range of key design parameters. Finally, a detailed list of system parameter values and more detailed results of the analysis are presented. (LEW)

  18. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  19. The role of atmospheric heat transport in the seasonal carbon dioxide cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, James R.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out numerical experiments with a general circulations model (GCM) and energy balance model of the martian atmosphere to define the importance of heat transported to the polar regions in determining the amount of CO2 condensed on the surface during the fall and winter seasons and the amount sublimated during the spring and summer seasons. In so doing, we performed both sensitivity experiments, in which the dust opacity was varied over the full range of its observed values, and annual simulations, in which the dust opacity varied continuously with seasonal data, in accord with measurements taken at the Viking landers. Dust opacity represents the key variable for determining the contribution of atmospheric heat advection to the energy budget in the polar regions. The amount of heat advected to the winter polar regions increases monotonically as the dust opacity at low and middle latitudes increases. However, the increase is sharpest between optical depths of 0 and 1 tends to level off at still higher optical depths. Heat advection is more important at times of CO2 condensation than CO2 sublimation, since the temperature gradients are much steeper in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Because dust opacity is much higher during northern winter than during southern winter, atmospheric heat advection reduces the amount of CO2 that condenses in the north by a much larger factor than it does in the south.

  20. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  1. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  2. Performance evaluation of the hydronic heat pump system: Volume 2, Cooling season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Stoltz, S.; Hagen, E.

    1995-04-01

    A hydronic heat pump system has been developed under EPRI sponsorship as a potential substitute for conventional residential forced-air heat pumps. The use of a hydronic thermal distribution system of circulating water to distribute the output of a residential heat pump compares favorably with other methods of distribution. To evaluate the performance of a hydronic heat pump compared to a conventional forced-air system, EPRI retained GEOMET Technologies, Inc., to test a prototype hydronic system in the controlled environment of an unoccupied research house. A prototype multizone hydronic system, developed and assembled by the Tecogen Division of Thermal Power Corporation, was tested in one of GEOMET`s two research houses during the 1992--1993 heating season and in the 1993 cooling season. This report describes the cooling-season tests of the hydronic heat pump system. The prototype hydronic system was tested to examine its efficiency and reliability. It was tested under several scenarios having different combinations of setpoints while the internal doors were either open or closed. The test data were analyzed to compare the hydronic system`s energy consumption, comfort, and efficiency to those of a conventional forced-air heat pump system. The hydronic system ran smoothly, and there were no operational problems in the cooling mode, though the hydronic system required more energy than the conventional system under comparable test conditions. However, the hydronic system provided a level of thermal comfort equivalent to that of the conventional system. Overall energy efficiency of the hydronic system might be improved with minor modifications in the operating/control scheme to increase low speed compressor operation, reduce compressor cycling and by circulating the water through the system only when heating or cooling is required in any of the zones.

  3. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  4. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

  5. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  6. Seasonal adjustment of solar heat gain independent of coat coloration in a desert mammal.

    PubMed

    Walsberg, G E; Weaver, T; Wolf, B O

    1997-01-01

    Despite the apparent importance of solar radiation as a source of heat for free-living animals, there exists no substantial body of empirical data describing physiological responses to solar radiation under the range of convective conditions likely to occur in nature. We therefore quantified effects of simulated solar radiation and wind on metabolic heat production in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus. This diurnal mammal inhabits the Sonoran Desert and seasonally replaces its pelage in a fashion in which it retains constant external appearance but incorporates optical and structural changes that are thought to significantly alter heat-transfer properties of the coat. At a given wind speed, the presence of 950 W m-2 of simulated solar radiation reduces metabolic heat production by 15% (at a wind speed of 4 m s-1) to 37% (at a wind speed of 0.25 m s-1). Independent of effects of irradiance, metabolic heat production significantly increases with wind speed such that as wind speed is increased from 0.25 m s-1 to 4.0 m s-1, metabolic heat production is elevated by 66% (sunlight absent) or 88% (sunlight present). Previous analyses demonstrated that when exposed to identical radiative and convective environments rock squirrels with summer pelages accrue solar heat loads 33%-71% lower than those experienced by animals with winter coats. This reduction of solar heat gain during the extremely hot Sonoran Desert summer apparently constitutes a previously unappreciated mode of thermal adaptation by seasonal adjustment of radiative heat gain without changes in the animal's appearance.

  7. [The perception of a temperature rise in human seasonal heat adaptation].

    PubMed

    Khudaĭberdiev, M D; Sultanov, F F; Pokormiakha, L M

    1991-01-01

    At ambient temperatures 20 degrees, 28 degrees and 40 degrees C the exponent of the power function of warmth perception was 1.40, 1.08 and 0.84 in winter and 1.66, 1.32 and 1.50 in summer, resp. Seasonal heat adaptation seems to lead to an increase of the warmth perception due to functional modification of temperature analyser activity.

  8. The effect of ocean heat flux on seasonal ice growth in Young Sound (Northeast Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sergei; Dmitrenko, Igor; Babb, David; Rysgaard, Søren; Barber, David

    2015-07-01

    The seasonal ice cover plays an important role in the climate system limiting the exchange of heat and momentum across the air-water interface. Among other factors, sea ice is sensitive to the ocean heat flux. In this study, we use in situ oceanographic, sea ice, and meteorological data collected during winter 2013/2014 in Young Sound (YS) fjord in Northeast Greenland to estimate the ocean heat flux to the landfast ice cover. During the preceding ice-free summer, incident solar radiation caused sea surface temperatures of up to 5-6°C. Subsequently, this heat was transferred down to the intermediate depths, but returned to the surface and retarded ice growth throughout winter. Two different approaches were used to estimate the ocean heat fluxes; (i) a residual method based on a 1-D thermodynamic ice growth model and (ii) a bulk parameterization using friction velocities and available heat content of water beneath the ice. The average heat flux in the inner YS varied from 13 W m-2 in October-December to less than 2 W m-2 in January-May. An average heat flux of 9 W m-2 was calculated for the outer YS. Moreover, we show that the upward heat flux in the outer fjord is strongly modulated by surface outflow, which produced two maxima in heat flux (up to 18-24 W m-2) during 26 December to 27 January and from 11 February to 14 March. By May 2014, the upward ocean heat flux reduced the landfast ice thickness by 18% and 24% in the inner and outer YS, respectively.

  9. An Analysis of the Learning Resources Center Student and Faculty Surveys, Spring, 1977. Office of Institutional Research Report #78-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norman H.; Zabek, Robert J.

    In spring 1977, the faculty and students of Wytheville Community College were surveyed in regard to their attitudes toward and use of the Learning Resource Center (LRC). The student survey revealed that of 330 respondents, 46% used the library one hour or more per week; 63% of 129 respondents suggested a greater emphasis during orientation on…

  10. Fringe Benefits for Superintendents in Public Schools, 1977-78. Part 1 of National Survey of Fringe Benefits in Public Schools. ERS Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    Part 1 of a three-part report on fringe benefits in the schools, this study focused on 1977-1978 fringe benefits provided for school superintendents. Data were collected through a survey instrument mailed to a national sample of 1,877 public school systems. Data on leave provisions, group insurance programs, professional liability insurance,…

  11. Tuition & Required Fees. New Jersey Colleges & Universities, 1977-78 Through 1982-83. ORM Volume 3: Brief Number 2. Data Brief Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Higher Education, Trenton. Office of Research.

    Recent historical trends (1977-1978 through 1982-1983) in tuition and required fee charges in New Jersey college and universities are presented. Differences among New Jersey collegiate sectors and among different types of student types are analyzed in terms of dollar and percentage increases between the current and base years. The effect of the…

  12. Report on the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1977-78 Survey of Graduate Enrollment. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. Leslie

    A survey was conducted to obtain accurate information on graduate school enrollments between 1976 and 1977. Enrollment data were gathered from the membership of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States, which grants 99 percent of the earned doctorates and 85 percent of the Master's degrees. Of the 359 graduate school members, 304…

  13. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. PMID:26787477

  14. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates.

  15. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd.

  16. Seasonal variations in heat and carbon dioxide fluxes observed over a reed wetland in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jia, Qingyu; Liu, Jingmiao

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in sensible heat flux (Hs), latent heat flux (LE), and CO2 flux (Fc) during 2006 over a reed wetland ecosystem in Northeast China, as well as their relationships with environmental factors, were investigated based on micrometeorological observations and turbulence data, measured using the eddy covariance technique. The results showed that the LE values were significantly larger (>400 W m-2) in summer (June, July, and August) than those in other seasons because of the summertime abundant precipitation and strong evapotranspiration, whereas the Hs values were smaller (<100 W m-2) in summer but larger in spring (>300 W m-2) and autumn (>200 W m-2). The cumulative evapotranspiration in 2006 was 577.1 mm that was mostly controlled by radiation at surface throughout the whole year but also limited by water supply during the non-growing season. Most of the Fc values ranged between -1.0 mg m-2 s-1 (sometimes close to -2.0 mg m-2 s-1) during daytime and 0.3 mg m-2 s-1 at night during the growing season (May to September) but varied around zero in the non-growing season, and the CO2 mass concentration was in the range of 600-800 mg m-3. Monthly cumulative CO2 flux for the growing season was negatively largest in July (-520 mg m-2 month-1) and smallest in May (-65 mg m-2 month-1), making this reed wetland a net CO2 sink in 2006. The daytime CO2 flux in the growing season was positively correlated with atmospheric stability |z/L| under unstable condition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed, but depended less on air temperature, relative humidity and soil water content on a several-day time scale. However, over a longer time scale, a comparison of March-April conditions during 2005 and 2006 suggested that cooler conditions can result in reduced CO2 production before the growing season.

  17. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  18. Seasonal patterns of heat loss in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Erin M; McLellan, William A; Westgate, Andrew J; Wells, Randall S; Blum, James E; Pabst, D Ann

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated patterns of heat loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, where water temperatures vary seasonally from 11 to 33 degrees C. Simultaneous measurements of heat flux (HF) and skin surface temperature were collected at the body wall and appendages of dolphins during health-monitoring events in summer (June 2002-2004) and winter (February 2003-2005). Integument thickness was measured and whole body conductance (W/m(2) degrees C) was estimated using HF and colonic temperature measurements. Across seasons, HF values were similar at the appendages, but their distribution differed significantly at the flipper and fluke. In summer, these appendages displayed uniformly high values, while in winter they most frequently displayed very low HF values with a few high HF values. In winter, blubber thickness was significantly greater and estimated conductance significantly lower, than in summer. These results suggest that dolphins attempt to conserve heat in winter. In winter, though, HF values across the body wall were similar to (flank) or greater than (caudal keel) summer values. It is likely that higher winter HF values are due to the steep temperature gradient between the body core and colder winter water, which may limit the dolphin's ability to decrease heat loss across the body wall. PMID:18183404

  19. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  20. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk.

  1. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

  2. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  3. Post-burning regeneration of the Chaco seasonally dry forest: germination response of dominant species to experimental heat shock.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Díaz, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Plant species of the Chaco seasonally dry forest of central Argentina have presumably been under a low evolutionary pressure to develop specialized fire-response traits, such as heat-stimulated germination. Nevertheless, other historical factors such as seasonal drought and/or endozoochorus dispersal could have led some species to develop heat-tolerant seeds. Therefore, heat-tolerant germination should be more common than heat-stimulated or heat-sensitive germination. To test this, we exposed seeds of 26 dominant species from the Chaco region to a broad range of experimental heat treatments and incubated them for 30 days at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiod. We then scored the percent germination and classified them as heat-stimulated, heat-tolerant or heat-sensitive based on their germination following heat treatments relative to control. Seventeen species showed heat-tolerant germination, including all native graminoids. Seven species showed heat-stimulated germination, under the less-intense heat treatments. Only two species showed heat-sensitive germination. Endozoochory had no influence on germination responses. We suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, fire was not a major evolutionary force in the development of Chaco forests, and our results provide greater understanding of the potential response of Chaco plant communities in the face of increasingly frequent fires.

  4. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  5. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Schedule for 2013 On April 9, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend... incomplete. On June 14, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing... (78 FR 45376) a third document specifically dealing with the proposed frameworks for...

  6. Impact of climatic factors on energy consumption during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, A. S.; Reshetar, O. A.; Belova, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    Global and regional climate changes produce a significant effect on energy production and consumption, especially on heating and air conditioning in residential, industrial, commercial, and office rooms. In Russia, with its contracting climate conditions, energy consumption varies a lot in different regions. Thus, we have to review the dynamics of energy consumption during the cold season individually for each region of the country. We analyzed the dynamics of duration and temperature of the heating season in Moscow region and completed a comparative study of heat energy consumption, actual and calculated based on the 'degreedays' concept, in the municipal economy of Moscow during the last decade. Based on the actual data analysis, we proved that conservation of energy resources in a large city relies not so much on a shortening of the heating period as on the growth of atmospheric air temperature in winter. The projected climate warming in the Moscow region in the nearest decades, along with measures of energy conservation, will promote a significant reduction in energy consumption of the municipal economy in winter. The results shown in this article were obtained in the process of preparing and implementing project no. 16-17-00114 by the Russian Science Foundation "Analysis of an impact of the regional climate change on the residential and commercial energy consumption of Russian megacities," within the main area of focus of the Russian Science Foundation, which is "Fundamental Research and Exploration in Main Topical Areas of Focus." The project was implemented within the framework of the scientific area of focus, which is "Reduction of the Risk and Mitigation of Consequences of Natural and Man-made Disasters" ("Studying Economical, Political, and Social Consequences of Global Climate Changes" problem).

  7. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  8. Seasonal evolution of the West African heat low: a climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaysse, C.; Flamant, C.; Janicot, S.; Parker, D. J.; Lafore, J.-P.; Sultan, B.; Pelon, J.

    2009-08-01

    The West African heat low (WAHL), a region of high surface temperatures and low surface pressures, is a key element of the West African monsoon system. In this study, we propose a method to detect the WAHL in order to monitor its climatological seasonal displacement over West Africa during the period 1979-2001, using the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) ERA-40 reanalyses. The low-level atmospheric thickness (LLAT), a variable defined as the difference of geopotential heights at 700 and 925 hPa, is used to detect the dilatation of these levels generated by an increase of the temperature. We define grid points with 10% highest values of the LLAT as the WAHL. We show that our method reliably positions the WAHL over areas of high surface temperatures and low surface pressures, and that it is effective at detecting heat lows. In the course of the year, the climatological WAHL is shown to migrate north-westward from a position south of the Darfur mountains in the winter (November-March) to a location over the Sahara, between the Hoggar and the Atlas mountains, during the summer (June-September). The temperature tendency equation is used to investigate the processes controlling the displacement of the WAHL, and more particularly the heating at low levels. The specific period of the onset of the WAHL in its summer location over the Sahara (referred to as the Saharan heat low -SHL- onset) is also analysed during the 1984-2001 period, using complementary brightness temperature data from the European Union-funded Cloud Archive User Service (CLAUS). The climatological onset of the SHL occurs around 20 June, i.e. just before the climatological monsoon onset date. The present study suggests that the onset of the WAHL occurs approximately 5 days before the monsoon onset for the 1984-2001 period. This is confirmed independently by comparing the SHL onset date and the monsoon onset date for the 1984-2001 period. The seasonal evolution of the WAHL for the

  9. Eddy heat and salt transports in the South China Sea and their seasonal modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Gan, Jianping; Xie, Qiang; Chu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dongxiao; Hou, Yijun

    2012-05-01

    This study describes characteristics of eddy (turbulent) heat and salt transports, in the basin-scale circulation as well as in the embedded mesoscale eddy found in the South China Sea (SCS). We first showed the features of turbulent heat and salt transports in mesoscale eddies using sea level anomaly (SLA) data, in situ hydrographic data, and 375 Argo profiles. We found that the transports were horizontally variable due to asymmetric distributions of temperature and salinity anomalies and that they were vertically correlated with the thermocline and halocline depths in the eddies. An existing barrier layer caused the halocline and eddy salt transport to be relatively shallow. We then analyzed the transports in the basin-scale circulation using an eddy diffusivity method and the sea surface height data, the Argo profiles, and the climatological hydrographic data. We found that relatively large poleward eddy heat transports occurred to the east of Vietnam (EOV) in summer and to the west of the Luzon Islands (WOL) in winter, while a large equatorward heat transport was located to the west of the Luzon Strait (WLS) in winter. The eddy salt transports were mostly similar to the heat transports but in the equatorward direction due to the fact that the mean salinity in the upper layer in the SCS tended to decrease toward the equator. Using a 21/2-layer reduced-gravity model, we conducted a baroclinic instability study and showed that the baroclinic instability was critical to the seasonal variation of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and thus the eddy transports. EOV, WLS, and WOL were regions with strong baroclinic instability, and, thus, with intensified eddy transports in the SCS. The combined effects of vertical velocity shear, latitude, and stratification determined the intensity of the baroclinic instability, which intensified the eddy transports EOV during summer and WLS and WOL during winter.

  10. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  11. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...; traditional survey area plus Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin) was 5.5 million (68 FR 37362; June 23, 2003... the Federal Register (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing supplemental proposals for...

  12. Ocean Net Heat Flux Influences Seasonal to Interannual Patterns of Plankton Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tim J.; Allen, Icarus; Atkinson, Angus; Bruun, John T.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Pingree, Robin D.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the net heat flux (NHF) into the ocean have profound impacts on global climate. We analyse a long-term plankton time-series and show that the NHF is a critical indicator of ecosystem dynamics. We show that phytoplankton abundance and diversity patterns are tightly bounded by the switches between negative and positive NHF over an annual cycle. Zooplankton increase before the transition to positive NHF in the spring but are constrained by the negative NHF switch in autumn. By contrast bacterial diversity is decoupled from either NHF switch, but is inversely correlated (r = −0.920) with the magnitude of the NHF. We show that the NHF is a robust mechanistic tool for predicting climate change indicators such as spring phytoplankton bloom timing and length of the growing season. PMID:24918906

  13. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability.

  15. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Kasurak, A.; Kelly, R. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Derksen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  16. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  17. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-06

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  18. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  19. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  20. Urban heat island by means of city clusters: a statistical assessment of size influence and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, influence factors of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect have been intensively investigated and further broadened through a variety of studies around the world. Briefly, compared to non-built surroundings, built-up areas of cities differ considerably in albedo, thermal capacity, roughness, etc. which can significantly modify the surface energy budget and make downtown areas of cities hotter than their vicinities. Most previous studies were built upon a limited number of cities, and suffered from inconsistency and instability with regard to the urban-rural definition, which hinders the inter-comparison between results. To overcome this limitation in the number of considered cities, we perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) intensity by means of land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. After defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover based on CORINE data, we determine a boundary around the urban cluster of approximately equal area to the cluster area. SUHI intensity is thus defined as the difference between the mean temperature in the cluster and that of the surroundings. We investigate the relationships of the SUHI intensity, respectively with the cluster size and with the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the SUHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a pronounced seasonality of the SUHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. Characterizing the shape by means of Fourier series approximation and consequential work of clustering, we identify apparent regional patterns which suggest a climatological basis for the heterogeneity of UHI.

  1. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability. PMID:27351357

  2. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  3. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  4. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... and Caribbean Sea. DATES: This rule is effective on January 1, 2014. The 2014 Atlantic commercial...) management groups in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea... practicable, for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. On August 23, 2013 (78 FR 52487),...

  5. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  6. Reactive force field development for magnesium chloride hydrates and its application for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; van Duin, Adri C T; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-06-21

    MgCl2 hydrates are considered as high-potential candidates for seasonal heat storage materials. These materials have high storage capacity and fast dehydration kinetics. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis may occur. Hydrolysis is an irreversible reaction, which produces HCl gas thus affecting the durability of heat storage systems. In this study, we present the parameterization of a reactive force field (ReaxFF) for MgCl2 hydrates to study the dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O. The ReaxFF parameters have been derived by training against quantum mechanics data obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations consisting of bond dissociation curves, angle bending curves, reaction enthalpies, and equation of state. A single-parameter search algorithm in combination with a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm is successfully used for this ReaxFF parameterization. The newly developed force field is validated by examining the elastic properties of MgCl2 hydrates and the proton transfer reaction barrier, which is important for the hydrolysis reaction. The bulk moduli of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O obtained from ReaxFF are in close agreement with the bulk moduli obtained from DFT. A barrier of 20.24 kcal mol(-1) for the proton transfer in MgCl2·2H2O is obtained, which is in good agreement with the barrier (19.55 kcal mol(-1)) obtained from DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations using the newly developed ReaxFF on 2D-periodic slabs of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O show that the dehydration rate increases more rapidly with temperature in MgCl2·H2O than in MgCl2·2H2O, in the temperature range 300-500 K. The onset temperature of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter in seasonal heat storage systems, is observed at 340 K for MgCl2·H2O, which is in agreement with experiments. The HCl formation is not observed for MgCl2·2H2O. The diffusion coefficient of H2O through MgCl2·H2O is lower than through MgCl2·2H2O, and can

  7. Reactive force field development for magnesium chloride hydrates and its application for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; van Duin, Adri C T; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-06-21

    MgCl2 hydrates are considered as high-potential candidates for seasonal heat storage materials. These materials have high storage capacity and fast dehydration kinetics. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis may occur. Hydrolysis is an irreversible reaction, which produces HCl gas thus affecting the durability of heat storage systems. In this study, we present the parameterization of a reactive force field (ReaxFF) for MgCl2 hydrates to study the dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O. The ReaxFF parameters have been derived by training against quantum mechanics data obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations consisting of bond dissociation curves, angle bending curves, reaction enthalpies, and equation of state. A single-parameter search algorithm in combination with a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm is successfully used for this ReaxFF parameterization. The newly developed force field is validated by examining the elastic properties of MgCl2 hydrates and the proton transfer reaction barrier, which is important for the hydrolysis reaction. The bulk moduli of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O obtained from ReaxFF are in close agreement with the bulk moduli obtained from DFT. A barrier of 20.24 kcal mol(-1) for the proton transfer in MgCl2·2H2O is obtained, which is in good agreement with the barrier (19.55 kcal mol(-1)) obtained from DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations using the newly developed ReaxFF on 2D-periodic slabs of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O show that the dehydration rate increases more rapidly with temperature in MgCl2·H2O than in MgCl2·2H2O, in the temperature range 300-500 K. The onset temperature of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter in seasonal heat storage systems, is observed at 340 K for MgCl2·H2O, which is in agreement with experiments. The HCl formation is not observed for MgCl2·2H2O. The diffusion coefficient of H2O through MgCl2·H2O is lower than through MgCl2·2H2O, and can

  8. School Law Update--1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 26 addresses made at the 23rd annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. It discusses issues surrounding school law in elementary, secondary, and higher education in 1977 and before. Some of the topics covered include collective bargaining, employee layoff, sex discrimination and…

  9. Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

  10. 1977 WCOTP Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    Report is made of activities of the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP) for the year 1977. Included in the documentation are: (1) a report of WCOTP activities presented on behalf of the Executive Committee; (2) resolutions of the 26th Assembly of Delegates relating to the theme "Compulsory Education: Social…

  11. Seasonal variation in food insecurity is associated with heating and cooling costs among low-income elderly Americans.

