Science.gov

Sample records for 1978 79 heating season

  1. Annual Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Fannie

    This six-part report summarizes the 1978-1979 activities of the Division of Continuing Education and Extension Services at the New York City Community College. Part I discusses tuition courses and programs, including a program for Head Start staff and parents on the mainstreaming of handicapped children, a symposium on hearing aid technology in…

  2. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  3. Merged Federal Files [Academic Year] 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AUI Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    The Merged Federal File for 1978-79 contains school district level data from the following six source files: (1) the Census of Governments' Survey of Local Government Finances--School Systems (F-33) (with 16,343 records merged); (2) the National Center for Education Statistics Survey of School Systems (School District Universe) (with 16,743…

  4. The Ph.D. Job Market: 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann G.

    1980-01-01

    Among the results of a study of the employment of the 955 English doctorate recipients in 1978-79 were that 60 percent found full-time teaching positions, although only 46 percent of males and 35 percent of females received full-time, tenure-track positions; 12 percent found part-time teaching appointments or postdoctoral fellowships; and 16…

  5. Update: physically intimate and sexual behavior on prime-time television, 1978-79.

    PubMed

    Sprafkin, J N; Silverman, L T

    1981-01-01

    The 1978-79 prime time television programming season was examined to determine the frequency and portrayal of sex, and it was compared to the 2 previous seasons analyzed (1975 and 1977). 68 programs, representative of the 1978-79 season, were recorded directly off the air between the hours of 8 p.m. and 11 p.m. during a 2-week period beginning on October 1978. During the 1st week, all regularly scheduled prime time drama, crime/adventure, situation comedy, and variety prorams and movies broadcast by the 3 major networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) were videotaped. During the 2nd week, all regularly scheduled programming which had been preempted by sports events and specials the previous week were recorded. Thus, the final sample included 1 week of the regularly scheduled prime time offerings of the 3 major networks plus 2 weeks of movies. The videotape of each program was coded independently by 2 of 9 trained coders, 1 male and 1 female, using the same formal coding scheme that had been used in the 1978 analysis. The original coding scheme included 12 categories of physically intimate and sexual behavior ranging from nonsexual interpersonal touching (e.g., handshakes) to affectionate displays (e.g., kissing) to typical sexual behaviors of references (e.g., flirtatious behavior, verbal innuendo, heterosexual intercourse). A new category was added, sex education and romance, which was comprised of verbal references to issues such as contraception, pregnancy, and going steady. The frequency of appearance of the least intimate behaviors (kissing and hugging) showed a gradual increase over the 3 sampled years. In contrast, the frequency of occurrence of several of the controversial categories increased substantially. Specifically, contextually implied intercourse from no weekly occurrences in 1975 to 15 in 1977 and 24 in 1978; sexual innuendos increased in frequency from about 1 reference/hour in 1975 to 7 in 1977, and to almost 11 in 1978. Direct verbal references to

  6. Washington Community College Factbook Addendum A: Student Enrollments, Academic Year 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terre

    In order to reveal trends in community college enrollments in Washington, student demographic and enrollment data for academic year 1978-79 were compiled and compared with figures for previous years. The study report provides annualized averages for full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollments for the years 1968-69 to 1978-79 and quarterly and…

  7. Annual Operational Summary Migrant Family Housing Centers, 1978 Open Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Employment Development, Sacramento. Migrant Services Section.

    During the 1978 agricultural season, migrant farmworkers and their families occupied 2,079 rental units at 26 migrant housing centers provided by the Office of Migrant Services. Supportive services at the centers included day care centers for children two to five years of age, a few infant care facilities, and access to medical serivces,…

  8. Merged Federal Files [Academic Year] 1978-79 [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Merged Federal File for 1978-79 contains school district level data from the following six source files: (1) the Census of Governments' Survey of Local Government Finances--School Systems (F-33) (with 16,343 records merged); (2) the National Center for Education Statistics Survey of School Systems (School District Universe) (with 16,743…

  9. Whole World Handbook. A Student Guide to Work, Study and Travel Abroad. 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marjorie Adoff

    This 1978-79 student guide to work, study, and travel abroad contains chapters on the following areas: Western Europe; the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe; the Middle East and North Africa; Africa south of the Sahara; South Asia (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan); East Asia; Southeast Asia; Australia and New Zealand; Latin America and…