    PubMed

    Nord, Mark; Kantor, Linda S

    2006-11-01

    In this study we examine the association between household food insecurity and seasonally high heating and cooling costs. Logistic regression models, controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, were estimated using data on household food security and economic and demographic data from the 1995-2001 Current Population Survey Food Security Supplements and state-level data on heating and cooling degree days from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Low-income households, especially those consisting entirely of elderly persons, experienced substantial seasonal differences in the incidence of very low food security (the more severe range of food insecurity) in areas with high winter heating costs and high summer cooling costs. In high-cooling states, the odds of very low food security for poor, elderly only households were 27% higher in the summer than in the winter. In high-heating states, the pattern was reversed for such households; the odds of very low food security were 43% lower in the summer. In light of recent sharp increases in home heating and cooling costs in many parts of the U.S., it is important to understand the extent to which households make tradeoffs between heating and cooling costs and other basic needs that affect their food security.

  12. Official Policy Positions of the National Congress of American Indians for Convention Year 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Congress of American Indians, Washington, DC.

    During its convention year of 1977-78, the National Congress of American Indians held an annual convention in Dallas in September, 1977, an executive council meeting in Washington in January, 1978, a special conference on federal recognition and the impact of the Oliphant decision in Nashville, Tennessee in March, 1978, and a mid-year conference…

  13. 78 FR 29025 - Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San...

  14. 78 FR 70303 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the Predict the Influenza Season Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... and development of mathematical and statistical models that use digital surveillance data (e.g... mathematical and statistical models that utilize digital surveillance data (e.g. Twitter data, mining internet... peak, and the intensity of the influenza season would be very useful in planning vaccination...

  15. 78 FR 38584 - Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 Season, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 Season, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  16. Fiscal year 1977 scientific and technical reports, articles, papers, and presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, O. L. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists 78 NASA technical memoranda, notes, papers, and reports presented by Marshall Space Flight Center personnel in FY 1977. In addition, 525 papers by contractors to that facility are cited along with 129 papers cleared for presentation.

  17. Measures of Public Service: The Past Decade (1977-1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    Professional and vocational licensing and registration information is presented for the New York State fiscal years 1977-78 through 1986-87. For each fiscal year, the total number of new licenses, certificates or registrations, and total number of licensees registered to practice in the state, and the current registration period are provided for…

  18. Seasonal effects of heat shock on bacterial populations, including artificial Vibrio parahaemolyticus exposure, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Aagesen, Alisha M; Häse, Claudia C

    2014-04-01

    During the warmer summer months, oysters are conditioned to spawn, resulting in massive physiological efforts for gamete production. Moreover, the higher temperatures during the summer typically result in increased bacteria populations in oysters. We hypothesized that these animals are under multiple stresses that lead to possible immune system impairments during the summer months that can possibly lead to death. Here we show that in the summer and the fall animals exposed to a short heat stress respond similarly, resulting in a general trend of more bacteria being found in heat shocked animals than their non-heat shocked counterparts. We also show that naturally occurring bacterial populations are effected by a heat shock. In addition, oysters artificially contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were also affected by a heat shock. Heat shocked animals contained higher concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus in their tissues and hemolymph than control animals and this was consistent for animals examined during summer and fall. Finally, oyster hemocyte interactions with V. parahaemolyticus differed based on the time of the year. Overall, these findings demonstrate that seasonal changes and/or a short heat shock is sufficient to impact bacterial retention, particularly V. parahaemolyticus, in oysters and this line of research might lead to important considerations for animal harvesting procedures.

  19. Development and Implementation of Training Curriculum/Program in Solar Heating and Cooling at the Technician Level, December 1, 1976 - November 30, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Carl J., Jr.

    The program proposal is designed to address the increasing demand for trained personnel to support the installation and maintenance of solar energy systems at residential and commercial sites. The three main objectives of the proposed program are: (1) to develop a flexible curricula to train a solar heating and cooling workforce; (2) to identify…

  20. Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

  1. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, António C.; Borges, José; Cabral, J. Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V.

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  2. Salt-hydrate thermal-energy-storage system for space heating and air conditioning. Final report, December 1, 1977-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D.; Armstrong, J.M.; MacCracken, M.M.; Silvetti, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Latent heat storage equipment is being developed using 3 different salts. They are sodium sulfate pentahydrate which melts at 46/sup 0/C, magnesium chloride hexahydrate which melts at 115/sup 0/C, and a eutectic combination of seven different materials which melts at 7/sup 0/C. Development work is reported on stirring pumps, tank and tubing materials, and field filling of the salts into their tanks. Performance testing is also reported. Good performance is reported for the tank/heat exchangers with all three salts. Both the 115/sup 0/C and 46/sup 0/C salts are almost equivalent in volume storage to water/ice. The 7/sup 0/C salt, however, begins at about 56% of the BTU's per cubic foot of water/ice and declines due to separation to 40% after repeated cycling. (LEW)

  3. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  4. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  5. The anomalous Mesopause region temperatures of the 2003-2004 winter season measured from Svalbard (78N 16E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrland, M. E.; Sigernes, F.; Mulligan, F.; Deehr, C. S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on the temperature and dynamics of the hydroxyl layer at approx. 87km measured over Longyearbyen (78N 16E) during the 2003-2004 winter. Optical spectra obtained by a Ebert-Fastie spectrometer were used for the temperature derivation. The high number of spectra available enabled spectral analysis of both the hourly and daily averaged temperatures. We were able to identify both the presence of a 16 day wave and a quasi 27 day oscillation in the mesopause region (approx. 87 km) temperatures from this season. The average daily temperature was 228K with a standard deviation of 17K. This is exceptionally high compared to previous and later years reported in the 23 year old time series from Svalbard. The observed temperatures have been compared to temperature data from other height regions above the Arctic (troposphere and stratosphere) and to satellite data from the satellite instrument SABER. In early January 2004 a major stratospheric warming event led to a nearly 2 month long vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere and correspondingly high temperatures. The upper stratospheric temperatures of the same period were unusually low, while mesopause temperatures were high. The regions of alternating low and high temperatures throughout the atmosphere and the dynamics of these, are clearly coupled through gravity wave activity and general atmospheric circulation. We try to put our data into context with other authors' reports on the anomalous state of the atmosphere during the 2003-2004 boreal winter.

  6. Time and space variability of freshwater content, heat content and seasonal ice melt in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Meri; Rudels, Bert; Zhou, Jinping

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean water column is strongly stratified in salinity due to large freshwater input from river runoff, net precipitation and the inflow of low salinity Pacific water through Bering Strait: The strong stability allows sea ice to form in winter and to be exported. In summer seasonal ice melt adds freshwater to the stability in the upper part of the water column. The distribution of heat, relative to -1.9C, and freshwater, relative to 34.9, in the upper 1000m of the water column and in different areas of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the amount and distribution of seasonal ice melt have been determined from hydrographic data obtained from ice breaker cruises conducted in the Arctic Ocean during the last 15 years. The water column is subdivided into six layers: the Polar Mixed Layer, the upper halocline (S<34), the lower halocline (S>34, T<0C), two Atlantic layers (T>0C) separated at the temperature maximum, and the intermediate layer (T<0C) down to 1000m. The time variability of thickness, freshwater content and heat content in these layers is then determined for the Nansen Basin, the Gakkel Ridge, the Amundsen Basin, the Lomonosov Ridge, the Makarov Basin, the northern Canada Basin and the southern Canada Basin. The temporal variations in freshwater content are largest in the uppermost layers, the Polar Mixed Layer and the upper halocline and magnify towards Bering Strait. The seasonal ice melt is estimated from the freshwater stored in the Polar Surface Layer above the temperature minimum indicating the depth of the local winter convection and homogenisation. The melt water content is computed relative to the salinity at the temperature minimum. The required latent heat of melting and the sensible heat stored above the temperature minimum are compared with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis heat input data. The estimated freshwater input is 1-2m, in Nansen Basin usually below 1m and over the Lomonosov Ridge and in the Makarov Basin sometimes above 2m. This is close

  7. Climate-vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  8. Climate–vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  9. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  10. All Season-DX Cooling and Gas Heating. GCS3 Series - Horizontal and Down-Flo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    The Lennox single package all-season rooftop unit and mounting frame is described in detail. This piece of equipment is designed primarily for rooftop installation with bottom handling of conditioned air. In addition, an installation with end handling of conditioned air makes possible three air distribution patterns. Areas discussed are--(1) unit…

  11. Field evaluation of green and red leaf lettuce cultivars in the Imperial, San Joaquin, and Salinas Valleys of California for heat tolerance and extension of the growing seasons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming poses serious threats and challenges to the production of leafy vegetables. Being a cool-season crop, lettuce is vulnerable to heat-stress. To adapt to climate change, this study was conducted to evaluate the performance of leaf lettuce genotypes for heat tolerance by growing them in ...

  12. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21200) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a... Federal Register (78 FR 35844) a second document providing supplemental proposals for early- and late..., 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 45376) a third document specifically dealing with...

  13. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  14. Cartographic research 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    Two major subjects of the current research of the Topographic Division as reported here are related to policy decisions affecting the National Mapping Program of the Geological Survey. The adoption of a metric mapping policy has resulted in new cartographic products with associated changes in map design that require new looks in graphics and new equipment. The increasing use of digitized cartographic information has led to developments in data acquisition, processing, and storage and consequent changes in equipment and techniques. This report summarizes the activities in cartographic research and development for the 12-month period ending June 1977 and covers work done at the several facilities of the Topographic Division: the Western Mapping Center at Menlo Park, Calif., the Rocky Mountain Mapping Center at Denver, Colo., the Mid-Continent Mapping Center at Rolla, Mo., and the Eastern Mapping Center, the Special Mapping Center, the Office of Plans and Program Development, and the Office of Research and Technical Standards all at Reston, Va.

  15. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  16. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E).

  17. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E). PMID:25518559

  18. Seasonal heat stress: Clinical implications and hormone treatments for the fertility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Rensis, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2015-09-15

    Heat stress has consequences on both the physiology and reproductive performance of cows, but the most dramatic effect for dairy producers is the decrease produced in fertility. The effects of heat stress on fertility include an increased number of days open, reduced conception rate, and larger number of cows suffering different types of anestrus. Once becomes pregnant, heat stress affects also the reproductive success of the cow through its direct effects on the ovary, uterus, gametes, embryo, and early fetus. This article reviews current knowledge of the effects of heat stress on fertility in dairy cows and the hormonal strategies used to mitigate these effects at the farm level. Administration of GnRH at the moment of artificial insemination can improve the conception rate. Breeding synchronization protocols for fixed-time insemination may reduce the calving conception interval and the number of services per conception. Progesterone-based protocols seem resolve better the reproductive disorders related to a hot environment (anestrus) than GnRH-based protocols. The use of combinations of GnRH, eCG, and hCG in progesterone-based protocols can improve results. Progesterone supplementation during the late embryonic and/or early fetal period would be useful in curtailing pregnancy losses, mainly in single pregnancies, whereas a more positive effect of treatment with GnRH than progesterone has been found in twin pregnancies. Melatonin therapy is emerging as a promising strategy to improve the natural reproductive performance of cows suffering conditions of heat stress. PMID:26025242

  19. Chemical composition of aerosol particles and light extinction apportionment before and during the heating season in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Du, Wei; Sun, Chengzhu; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts into characterization of the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution in the megacity of Beijing, the response of aerosol composition and optical properties to coal combustion emissions in the heating season remain poorly understood. Here we conducted a 3 month real-time measurement of submicron aerosol (PM1) composition by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor and particle light extinction by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction monitor in Beijing, China, from 1 October to 31 December 2012. The average (±σ) PM1 concentration was 82.4 (±73.1) µg/m3 during the heating period (HP, 15 November to 31 December), which was nearly 50% higher than that before HP (1 October to 14 November). While nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed relatively small changes, organics, sulfate, and chloride were observed to have significant increases during HP, indicating the dominant impacts of coal combustion sources on these three species. The relative humidity-dependent composition further illustrated an important role of aqueous-phase processing for the sulfate enhancement during HP. We also observed great increases of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA) during HP, which was attributed to higher emissions at lower temperatures and coal combustion emissions, respectively. The relationship between light extinction and chemical composition was investigated using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed that the largest contributors to particle extinction were ammonium nitrate (32%) and ammonium sulfate (28%) before and during HP, respectively. In addition, the contributions of SOA and primary OA to particle light extinction were quantified. The results showed that the OA extinction was mainly caused by SOA before HP and by SOA and CCOA during HP, yet with small contributions from HOA and cooking aerosol for the entire study period. Our results elucidate substantial changes of aerosol

  20. Evolution of magnetic properties of amorphous Fe78Si13B9 alloy during deformation and subsequent heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershina, E. A.; Abrosimova, G. E.; Aronin, A. S.; Matveev, D. V.

    2015-02-01

    The structure and properties of the amorphous Fe78Si13B9 alloy were studied after severe plastic deformation and subsequent heat treatment. The deformation was performed by torsion under high pressure at room temperature. The heat treatment was carried out at temperatures lower than the alloy crystallization temperature. The investigations were performed using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. It was shown that the minimum coercive force (1.7 Oe) corresponds to the initial state and increases up to 2.6 Oe with an increase in the degree of deformation. It was found that the heat treatment of the deformed Fe78Si13B9 alloy improves its soft magnetic characteristics. The successive annealings for 1 h and, then, 2 h at a temperature of 200°C led to a decrease in the coercive force of the samples from 2.6 to 2.0 Oe.

  1. Scaffolding Classroom Discourse in an Election Year: Keeping a Cool Mood in a Heated Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; May, Laura A.; Stenhouse, Vera L.; Meyers, Laura E.; Holbrook, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Certainly, teaching about politics can be daunting, especially as the political climate in the United States becomes increasingly partisan as a result of heated political rhetoric amplified through a variety of media outlets. However, elementary teachers can help students develop the respectful dispositions they will need as young adults living in…

  2. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates. PMID:27000955

  3. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  4. [The hygienic characteristics of the hospital environment in a cardiovascular pathology ward during the heating season].

    PubMed

    Toshkov, S; Chuchkova, M; Chipilska, L; Popivanova, I

    1993-01-01

    A study is carried out on the microclimate, physiological reaction of patients, chemical and bacteriological composition of the air in rooms of different location in the ward for cardiovascular pathology during the heating period of the year, according to some basic and integral indices. The characteristics of the interhospital environment in the rooms of the investigated ward is determined mainly by the irrational regime of heating, location, size of the glazed transparent area. In the hospital rooms are formed unsatisfactory hygienic norm parameters of the microclimate and the chemical composition of the air. The specific thermal environment affects the physiological reactions of the patients and leads to creation of conditions of discomfort and loading of the thermoregulation in direction of overheating.

  5. Warm-season diurnal circulations and heat extremes over the northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew C.

    Summer synoptic circulations over the northwest U.S., and their interactions with regional terrain, land/water contrasts, and surface heating, give rise to a variety of fascinating meteorological phenomena, many of which have yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how projected future warming associated with increased greenhouse gases will modify these important features. The work herein seeks to ameliorate this with a comprehensive examination of two important aspects of northwest U.S. summer weather and climate: diurnal circulations and changes to the conditions associated with extreme temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. To simulate regional diurnal circulations, GFS model output was obtained for July and August 2009-2011. These data were categorized into hour of the day, composited, and the resulting files were used to initialize and provide boundary conditions to a WRF (version 3.5) model run. It was shown that, when compared to observations, this WRF run sufficiently simulates average diurnal variability. Using this simulation, the diurnal circulations of the region were described, including several important wind features within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Snoqualmie Pass, and the Columbia River Gorge. Also, regional nocturnal low-level wind maxima are described, including one over the northern Willamette valley and another over the high plateau of eastern Oregon. Recent work by the authors has elucidated the physical mechanisms that drive heat extremes over the northwest U.S., including the necessity of a ridge aloft, with associated subsidence and advection warming. Also, easterly flow is crucial for keeping the marine air at bay, and producing downslope flow and adiabatic warming on the western slopes of regional north-south terrain barriers. Given the rising temperatures projected under anthropogenic global warming, how are these conditions, and associated low-level temperature distributions, projected to change? As a

  6. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  7. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  8. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods.

  9. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  10. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  11. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  12. 78 FR 71676 - Submission for Review: 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express Interactive Voice Response (IVR) System and Open Season Web site AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office of...

  13. Heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes at the first Vietnamese eddy covariance site in tropical seasonal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskaya, Olga; Anichkin, Alexandr; Avilov, Vitaly; Duy Dinh, Ba; Luu Do, Phong; Novichonok, Artem; Huan Tran, Cong; Kurbatova, Juliya

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange is one of important issue concerning the understanfing of ecosystem functioning in conditions of global climate change. In this study the first results of eddy covariance observations in semievergreen tropical seasonal forest in Southern Vietnam, Cat Tien national park (N 11°27', E 107°24', 134 m a.s.l.), in 2011-2012 are presented. Three characteristic months (December, March, September) were chosen for comparing of fluxes in different meteorological conditions. According to Keppen-Geiger climate classification Southern Vietnam has tropical monsoon climate with dry-warm...hot winter and rainy-warm summer. December, the month of the first part of dry period, had lowest (24.0°?) average canopy temperature, not so big precipitation rate (49.8 mm) and medium soil moisture content (25 %vol.). March was the hottest month (26.9°?) in the end of dry period with both lowest precipitation (24.1 mm) and soil moisture content (15 %vol.). September was the peak of rainy season (607.6 mm of rain per month) with flooding of vast areas in Cat Tien and highest soil moisture content (38 %vol.). Highest radiation sums were recorded in March (426.0 MJ m-2 mon-1). December and September sums (336.7 and 342.1 MJ m-2 mon-1) were not so high due to increased hade of sunlight in the first case and cloudiness in the second case. Sensible heat flux (H) rate rose sharply in the second half of dry season (from about 35 MJ m-2 mon-1 in December and September to 155.4 MJ m-2 mon-1 in March). Evapotranspiration (LE) dominated considerably in the heat expenditures during all the year (216.7...271.6 MJ m-2 mon-1). Bowen ratio (H/LE) varied from 0.13 in September to 0.71 in March. For the whole period of observation, the tropical forest was a slight carbon sink from the atmosphere (calculation included u*-correction with threshold of 0.4 m s-1, which appreciably heighten NEE value). Highest rate of CO2 absorption was observed in

  14. Ames Research Center publications, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography lists 786 formal NASA publications, journal articles, books, chapters of books, patents, and contractor reports which appeared during 1977 or which were not included in previous annual bibliographies. Citations are arranged by directorate, type of publication, and author. Each NASA report is identified by a technical report and accession number to facilitate ordering. An author index is provided.

  15. Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM) 2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5-6 year old children ( n = 334) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into ∑ 8PAH semivolatile (MW 178-206), and ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile (MW 228-278)), Abs, and PM 2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile ( p < 0.001) and Abs ( p < 0.05), and lower levels of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration ( p < 0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends.

  16. Time series decomposition of remotely sensed land surface temperature and investigation of trends and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jinling; Zhan, Wenfeng; Chen, Yunhao; Wang, Mengjie; Wang, Jinfei

    2016-03-01

    Previous time series methods have difficulties in simultaneous characterization of seasonal, gradual, and abrupt changes of remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST). This study proposed a model to decompose LST time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components. The trend component indicates long-term climate change and land development and is described as a piecewise linear function with iterative breakpoint detection. The seasonal component illustrates annual insolation variations and is modeled as a sinusoidal function on the detrended data. This model is able to separate the seasonal variation in LST from the long-term (including gradual and abrupt) change. Model application to nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/LST time series during 2000-2012 over Beijing yielded an overall root-mean-square error of 1.62 K between the combination of the decomposed trend and seasonal components and the actual MODIS/LSTs. LST decreased (~ -0.086 K/yr, p < 0.1) in 53% of the study area, whereas it increased with breakpoints in 2009 (~0.084 K/yr before and ~0.245 K/yr after 2009) between the fifth and sixth ring roads. The decreasing trend was stronger over croplands than over urban lands (p < 0.05), resulting in an increasing trend in surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII, 0.022 ± 0.006 K/yr). This was mainly attributed to the trends in urban-rural differences in rainfall and albedo. The SUHII demonstrated a concave seasonal variation primarily due to the seasonal variations of urban-rural differences in temperature cooling rate (related to canyon structure, vegetation, and soil moisture) and surface heat dissipation (affected by humidity and wind).

  17. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite.

  18. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite. PMID:26314033

  19. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  20. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal or State minimum wage, whichever is higher.'' The collection is also required by regulations for... legal federal or State minimum wage rate, whichever is highest unless special procedures apply to the... Agricultural In-Season Wage Report and ETA Form 232-A, Wage Survey Interview Record, Extension with...

  1. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  2. Continuing Education Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1977/1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    The 1977-78 annual report on continuing education activities of the University of British Columbia is presented. The provision of continuing education by the university is decentralized. Several administrative units are responsible for credit and noncredit, general and professional continuing education, and professional development. The following…

  3. National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1977. Bulletin 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication summarizes results of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' 18th annual salary survey of selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry as of March 1977. The survey provides nationwide salary averages (not including Alaska and Hawaii) and distributions for 78 work-level categories covering…

  4. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... into two groups: those used as the primary heating source for the home and those not used for this... of unvented heaters that are not used as the primary heating source for the home. For unvented heaters that are used as the primary heating source for the home, there is a calculation of annual...

  5. 78 FR 37124 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon: Heat Smart Program and Enforcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon: Heat Smart Program and... Heat Smart program, rules for enforcement procedures and civil penalties, and contain minor revisions... revisions relate to Oregon's Heat Smart program in Oregon Administrative Rules (OAR) Chapter 340,...

  6. Aerosol and Trace Gas Sources in Northern China: Changes in Concentrations Before and After the Official "Heating Season" Help Characterize Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Marufu, L. T.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, Z.; Stehr, J. W.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.

    2006-05-01

    In March 2005, as a part of the project EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment), in-situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties were made at Xianghe, a rural surface site about 70 km east-southeast, generally downwind, of Beijing metropolitan area. CO, SO2, NO/NOy, O3, aerosol absorption coefficient, and aerosol scattering coefficients were determined simultaneously using the University of Maryland light aircraft instrument package. Pollutant ratios have been calculated to characterize the emission sources around the site. A dramatic drop in the NOy/CO ratio found around March 13/14 suggesting a sudden shutoff of a large fraction of the high- temperature combustion sources in the region. This observed change in concentrations occurred simultaneously with the transition from "heating season" to "non-heating season" in Northern China. Over the course of just a few days (around March 15), all boilers used to provide heat for cities and towns in this region are shut down in accordance with a governmental guideline. Most of these boilers operate with coal, and by using ratios of NOy/CO, SO2/CO, aerosol scattering/CO, and aerosol absorption/CO during and after the "heating season", emissions from these small to medium sized coal-fired boilers can be characterized. Results indicate that these residential and small-scale industrial heaters are a major source of NOy and SO2. Besides elevating the regional atmospheric pollutant level, the trace gases and aerosols emitted also have potential effects in other aspects such as the biogeochemical cycle of N and the agricultural production in this region.

  7. 78 FR 20148 - Reporting Procedure for Mathematical Models Selected To Predict Heated Effluent Dispersion in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Natural Water Bodies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal notice. SUMMARY: The U.S... Mathematical Models Selected to Predict Heated Effluent Dispersion in Natural Water Bodies.'' The guide is... mathematical modeling methods used in predicting the dispersion of heated effluent in natural water bodies....

  8. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  9. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  10. Bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system in the ice melt season derived from concentration-temperature relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2008-06-01

    The bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system (Kb) in the ice melt season is estimated by a new method at 18 areas that cover much of the Antarctic seasonal ice zone. The method is based on a model in which ice melting is caused only by heat input through open water and is treated in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system. Kb is estimated by fitting a convergent curve derived from the model to an observed ice concentration-temperature plot (CT-plot). Estimated Kb is 1.15 ± 0.72 × 10-4 m s-1 on average. If Kb can be expressed by the product of the heat transfer coefficient (ch) and the friction velocity (uτ), ch is 0.0113 ± 0.0055. This value is about two times larger than that estimated at the ice bottom. The relationship between Kb and the geostrophic wind speed (Uw), which is roughly proportional to uτ, shows a significant positive correlation, as expected. Further, Kb seems more likely to be proportional to the square or cube of Uw rather than a linear relationship. Since Kb estimated from our method is associated with ice melting in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system, this relationship likely indicates both the mixing process of heat in the upper ocean (proportional to uτ3) and the local heat transfer process at the ice-ocean interface (proportional to uτ).

  11. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  12. Positions of asteroids obtained during 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerkvist, C.-I.; de Sanctis, G.; Zappala, V.

    1980-04-01

    Precise positions are given for 74 asteroids observed during 1977 at the Uppsala Southern Station and at the Kvistaberg Observatory. In particular, positions are given for main-belt asteroids, Trojans, 190 Ismene, 433 Eros, asteroids marked X or XX in the Ephemerides of Minor Planets (1977), and asteroids in Marsden's critical list (1976).

  13. 29 CFR 1977.11 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testimony. 1977.11 Section 1977.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  14. 29 CFR 1977.23 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State plans. 1977.23 Section 1977.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  15. 29 CFR 1977.11 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testimony. 1977.11 Section 1977.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  16. 29 CFR 1977.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introductory statement. 1977.1 Section 1977.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  17. 29 CFR 1977.23 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State plans. 1977.23 Section 1977.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  18. 29 CFR 1977.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introductory statement. 1977.1 Section 1977.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  19. 29 CFR 1977.11 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testimony. 1977.11 Section 1977.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  20. 29 CFR 1977.23 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State plans. 1977.23 Section 1977.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  1. 29 CFR 1977.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introductory statement. 1977.1 Section 1977.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  2. 29 CFR 1977.23 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State plans. 1977.23 Section 1977.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  3. 29 CFR 1977.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Introductory statement. 1977.1 Section 1977.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.11 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testimony. 1977.11 Section 1977.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  5. 29 CFR 1977.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introductory statement. 1977.1 Section 1977.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.23 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State plans. 1977.23 Section 1977.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  7. 29 CFR 1977.11 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testimony. 1977.11 Section 1977.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  8. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  9. Expression profiling of major heat shock protein genes during different seasons in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  10. Interannual Variations and Recurrent Seasonal Discrepancies in Land Surface Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes from Satellite Data and a Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, A.; Liang, P.; Jimenez, C.; Moncet, J. L.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Lynch, R.; d'Entremont, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variability of land surface latent and sensible heat fluxes has been analyzed at seasonal and sub-seasonal time scales for flux estimates derived from satellite data and from a land surface model. The satellite-derived estimates were produced with a neural network operating on a combination of microwave, visible, and infrared satellite data products. Properties of these flux datasets were assessed by subjective and statistical methods, including comparisons with data from flux towers. The agreement with tower fluxes is closer for the satellite-derived fluxes than for the LSM fluxes with respect to overall temporal variability. For interannual variations of sub-seasonal fluxes, the satellite/NN and LSM fluxes have similar, moderate correlations (~0.4) with the tower fluxes. Driving factors contributing to the interannual variability and recurrent discrepancies between these flux estimates were identified. These factors include the sensitivity of satellite-derived fluxes to the satellite inputs and the responses of modeled fluxes to changes in soil moisture induced by prior precipitation.

  11. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  12. Seasonal gonadal development and age-related maturity patterns of introduced pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758) in a heated thermal reservoir and an adjacent river reach.

    PubMed

    Valente, E; Masson, G; Maul, A; Fox, M G; Meyer, A; Pihan, J C

    2016-05-01

    Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0.73, P<0.001). GSI of females in the reservoir increased with the stage at maturity, but GSI was not significantly correlated with total length, age or growth rate of the individual. All sampled individuals of both sexes were mature at age 1 in the heated reservoir, whereas 48% of age 1 males and 57% of age 1 females were not mature in the river. GSI patterns suggest that males in the reservoir adopted one of two reproductive strategies (nesters or cuckolders), whereas no small males with large enough testes to be considered cuckolders were apparent in the river. The warm thermal regime of Mirgenbach Reservoir led to precocial maturity, early season reproduction, and the greater prevalence of apparent cuckolder males than would normally occur in this climatic zone.

  13. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  14. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general...

  15. The Development of Urban Heat Islands in the Southeast Region of the United States in the Winter Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Jan

    The study of the urban heat island has gained increased importance due to its relation to global warming. The effect of urbanization and land use changes in general on thermometer readings can bias long-term records resulting in a false global warming signal. Therefore, understanding the urban heat island phenomenon is important for an assessment of the global warming magnitude. A modeling approach has been chosen since it can overcome some restrictions of "conventional" methods (in situ and satellite observations), such as limited spatial and temporal resolution and topography effects. Models can provide better resolution and extend our understanding of the underlying physics of urban heat island development. In order to demonstrate this concept, the city of Atlanta was selected for numerical simulation under clear sky conditions on 6-7 and 25-26 February 1988. A mesoscale model developed by Pielke (1974) was employed in the numerical simulation. The first step was determination of the soil thermal inertia and moisture availability using AVHRR satellite-derived skin surface temperatures in a technique developed by Carlson et al. (1981). The thermal inertia exhibited elevated values over the city in both cases. The moisture availability field showed a larger degree of variability. The case of 25-26 February 1988 exhibited lower values of moisture availability in the city as compared to the rural surroundings, which is considered to be a typical situation. However, the case of 6-7 February 1988 showed extremely high moisture availability in the city. A possible explanation can be found in the cumulative rainfall, which shows a positive correlation between 14 -day cumulative rainfall amount and the moisture availability. A technique proposed by Hjelmfelt (1982) was used to simulate the urban effect. The urban heat island itself was investigated in terms of the skin surface and 2-m height temperatures. The horizontal and temporal evolution of these variables was

  16. Characterization of the constitutive pig ovary heat shock chaperone machinery and its response to acute thermal stress or to seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Pennarossa, Georgia; Maffei, Sara; Rahman, Mahbubur M; Berruti, Giovanna; Brevini, Tiziana A L; Gandolfi, Fulvio

    2012-11-01

    Reduced oocyte competence causes the lower fertility reported in domestic sows during the warm months of the year. Somatic cells express heat shock proteins (HSPs) to protect themselves from damage caused by thermal stress. HSPs are classified as molecular chaperones and control the correct folding of newly synthesized or damaged proteins. The present work performed a comprehensive survey of the different components of the heat shock chaperone machinery in the pig ovary, which included the HSP40, HSP70, HSP90, and HSP110 families, as well as heat shock factors (HSF) 1 and 2. Pig ovarian follicles constitutively expressed different members of these families; therefore, we examined their ability to respond to heat stress. In order to take into account the role of the complex follicular architecture, whole pig ovaries were exposed to 41.5°C for 1 h. This exposure significantly disrupted oocyte maturation and determined the upregulation of the HSP70, HSP40, HSPH1, HSPA4, HSPA4L, HSF1, and HFS2 genes, whereas expression levels of HSP90A and HSP90B, as well as those of genes unrelated to heat stress were not altered. Unexpectedly HSP and HSF expression levels changed only in oocytes but not in cumulus cells. Cumulus-oocyte complexes isolated from ovaries collected in summer showed the same pattern as those collected in winter. We conclude that the HSP chaperone machinery is constitutively fully operational in the pig ovary. However, following thermal stimuli or seasonal variations, cumulus cell HS-related gene expression remains unchanged, and only oocytes activate a response, suggesting why this mechanism is insufficient to preserve their competence both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  18. Passive thermosyphon solar heating and cooling module with supplementary heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A collection of three quarterly reports from Sigma Research, Inc., covering progress and status from January through September 1977 are presented. Three heat exchangers are developed for use in a solar heating and cooling system for installation into single-family dwellings. Each exchanger consists of one heating and cooling module and one submerged electric water heating element.

  19. 40 CFR 62.1977 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Delaware Emissions from Existing Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators (hmiwi) (section 111(d)/129 Plan) § 62.1977 Effective date. The.... Emissions From Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  20. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1977: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a chronology of events during the year 1977 in the fields of aeronautical and space research, development, activity, and policy. It includes appendixes, an index, and illustrations. Chronological entries list sources for further inquiry.

  1. Restoration of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Stephens, M. K.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow probes were deployed on the Apollo 15 and 17 missions as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). At each landing site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The holes were 1- and 1.5-m deep at the Apollo 15 site and 2.5-m deep at the Apollo 17 sites. The probes monitored surface temperature and subsurface temperatures at different depths. At the Apollo 15 site, the monitoring continued from July 1971 to January 1977. At the Apollo 17 site, it did from December 1972 to September 1977. Based on the observations made through December 1974, Marcus Langseth, the principal investigator of the heat flow experiments (HFE), determined the thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith by mathematically modeling how the seasonal temperature fluctuation propagated down through the regolith. He also determined the temperature unaffected by diurnal and seasonal thermal waves of the regolith at different depths, which yielded the geothermal gradient. By multiplying the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity, Langseth obtained the endogenic heat flow of the Moon as 21 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 15 and 16 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 17.

  2. The 1977 Busselton children's survey.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Hitchcock, N E; Wearne, K L; Garcia-Webb, P; Lewis, R

    1979-09-01

    A health survey of 551 high school students in the coastal town of Busselton, Western Australia, was undertaken in November, 1977. Physical measurements showed that approximately 17% of the boys and 24% of the girls were overweight (115% or more of their standard weight for height and age). Blood pressures ranged from 108/64 mmHg at 13 years to 129/70 mmHg at 17 years for boys, and 109/63 mmHg to 116/66 mmHg for girls of the same age group. Fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride values were also obtained. Twenty-seven per cent of the girls and 17% of the boys were regular smokers, a habit often acquired by the age of 12 years. Most of the children watched television from two to four hours daily during the week, and for longer periods at weekends. Although most had satisfactory levels of physical fitness, there was a trend towards poor performance in overweight children, and there was a significant decrease in participation in regular sports by the older teenagers.

  3. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  4. Federal R&D Funding Shows Strong Recent Rise But Little Real Growth in FY 1978. Science Resources Studies Highlights, October 17, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This document reports results of a review of estimated 1977 federal research and development (R&D) funding and requested 1978 federal R&D funding. Highlights include: 1978 estimated R&D total is $26.3 billion, an increase of 7.6% over 1977; average annual R&D growth rate for the period 1974-78 has risen to 10.9% compared to 1.5% for the period…

  5. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

  6. Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation1

    PubMed Central

    Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Yoshida, Shizuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

    1999-01-01

    Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation of 20-kD (WAP20) and 27-kD (WAP27) proteins in winter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WAP20 exhibited homology to ER-localized small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs), whereas that of WAP27 did not exhibit homology to any known proteins. Like other smHSPs, WAP20 formed a complex of high molecular mass in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, not only WAP20 but also 21-kD proteins reacted with antibodies against WAP20. Fractionation of the crude microsomes by isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation revealed that both WAP27 and WAP20 were distributed on a density corresponding to the fractions with higher activity of ER marker enzyme, suggesting localization of these proteins in the ER. When ER-enriched fractions were treated with trypsin in the absence of detergent, WAP20 and WAP27 were undigested, suggesting localization of these proteins inside the ER vesicle. The accumulation of a large quantity of smHSPs in the ER in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation indicates that these proteins may play a significant role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry trees. PMID:10364399

  7. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  8. Simulation of Water and Energy Fluxes in an Old Growth Seasonal Temperate Rainforest Using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, T. E.; Unsworth, M. H.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW), concern about the impacts of climate and land cover change on water resources and flood-generating processes emphasize the need for a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between forest canopies and hydrological processes. A detailed measurement and modeling program in the 1999 and 2000 hydrologic years characterized hydrological processes in a 500-600 year old Douglas fir-western hemlock seasonal temperate rainforest. The measurement program included sub-canopy arrays of radiometers, tipping bucket rain gauges, and soil temperature and moisture probes, to supplement a vertical temperature and humidity profile within the forest canopy. The measurements were used to modify the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model for application in forested systems. Changes to the model include improved representation of interception dynamics, stomatal conductance, and within- canopy energy transfer processes. The model was calibrated for the 1999 hydrologic year, and validated for the 2000 season. The model effectively simulated canopy air and vapor density profiles, snowcover processes, throughfall, soil water content profiles, shallow soil temperatures, and transpiration fluxes for both years. The largest discrepancies between soil moisture and temperature were observed during periods of discontinuous snowcover. Soil warming at bare locations was delayed until most of the snowcover ablated due to the large heat sink associated with the residual snow patches. During the summer, simulated evapotranspiration decreased from a maximum monthly mean of 2.17 mm day-1 in July to 1.34 mm day-1 in September, as a result of decreasing soil moisture and declining net radiation. Our results indicate that a relatively simple parameterization of the SHAW model for the vegetation canopy can accurately simulate seasonal hydrological fluxes in this environment. The model could be used to assess the potential effects of climate or landcover changes on

  9. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cervical Spine Injury during Heating Season in the Patients with Cervical Trauma: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong; Gu, Tixin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Di; Sun, Yapeng; Ma, Lei; Song, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of cervical spine injury in the patients with cervical trauma and analyze its associated risk factors during the special heating season in North China. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated predictors for cervical spine injury in cervical trauma patients using retrospectively collected data of Hebei Provincial Orthopaedic Hospital from 11/2011 to 02/2012, and 11/2012 to 02/2013. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for cervical fractures/dislocations or cord injury. Results A total of 106 patients were admitted into this study. Of all, 34 patients (32.1%) were treated from 11/2011 to 02/2012 and 72 patients (67.9%) from 11/2012 to 02/2013. The mean age was 41.9±13.3 years old; 85 patients (80.2%) were male and 82 (77.4%) from rural areas. Eighty patients (75.5%) were caused by fall including 45 (42.5%) by severe fall (>2 m). Sixty-five patients (61.3%) of all suffered injuries to other body regions and 32 (30.2%) got head injury. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) sustained cervical cord injury with cervical fractures/dislocations. Twenty-six (83.9%) of cervical cord injury patients were from rural areas and 24 (77.4%) of those resulted from fall including 15 (48.4%) from severe fall (>2 m). Logistic regression displayed that age (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.07), head injury (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.23–14.26), were risk factors for cervical cord injury and snowing (OR, 8.25; 95% CI, 2.26–30.15) was a risk factor for cervical spine injury due to severe fall (>2 m). Conclusions The elder male patients and patients with head trauma are high-risk population for cervical cord injury. As a seasonal factor, snowing during heating season is of note a risk factor for cervical spine injury resulting from severe fall (>2 m) in the patients with cervical trauma in North China. PMID:24223795

  10. Characteristics of the seasonal variation of the surface total heating over the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding area in summer 1998 and its relationship with the convection over the subtropical area of the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Longxun

    2003-05-01

    Using the dataset of 1998 TIPEX, the data of 6 automatic heat balance observational stations (AWS) from May to August 1998, a dataset of 52 surface observational stations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its adjacent region, the daily rainfall amounts from about 300 stations in China, the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data received by the National Satellite Meteorological Center(NSMC) of China, and TBB data from GMS remote sensing of Japan, the characteristics of the seasonal variation of the surface total heating over TP and its surrounding area in summer 1998 and its relationship with the convection over the subtropical area of the western Pacific is studied in this paper. The results show that the surface total heating over TP had a close relationship with the onset of the rainy season, and after the onset of the rainy season, the regional mean surface total heating over TP decreased distinctly. Furthermore, the regional mean surface total heating over TP had very good negative correlation with TBB over the subtropical area of the western Pacific along 20 30°N, which shows that the surface total heating over TP was able to affect the convection over the subtropical area of the western Pacific.

  11. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  12. Communication Characteristics of Students Entering MSSD 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nancy S.; And Others

    A communication profile of each student entering the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD) is composed of rankings in five areas: expressive manual communication including signing, fingerspelling, and synchronization; speech intelligibility; articulation; speech reading, including words and sentences; and audiometric test performance…

  13. Annual Report, 1977-78, New York State Education Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inside Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presented in this document are brief reports on different aspects of educational finance, elementary and secondary education programs, advances made in higher and professional education, services in cultural education, and changing needs in vocational rehabilitation. An overview of Federal aid to education, the economic impact of education, adult…

  14. Metropolitan Planning Project, 1977-78. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoff, Steven M.

    This document provides a description of the Metropolitan Planning Project (MPP), its objectives, strategies, and an evaluation of its implementation in the Boston area. In order to encourage the voluntary elimination, reduction, and prevention of minority group isolation in elementary and secondary schools in Boston, the project focuses on two…

  15. Case study of a tropical-extratropical interaction and associated heat low development during the AMMA SOP 2006 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; Pohle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical Extra-tropical Interactions (TEIs) are often observed in association with an upper-level subtropical trough that penetrates into the tropics and, therefore, interacts with the tropical circulation. As a visible sign, a mid- to upper-level cloud band at the eastern flank of the trough and its related Subtropical Jet, named Tropical Plume (TP), is identifiable in infrared satellite imagery. McGuirk et al. (1987) gave a definition of Tropical Plumes and described the cloud bands as a northern hemisphere winter time phenomena. Previous studies identified TPs throughout the year with being rare in the June-mid- September period. Results of convection dynamics influenced/caused by TEIs during a pre-monsoon season event between 19 and 30 May 2006 will be presented. This case is characterized by two different investigation regions affected by TEI: During the first half of the event high precipitation amounts south-east of the cloud band over Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, and Ivory Coast are observed caused by thermal forcing and dynamical maintenance by trough related good upper-level outflow conditions due to ageostrophic acceleration towards the trough and low inertial stability, or even inertial instability. This presentation is focused on the second half of this TEI event, which is characterized by the development of a pronounced heat low (HL) south-east of the upper-level trough over tropical West Africa, followed by convection south-east of the low pressure centre. A modified form of the pressure tendency equation (PTE) used by Knippertz and Fink (2008) is a diagnostic tool to investigate, which processes cause pressure drop near the Mali-Burkina Faso border by using both, the operational ECMWF Analysis and the AMMA EU re-analysis. The latter contains additionally the diabatic heating tendencies. Therefore, all terms of the PTE were calculated and will be discussed.

  16. Master Contract, July 1977-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University. Inst. of Urban Research.

    The master contract between the San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/CTA/NEA and the Board of Trustees of the San Joaquin Delta Community College District for July 1977 to June 1980 is presented in full. Thirty articles include: Agreement, Recognition, Definitions, Negotiation Procedures, Non-Discrimination, Association Rights,…

  17. 40 CFR 62.1977 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Delaware Emissions from Existing Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators (hmiwi) (section 111(d)/129 Plan) § 62.1977 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is June 13, 2000....

  18. Kentucky College and University Enrollments. Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Center for Education Statistics, Frankfort.