  10. An Analysis of Investment in Teacher Education: The Texas Case, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the economic benefits derived by Texas teachers in 1978-79 from their investment in teacher education and compares Texas teachers' returns on education to those of White workers with high school or higher education degrees. Concludes that Texas teachers' investments in education were not profitable at any degree level. (Author/RW)

  11. Age and Sex Enrollment Patterns in Kentucky Institutions of Higher Education, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Roger D.; Walker, Kenneth

    Age and enrollment patterns of students attending Kentucky colleges and universities in 1978-79 were studied. Information was obtained from the Council on Higher Education for state-supported institutions belonging to KACRAO (Kentucky Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers) and from a survey of independent institutions…

  12. New Mexico Dropout Study, 1977-78 and 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William R., III

    Based on surveys tallying statewide enrollment and dropout figures by grade, sex, ethnicity, school and district, of 83,832 students enrolled in 1977-78 in 147 schools in 86 districts, 9,059 students (9.75%) were dropouts; of 86,117 enrolled in 150 schools in 88 disricts in 1978-79, 8,069 students (8.56%) dropped out of school. For both years,…

  13. Sentence-Combining Skills: Results of the Sentence-Combining Exercises in the 1978-79 National Writing Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, John

    This report presents the results of a battery of sentence combining tasks included in the assessment of writing conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress in 1978-79. The first section of the report provides background information about the NAEP survey and discusses the procedures used to develop and score the sentence combining…

  14. Course Registration Attrition, Fall 1978-79 and Spring 1978-79. Analytical Studies Research Reports, 80-2 and 80-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Marilyn

    These two parallel reports provide data on course attrition rates in the Maricopa County Community College District for Fall 1978 and Spring 1979. Course attrition rates were calculated by comparing high-point enrollments (which include audits and withdrawals) with end-of-semester enrollments (which do not include audits, drops, withdrawals, or…

  15. Ten Year Comparison of Enrollment. Institutional Research Report No. 78/79-1. Sex Analysis of Fall 1978 Students as Compared to 1973, 1974, 1975, and 1977. Institutional Research Report No. 78/79-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior Coll., Perkinston.

    In response to a legislative request, Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior College gathered and analyzed opening fall enrollment figures for 1968 through 1978, three-year average percentages of enrollment by county of residence and by campus attended, and end-of-year headcounts from the 1968-69 academic year to the end of 1978-79. Fall enrollment figures…

  16. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  17. Fall 1978 COM 080 "R" Grade Follow-Up. Research Report 79-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakulich, J. Scott

    At the completion of the fall semester, 1979, a study was conducted at Essex County College to determine the status of the 182 students who had received an "R" grade in a basic communications skills course (COM-080) in fall, 1978. The "R" grade is given to students who have made progress in a developmental course, but who have not attained "C"…

  18. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  19. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1978-79. Part B, Supporting Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Data on the 1970-79 conditions of Ontario universities that were used in the derivation of macro-indicators are presented. The supporting data cover the following areas: operating revenue in Ontario universities; operating expenditures; distribution of academic salaries, nonacademic salaries, employee benefits; and nonsalary operating…

  20. Salaries Paid Professional Personnel in Public Schools, 1978-79. Part 2 of National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools. ERS Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    This publication, part 2 of a three-part report, discloses the annual salaries actually being paid to persons employed in 23 professional positions by 1,100 public school systems for school year 1978-79. These include salaries paid superintendents, deputy or associate superintendents, assistant superintendents, and personnel in certain other…

  1. Results from the LIMS experiment for the PMP-1 winter 1978/79. [Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Bailey, P. L.; Lyjak, L. V.; Russell, J. M., III

    1982-01-01

    The results of a preliminary analysis of the data on the global distributions of temperature and trace constituents in the middle atmosphere (15-65 km) obtained with the limb IR monitor (LIMS) are presented. The 6-channel limb-scanning radiometer was sensitive to the 15 micron bands of CO2, as well as other wavelengths, and was launched on the Nimbus 7 satellite in 1978. The derived data were partially compared with Soviet rocketsonde data to track an evolution in a warming trend over Siberia. The morphology of the changes were attributed to stratospheric warming. The comparisons with rocketsonde data indicated that the LIMS data were suitable for the determination of planetary wave amplitudes and phases, heat and momentum transport, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes.