    Fall 1977 enrollment data from the Kentucky state-supported and independent colleges and universities, seminaries, proprietary business colleges and Eagle University are presented. Total enrollment in the state and independent colleges and universities was 126,162. Of this total, 108,546 students were enrolled in the state universities and…

  19. Corporate Support of Higher Education, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Financial Aid to Education, New York, NY.

    Some of the results of the fourth Annual Survey of Corporate Contributions are presented in this report on corporate support of higher education for 1977. Usable questionnaires were returned by 816 companies. A discussion of national trends considers corporate support of higher education vs. college and university expenditures, increased student…

  20. National Conference on Catholic School Finance, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenzinski, Mary, Ed.

    This book is a summary of papers presented at the Third National Conference on Catholic School Finance held in March, 1977. The topics discussed include the board's repsonsibility for finance, current trends, long-range planning, school reorganization, expansion and building of new schools, marketing, foundations, educational development, funding,…

  1. National Dissemination Forum, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Henry M.

    Presented is an analysis of nine agreements focused on three areas of common concern to dissemination specialists involved in the 1977 National Dissemination Forum: resources, linkage, research, evaluation and quality control. FORUM participants represented the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC of the National Institute of Education…

  2. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    water and heat balance components as well as land surface temperature and moisture area-distributed over the territory of interest have been resulted from the model calculations for the years 2009-2013 vegetation seasons. These calculations have been carried out utilizing satellite-derived estimates of the vegetation characteristics, LST and precipitation. E and W calculation errors have not exceeded the standard values.

  3. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K.

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  4. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  5. Third-Party Evaluation 1977-1978 of the ACCTion Consortium: A Technical Assistance Project for Two-Year Institutions. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprises for New Directions, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In accordance with federally mandated evaluation requirements, Enterprises for New Directions (END), Inc., was requested to conduct a summative external evaluation of the 1977-78 Association of Community College Trustees (ACCTion) Consortium. The Consortium consists of 114 two-year colleges nationwide which receive technical assistance through…

  6. Time and space variability of freshwater content, heat content and seasonal ice melt in the Arctic Ocean from 1991 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, M.; Rudels, B.; Marnela, M.; Wisotzki, A.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean have recently been reported. The upper ocean has been freshening and pulses of warm Atlantic Water have been observed to spread into the Arctic Ocean. Although these changes have been intensively studied, salinity and temperature variations have less frequently been considered together. Here hydrographic observations, obtained by icebreaker expeditions conducted between 1991 and 2011, are analyzed and discussed. Five different water masses in the upper 1000 m of the water column are examined in five sub-basins of the Arctic Ocean. This allows for studying the variations of the distributions of the freshwater and heat contents in the Arctic Ocean not only in time but also laterally and vertically. In addition, the seasonal ice melt contribution is separated from the permanent, winter, freshwater content of the Polar Mixed Layer. Because the positions of the icebreaker stations vary between the years, the icebreaker observations are at each specific point in space and time compared with the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology to separate the effects of space and time variability on the observations. The hydrographic melt water estimate is discussed and compared with the potential ice melt induced by atmospheric heat input estimated from the ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. After a period of increased salinity in the upper ocean during the 1990s, both the Polar Mixed Layer and the upper halocline have been freshening. The increase in freshwater content in the Polar Mixed Layer is primarily driven by a decrease in salinity, not by changes in Polar Mixed Layer depth, whereas the freshwater is accumulating in the upper halocline mainly through the increasing thickness of the halocline. This is especially evident in the Northern Canada Basin, where the most substantial freshening is observed. The warming, and to some extent also the increase in salinity, of the Atlantic Water during the early 1990s extended

  7. Study of the reversible water vapour sorption process of MgSO4.7H2O and MgCl2.6H2O under the conditions of seasonal solar heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferchaud, C. J.; Zondag, H. A.; Veldhuis, J. B. J.; de Boer, R.

    2012-11-01

    The characterization of the structural, compositional and thermodynamic properties of MgSO4.7H2O and MgCl2.6H2O has been done using in-situ X-ray Diffraction and thermal analyses (TG/DSC) under practical conditions for seasonal heat storage (Tmax=150°C, p(H2O)=13 mbar). This study showed that these two materials release heat after a dehydration/hydration cycle with energy densities of 0.38 GJ/m3 for MgSO4.7H2O and 0.71 GJ/m3 MgCl2.6H2O. The low heat release found for MgSO4.7H2O is mainly attributed to the amorphization of the material during the dehydration performed at 13 mbar which reduces its sorption capacity during the rehydration. MgCl2.6H2O presents a high energy density which makes this material interesting for seasonal heat storage in domestic applications. This material would be able to fulfil the winter heat demand of a passive house estimated at 6 GJ with a packed bed reactor of 8.5 m3. However, a seasonal heat storage system built with this material should be carefully set with a restricted temperature at 40°C for the hydration reaction to avoid the liquefaction of the material at lower temperature which limits its performances for long term storage.

  8. The 1977 intertropical convergence zone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G. (Editor); Page, W. A. (Editor); Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented from the 1977 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Experiment conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977. Measurements were made daily over a 16-day period when the ITCZ moved across the Canal Zone. Two aircraft (Learjet and U-2) flew daily and provided data from horizontal traverses at several altitudes to 21.3 km of ozone, temperature, pressure, water vapor, aerosols, fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitric acid. Balloonsondes flown four times per day provided data on ozone, wind fields, pressure, temperature, and humidities to altitudes near 30 km. Rocketsondes provided daily data to altitudes near 69 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

  9. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made in the development of a solar hot water and space heating system is described in four quarterly reports. The program schedules, technical status and other program activities from 6 October 1976 through 30 September 1977 are provided.

  10. The gediz earthquake: reconstruction between 1970 & 1977.

    PubMed

    Germen, A

    1978-03-01

    Our observations in Gediz weremadein 1970,1973,1975 and 1977. Information was collected in each of these trips but the fullest interviewing took place in 1977. Some of the people interviewed evaded our questions and many would not talk freely. This was mainly in New Gediz, where we were often referred to the mayor. Gediz has had three mayors since the earthquake, but the present mayor is fully informed on the aid which has arrived since the earthquake. He was generous with this information and his opinion Equally generous and gracious were the members of an informal association concerned with the revival of Old Gediz. In addition, we were able to talk to people in public places and to shopkeepers. Our contacts on the street were rather few We visited Akcaalan in 1975 and 1977, conducting interviews in both years. Much of the information and opinion was collected in two coffee shops. The mayor, Mr. M. Taskin, impressed us with his precision and graciousness. PMID:20958377

  11. Estimated water use in Florida, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

  12. Observations of Mars obtained with the San Fernando Danjon astrolabe during the winter 1977-1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, M.; Fernandez, J. B.; Parra, F.; Navas, F. J.

    1980-08-01

    This paper contains the results for Mars observed with the Danjon astrolabe (San Fernando Observatory) during the 1977-78 campaign. Twenty-one transits have been observed between January 9, 1978 and February 21, 1978. The corrections to the adopted coordinates (American Ephemeris) as deduced from the five double transits of the planet are given. The same quantities calculated for the ephemerides of the U.S. Naval Observatory (Kaplan et al., 1975) improved by Seidelmann (1978) are given. Definitive results for Mars 1975-76 (improved ephemerides of USNO) are presented.

  13. The Emergency campaign for smallpox eradication from Somalia (1977-1979)--revisited.

    PubMed

    Deria, Abdullahi

    2011-12-30

    The historical significance of smallpox eradication from Somalia lies in the fact that the country was the last to record the last endemic smallpox case in the world. Before 1977 the programme was mismanaged. In the mid-1970s, the programme was plagued with concealment. Confirmation of smallpox outbreak in Mogadishu in September 1976 delayed global smallpox eradication. The Government maintained that there was no ongoing smallpox transmission in the country after the Mogadishu outbreak and frustrated independent attempts to verify its claim. In February 1977 the Government allowed World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiologists to search, unhindered, for smallpox outside Mogadishu. Soon widespread smallpox transmission was detected. The Government appealed for international support. The strategy to stop the smallpox transmission was based on surveillance and containment. The WHO took the leading role of the campaign which, in spite of the Somalia/Ethiopia war of 1977/78, culminated in the eradication of smallpox from the country. Somalia was certified smallpox-free on 19 October 1979.

  14. Changes in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in Romania during 1977-95.

    PubMed Central

    Israil, A.; Nacescu, N.; Cedru, C. L.; Ciufecu, C.; Damian, M.

    1998-01-01

    Six hundred and twenty-four Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, 623 serotype Ogawa and one serotype Inaba, isolated in Romania between 1977-95 were tested to detect all changing traits concerning serogroup, serotype, biotype, phage type and resistotype patterns and subsequently, the possible epidemiological relationship among these strains. Biotyping revealed one classical, 580 eltor strains and 43 intermediary variants. When tested with Mukerjee phages, 546 (87%) strains were sensitive and 78 (13%) resistant. One phage type (M4) dominated during 1977-90, two phage types (M4 and M5) exhibited the same high frequencies during 1991, a diversity of types occurred during 1993-4 whereas in 1995, two phage types (M4 and M5) showed similar distributions again. Five patterns of drug susceptibility were successively described during 1977-95. The most prominent changes in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains were noticed during 1993-4: the highest number of non-typable strains and intermediary variants, the widest spectrum of phage types and of multidrug resistance. In 1995, the strains reverted to the previous typable forms but a new drug resistance pattern was noticed. PMID:9825774

  15. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or Transloading AGENCY: Pipeline and... transloading \\1\\ hazardous materials from rail tank cars, specifically those persons heating a rail tank car to.... Guidance for Heating of Rail Tank Cars for Unloading or Transloading I. Background PHMSA's mission is...

  16. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  17. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  18. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 navigation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinley, E. L.; Van Allen, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents selected navigational aspects of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 mission. Emphasis is given to the trajectory correction strategy. In addition to science return and propellant costs, specific considerations affecting the strategy include a large number of candidate trajectories, relatively close satellite flybys, use of trajectory correction maneuvers for trajectory shaping, and the requirement for an optical data type to achieve precision satellite encounters. Finally, important error sources and mission constraints are identified, and their impact on the strategy is discussed.

  19. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  20. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  1. Research and Publications in New York State History, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielinski, Stefan, Comp.

    This 1977 edition contains references to all New York state history-related works which were either published, completed, or in progress during 1977. Works which presented new knowledge on any aspect of the history of New York state are included. Entries cover books, pamphlets, graduate theses, and journal and magazine articles. Reprints and…

  2. AISOM (The American Indian School of Medicine), March 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian School of Medicine, Shiprock, NM.

    A compilation of descriptive, factual, and technical information re: the development of the American Indian School of Medicine (AISOM), this document describes the history and current status of AISOM and presents the 1977 projected calendar. AISOM is described as: established by the Navajo Tribal Council in 1977; developing an academic affiliation…

  3. 29 CFR 1977.18 - Arbitration or other agency proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arbitration or other agency proceedings. 1977.18 Section 1977.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.18 - Arbitration or other agency proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arbitration or other agency proceedings. 1977.18 Section 1977.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  5. 29 CFR 1977.4 - Persons prohibited from discriminating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons prohibited from discriminating. 1977.4 Section 1977.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.2 - Purpose of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose of this part. 1977.2 Section 1977.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  7. 29 CFR 1977.18 - Arbitration or other agency proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arbitration or other agency proceedings. 1977.18 Section 1977.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  8. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  9. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.2 - Purpose of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose of this part. 1977.2 Section 1977.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  13. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  14. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  15. 29 CFR 1977.2 - Purpose of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose of this part. 1977.2 Section 1977.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  16. 29 CFR 1977.4 - Persons prohibited from discriminating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons prohibited from discriminating. 1977.4 Section 1977.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  17. 29 CFR 1977.15 - Filing of complaint for discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filing of complaint for discrimination. 1977.15 Section 1977.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  18. 29 CFR 1977.18 - Arbitration or other agency proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arbitration or other agency proceedings. 1977.18 Section 1977.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  19. 29 CFR 1977.15 - Filing of complaint for discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filing of complaint for discrimination. 1977.15 Section 1977.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  20. 29 CFR 1977.15 - Filing of complaint for discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filing of complaint for discrimination. 1977.15 Section 1977.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  1. 29 CFR 1977.15 - Filing of complaint for discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing of complaint for discrimination. 1977.15 Section 1977.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  2. 29 CFR 1977.4 - Persons prohibited from discriminating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons prohibited from discriminating. 1977.4 Section 1977.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  3. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.2 - Purpose of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose of this part. 1977.2 Section 1977.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  5. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.4 - Persons prohibited from discriminating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons prohibited from discriminating. 1977.4 Section 1977.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  7. 29 CFR 1977.4 - Persons prohibited from discriminating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons prohibited from discriminating. 1977.4 Section 1977.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  8. 29 CFR 1977.2 - Purpose of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of this part. 1977.2 Section 1977.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  9. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.18 - Arbitration or other agency proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration or other agency proceedings. 1977.18 Section 1977.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.15 - Filing of complaint for discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of complaint for discrimination. 1977.15 Section 1977.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  13. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  14. Expression levels of heat shock protein 60 and glucose-regulated protein 78 in response to trimethylamine-N-oxide treatment in murine macrophage J774A.1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Gholamhoseyniannajar, A; Yaghoobi, M M; Jahani, Y; Vahabzadeh, Z

    2015-09-26

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a common metabolite in animals and humans, can induce changes in the expression or conformation of heat shock proteins. It has also been introduced as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and a biomarker for kidney problems. On the other hand, increased levels of heat shock proteins 60 and 70 KDa are associated with increased atherosclerosis risk. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the possible effect(s) of TMAO on the expression of HSP60 and GRP78 at the mRNA and protein levels. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were treated with micromolar concentrations of TMAO and 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperon, for different time intervals. Tunicamycin was also used as a control for induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Tunicamycin greatly increased both mRNA and protein levels of GRP78. Similarly but to a lesser extent compared to tunicamycin, TMAO also increased mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 in a dose and time-dependent manner. In contrast, 4-PBA failed to induce any changes. Similar to GRP78, HSP60 was also increased only at mRNA level in TMAO treated cells. 4-PBA also increased HSP60 mRNA levels, whereas, tunicamycin did not show any effect on either protein or mRNA levels of HSP60. Since both heat shock proteins are stress inducible and the elevation of GRP78 is a hallmark for endoplasmic reticulum stress induction, it can be concluded that TMAO may induce endoplasmic reticulum stress or may act through elevation of these heat shock proteins.

  15. Heat shock at higher cell densities improves measles hemagglutinin translocation and human GRP78/BiP secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zinkevičiūtė, Rūta; Bakūnaitė, Edita; Čiplys, Evaldas; Ražanskas, Raimundas; Raškevičiūtė, Jurgita; Slibinskas, Rimantas

    2015-12-25

    The yield of heterologous proteins is often limited by several bottlenecks in the secretory pathway of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was shown earlier that synthesis of measles virus hemagglutinin (MeH) is inefficient mostly due to a bottleneck in the translocation of viral protein precursors into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of yeast cells. Here we report that heat shock with subsequent induction of MeH expression at 37°C improved translocation of MeH precursors when applied at higher cell densities. The amount of MeH glycoprotein increased by about 3-fold after heat shock in the late-log phases of both glucose and ethanol growth. The same temperature conditions increased both secretion titer and yield of another heterologous protein human GRP78/BiP by about 50%. Furthermore, heat shock at the late-log glucose growth phase also improved endogenous invertase yield by approximately 2.7-fold. In contrast, a transfer of yeast culture to lower temperature at diauxic shift followed by protein expression at 20°C almost totally inhibited translocation of MeH precursors. The difference in amounts of MeH glycoprotein under expression at 37°C and 20°C was about 80-fold, while amounts of unglycosylated MeH polypeptides were similar under both conditions. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that besides over-expressed ER-resident chaperone Kar2, an increased expression of several cytosolic proteins (such as Hsp104, Hsp90 and eEF1A) may contribute to improved translocation of MeH.

  16. Status and population trends of Hawaii's native waterbirds, 1977-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engilis, Andrew; Pratt, Thane K.

    1993-01-01

    Status and population trends of Hawaiis ’ native waterbirds were examined from 1977 through 1987. Waterbird population fluctuations were analyzed in relation to rainfall and land use dynamics. Numbers of Hawaiian Duck (Koloa) (Anus wyvilliana) and Hawaiian Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis) appeared stable over time; however, surveys were limited. Increase in Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorux nycticorux) abundance appeared linked to expansion of aquaculture, particularly on Oahu, and not to climatic events. Annual rainfall patterns help explain and predict population fluctuations and anomalous distribution patterns involving Hawaiian American Coots (Fulica americana alai), moorhens, and Hawaiian Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Coot, stilt, and moorhen populations fluctuated with climatic events, and intraisland dispersal to ephemeral wetlands occurred. Stilts exhibited regular inter-island migratory behavior, but coots dispersed in relation to major rainfall events. Seasonal fluctuation recorded for coots by past observers is the result of survey techniques not accounting for seasonal dispersal patterns.

  17. US Beryllium Case Registry through 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Sprince, N.L.; Kazemi, H.

    1980-02-01

    A synopsis of the cases reported to the Beryllium Case Registry between 1973 and 1977 is presented. As of 1973, there were 832 cases of beryllium disease entered into the Registry. In the five years since that report, 55 additional cases have been added, 40 men and 15 women. Exposures occured in the electronics and nuclear industries in the production and use of beryllium containing alloys and beryllium oxide ceramis. Pathological changes in the lung tissue are described. Cases continue to be reported in which the diagnosis was sarcoidosis until the history of beryllium exposure led to the finding of beryllium in the lung tissue or mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Data from the Registry support the fact that chronic beryllium disease is a continued occupational hazard.

  18. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 1977-1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gove, H. E.; Purser, K. H.; Litherland, A. E.

    2010-04-01

    The eleventh Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS 11) Conference took place in September 2008, the Thirtieth Anniversary of the first Conference. That occurred in 1978 after discoveries with nuclear physics accelerators in 1977. Since the first Conference there have now been ten further conferences on the development and applications of what has become known as AMS. This is the accepted acronym for the use of accelerators, together with nuclear and atomic physics techniques, to enhance the performance of mass spectrometers for the detection and measurement of rare long-lived radioactive elements such as radiocarbon. This paper gives an outline of the events that led to the first conference together with a brief account of the first four conferences before the introduction of the second generation of accelerator mass spectrometers at AMS 5.

  19. Skeletal cryptococcosis from 1977 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heng-Xing; Lu, Lu; Chu, Tianci; Wang, Tianyi; Cao, Daigui; Li, Fuyuan; Ning, Guangzhi; Feng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal cryptococcosis, an aspect of disseminated cryptococcal disease or isolated skeletal cryptococcal infection, is a rare but treatable disease. However, limited information is available regarding its clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. This systematic review examined all cases published between April 1977 and May 2013 with regard to the factors associated with this disease, including patient sex, age, and epidemiological history; affected sites; clinical symptoms; underlying diseases; laboratory tests; radiological manifestations; and delays in diagnosis, treatment, follow-up assessments, and outcomes. We found that immune abnormality is a risk factor but does not predict mortality; these observations are due to recent Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii (CNVG) outbreaks (Chaturvedi and Chaturvedi, 2011). Dissemination was irrespective of immune status and required combination therapy, and dissemination carried a worse prognosis. Therefore, a database of skeletal cryptococcosis cases should be created. PMID:25642211

  20. Redox flow cell development and demonstration project, calendar year 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Research and development on the redox flow cell conducted from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 1977, are described in this report. The major focus of the effort during 1977 was the key technology issues that directly influence the fundamental feasibility of the overall redox concept. These issues were the development of a suitable ion exchange membrane for the system, the screening and study of candidate redox couples to achieve optimum cell performance, and the carrying out of systems analysis and modeling to develop system performance goals and cost estimates.

  1. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale.

  2. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  3. Effect of seasonal variation on some physical properties and heat stability of milk subjected to ultra-high temperature and in-container sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biye; Grandison, Alistair S; Lewis, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Heat stability was evaluated in bulk raw milk, collected throughout the year and subjected to ultra-high temperature (UHT) or in-container sterilisation, with and without added calcium chloride (2mM), disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP, 10mM) and trisodium citrate (TSC, 10mM). More sediment was observed following in-container sterilisation (0.24%) compared with UHT (0.19%). Adding CaCl2 made the milk more unstable to UHT than to in-container sterilisation, while adding DSHP and TSC made the milk more unstable during in-container sterilisation than to UHT processing, although TSC addition increased the sediment formed by UHT processing. Better heat stability was observed in autumn and winter than in spring and summer following UHT. However, following in-container sterilisation, samples with added stabilising salts showed significantly improved heat stability in autumn, whereas with added CaCl2, the best heat stability was observed in spring. No correlation was found between urea and heat stability.

  4. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  5. A Saturnian stratospheric seasonal climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Caldwell, J.

    1979-01-01

    Motivated by recent observational evidence that seasonal processes occur within Saturn's stratosphere, a seasonal stratospheric climate model has been constructed. This model predicts stratospheric temperatures above the P = 0.1-atm level as a function of time throughout the Saturnian year. Specific results are presented for south-polar and equatorial temperatures. The model predicts that substantial seasonal phase lags exist; maximum stratospheric temperatures at the south pole occur at the southern hemisphere's autumnal equinox. Brightness temperature observations at 17.8 microns, taken during 1977/1978, indicate that stratospheric temperatures are greater at the south pole than at the equator. The model is consistent with these observations, predicting enhanced south polar temperatures, relative to the equator, from 1975 to 1983.

  6. Petrology of 1977 to 1998 eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise, La Réunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Pierre; Bachèlery, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    crystallisation. This variation agrees with the hypothesis of magma contamination at shallow level in the altered volcanic edifice (Vlastélic, I., Deniel, C., Bosq, C., Télouk, P., Boivin, P., Bachèlery, P., Famin, V., Staudacher, T., 2009-this issue. Pb isotope geochemistry of Piton de la Fournaise historical lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 184, 63-78 (this issue)). Overall, petrological variations are in good agreement with a model of a shallow reservoir discontinuously supplied between 1977 and 1998. The speed of the variations, the coexistence of different liquids, the chemical evolution of the lavas during the same eruption, lead us to favour a model of chemically stratified reservoir, constituted by a complex of dykes, sills and laccoliths close to the surface and located above larger magma bodies.

  7. 46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF DAMAGE AND NOT QUITE AS WIDE AN ANGLE VIEW. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  8. 5. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis Library. SECTION OF AQUEDUCT SHOWING CAST-IRON LINING AS USED OVER BRIDGES. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  9. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose drawing in Jervis Library. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose drawing in Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF ORIGINAL DESIGN FOR HIGH BRIDGE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Harlem River Crossing, Spanning Harlem River, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  10. Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for the City of San Jose in cooperative agreement with the California Department of Transportation (from the San Jose Historical Museum) - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  11. ERDA and NSF Gain in Fiscal 1977 Budget Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Provides a breakdown of topics of support covered in the 1977 fiscal year proposed budgets for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). (CP)

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Aaron Gallup, Photographer September 1977 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Aaron Gallup, Photographer September 1977 SOUTH (REAR) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Eagle Cafe, 2566 Powell Street (moved to Pier 39), San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Aaron Gallup, Photographer September 1977 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Aaron Gallup, Photographer September 1977 EAST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS - Eagle Cafe, 2566 Powell Street (moved to Pier 39), San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Aaron Gallup, Photographer September 1977 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Aaron Gallup, Photographer September 1977 NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Eagle Cafe, 2566 Powell Street (moved to Pier 39), San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman Document 55, NYC: January 4, 1838. PLANS FOR CROSSING THE HARLEM RIVER BY CAST IRON PIPES OR INVERTED SYPHON. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  16. 44. Photocopied December 1977, from the original document found in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopied December 1977, from the original document found in Jervis' 'Proposition' notebook, Jervis Library. RECORD OF PROPOSITION RECEIVED ON SECTION 96 OF THE OLD CROTON AQUEDUCT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  17. Nuclear war: a selective bibliography, 1977-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography lists books, general and legal periodical articles, and congressional materials on the strategy and consequences of nuclear warfare. Cited items were published during the period 1977-1982.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1977 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Columbia Glacier, Alaska: changes in velocity 1977-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.; Vaughn, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Columbia Glacier, a grounded, iceberg-calving tidewater glacier near Valdez, Alaska, began to retreat about 1977. Drastic retreat occurred in 1984, and by early 1986, retreat amounted to 2km. The glacier has thinned more than 100m since 1974 at a point 4km behind the 1974 terminus position. Between 1977 and 1985 the lower glacier ice velocity increased from 3-8m/d to 10-15m/d. -from Authors

  20. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical publications announced in 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes over 780 technical reports resulting from the scientific and engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1977. All the publications were announced in the 1977 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Documents cited include research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  1. A Study of School Without Schools: The Columbus, Ohio Public Schools During the Natural Gas Shortage, Winter, 1977. Volume I and Volume II, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The energy crisis, specifically a shortage of natural gas, caused by the unusually cold winter of 1977, resulted in the Columbus, Ohio, schools being closed for a month. Schools heated with gas were closed, but students met one day a week in school buildings that used coal, oil, or electricity. The educational program continued with school…

  2. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  3. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to...

  4. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The...

  5. The Social Science Teacher, Vol. 6, No. 3, February 1977, Vol. 6, No. 4, April 1977 [And] Vol. 6, No. 5, June 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Teaching of the Social Sciences (England).

    The first three issues for 1977 of The Social Science Teacher are presented. Each issue is devoted to a special topic relevant to social science instruction in elementary and secondary grades in England. The February issue contains five articles focusing on the teaching of politics. Included are discussions of politics as a compulsory course, an…

  6. Influence of a heated effluent, season, and fish size of the prevalence and mean intensity of monogenean gill infestation in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) in Lake Monona, Dane County, Wisconsin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of a heated effluent on the prevalence and mean intensity of gill infestation by monogeneans was negligible, while that of season and fish size was significant. Gills were examined from 822 bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, taken during a 15-month period in three areas, the outfall area (OA) and two reference areas (RA I and RA II), of Lake Monona, Dane County, Wisconsin, USA. The OA, in a heated water effluent from the Madison Gas and Electric Company, was warmest. The RA II, farthest from the discharge, was coolest. Prevalence of monogenean gill infestation was 100% among bluegills taken from all three sampling areas during the entire sampling period. Mean intensity of monogenean gill infestation varied significantly with the time of year and size of fish, but not significantly among the OA, RA I and RA II for the same time of year and size class of fish. In all sampling areas the largest mean worm burdens occurred in June and July, and on bluegills 131-160 mm in total length, while the fewest appeared in January and on 39-70 mm fish.

  7. Public Health Concerns Associated with the New York City Blackout of 1977.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2016-08-01

    The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems. The 1977 blackout occurred during an extended heat wave. An analysis of total deaths and deaths due to pulmonary and cardiovascular/renal diseases by day correlated with temperatures. However, there was no direct correlation with the blackout itself, in part perhaps because of the confounding influence of high temperatures. The increase of deaths on very hot days outside of the blackout period lends strong support to the relationship between increased deaths and high ambient temperatures. The 1977 New York City blackout was distinguished from those of 1965 and 2003 by violence, arson, and looting that occurred in several areas. These acts resulted in 204 civilian injuries, 436 police injuries, 80 firefighter injuries, and 1037 fires. The violence, arson, and looting caused extensive long-term physical and functional damage to certain areas of two boroughs of the city, Brooklyn and the Bronx. Although the New York City Department of Health had not previously established a disaster preparedness plan, its professionals quickly rose to the occasion because they were able to draw upon vast public health practice experience and ingenuity. PMID:27220853

  8. Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah S; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2016-01-01

    Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers' perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively). Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ≤ 0.001) and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ≤ 0.001), especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses. PMID:26729144

  9. Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah S.; Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-01-01

    Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers’ perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively). Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ≤ 0.001) and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ≤ 0.001), especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses. PMID:26729144

  10. Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah S; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2016-01-01

    Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers' perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively). Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ≤ 0.001) and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ≤ 0.001), especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses.

  11. Channel erosion surveys along the TAPS route, Alaska, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeffler, Robert M.; Childers, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Channel surveys were made along the trans-Alaska pipeline system (TAPS) route during 1977 at the same 28 sites that were studied in 1976. In addition, a new site at pipeline mile 22 near Deadhorse (alignment No 134) along the Sagavanirktok River was put under surveillance. Except for changes wrought by the completion of construction, most of the sites showed very little change. Significant events include virtual completion of all construction activities along the pipeline, the pipeline startup , and the breakup flood along the Sagavanirktok River which breached many river-training structures. In general, 1977 saw heavy flooding on streams draining the north and south slopes of the Brooks Range and only moderate flooding on streams further south. Aerial photogrammetric surveys were used again in 1977 on the same seven sites as in 1976. Results document the applicability of the method for channel erosion studies. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  13. A gap-filling model for eddy covariance latent heat flux: Estimating evapotranspiration of a subtropical seasonal evergreen broad-leaved forest as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Chu, Chia-Ren; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2012-10-01

    SummaryIn this paper we present a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model for tower-based measurement of latent heat flux (LE). Two statistical techniques, the principal component analysis (PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation approach were integrated into this LE gap-filling model. The PCA was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various environmental variables, including radiation, soil moisture deficit, leaf area index, wind speed, etc. Two nonlinear interpolation methods, multiple regressions (MRS) and the K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) were examined with random selected flux gaps for both clear sky and nighttime/cloudy data to incorporate into this LE gap-filling model. Experimental results indicated that the KNN interpolation approach is able to provide consistent LE estimations while MRS presents over estimations during nighttime/cloudy. Rather than using empirical regression parameters, the KNN approach resolves the nonlinear relationship between the gap-filled LE flux and principal components with adaptive K values under different atmospheric states. The developed LE gap-filling model (PCA with KNN) works with a RMSE of 2.4 W m-2 (˜0.09 mm day-1) at a weekly time scale by adding 40% artificial flux gaps into original dataset. Annual evapotranspiration at this study site were estimated at 736 mm (1803 MJ) and 728 mm (1785 MJ) for year 2008 and 2009, respectively.

  14. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  15. 264. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by the Space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    264. Photocopy of drawing (1977 piping drawing by the Space and Missile Test Center, VAFB, USAF) NITROGEN AND HELIUM PUMPING SYSTEMS INSTALLATION SITE PLAN AND DETAILS, SHEET 3 OF 9 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. National Dance Association. Lectures by NDA Scholars 1977-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Dance Association.

    This monograph contains reprints of lectures presented by National Dance Association Scholars from 1977 through 1987. The following Scholars are represented: (1) Elizabeth R. Hayes; (2) Miriam Gray; (3) Ruth L. Murray; (4) Araminta Little; (5) Mary Frances Dougherty; (6) Charlotte York Irey; (7) Lois "Betty" Ellfeldt; (8) Mary Alice "Buff"…

  17. 275. Photocopy of drawing (1977 civil engineering drawing by the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    275. Photocopy of drawing (1977 civil engineering drawing by the Strategic Air Command, VAFB, USAF) SITE PLAN, LOCATION MAP, AND CONTOUR MAP, ALSO TABLE OF CONTENTS AND GENERAL NOTES, SHEET 1 OF 10 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Social Science Research Council Annual Report, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.

    The report summarizes membership, activities, and finances of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) for the year 1976-1977. SSRC is a nonprofit corporation which has as its purpose the advancement of research in the social sciences. It endeavors to stimulate the development of theory and empirical knowledge concerning human behavior through…

  19. 2. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis Library. ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF AQUEDUCT BRIDGE AT SING SING, SHOWING ALL THREE ARCHES, INCLUDING 88-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  20. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), Jervis Library. INITIAL BRIDGE DESIGN FOR CROSSING MILL RIVER. STRUCTURE NOT BUILT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Culvert, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  1. The Countryside Council. Biennial Report 1977-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest State Univ., Marshall, Minn.

    The Countryside Council is a citizen-based non-partisan public interest research group based in 19 counties of rural southwestern Minnesota. Each year the Council identifies particular problems or needs of the region and sets up task forces to study each problem and make recommendations for resolution. During 1977-79 six task forces were at work.…

  2. 1. Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of site plan, Dene Hendrick, delineator, 1977, for the City of San Jose in cooperative agreement with the California Department of Transportation (from the San Jose Historical Museum). - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  3. Reports of planetary geology program, 1976 - 1977. [abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. (Compiler); Wahmann, R. (Compiler); Howard, J. H., III

    1977-01-01

    One hundred seventeen investigations undertaken in the NASA Planetary Geology Program in 1976-1977 are reported in abstract form. Topics discussed include solar system formation; planetary interiors; planetary evolution; asteroids, comets and moons; cratering; volcanic, eolian, fluvial and mass wasting processes; volatiles and the Martian regolith; mapping; and instrument development and techniques. An author index is provided.

  4. Significant achievements in the planetary program, 1976 - 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1977 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  5. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: 1977 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The national programs in aeronautics and space made steady progress in 1977 toward their long-term objectives. In aeronautics the goals were improved performance, energy efficiency, and safety in aircraft. In space the goals were: (1) better remote sensing systems to generate more sophisticated information about the Earth's environment; (2)…

  6. Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. Summary Report 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M.

    A brief summary of data gathered from the Survey of Earned Doctorates during the academic year 1976-1977 is presented in this, the eleventh in a series of yearly summaries of data, a series that began in 1967. Data was obtained from questionnaires filled out by the graduates as they completed all requirements for their doctoral degrees, and refers…

  7. Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: A Checklist, 1961-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh R., Comp.

    This checklist brings together the bulk of the materials relating to libraries and librarianship in Papua New Guinea, including several that have not been identified previously. The 121 citations for papers, reports, and periodical articles published between 1961 and 1977 are listed in chronological order. Excluded are newspaper reports, official…

  8. Students and Drugs at NCSU: 1977-1978 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Earl H.

    A survey conducted in 1977 at North Carolina State University on drugs was designed to measure usage rates for four types of drugs: marijuana, hallucinogens (such as LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin); amphetamines and barbituates; and narcotics (heroin, opium, and morphine). The questionnaire was also designed to determine student attitudes on…

  9. 276. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by the Strategic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    276. Photocopy of drawing (1977 structural drawing by the Strategic Air Command, VAFB, USAF) STRUCTURAL PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND DETAILS FOR THE THEODOLITE STATIONS, SLC-3, SHEET 2 OF 10 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Morning Star Cycle Two (1977-1979): Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, L. V.

    Evaluation of cycle two of the (1977-1979) Morning Star program (a 2-year Native teacher education program at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) used a systems model to collect data on 24 variables for the 33 participating students, the academic program, and first and…

  11. The File. Case Study in Correction (1977-1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Serge

    In reaction to the 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate by Everett C. Ladd and Seymour Martin Lipset, Serge Lang began a file of letters expressing concern over and opposition to the study. The controversy began when Lang wrote a letter to the researchers expressing his opposition, with copies to members of the academic community,…

  12. Indian Employment in New Mexico State Government: 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Ernest J.

    To update a 1974 report on the status of American Indian employment in the state of New Mexico, a 1977 study on the composition of the state's work force was undertaken, including descriptions of the overall distribution of state employment by job category, grade, and salary level. Despite progress, it was found that: (1) Indians still constituted…

  13. An Evaluation of the 1977 Canadian Firearms Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauser, Gary A.; Holmes, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A pooled cross-section time series model is used to evaluate the effect of the 1977 Canadian firearms legislation on the provincial homicide rate between 1969 and 1989. Results agree with most studies that indicate no significant effect of this legislation on homicide rates. (SLD)

  14. Hearing-Impaired Children under Age 6: 1977 and 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildroth, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    A review of annual survey data revealed that hearing impaired children under age 6 reported in 1984, when compared to those reported in 1977, tended to be younger; had higher percentages of heredity, meningitis, and prematurity as causes of hearing loss; and were more likely to have additional handicaps. (CL)

  15. Written Communication in Business: A Selective Bibliography, 1967-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Ann; Stamas, Joan D.

    Designed for use by teachers and students of business communication, writers working in business, and librarians in academic, business, and public libraries, this annotated bibliography lists more than 800 books and articles published from 1967 to 1977. It includes entries on the writing of business letters, memos, reports, employee publications,…

  16. Rural and Urban Government Fiscal Trends, 1977-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.

    This report examines trends in local government revenues, expenditures and debt from 1977-82. During the period, local governments were subject to cuts in federal aid, severe economic recession and restrictions on revenues and spending, necessitating a fiscal response. Spending reductions were common, especially in big cities. Rural governments…

  17. Southern Higher Education Legislative Report, 1977. A Summary of State Legislation in 1977 Affecting Higher Education in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    In this report of Southern Regional Education Board state legislative action in 1977, an end-of-sessions summary is offered for these states: Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, West Virginia, Maryland, Alabama, Tennessee, Texas, South Carolina, Florida, North Carolina, and Louisiana. Higher education shared in the benefits of an improved…

  18. Reports from the International Conference on Education, 1977. Rapports de la Conference internationale de l'education, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This dual-language catalog contains abstracts of 188 documents prepared for the 1977 International Conference on Education. The documents describe educational policies toward development, major trends in education, and the problem of information at the national and international levels posed by the improvement of educational systems. Abstracts are…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan. Vol. 11, No. 2, 1977, Period Covered April-June, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Geti, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography cites books, journal articles, policy statements, newspapers, and other publications about education in Pakistan. Most of the citations were published from March to June of 1977. A few citations date from 1975. The bibliography is organized into 27 sections including administration, adult education, curriculum,…

  20. Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. I-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…

  1. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-04-21

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1-100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air-sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1-10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below.

  2. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  3. International developments in seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Gyuk, I.; Shivers, R.

    1984-08-01

    With thermal energy sources such as cogeneration or waste incineration, there is considerable disparity between potential heat supply and possible application. A similar problem exists for the utilization of winter chill for summer air conditioning. Seasonal thermal energy storage would be an essential factor in enhancing the cost effectiveness of such schemes. We shall review characteristic experimental facilities for large scale thermal energy storage in Canada, Scandinavia and the rest of Europe.

  4. Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Kayano, Mary T.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 2012, and 2014.

  5. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1977.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Fisher, C R

    1979-01-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1977 reveals that of the $142.6 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1977, 29 percent was spent for those aged 65 or older, 59 percent for those aged 19-64, and 13 percent for those below age 19. The average health bill reached $1,745 for the aged, $661 for the intermediate age group, and $253 for the young. Public funds financed 67 percent of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 61 percent. More than two-thirds of the health expenses of the young and 71 percent of the expenses of those aged 19-64 were paid by private sources. Third-party payments met 68 percent of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:107600

  6. Status and quality of radiation measurements in water, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Shawver, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The data returned to the Quality Assurance Branch, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las Vegas, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by participants in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory Intercomparison Studies Program are summarized. Some 150 state, federal, private, and international laboratories analyzed samples of unknown concentration at or near environmental levels for various radionuclides as part of the Intercomparison Studies Program for Water. In all, 24 water studies were conducted in 1977, requiring participating laboratories to measure the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, chromium-51, zinc-65, cobalt-60, ruthenium-106, cesium-134, cesium-137, strontium-89, strontium-90, radium-226, radium-228, and plutonium-239. The precision and accuracy of the cumulative reported intercomparison data for the 1977 water analyses are examined.

  7. Epidemic dengue fever in Puerto Rico, 1977: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Von Allmen, S D; López-Correa, R H; Woodall, J P; Morens, D M; Chiriboga, J; Casta-Velez, A

    1979-11-01

    During the period July-December 1977, a widespread epidemic of dengue fever occurred in Puerto Rico. The cost of the epidemic was calculated, using upper and lower limit incidence figures, in terms of direct costs (medical care and epidemic control measures) and indirect costs (lost production of ill workers and parents of ill children). Direct costs were estimated to range between $2.4 and $4.7 million. Indirect costs were calculated by using current (1977) employment and wage data and population extrapolations from the 1970 census, and entailed a loss to the Puerto Rico economy of from $3.7 to $10.9 million. The total cost of this epidemic, therefore, was estimated to be in a range of $6.0 to $15.6 million, of which epidemic control measures comprised 7.8--20.2%.

  8. Drought in California; water resources data for 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Leonard N.; Pearce, Verrie F.

    1978-01-01

    The 2-year dry period 1976-77 was the most severe drought in northern California 's history, and the quantity and quality of all water-supply sources in the State were affected. This report contains special water-resources data collected by the Geological Survey during 1977. These data include: streamflow at 11 selected stations, comparing the 1977 mean monthly and yearly flow to the period-of-record medians; base-flow measurements at 189 selected sites; water quality at 131 selected sites; ground-water levels in wells and river stages along a 158-mile reach of the Sacramento River; and, finally, graphs showing the effect of tidal action on suspended-sediment concentration at the stream-gaging station on the Sacramento River at Sacramento. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Radial and latitudinal gradients of anomalous oxygen during 1977 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    It is found that the radial gradient of anomalous O remains during 1977 to 1985 at approx. 10% to 15%/AU although the intensity changes by more than a factor of 100. These results can be used to deduce that most of the modulation of the intensities of these particles is occurring beyond 27 AU. Evidence is also found for a latitudinal gradient of approx. +3%/degree at low energies (7.1 to 10.6 MeV/nuc).

  10. Trajectory selection for the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, J. S.; Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of decision analysis to facilitate a group decision-making problem in the selection of trajectories for the two spacecraft of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project. A set of 32 candidate trajectory pairs was developed. Cardinal utility function values were assigned to the trajectory pairs, and the data and statistics derived from collective choice rules were used in selecting the science-preferred trajectory pair.

  11. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  12. The 1977 tundra fire at Kokolik River, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Brown, J.; Johnson, L.

    1981-01-01

    During the summer of 1977, fire totaled 44 sq km of tundra vegetation according to measurements using LANDSAT imagery. Based on the experience gained from analysis of this fire using ground observations, satellite imagery, and topographic maps, it appears that natural drainages form effective fire breaks on the subdued relief of the Arctic coastal plain and northern foothills. It is confirmed that the intensity of the fire is related to vegetation type and to the moisture content of the organic rich soils.

  13. The 1977 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The papers presented were derived from transcripts taken at the Tenth Annual Battery Workshop held at the Goddard Space Flight Center, November 15-17, 1977. The Workshop was attended by manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest results of testing, analysis, and development of the sealed nickel cadmium cell system. The purpose of the Workshop was to share flight and test experience, stimulate discussion on problem areas, and to review the latest technology improvements.

  14. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  15. 78 FR 29032 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Tennessee: Revisions to Volatile Organic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Register on August 25, 1997 (62 FR 44900) and April 9, 1998 (63 FR 17331) adding the 16 compounds listed... ozone (42 FR 35314, July 8, 1977). EPA determines whether a given carbon compound has ``negligible... Comments On February 19, 2013 (78 FR 11583), EPA published a direct final action and parallel...

  16. Johnstown-Western Pennsylvania Storms and Floods of July 19-20, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoxit, L. Ray; Maddox, Robert A.; Chappell, Charles F.; Brua, Stan A.

    1982-01-01

    Widespread thunderstorms associated with two major squall lines, moved across Pennsylvania between the afternoon of July 19 and morning of July 20, 1977. The western part of outflow boundary produced by the second line became almost stationary in western Pennsylvania and resulted in 6 to 9 hours of nearly continuous thunderstorms. More than 6 inches of rain fell over a 400-square-mile area during this period. In the hills just north and east of Johnstown, rainfall totals were as much as 12 inches. Flash flooding was severe as the storms moved slowly southeastward across the Allegheny, Susquehanna, and Potomac River basins. Peak natural runoff rates greater than 1,000 cubic feet per second per square mile were common for streams draining up to 10 square miles. At eight gaging stations, recurrence intervals for the peak discharges were estimated to be 100 years or more. In addition to high surface runoff, some disasterous flooding also resulted from the failure of seven earthfill-gravity-type dams. At least 78 deaths were attributed to the flooding and eight persons were still listed as missing 1 year later. Total damages in the eight-county flood area were extremely high, possibly exceeding $500 million.

  17. Global Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamerius, James

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low specific humidity conditions facilitate the transmission of the influenza virus in temperate regions and result in annual winter epidemics. However, this relationship does not account for the epidemiology of influenza in tropical and subtropical regions where epidemics often occur during the rainy season or transmit year-round without a well-defined season. We assessed the role of specific humidity and other local climatic variables on influenza virus seasonality by modeling epidemiological and climatic information from 78 study sites sampled globally. We substantiated that there are two types of environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: "cold-dry" and "humid-rainy". For sites where monthly average specific humidity or temperature decreases below thresholds of approximately 11-12 g/kg and 18-21 °C during the year, influenza activity peaks during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter) when specific humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. For sites where specific humidity and temperature do not decrease below these thresholds, seasonal influenza activity is more likely to peak in months when average precipitation totals are maximal and greater than 150 mm per month. Based on these findings, we develop Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIRS) models forced by daily weather observations of specific humidity and precipitation that simulate the diversity of seasonal influenza signals worldwide.

  18. Impact of Seasonal Conditions on Quality and Pathogens Content of Milk in Friesian Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M. A.; Abdel Aziz, Rabie L.; Mohammed, Asmaa N.; Bernabucci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress negatively affects milk quality altering its nutritive value and cheese making properties. This study aimed at assessing the impact of seasonal microclimatic conditions on milk quality of Friesian cows. The study was carried out in a dairy farm from June 2013 to May 2014 at Beni-Suef province, Egypt. Inside the barn daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded and used to calculate the daily maximum temperature-humidity index (mxTHI), which was used as indicator of the degree of heat stress. The study was carried out in three periods according to the temperature-humidity index (THI) recorded: from June 2013 to September 2013 (mxTHI>78), from October 2013 to November 2013 (mxTHI 72–78) and from December 2013 to April 2014 (mxTHI<72). Eighty Friesian lactating dairy cows were monitored in each period. The three groups of cows were balanced for days in milk and parity. Milk quality data referred to somatic cell count, total coliform count (TCC), faecal coliform count (FCC), Escherichia coli count, percentage of E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, percentage of fat, protein, lactose, total solid and solid non-fat. Increasing THI was associated with a significant decrease in all milk main components. An increase of TCC, FCC, and E. coli count from mxTHI<72 to mxTHI>78 was observed. In addition, the isolation rate of both S. aureus and E. coli increased when the mxTHI increased. The results of this study show the seriousness of the negative effects of hot conditions on milk composition and mammary gland pathogens. These facts warrant the importance of adopting mitigation strategies to alleviate negative consequences of heat stress in dairy cows and for limiting related economic losses. PMID:27165021

  19. Impact of Seasonal Conditions on Quality and Pathogens Content of Milk in Friesian Cows.

    PubMed

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel Aziz, Rabie L; Mohammed, Asmaa N; Bernabucci, Umberto

    2016-08-01

    Heat stress negatively affects milk quality altering its nutritive value and cheese making properties. This study aimed at assessing the impact of seasonal microclimatic conditions on milk quality of Friesian cows. The study was carried out in a dairy farm from June 2013 to May 2014 at Beni-Suef province, Egypt. Inside the barn daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded and used to calculate the daily maximum temperature-humidity index (mxTHI), which was used as indicator of the degree of heat stress. The study was carried out in three periods according to the temperature-humidity index (THI) recorded: from June 2013 to September 2013 (mxTHI>78), from October 2013 to November 2013 (mxTHI 72-78) and from December 2013 to April 2014 (mxTHI<72). Eighty Friesian lactating dairy cows were monitored in each period. The three groups of cows were balanced for days in milk and parity. Milk quality data referred to somatic cell count, total coliform count (TCC), faecal coliform count (FCC), Escherichia coli count, percentage of E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, percentage of fat, protein, lactose, total solid and solid non-fat. Increasing THI was associated with a significant decrease in all milk main components. An increase of TCC, FCC, and E. coli count from mxTHI<72 to mxTHI>78 was observed. In addition, the isolation rate of both S. aureus and E. coli increased when the mxTHI increased. The results of this study show the seriousness of the negative effects of hot conditions on milk composition and mammary gland pathogens. These facts warrant the importance of adopting mitigation strategies to alleviate negative consequences of heat stress in dairy cows and for limiting related economic losses. PMID:27165021

  20. The Arctic Ocean's seasonal cycle must change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James; Ding, Yanni

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses anticipated changes to the seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean along with Arctic surface climate due to the reduction of seasonal sea ice cover expected in the 21st century. Net surface shortwave radiation is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric transparency as well as solar declination. Recent observational studies and modeling results presented here strongly suggest that this excess heat in the summer is currently being stored locally in the form of ocean warming and sea ice melt. This heat is lost in winter/spring through surface loss through longwave and turbulent processes causing ocean cooling and the refreezing of sea ice. A striking feature of Arctic climate during the 20th century has been the enhanced warming experienced during winter in response to increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of surface air temperature is declining by gradually warming winter temperatures relative to summer temperatures. Bintanja and van der Linden (2013) show this process will eventually cause the 30C seasonal change in air temperature to reduce by half as seasonal sea ice disappears. The much weaker seasonal cycle of ocean temperature, which is controlled by the need to store excess surface heat seasonally, is also going to be affected by the loss of sea ice but in quite different ways. In particular the ocean will need to compensate for the loss of seasonal heat storage by the ice pack. This study examines consequences for the Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation in a suite of CMIP5 models under future emissions scenarios relative to their performance during the 20th century and to explore a range of model ocean responses to declining sea ice cover on the Arctic Ocean.

  1. Astrometric observations of the faint satellites of Jupiter and minor planets, 1974-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. R.; Shelus, P. J.; Mulholland, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Precise positions of the faint satellites VI-XII of Jupiter during the 1974 opposition, and for Jupiter XIII during the 1976-1977 and 1977-1978 oppositions, have been obtained from plates taken with the 2.1-m Otto Struve reflector of the McDonald Observatory by the use of a new quasi-automatic plate measurement and reduction procedure on a PDS microdensitometer. Observations of selected asteroids, including two of 1977 UB (Chiron) are given also.

  2. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  3. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  4. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations...

  5. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations...

  6. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  7. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  8. Temporal variations of the anomalous oxygen component, 1977 - 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Klecker, B.; Galvin, A. B.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is of the long term temporal variations of 6.6 to 12 MeV/nucleon anomalous oxygen at 1 AU covering the period 1977 to 1984. This time interval included the recent solar maximum, with the recovery at neutron monitor energies beginning in 1982. During this time interval, 6.6 to 12 MeV/nucleon 0 fluxes decreased by at least a factor of 50, and indeed remained below the instrumental detection threshold after 1979. By late 1984, neutron monitors had recovered to roughly 1979 levels from the 1982 solar maximum, and anomalous O still remained below the detection threshold.

  9. Trajectory selection for the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, J. S.; Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes the use of decision analysis to facilitate a group decision-making problem in the selection of trajectories for the two spacecraft of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project. This NASA project includes the participation of some eighty scientists divided by specialization among eleven science teams. A set of thirty-two candidate trajectory pairs was developed by the Project in collaboration with the science teams. Each science team then ordinally ranked and assigned cardinal utility function values to the trajectory pairs. These data and statistics derived from collective choice rules were used by the scientists in selecting the preferred trajectory pair.

  10. Avian cholera in waterfowl in Saskatchewan, spring 1977.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Hunter, D B; Wright, B; Nieman, D J; Isbister, R

    1979-01-01

    Avian cholera was diagnosed in lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens), Ross' geese (Anser rossii) and individuals of several other waterfowl species in a small area of south-western Saskatchewan over a 1 month period during the 1977 spring migration. Approximately 250 dead birds were found. This is apparently the first time avian cholera has been reported in migrating waterfowl in Canada. The site of the mortality was midway between the wintering and nesting areas of the two principal species, and the significance of the occurrence of the disease this far north is discussed. PMID:459043

  11. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  12. Dry season streamflow persistence in seasonal climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems exhibit periods of high water availability followed by extended intervals during which rainfall is negligible and streamflows decline. Eventually, such declining flows will fall below the minimum values required to support ecosystem functions or services. The time at which dry season flows drop below these minimum values (Q*), relative to the start of the dry season, is termed the "persistence time" (). The persistence time determines how long seasonal streams can support various human or ecological functions during the dry season. In this study, we extended recent work in the stochastic hydrology of seasonally dry climates to develop an analytical model for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the persistence time. The proposed model accurately captures the mean of the persistence time distribution, but underestimates its variance. We demonstrate that this underestimation arises in part due to correlation between the parameters used to describe the dry season recession, but that this correlation can be removed by rescaling the flow variables. The mean persistence time predictions form one example of the broader class of streamflow statistics known as crossing properties, which could feasibly be combined with simple ecological models to form a basis for rapid risk assessment under different climate or management scenarios.

  13. Long-term evolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into a subsurface urban heat island.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp; Schaffitel, Axel; Bayer, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Anthropogenic alterations in urban areas influence the thermal environment causing elevated atmospheric and subsurface temperatures. The subsurface urban heat island effect is observed in several cities. Often shallow urban aquifers exist with thermal anomalies that spread laterally and vertically, resulting in the long-term accumulation of heat. In this study, we develop an analytical heat flux model to investigate possible drivers such as increased ground surface temperatures (GSTs) at artificial surfaces and heat losses from basements of buildings, sewage systems, subsurface district heating networks, and reinjection of thermal wastewater. By modeling the anthropogenic heat flux into the subsurface of the city of Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1977 and 2011, we evaluate long-term trends in the heat flux processes. It revealed that elevated GST and heat loss from basements are dominant factors in the heat anomalies. The average total urban heat flux into the shallow aquifer in Karlsruhe was found to be ∼759 ± 89 mW/m(2) in 1977 and 828 ± 143 mW/m(2) in 2011, which represents an annual energy gain of around 1.0 × 10(15) J. However, the amount of thermal energy originating from the individual heat flux processes has changed significantly over the past three decades.

  14. Hydrologic reconnaissance of western Arctic Alaska, 1976 and 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.; Loeffler, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Reconnaissance water-resource investigations were conducted on the western Alaskan Arctic Slope during April 1976 and August 1977; these months are times of winter and summer low flow. The information gathered is important for coordinated development in the area. Such development has been spurred by oil and gas discoveries on the North Slope, most notably at Prudhoe Bay. Little water resources information is currently available. The study area extended from the Colville River to the vicinity of Kotzebue. It included the western Arctic Slope and the western foothills of the Brooks Range. Nine springs, nine lakes and eleven rivers were sampled during the April 1976 reconnaissance trip. Its purpose was to locate winter flow and describe its quantity and quality. Field water-quality measurements made at these sites were: ice thickness, water depth, discharge (spring and streams), specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity (bicarbonate, HOC3), and pH. A followup summer trip was made in August 1977 to determine flood characteristics of twenty selected streams. Bankfull and maximum evident flood-peak discharges were determined by measuring channel geometry and estimating channel roughness. Aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at springs and flood survey sites visited during both reconnaissance trips. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development.

    PubMed

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations. PMID:26842331

  16. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  17. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  18. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M.; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1–100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air–sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1–10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below. PMID:25897832

  19. Temporal trends of bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry (1977-1997) in a small forested area, Krusne hory, northern Bohemia, Czech Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Cerny, J.; Havel, M.; Krejci, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Krusne hory (Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains) has been heavily affected by high atmospheric pollutant deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion in an adjacent Tertiary coal basin. Long-term routine sampling of bulk precipitation (1977-1996) and stream water (1977-1998) in a forested area on the south-eastern slope of the mountains were used to evaluate trends and patterns in solute concentration and flux with respect to controlling processes. From 1977 to 1996, the annual volume-weighted Ca2+ and SO42- concentrations decreased in bulk precipitation. However, after 1989, when a pronounced and continuous decrease occurred in coal production, annual volume-weighted concentrations decreased for most solutes, except H+. The concentration decreases were marked, with 1996 levels at or below 50% of those in 1989. The lack of a trend in H+ is attributed to similar decreases in both acid anions and neutralizing base cations. Stream water concentrations of most solutes, i.e. H+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and NO3-, were highest at the onset of sampling in 1977, decreased markedly from 1977 to 1983 and decreased more gradually from 1983 to 1998. The spruce forest die-back and removal reduced dry deposition of these solutes by reducing the filtering action, which was provided by the forest canopy. A notable decrease in stream water Ca2+ concentrations occurred after 1995 and may be due to the depletion of Ca2+, which was provided by catchment liming in 1986, 1988 and 1989. Solute flux trends in bulk atmospheric deposition and stream water generally were not significant and the lack of trend is attributed to the large interannual variability in precipitation quantity and runoff, respectively. All solutes except Na+ varied seasonally. The average seasonal concentrations varied between the solutes, but for most solutes were highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer, correlating with the seasonal trend and runoff. For Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42-, the concentration minimum occurs in

  20. Controls on the CO2 seasonal cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Forget, F.; Haberle, Robert M.; Schaeffer, J.; Lee, H.

    1993-01-01

    Surface pressure measurement performed by the Viking landers show substantial variations in pressure on seasonal timescales that are characterized by two local minima and two local maxima. These variations have widely been attributed to the seasonal condensation and sublimation of CO2 in the two polar regions. It has been somewhat of a surprise that the amplitude of the minimum and maximum that is dominated by the CO2 cycle in the north was much weaker than the corresponding amplitude of the south-dominated extrema. Another surprise was that the seasonal pressure cycle during years 2 and 3 of the Viking mission was so similar to that for year 1, despite the occurrence of two global dust storms during year 1 and none during years 2 and 3. An energy balance model that incorporates dynamical factors from general circulation model (GCM) runs in which the atmospheric dust opacity and seasonal date were systematically varied was used to model the observed seasonal pressure variations. The energy balance takes account of the following processes in determining the rates of CO2 condensation and sublimation at each longitudinal and latitudinal grid point: solar radiation, infrared radiation from the atmosphere and surface, subsurface heat conduction, and atmospheric heat advection. Condensation rates are calculated both at the surface and in the atmosphere. In addition, the energy balance model also incorporates information from the GCM runs on seasonal redistribution of surface pressure across the globe. Estimates of surface temperature of the seasonal CO2 caps were used to define the infrared radiative losses from the seasonal polar caps. The seasonal pressure variations measured at the Viking lander sites were closely reproduced.

  1. Art for the Middle School. Curriculum Bulletin, 1977-78 Series, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Shirley

    The elements and principles of design are taught through art experiences which are built upon pupil interest. A range of suggested activities makes it possible for teachers to plan lessons that meet the needs of each student. Each chapter includes activities appropriate for varying student ability levels. The focus of activities in grades five and…

  2. 1977-78 Cost Analysis for Florida Schools and Districts. Statistical Report. Series 79-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Public Schools.

    This statistical report describes some of the cost analysis information available from computer reports produced by the Florida Department of Education. It reproduces examples of Florida school and school district financial data that can be used by state, district, and school-level administrators as they analyze program costs and expenditures. The…

  3. Project CLIMB (Career Ladder Infusion Model Building). [Volume I: Final Report, 1977-78].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villoni, Shirley

    A project was designed to develop, field test, and publish a career infusion unit curriculum for grades 10-12 in the Garden Grove Unified School District. Students at one project school, two transport schools, and a comparison school formed the study sample. A third party evaluated the accomplishments of objectives for the following program…

  4. Veterinary medical school libraries in the United States and Canada 1977/78.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K S; Coffee, E G

    1982-01-01

    Data on seven aspects of veterinary medical school libraries are presented and discussed: demographic data on the schools of veterinary medicine the libraries support, number of bound volumes held and number of serial titles received, audiovisual materials, staffing levels and salaries, materials budgets, physical size, and access to computerized bibliographic data bases. The great variability, especially in collection size, is stressed and attributed to such factors as size and programs of the veterinary school, age of the school and library, geographic location, accessibility of other libraries, administrative structure, and exchange programs. PMID:7059713

  5. Arizona Community Colleges: Annual Report to the Governor, Fiscal 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Junior Colleges, Phoenix.

    Data on the community college system in Arizona are provided in five sections. The first section lists the State Board members, outlines Board and Central Staff expenditures, and provides the philosophy of the community colleges. The second section locates the nine college districts, the 14 colleges, ten skill centers, and 22 campuses. The third…

  6. Pediatric Language Laboratory--A Day Care Center Program During 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Susan; And Others

    The document describes the Pediatric Language Laboratory, a day care center which provides day care and therapeutic services to 20 mild to moderate communicatively delayed children, 1 to 4 years old. Initial sections address program philosophy; program components (diagnostics, remedial services, typical services, parent education, and community…

  7. Job Success of the College of Education Undergraduates of 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether any aberrations in teacher employment patterns for graduates of the teacher education program in Saskatchewan, Canada, had occurred in 1978 as contrasted with previous years. The following questions were considered: (1) What is the relative job success of applicants under various job categories?…

  8. A Vocational Program for Recreational Vehicle Maintenance/Repair. A Report, 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    This report contains a secondary school curriculum guide designed to be used by vocational teachers in a one- or two-year recreational vehicle maintenance/repair program. In the preliminary pages, a description is given of the project that developed the curriculum, outlining its objectives and procedures in formulating the model interdisciplinary…

  9. 27 CFR 19.77 - Installation of meters, tanks and other apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tanks and other apparatus. 19.77 Section 19.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative... and other apparatus. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to require the proprietor to...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.16 - Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination. 1977.16 Section 1977.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.10 - Proceedings under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings under or related to the Act. 1977.10 Section 1977.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.9 - Complaints under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaints under or related to the Act. 1977.9 Section 1977.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  13. 29 CFR 1977.16 - Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination. 1977.16 Section 1977.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  14. 29 CFR 1977.9 - Complaints under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaints under or related to the Act. 1977.9 Section 1977.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  15. 29 CFR 1977.16 - Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination. 1977.16 Section 1977.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  16. 29 CFR 1977.9 - Complaints under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Complaints under or related to the Act. 1977.9 Section 1977.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  17. 29 CFR 1977.16 - Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination. 1977.16 Section 1977.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  18. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons protected by section 11(c). 1977.5 Section 1977.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  19. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  20. 29 CFR 1977.10 - Proceedings under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings under or related to the Act. 1977.10 Section 1977.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  1. 29 CFR 1977.9 - Complaints under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaints under or related to the Act. 1977.9 Section 1977.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  2. 29 CFR 1977.10 - Proceedings under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proceedings under or related to the Act. 1977.10 Section 1977.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  3. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.16 - Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of Secretary of Labor's determination. 1977.16 Section 1977.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  5. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons protected by section 11(c). 1977.5 Section 1977.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  7. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  8. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER...

  9. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons protected by section 11(c). 1977.5 Section 1977.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.10 - Proceedings under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proceedings under or related to the Act. 1977.10 Section 1977.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  11. 29 CFR 1977.10 - Proceedings under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proceedings under or related to the Act. 1977.10 Section 1977.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.9 - Complaints under or related to the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Complaints under or related to the Act. 1977.9 Section 1977.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  13. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section 1977.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  14. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons protected by section 11(c). 1977.5 Section 1977.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  15. Graduate Science Education: Student Support and Postdoctorals, Fall 1977. Technical Notes and Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The fall 1977 survey of Graduate Science Student Support and Postdoctorals (GSSSP) covered graduate science and engineering departments at doctorate-granting institutions, including medical schools, and departments in institutions that grant a master's as the highest degree. The 1977 universe consisted of 370 doctorate institutions with 7,951…

  16. Local implementation of emergency energy assistance: an analysis of the 1977 and 1978 programs. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Huneycutt, M.J.S.; Koenig, R. Jr.; Chadwin, M.L.; Castro, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Due to concern about the effects of severe winter weather and rising fuel prices, Congress appropriated $200 million in both 1977 and 1978 for programs of assistance to low income households with high energy bills. This report analyzes local implementation of the Special Crisis Intervention Program of 1977 (SCIP) and the Emergency Energy Assistance Program of 1978 (EEAP).

  17. Persistence of Fall 1977 Transfers to CSULA: First Report. Research Study Number 80-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    Grade reports provided by California State University at Los Angeles (CSULA) were examined to determine the persistence of the 386 Los Angeles City College students who transferred to CSULA in Fall 1977. The reports for each quarter from Fall 1977 through Summer 1979 were analyzed in terms of the number of units attempted, the units completed,…

  18. Race, ethnicity, and racism in medical anthropology, 1977-2002.

    PubMed

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.

  19. Publications of Los Alamos research, 1977-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, C.J.; Garcia, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1977-1981. Papers published in those years are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted - even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-Laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers either published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  20. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  1. Seasonality of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Auda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to review previous studies and analyse the current knowledge and controversies related to seasonal variability of tuberculosis (TB) to examine whether TB has an annual seasonal pattern. Study Design and Methods: Systematic review of peer reviewed studies identified through literature searches using online databases belonging to PubMed and the Cochrane library with key words “Tuberculosis, Seasonal influence” and “Tuberculosis, Seasonal variation”. The search was restricted to articles published in English. The references of the identified papers for further relevant publications were also reviewed. Results: Twelve studies conducted between the period 1971 and 2006 from 11 countries/regions around the world (South Western Cameroon, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, Spain, UK, Ireland, Russia, and Mongolia) were reviewed. A seasonal pattern of tuberculosis with a mostly predominant peak is seen during the spring and summer seasons in all of the countries (except South Western Cameroon and Russia). Conclusions: The observation of seasonality leads to assume that the risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis does appear to be the greatest during winter months. Vitamin D level variability, indoor activities, seasonal change in immune function, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are potential stimuli of seasonal tuberculosis disease. Additionally, seasonal variation in food availability and food intake, age, and sex are important factors which can play a role in the tuberculosis notification variability. Prospective studies regarding this topic and other related subjects are highly recommended. PMID:21572609

  2. Environmental geologic studies on the southeastern United States Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, 1977-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Popenoe, Peter

    1981-01-01

    This report is a summary of the second year of marine environmental research activities by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on the southeaster U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin, in accordance with with Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) AA551-MU8-13 between the USGS and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The report covers studies whose fieldwork was conducted during the period from 1 October 1977 to 30 September 1978. The results of the first year of study are reported in Popenoe (1978a and b) and as U.S. Department of Commerce NTIS report PB 300-820. The purpose of these investigations is to provide basic geologic and oceanographic data to the BLM Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Marine Environmental Studies Program in support of management decisions which relate to possible development of oil and gas resources of the continental shelf. The objectives of the USGS-BLM geologic research program for fiscal year 1978 (FY-78) were 1) to determine the sedimentation rates and processes on the upper slope and inner Blake Plateau; 2) to determine the distribution, areal extent, and vertical characteristics of geological features supportive of biological communities; 3) to monitor the transport of bottom sediment across the OCS, evaluate its possible effect on pollutant transfer along the seabed and the potential of sediment as a pollutant sink, determine the implications of erosion/deposition on pipeline emplacement, and aid the interpretation of chemical, biological, and physical data; 4) to determine the concentration levels of chosen trace metals and silica in three chemically defined fractions of the suspended particulate matter (seston); 5) to study the shelf edge and slope near areas of oil and gas interest, and the northern portion of the Blake Plateau for evidence of slope instability and other geologic hazards, and 6) to determine the depth and rate of sediment mixing caused by large storms and/or by benthic organisms and where possible to estimate the rate of

  3. 78 FR 32179 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... closure date of the red snapper recreational fishing season in the EEZ off individual states (78 FR 17882... a year-round season with a 4- fish bag limit, Louisiana established an 88-day season with a 3-fish bag limit, and Florida established a 44-day season with a 2-fish bag limit. Mississippi and...

  4. Department of Energy 1977--1994: A summary history

    SciTech Connect

    Fehner, T.R.; Holl, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 created perhaps the most interesting and diverse agency in the Federal Government. The new department brought together for the first time not only most of the government`s energy programs but also defense responsibilities that included the design, construction, and testing of nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy incorporated a score of organizational entities from a dozen departments and agencies, each with its own history and traditions. Uniting these seemingly disparate entities and programs was a common commitment to performing first rate science and technology. The Department of Energy sought--and continues to seek--to be one of the Nation`s premier science and technology organizations. The Department of Energy, 1977--1994, is a summary history of the origins, goals, and achievements of the Department and selected major programs. Beginning with the various fuels policies on the energy side and the Manhattan project on the defense side, the study details how the Department was born of the energy crisis of the early and mid-1970s. The history then surveys the Department and its programs from the Carter through the Clinton administrations. As the energy crisis eased, the Department played a central role on issues as dissimilar as the Strategic Defense Initiative and the Superconducting Super Collider. With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy further transformed itself, moving from the building of bombs to partial dismantlement of the nuclear weapons complex and to an increased emphasis on environmental activities and technology transfer efforts.

  5. Mortality of aluminum reduction plant workers, 1950 through 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, G.W.

    1985-10-01

    The mortality experience of 5,406 men (cohort I) employed at one aluminum smelter on Jan. 1, 1950, and 485 men employed at a second plant (cohort II) on January 1, 1951, is reported. For each man, the total number of years of exposure to tars, the number of years since first exposure to tars, and an index of exposure to tars expressed in tar-years were calculated. More than 99% of the men in the first cohort and 98% of the men in the second cohort were traced. Of the 1539 men in cohort I who were deceased as of December 31, 1977, death certificates were obtained for 1432 (93%). Of the 92 men in cohort II who were deceased as of December 31, 1977, death certificates were obtained for 80 (87%). The results showed that men in cohort I died of the following causes at approximately the same rate as or less frequently than men of similar age in the Province of Quebec: tuberculosis; circulatory disease; hypertensive heart disease; trauma; leukemia and aleukemia; and malignant neoplasms of the pancreas, genital organs, brain, intestine, and rectum and other abdominal areas. There were no deaths from pneumoconiosis or Alzheimer's disease. Although the observed and expected numbers of deaths in some of the cause-of-death categories were small, men in cohort I died of the following causes more frequently than did men of similar age in the Province of Quebec: respiratory disease; pneumonia and bronchitis; malignant neoplasms (all sites); malignant neoplasms of the stomach and esophagus, bladder, and lung; other malignant neoplasms; Hodgkin's disease; and other hypertensive disease. Mortality from malignant neoplasms of the bladder and lung was meaningfully related to numbers of tar-years and of years of exposure. Exposure-response relationships were less clear for malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach and for other malignancies.

  6. Department of Energy 1977--1994: A Summary History

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fehner, T. R.; Holl, J. M.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 created perhaps the most interesting and diverse agency in the Federal Government. The new department brought together for the first time not only most of the government`s energy programs but also defense responsibilities that included the design, construction, and testing of nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy incorporated a score of organizational entities from a dozen departments and agencies, each with its own history and traditions. Uniting these seemingly disparate entities and programs was a common commitment to performing first rate science and technology. The Department of Energy sought--and continues to seek--to be one of the Nation`s premier science and technology organizations. The Department of Energy, 1977--1994, is a summary history of the origins, goals, and achievements of the Department and selected major programs. Beginning with the various fuels policies on the energy side and the Manhattan project on the defense side, the study details how the Department was born of the energy crisis of the early and mid-1970s. The history then surveys the Department and its programs from the Carter through the Clinton administrations. As the energy crisis eased, the Department played a central role on issues as dissimilar as the Strategic Defense Initiative and the Superconducting Super Collider. With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy further transformed itself, moving from the building of bombs to partial dismantlement of the nuclear weapons complex and to an increased emphasis on environmental activities and technology transfer efforts.

  7. [Diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-dong; Guan, De-Xin; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Ren, Yan; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the measurements of eddy flux and micrometeorological factors, this paper analyzed the diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow. The results showed that annual energy balance ratio (EBR) of the eddy covariance system was 0.77, and EBR was biggest in growing season, middle in bare soil period and smallest in snow-covered period. Diurnal variations of energy components all presented bell-shaped curves. The peak of net radiation appeared around 12:00 and peaks of other components slightly lagged. Seasonal variation of net radiation presented a single-peak curve, and the annual average was 5.71 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of latent heat flux was similar to that of net radiation, and the annual average was 2.84 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of sensible heat flux presented a double-peak curve, and the peaks appeared in April and September, respectively. Annual averaged sensible heat flux was 1.87 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Maximum soil heat flux (3.47 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1)) appeared in April, and the soil heat flux became negative after September. Annual budget ratios of energy components presented a decreasing order of latent heat flux, sensible heat flux and soil heat flux, which accounted for 49.8%, 35.8% and 3.1% of net radiation, respectively. Seasonal variation of Bowen ratio (beta) presented a 'U' shape, and the annual average was 1.61. beta was small (0.18) and relatively stable in growing season, while it was large (2.39) and fluctuated severely in non-growing season.

  8. Lightning deaths: a retrospective review of New Mexico's cases, 1977-2009.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Jennifer L; Lathrop, Sarah L; Briones, Alice J; Andrews, Sam W; Aurelius, Michelle B

    2015-01-01

    To better understand lightning deaths, a retrospective review of electronic records from New Mexico's Office of the Medical Investigator database was performed between 1977 and 2009 to update and assess current risk factors. Information on demographics, circumstances, autopsy, and death certificates were collected and analyzed. Fifty-four decedents were identified, ages 2-71 years old (mean 34 years old), 42 males and 12 females. Common racial/ethnic groups were non-Hispanic Whites and American Indians (together comprising 72% of all cases). Physical findings were often related to the heat carried by the electrical current including clothing alterations (29.6%) and burning of skin (53.7%). Most deaths occurred on weekend afternoons in summer months, associated with recreational activities or agricultural work, and rural locations (77.8%). Utilizing the demographic information, clustered events, and associated outdoor activities will assist in creating public awareness and provide a framework to support targeted warnings in an attempt to prevent future deaths. PMID:25053421

  9. Lightning deaths: a retrospective review of New Mexico's cases, 1977-2009.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Jennifer L; Lathrop, Sarah L; Briones, Alice J; Andrews, Sam W; Aurelius, Michelle B

    2015-01-01

    To better understand lightning deaths, a retrospective review of electronic records from New Mexico's Office of the Medical Investigator database was performed between 1977 and 2009 to update and assess current risk factors. Information on demographics, circumstances, autopsy, and death certificates were collected and analyzed. Fifty-four decedents were identified, ages 2-71 years old (mean 34 years old), 42 males and 12 females. Common racial/ethnic groups were non-Hispanic Whites and American Indians (together comprising 72% of all cases). Physical findings were often related to the heat carried by the electrical current including clothing alterations (29.6%) and burning of skin (53.7%). Most deaths occurred on weekend afternoons in summer months, associated with recreational activities or agricultural work, and rural locations (77.8%). Utilizing the demographic information, clustered events, and associated outdoor activities will assist in creating public awareness and provide a framework to support targeted warnings in an attempt to prevent future deaths.

  10. Wear resistant alloys for coal handling equipment. Final technical report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W.M.; Parker, E.R.; Misra, A.; Finnie, I.

    1981-01-01

    In the progress report for 1977-1979, an extensive literature survey was completed in the areas of abrasive wear mechanisms, wear testing and microstructural effects on abrasive wear. Definitions of the various abrasive wear processes were clarified. A laboratory wear tester capable of simulating high stress two-body abrasive wear and low stress three-body wear was designed, constructed and calibrated. Experiments were run on some standard metals and alloys in the annealed, work hardened, and heat treated conditions under both two-body and three-body wear. In the 1979 to 1980 period, a detailed analysis of the abrasive size effect was performed based on the observations made on two- and three-body abrasion and erosion. It was concluded that the size effect was due to a shallow surface layer exhibiting higher flow stress than the bulk material when the material is abraded or eroded. The effect of certain variables on the wear resistance of different pure metals was compared for two-body abrasion, three-body abrasion and erosion. The variables studied are annealed hardness of the worn metal, the increase in hardness of the worn metal before the wear process due to work hardening and heat treatment, applied load, distance travelled, the abrasive particle size and abrasive hardness. The effect of most of these variables is similar for the three different wear processes. The existing low-stress, open three-body abrasive wear tester was modified and calibrated for testing abrasive wear up to 600/sup 0/C. Some standard materials were tested and in the case of pure aluminum it was found that the wear rate decreased with increase in temperature.

  11. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  12. Extended Development of Variable Conductance Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Edwards, D. K.; Luedke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    A high-capacity vapor-modulated heat pipe was designed and tested. In 1977, a program was undertaken to use the aforementioned heat pipe to study protection from freezing-point failure, increase control sensitivity, and transient behavior under a wide range of operating conditions in order to determine the full performance potential of the heat pipe. A new concept, based on the vapor-induced-dry-out principle, was developed for passive feedback temperature control as a heat pipe diode. This report documents this work and describes: (1) the experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of the vapor-modulated heat pipe; and (2) the design, fabrication and test of the heat pipe diode.

  13. Teaching with the Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Describes a natural science course designed to teach students that nature is nearby rather than somewhere else. Students learn about local flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor the progression of the seasons. The course uses no textbook, regularly uses the outdoors as a classroom, and follows the seasons' phenology as the…

  14. Heating with waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Beabout, R.W.

    1986-09-02

    Most of the power consumed in the gaseous diffusion process is converted into heat of compression, which is removed from the process gas and rejected into the atmosphere by recirculating cooling water over cooling towers. The water being handled through the X-333 and X-330 Process Buildings can be heated to 140 to 150/sup 0/F for heating use. The Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is provided with a recirculating heating water (RHW) system which uses X-330 water and wasted heat. The RHW flow is diagrammed. (DLC)

  15. 4. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING (ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER). - Salem Manufacturing Company, Arista Cotton Mill, Brookstown & Marshall Streets, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC

  16. NASA Tech Briefs Index, 1977, volume 2, numbers 1-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Announcements of new technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA are presented. Abstracts, and indexes for subject, personal author, originating center, and Tech Brief number are presented for 1977.

  17. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  18. Invertebrate predators of zooplankton on Georges Bank, 1977 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Barbara K.; Meise, Carol J.

    Chaetognaths, primarily Sagitta elegans, were the most abundant and widespread invertebrate predator on Georges Bank during 1977-1987 MARMAP surveys. They were present in 79% of samples collected, and their average abundance was nearly an order of magnitude greater than that of any other predator taxon. hydrozoan and scyphozoan medusae, euphausiid shrimp, and gammarid and hyperiid amphipods were also abundant. Diversity and abundance of predators was highest in the central, well-mixed region of the bank. In this region numbers of chaetognaths and cnidaria increased following increased abundances of Calanus finmarchicus. However, on a larger scale the density of C. finmarchicus populations was inversely correlated with number of predators because this herbivore was most abundant in deeper waters surrounding Georges Bank where predators were least numerous. Chaetognaths and cnidaria were more abundant in 1978-1979 than in other years, and there was a statistically significant decline in the abundance of chaetognaths over the 10 year period. Abundance of both these groups was inversely correlated with temperature. Average numbers of chaetognaths in summer were low following a warm winter. Abundance of cnidaria in summer decreased with increasing summer temperatures.

  19. Arctic cloud cover during the summers of 1977-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.A.; Kukla, G.J.; Serreze, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Cloud cover in the Artic Basin has been charted from satellite images at approximately 3 day intervals for the months of May to August from 1977 to 1979. Three classes of cloud thickness at three altitudes were mapped and digitized together with sea level pressure. Cloudiness was found to be heterogeneous in space and time. Optically thick clouds had high tops and were associated with low pressure systems and airmasses advected from the south. Clouds of moderate thickness were the most prevalent. Cloud-free skies were most often colocated with high pressure. The central Arctic was cloudest, whereas the Canadian Archipelago was least cloudy. Overall, thick clouds were considerably less common than in earlier analyses drawn from ground and drifting station data. Cloud-free episodes throughout the basin persisted long enough to significantly affect the surface radiation budget and the dissipation of snow and ice. Our results indicate that climate models which attempt to assess the impact of CO/sub 2/ on the radiation budget in the high latitudes should take into account the heterogeneity of cloud extent, thickness and height in the Arctic Basin. 28 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Rupture distribution of the 1977 western Argentina earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, C.J.; Hartzell, S.

    1996-01-01

    Teleseismic P and SH body waves are used in a finite-fault, waveform inversion for the rupture history of the 23 November 1977 western Argentina earthquake. This double event consists of a smaller foreshock (M0 = 5.3 ?? 1026 dyn-cm) followed about 20 s later by a larger main shock (M0 = 1.5 ?? 1027 dyn-cm). Our analysis indicates that these two events occurred on different fault segments: with the foreshock having a strike, dip, and average rake of 345??, 45??E, and 50??, and the main shock 10??, 45??E, and 80??, respectively. The foreshock initiated at a depth of 17 km and propagated updip and to the north. The main shock initiated at the southern end of the foreshock zone at a depth of 25 to 30 km, and propagated updip and unilaterally to the south. The north-south separation of the centroids of the moment release for the foreshock and main shock is about 60 km. The apparent triggering of the main shock by the foreshock is similar to other earthquakes that have involved the failure of multiple fault segments, such as the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake. Such occurrences argue against the use of individual, mapped, surface fault or fault-segment lengths in the determination of the size and frequency of future earthquakes.

  1. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    Fiscal 1977 marked the 98th year the U.S. Geological Survey has endeavored in the unceasing task of providing information about the Earth and its physical resources, and regulating the activities of lessees engaged in extracting petroleum and other minerals from the public domain. The past year also marked the beginning of a third and challenging mission, drawing upon the Survey's scientific talents, to explore and assess the petroleum potential of a vast 37,000 square miles expanse of Alaska's North Slope known as the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. The first two missions require detailed and continuing investigations of the location, character, and extent of the Nation's land, water, mineral, and energy resources; a continuing National Topographic Mapping Program; the classification of Federal lands for mineral and waterpower potential; and a continuing program of technical review, safety inspection and royalty auditing of the operations of private parties engaged in mineral development on Federal lands to assure standards of safety, environmental protection, resource conservation, and a fair market return to the public for the development of their resources.

  2. Seismic Excitation of the Polar Motion, 1977-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin Fong; Gross, Richard S.; Han, Yan-Ben

    1996-01-01

    The mass redistribution in the earth as a result of an earthquake faulting changes the earth's inertia tensor, and hence its rotation. Using the complete formulae developed by CHAO and GROSS (1987) based on the normal mode theory, we calculated the earthquake-induced polar motion excitation for the largest 11,015 earthquakes that occurred during 1977.0-1993.6. The seismic excitations in this period are found to be two orders of magnitude below the detection threshold even with today's high precision earth rotation measurements. However, it was calculated that an earthquake of only one tenth the size of the great 1960 Chile event, if happened today, could be comfortably detected in polar motion observations. Furthermore, collectively these seismic excitations have a strong statistical tendency to nudge the pole towards approximately 140deg E, away from the actual observed polar drift direction. This non-random behavior, similarly found in other earthquake-induced changes in earth rotation and low-degree gravitational field by CHAO and GROSS (1987), manifests some geodynamic behavior yet to be explored.

  3. The changing seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, J.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of Arctic Ocean temperature is weak due to the insulating and light scattering effects of sea ice cover and the moderating influence of the seasonal storage and release of heat through ice melting and freezing. The retreat of sea ice and other changes in recent decades is already warming surface air temperatures in winter. We our analysis of future change with an examination of the dominant processes in the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcing as they appear in historical simulations of 14 CMIP5 climate models. In both models and observations the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most models sea ice melt dominates. The dominant balance in the seasonal freshwater budget is the exchange of freshwater between the liquid ocean and sea ice. At its peak this rate of exchange exceeds 2Sv. The appearance of sea ice and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and two mechanisms for feedback. Our analysis of the seasonal cycle in the coming centuries suggests that the loss of sea ice will dramatically increase the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature in the Arctic Ocean. Depending on the rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gases the seasonal range in Arctic sea surface temperature may exceed 10°C by year 2300, greatly increasing the stratification of the summer mixed layer.

  4. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  5. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  7. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the... because of the exercise “of any right afforded by this Act.” Certain rights are explicitly provided in...

  8. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  9. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  10. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  11. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  12. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  13. Mortality displacement as a function of heat event strength in 7 US cities.

    PubMed

    Saha, Michael V; Davis, Robert E; Hondula, David M

    2014-02-15

    Mortality rates increase immediately after periods of high air temperature. In the days and weeks after heat events, time series may exhibit mortality displacement-periods of lower than expected mortality. We examined all-cause mortality and meteorological data from 1980 to 2009 in the cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; Seattle, Washington; and St. Louis, Missouri. We modeled baseline mortality using a generalized additive model. Heat waves were defined as periods of 3 or more consecutive days in which the apparent temperature exceeded a variable percentile. For each heat wave, we calculated the sum of excess and deficit mortality. Mortality displacement, which is the ratio of grand sum deficit to grand sum excess mortality, decreased as a function of event strength in all cities. Displacement was close to 1.00 for the weakest events. At the highest temperatures, displacement varied from 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.55) to 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.97). We found strong evidence of acclimatization across cities. Without consideration of displacement effects, the net impacts of heat-wave mortality are likely to be significant overestimations. A statistically significant positive relationship between the onset temperature of nondisplaced heat mortality and mean warm-season temperature (R(2) = 0.78, P < 0.01) suggests that heat mortality thresholds may be predictable across cities.

  14. Seasonal flank alopecia in affenpinschers.

    PubMed

    Waldman, L

    1995-06-01

    Two intact, distantly related, female affenpinschers, belonging to a breeder, were referred in March 1993 for the investigation of bilateral, symmetrical flank alopecia in one bitch and bilateral, symmetrical flank, dorsum and tail alopecia in the other; the alopecia occurred from November to May and January to May, respectively. During that period the bitches were kept in a conservatory without artificial heating or lighting. The owner reported that the mother of one bitch had had bilateral, symmetrical flank alopecia during one winter when kept in the conservatory, but was normal the following winter when kept in the house. Three other females and a male exhibited the same clinical signs when kept in the conservatory during the winter. Seasonal flank alopecia has not previously been reported in affenpinschers.

  15. PMC from 2009 Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (AIM-CIPS) instrument for the 2009 season in the northern polar region. The North Pole (90N...

  16. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  17. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  18. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.

  19. Seasonal radiative modeling of Titan's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézard, Bruno; Vinatier, Sandrine; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a seasonal radiative model of Titan's stratosphere to investigate the time variation of stratospheric temperatures in the 10-3 - 5 mbar range as observed by the Cassini/CIRS spectrometer. The model incorporates gas and aerosol vertical profiles derived from Cassini/CIRS spectra to calculate the heating and cooling rate profiles as a function of time and latitude. In the equatorial region, the radiative equilibrium profile is warmer than the observed one. Adding adiabatic cooling in the energy equation, with a vertical velocity profile decreasing with depth and having w ≈ 0.4 mm sec-1 at 1 mbar, allows us to reproduce the observed profile. The model predicts a 5 K decrease at 1 mbar between 2008 and 2016 as a result of orbit eccentricity, in relatively good agreement with the observations. At other latitudes, as expected, the radiative model predicts seasonal variations of temperature larger than observed, pointing to latitudinal redistribution of heat by dynamics. Vertical velocities seasonally varying between -0.4 and 1.2 mm sec-1 at 1 mbar provide adiabatic cooling and heating adequate to reproduce the time variation of 1-mbar temperatures from 2005 to 2016 at 30°N and S. The model is also used to investigate the role of the strong compositional changes observed at high southern latitudes after equinox in the concomitant rapid cooling of the stratosphere.

  20. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Food habits of grizzly bears were studied for 11 years in the Yellowstone area of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho by analyzing scats. Ungulate remains constituted a major portion of early-season scats, graminoids of May and June scats, and whitebark pine seeds of late-season scats. Berries composed a minor portion of scats during all months. The diet varied most among years during May, September, and October, and was most diverse during August. Defecation rates peaked in July and were low in April through June. Among-years differences in scat content were substantial; estimates of average scat composition took 4-6 years to stabilize. Major trends in diet were evident and reflected long-term variation. We suggest that long-term studies are necessary to adequately document bears' food habits in variable environments; the Yellowstone grizzly bears' diet varied with seasonal and yearly availability of high-quality foods, lack of berries and large fluctuations in the size of pine seed crops were major factors limiting bear density in the Yellowstone area, and the availability of edible human refuse buffered the limitations imposed by inadequate berry and pine seed crops prior to the 1970s.

  1. Evolution of the scientific literature of cytochrome P450 from 1977 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Wilson, Concepción S; Guengerich, F Peter; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

    2010-02-01

    This study traces the evolution of the scientific literature on cytochrome P450 (P450) published during the last 30+ years (1977-2008). Using the Web of Science, P450 articles from the Science Citation Index Expanded published from 1977 to 2008 were retrieved and analyzed. The number of P450 papers has increased from 342 articles in 1977-1978 to 2,357 in 2007-2008, and the number of contributing countries has grown from 23 countries for 1977-1978 to 76 for 2007-2008. While the USA and Japan were the most productive countries, along with several industrialized countries (e.g. UK, Germany and Canada), two Asian countries have recently joined the group of leading countries (in 2007-2008 China ranked 4th and South Korea, 7th). During 1977-2008, the number of journals publishing papers in P450 research increased more than seven-fold (7.7): 94 journals in 1977-1978 and 724 in 2007-2008; however, citation by readers (as measured by the journal impact factor) of the top-ten leading journals increased only slightly from 3.25 for 1977-1978 to 3.81 for 2007-2008. While Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Pharmacology and Pharmacy are the two main targeted subject areas for P450 research during the period considered, there has been a gradual shift from the biophysical and biochemical fields of interest to aspects of genomics and clinical approaches. The rapid evolution of P450 research in the last 30+ years was accompanied by important changes in the landscape of the contributing countries, in the subject domains, and consequently in the scientific journals targeted by researchers.

  2. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aschliman, Dave; Lubbehusen, Mike

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  3. Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 35. State and Local Government R&D Expenditures, FY 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented are data on State and local government research and development (R&D) expenditures for fiscal year 1977. State agency R&D and R&D plant expenditures are compared graphically for the years 1964, 1968, 1973, and 1977 in both 1977 and constant 1972 dollars, and the trend of State support to R&D is analyzed. A graph of total State agency R&D…

  4. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain <65% of the total variance. With the increase of the sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems.

  5. Effects of seasonal acclimatization on temperature dependence of cardiac excitability in the roach, Rutilus rutilus.

    PubMed

    Badr, A; El-Sayed, M F; Vornanen, M

    2016-05-15

    Temperature sensitivity of electrical excitability is a potential limiting factor for performance level and thermal tolerance of excitable tissues in ectothermic animals. To test whether the rate and rhythm of the heart acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes, thermal sensitivity of cardiac excitation in a eurythermal teleost, the roach (Rutilus rutilus), was examined. Excitability of the heart was determined from in vivo electrocardiograms and in vitro microelectrode recordings of action potentials (APs) from winter and summer roach acclimatized to 4 and 18°C, respectively. Under heat ramps (3°C h(-1)), starting from the acclimatization temperatures of the fish, heart rate increased to maximum values of 78±5 beats min(-1) (at 19.8±0.5°C) and 150±7 beats min(-1) (at 28.1±0.5°C) for winter and summer roach, respectively, and then declined in both groups. Below 20°C, heart rate was significantly higher in winter than in summer roach (P<0.05), indicating positive thermal compensation. Cardiac arrhythmias appeared with rising temperature as missing QRS complexes, increase in variability of heart rate, episodes of atrial tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia and complete cessation of the heartbeat (asystole) in both winter and summer roach. Unlike winter roach, atrial APs of summer roach had a distinct early repolarization phase, which appeared as shorter durations of atrial AP at 10% and 20% repolarization levels in comparison to winter roach (P<0.05). In contrast, seasonal acclimatization had only subtle effects on ventricular AP characteristics. Plasticity of cardiac excitation appears to be necessary for seasonal improvements in performance level and thermal resilience of the roach heart. PMID:26994185

  6. Temperature and the seasonality of births.

    PubMed

    Lam, D A; Miron, J A

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and seasonal fluctuations in births is presented cross nationally. Previous literature which give some credence to this relationship is reviewed, but the authors caution that there is no singular reason for birth seasonality. The summary conclusion is that the evidence is inconclusive; the most consistent hypothesis is that summer heat depresses conceptions. The next section is concerned with a selected set of estimates for birth seasonality. The data description and methods are published elsewhere. Tests of statistical significance at the 1% level reject the null hypothesis of no seasonality. In the US birth seasonality if reflected in a September peak and an April/May trough with variation between states in amplitude. The southern state's pattern is compared to 3 regions in India and Israel, and found to be similar. A European pattern is discerned with a spring peak, a local September peak, and a trough during late fall and early winter. The September peak is the only similarity to the US The explanation for variations is difficult, particularly when the birth seasonality between Sweden and the US is different and the seasonal temperature patterns are the same. 2 explanations are posited and discussed: 1) temperature operates in a more complicated manner than by simply depressing conceptions during the period of summer heat; and 2) 1 other factor, in addition to temperature explains the observed seasonal patterns. An estimation strategy is outlined which utilizes a variety of temperature effects, such as the effect of temperature on coital frequency. The equations also allow for the possibility that temperature has no effect at moderature temperature, a negative effect an high temperatures, or that hot or cold temperatures suppress fecundity. The results strongly reject the null hypothesis, but are mixed in the monthly temperature explanation with significance at the 5% level for Georgia, New York, Kerala, Maharashtra, England

  7. Chemical and biological quality of selected lakes in Ohio, 1976 and 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobin, R.L.; Youger, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-eight Ohio lakes (14 per year) were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency for the water-quality characteristics during the spring and summer of 1976 and 1977. Data items included: profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance; physical, biological, nutrient, and organic characteristics; major and minor constituents; and physical and chemical data associated with major inflows. Light penetration (secchi disk) was greatest (21 feet) in Mogadore Reservoir and least (0.8 foot) in Stonelick Lake. Seasonal thermal gradients developed in most lakes greater than 17 feet in depth. Dissolved-oxygen saturation ranged from 220 percent in Summit Lake to zero percent in the bottom waters of all lakes having stable thermal gradients. Five-day BOD ranged from 0.3 milligrams per liter im Michael J. Kirwan Reservoir to more than 17 milligrams per liter in Nimisilia Resrevoir. Anaerobic zones were frequently characterized by hydrogen sulfide and high concentrations of ammonia. All lakes had moderately hard to very hard waters. Calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate were the principal constituents. Specific conductance ranged from 130 micromhos (Lake Logan) to 1250 micromhos (Summit Lake). Because of nutrient uptake and recycling, significant chemical and physical differences developed in different thermal strata. Pesticide residues and trace elements were not above the limits recommended by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. All counts of fecal colifrom bacteria were within State standards. Blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) dominated the phytoplankton communities of 18 lakes in spring and 26 lakes in summer. Algal counts from euphotic-zone composite samples ranged from 180 cells per milliliter in Killdeer Reservoir to 3,400,000 cells per milliliterin Kiser Lake. Maximum algal counts were greater than 100,000 cells per milliliter in 19 lakes. Streams ate a major source of macronutrients in Ohio lakes. The

  8. The Reemergent 1977 H1N1 Strain and the Gain-of-Function Debate

    PubMed Central

    Rozo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 1977-1978 influenza epidemic was probably not a natural event, as the genetic sequence of the virus was nearly identical to the sequences of decades-old strains. While there are several hypotheses that could explain its origin, the possibility that the 1977 epidemic resulted from a laboratory accident has recently gained popularity in discussions about the biosafety risks of gain-of-function (GOF) influenza virus research, as an argument for why this research should not be performed. There is now a moratorium in the United States on funding GOF research while the benefits and risks, including the potential for accident, are analyzed. Given the importance of this historical epidemic to ongoing policy debates, we revisit the evidence that the 1977 epidemic was not natural and examine three potential origins: a laboratory accident, a live-vaccine trial escape, or deliberate release as a biological weapon. Based on available evidence, the 1977 strain was indeed too closely matched to decades-old strains to likely be a natural occurrence. While the origin of the outbreak cannot be conclusively determined without additional evidence, there are very plausible alternatives to the laboratory accident hypothesis, diminishing the relevance of the 1977 experience to the modern GOF debate. PMID:26286690

  9. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. G.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.

    2004-04-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity during the last three hundred years reveals that volcanic eruptions exhibit seasonality to a statistically significant degree. This remarkable pattern is observed primarily along the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and locally at some individual volcanoes. Globally, seasonal fluctuations amount to 18% of the historical average monthly eruption rate. In some regions, seasonal fluctuations amount to as much as 50% of the average eruption rate. Seasonality principally reflects the temporal distribution of the smaller, dated eruptions (volcanic explosivity index of 0-2) that dominate the eruption catalog. We suggest that the pattern of seasonality correlates with the annual Earth surface deformation that accompanies the movement of surface water mass during the annual hydrological cycle and illustrate this with respect to global models of surface deformation and regional measurements of annual sea level change. For example, seasonal peaks in the eruption rate of volcanoes in Central America, the Alaskan Peninsula, and Kamchatka coincide with periods of falling regional sea level. In Melanesia, in contrast, peak numbers of volcanic eruptions occur during months of maximal regional sea level and falling regional atmospheric pressure. We suggest that the well-documented slow deformation of Earth's surface that accompanies the annual movements of water mass from oceans to continents acts to impose a fluctuating boundary condition on volcanoes, such that volcanic eruptions tend to be concentrated during periods of local or regional surface change rather than simply being distributed randomly throughout the year. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment and volcanoclimate feedback mechanisms.

  10. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  11. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  12. The Discovery of the b Quark at Fermilab in 1977: The Experiment Coordinator's Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yoh, J.

    1997-12-01

    I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon ({Upsilon}) particle (the first member of the b-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the {Upsilon} in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288 the {mu}{mu}II phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of {mu}{mu}II and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgement list end this brief historical note.

  13. The discovery of the b quark at Fermilab in 1977: The experiment coordinator`s story

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, J.

    1997-12-01

    I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon ({Upsilon}) particle (the first member of the b-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the {Upsilon} in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288 the {mu}{mu}II phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of {mu}{mu}II and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgement list end this brief historical note.

  14. The discovery of the b quark at Fermilab in 1977: The experiment coordinator's story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoh, John

    1998-02-01

    I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon (Υ) particle (the first member of the b-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the Υ in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288-the μμII phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of μμII and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgment list end this brief historical note.

  15. The discovery of the b quark at Fermilab in 1977: The experiment coordinator's story

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, John

    1998-02-10

    I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon ({upsilon}) particle (the first member of the b-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the {upsilon} in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288--the {mu}{mu}II phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of {mu}{mu}II and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgment list end this brief historical note.

  16. Seasonal Change Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The author describes how the yearlong Investigating Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…

  17. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  18. Assessing hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    With the official conclusion of the Atlantic hurricane season on 29 November, Irene was the only hurricane to strike the United States this year and the first one since Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas in 2008, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Irene “broke the ‘hurricane amnesia’ that can develop when so much time lapses between landfalling storms,” indicated Jack Hayes, director of NOAA's National Weather Service. “This season is a reminder that storms can hit any part of our coast and that all regions need to be prepared each and every season.” During the season, there were 19 tropical storms, including 7 that became hurricanes; 3 of those were major hurricanes, of category 3 or above. The activity level was in line with NOAA predictions. The agency stated that Hurricane Irene was an example of improved accuracy in forecasting storm tracks: NOAA National Hurricane Center had accurately predicted the hurricane's landfall in North Carolina and its path northward more than 4 days in advance.

  19. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  20. Seasonal variability on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2012-10-01

    The seasonal variations of the West Florida Continental Shelf (WFS) circulation and sea level are described using observations of velocity from an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profilers and various ancillary data. With record lengths ranging from 3 years to over a decade, a robust seasonal cycle in velocity is found, which varies across the shelf in a dynamically sensible way. Over most of the inner shelf these seasonal variations are primarily in response to local forcing, through Ekman-geostrophic spin-up, as previously found for the synoptic scale variability. Thus the inner shelf circulation is predominantly upwelling favorable from fall to spring months (October-April) and downwelling favorable during summer months (June-September). Seaward from about the 50 m isobath, where baroclinicity becomes of increasing importance, the seasonal variations are less pronounced. Over the outer shelf and near the southwestern end of the WFS, the seasonal variations are obscured by the deep ocean influences of the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current and its eddies. The seasonal variations in sea level are also robust. But unlike the velocity, these extend across the entire WFS and into the deep Gulf of Mexico. These seasonal sea level variations arise from two influences, one static, the other dynamic. The static influence projects onto the WFS by the static seasonal rise and fall of the Gulf of Mexico sea level due to heating and cooling (also occurring on the shelf). On climatological average, this ranges by about 0.12 m, with a minimum in February and a maximum in August and deriving primarily from the density variations over the upper 100 m of the water column. Such climatologically averaged variation due to temperature and salinity is also seen in satellite altimetry. An additional dynamic influence of about 0.06 m occurs over the inner shelf by the Ekman-geostrophic spin up to the seasonally varying winds. Together, the static and dynamic ocean responses result in

  1. AmeriFlux CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.. Site Description - Regenerated jack pine (Pinus banksiana) following fire in 1977; canopy height 6 m and LAI = 2.8. Some black spruce understory developing. Trees tend to be clumpy, with some clear spaces that can be easily walked thorugh, and other areas are thick. Fire killed coarse woody debris on the ground, that is soft and decomposing. Very few perched trunks. Understory are short shrubs such as Vaccinium and Arctostaphylus uva-ursi.

  2. Dieldrin and heptachlor residues in dead gray bats, Franklin County, Missouri--1976 versus 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; LaVal, R.K.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Lethal dieldrin concentrations were found in the brains of dead gray bats (Myotis grisescens) collected during 1976 and 1977 beneath a maternity roost in a Missouri cave. In addition, residues of heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor increased significantly in both brains and carcasses of bats collected during 1977. These increases appear to reflect a switch by local farmers from aldrin, dieldrin's parent compound, to heptachlor for the control of cutworms. They also constitute an additional threat to this colony of this endangered bat species.

  3. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Changes in breastfeeding initiation and duration in Peru, 1977-1986.

    PubMed

    Elo, I T; Grummer-Strawn, L M

    1993-01-01

    Both breastfeeding initiation and duration increased in Peru during 1977-86. Although one would have expected that the average incidence and duration of breastfeeding would have declined as a result of changes in population characteristics, the potential for an overall decline was more than overcome by changes in behavior. A net increase in initiation and duration is shown for all subgroups of interest. The largest absolute increases are documented for children who, in 1977, were the least likely to be breastfed and who were breastfed for the shortest durations.

  5. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  6. Seasonal and geographic variations in imaginary refractive index of atmospheric particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J B; Lindberg, J D

    1992-04-20

    Samples of atmospheric particulate matter were collected on cellulose membrane filters at selected locations in Europe during 1976 and 1977 as part of an international cooperative atmospheric characterization program. These samples are analyzed for imaginary refractive index in the 0.3-1.7-microm spectral region. These data are used to determine the range of variability of the imaginary refractive index and are examined for seasonal variations. These data are discussed in the light of results of analysis of samples collected from other parts of the world and samples that were analyzed as a function of particle size.

  7. Report to OECD/CERI Policy Group from Pacific Circle Consortium on Phase 1 Activities: 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Helen; Wells, Marguerite

    Established in 1977, the Pacific Circle Consortium is a group of national-level educational research and development agencies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Pacific region countries engaged in cooperative projects intended to improve international understanding and relations. From 1977 to 1980 the Consortium…

  8. Towards custom made seasonal/decadal forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlstein, Irina; Spirig, Christoph; Liniger, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Climate indices offer the possibility to deliver information to the end user that can be easily applied to their field of work. For instance, a 3-monthly mean average temperature does not say much about the Heating Degree Days of a season, or how many frost days there are to be expected. Hence, delivering aggregated climate information can be more useful to the consumer than just raw data. In order to ensure that the end-users actually get what they need, the providers need to know what exactly they need to deliver. Hence, the specific user-needs have to be identified. In the framework of EUPORIAS, interviews with the end-user were conducted in order to learn more about the types of information that are needed. But also to investigate what knowledge exists among the users about seasonal/decadal forecasting and in what way uncertainties are taken into account. It is important that we gain better knowledge of how forecasts/predictions are applied by the end-user to their specific situation and business. EUPORIAS, which is embedded in the framework of EU FP7, aims exactly to improve that knowledge and deliver very specific forecasts that are custom made. Here we present examples of seasonal forecasts and their skill of several climate impact indices with direct relevance for specific economic sectors, such as energy. The results are compared to the visualization of conventional depiction of seasonal forecasts, such as 3 monthly average temperature tercile probabilities and the differences are highlighted.

  9. Impact of land-surface initialization on sub-seasonal to seasonal forecasts over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodhomme, Chloé; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Bellprat, Omar; Dutra, Emanuel

    2016-08-01

    Land surfaces and soil conditions are key sources of climate predictability at the seasonal time scale. In order to estimate how the initialization of the land surface affects the predictability at seasonal time scale, we run two sets of seasonal hindcasts with the general circulation model EC-Earth2.3. The initialization of those hindcasts is done either with climatological or realistic land initialization in May using the ERA-Land re-analysis. Results show significant improvements in the initialized run occurring up to the last forecast month. The prediction of near-surface summer temperatures and precipitation at the global scale and over Europe are improved, as well as the warm extremes prediction. As an illustration, we show that the 2010 Russian heat wave is only predicted when soil moisture is initialized. No significant improvement is found for the retrospective prediction of the 2003 European heat wave, suggesting this event to be mainly large-scale driven. Thus, we confirm that late-spring soil moisture conditions can be decisive in triggering high-impact events in the following summer in Europe. Accordingly, accurate land-surface initial conditions are essential for seasonal predictions.

  10. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... output of the enclosed device comprising the compressor, combustor, and turbine multiplied by 3,413 Btu/k... baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations under... heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year...

  11. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... output of the enclosed device comprising the compressor, combustor, and turbine multiplied by 3,413 Btu/k... baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations under... heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year...

  12. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... through the sequential use of energy, the control period gross electrical output of the enclosed device... allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each...

  13. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... through the sequential use of energy, the control period gross electrical output of the enclosed device... allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each...

  14. Seasonal aggression independent of seasonal testosterone in wood rats.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, G S; Glickman, S E; Smith, E R

    1984-01-01

    Levels of inter-male aggression, both in laboratory encounters and in the field, rise dramatically during the breeding season, closely paralleling the seasonal rise in testosterone. However, post-pubertally castrated males also show the dramatic seasonal rise in aggression in laboratory encounters with castrated opponents and show no decrement in fighting ability when paired with intact opponents, clearly demonstrating the independence of seasonal aggression from the proximate modulating effects of testosterone in wood rats. PMID:6591190

  15. Human acclimation and acclimatization to heat: A compendium of research, 1968-1978. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciaraffa, D.; Fox, S. C.; Stockmann, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts and annotations of the majority of scientific works that elucidate the mechanisms of short-term acclimation to heat in men and women are presented. The compendium includes material from 1968 through 1977. Subject and author indexes are provided and additional references of preliminary research findings or work of a peripheral nature are included in a bibliography.

  16. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey investigations and hydrologic conditions in the Southwest Florida Water Management District for 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, A.; Causseaux, K.W.; Moore, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Southwest Florida Subdistrict of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division for fiscal year 1977. The organization and mission of the subdistrict office are described. The cooperative program for fiscal year 1977 included 41 interpretive investigations. Abstracts of twenty reports released by the subdistrict during 1977 and an extensive bibliography of reports released from 1933 to 1977 are included. The hydrologic setting of southwest Florida is outlined followed by discussions of surface-water, ground-water, and quality-of-water conditions. Hydrologic conditions in southwest Florida in 1977 are shown by the presentation of hydrographs from selected surface-water, ground-water, and lake-stage data collection sites.

  17. Seasonal influenza: an overview.

    PubMed

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity are estimated to cost US$10.4 billion in direct medical expenses and US$16.4 billion in lost potential earnings. Given the enormous burden of seasonal influenza and the important role that school-age children play in the cycle of disease, school nurses need to be knowledgeable about all aspects of this condition, including its clinical course and how it is transmitted; the range of options for preventing and treating the disease; and steps that can be taken to improve the rates of immunization against influenza. School nurses also can help by making sure that they themselves are vaccinated in a timely manner.

  18. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... on OCS leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water season (78 FR 12542). NMFS... whether to issue an IHA. NMFS refers the reader to the February 22, 2013, Federal Register notice (78 FR... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi...

  19. Gondwanaland's seasonal cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Short, David A.; Mengel, John G.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional energy balance climate model has been used to simulate the seasonal temperature cycle on a supercontinent-sized land mass. Experiments with idealized and realistic geography indicate that the land-sea configuration in high latitudes exerts a strong influence on the magnitude of summer warming. These simulations provide significant insight into the evolution of climate during the Palaeozoic, and raise questions about the presumed pre-eminent role of carbon dioxide in explaining long-term climate change.

  20. Seasonal testosterone pattern in Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Gilmartin, W G

    1992-09-01

    Blood samples from four captive male Hawaiian monk seals were collected at intervals of one month for one year for testosterone assay. Plasma testosterone concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay, revealed a clear seasonal pattern. The lowest mean testosterone concentration (0.09 +/- 0.04 ng ml-1) occurred in January, and the highest (1.78 +/- 0.40 ng ml-1) in June. The seasonal occurrence of births and of injuries related to mating in wild populations of Hawaiian monk seals showed a distinct association with the period of high testosterone. This study supports other data that indicate that the Hawaiian monk seal is a seasonal breeder and is reproductively active for longer than monachine seals that live in higher latitudes. PMID:1432968