  2. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  3. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  4. A Bibliography of Environmental Education Articles from "The Journal of Geography". January 1973-March 1978. Publication No. 79-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N., Comp.; Tolbert, Patricia L., Comp.

    This bibliography identifies over 100 articles from 1973 to 1978 printed in the "Journal of Geography." The compilation provides an overview of recent concerns as well as methods of incorporating environmental education into the classroom. Subjects covered include atmosphere, energy, climate-vegetation, field studies, future studies, land-use…

  5. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  6. PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WASTE HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WATER HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

  8. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage in mines

    SciTech Connect

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-07-01

    The solar assisted heat supply of building offers a great technical potential for the substitution of fossil energy sources. Central solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) supply 100 and more buildings and reach a solar fraction of 50% or more of the total load with far less specific heat costs [$/kWh{sub solar}] compared to small domestic hot water systems (DHW) for single-family houses. However, the construction of seasonal storage is too expensive. At the Ruhu University Bochum the use of mines for a seasonal storage of low temperature heat is examined in cooperation with industrial partners. The use of available storage volumes may lead to a decrease of investment costs. Additional geothermal heat gains can be obtained from the warm surrounding rock; therefore a high efficiency can be achieved.

  9. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.D.; Kruuv, J.; Lepock, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 43 degrees C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and 44.5 degrees C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min exposure to 44.5 degrees C. After 3 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.5 degrees C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistant variant and the parent cell line.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL OUTLOOK 1978/79

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projections of pollutants produced and released to air and to bodies of water, by Federal Region, from 1975 to 1990 are presented and discussed. These are projections of the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS), which is a computer model consisting of a detailed secto...

  11. Solar heating with seasonal storage (SHSS) prefeasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    Large annual solar fractions are possible with full capacity of active thermal collectors for room heating and DHW with seasonal storage. Urban housing schematic designs studied with heat load ranges include: townhouses (100 units) and apartments (3,4,5, and 10 story). Performance and economics are predicted with Seasonal.EES software for Madison, WI. Annual solar fractions of 82% and 75% resulted for a 3-story 138 apartment complex with 3.5 BTU/ft{sup 2}{sup {minus}}FDD room heating and 21,600 liters/d DHW, with rooftop flat-plate liquid collectors (tauAlpha{sub n} = .88 and .76) (3620 m{sup 2}/38,965 ft{sup 2}), and insulated cylindrical water storage tank (8482m{sup 3}/2.24 milgals). Influence of solar heating with seasonal storage (SHSS)(aka CSHPSS) to cold-grey climate big city building/urban sustainable design is discussed.

  12. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  13. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation. PMID:19131626

  14. General College Faculty Perceptions of its Individualized Baccalaureate Degree Program. The General College Studies, Volume XV, Number 1. 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Evelyn Unes

    In 1970, General College instituted an individualized baccalaureate (B.A.) program. In spring 1978, a survey was conducted to determine faculty attitude and opinion with respect to: (1) the quality of the individualized programs and of student performance; (2) professional development and satisfaction; (3) institutional change and development; (4)…

  15. Organochlorine insecticide residues and PCBs in tissues of woodcock, mourning doves, and robins from east-central, Illinois, 1978-79

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.R.; Duzan, R.E.; Siemers, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    Reported here are levels in ppm of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE (DDE), and PCB residues assayed in muscle, heart, liver, brain, and fatty tissues of woodcock (Philohelo minor), mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura), and robins (Turdus migratorium) from east-central Illinois in 1978 and 1979.

  16. Seasonality of the urban heat island effect: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a rigorous analysis of the drivers of seasonality in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Many studies report annual cycles in UHI intensity and have attributed those patterns to various hypotheses, including seasonal trends in wind and clouds, prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions, soil moisture, and day length. But to our knowledge, those hypotheses have never been tested, leaving a substantial gap in our basic understanding of the urban climate. We tested these and other hypotheses using two years of continuous temperature measurements from an array of 150 sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin USA, an urban area of 407,000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. This is one of the best replicated urban climate arrays ever deployed, which allowed us to characterize the UHI in rich spatial and temporal detail and rigorously assess the biophysical and synoptic drivers of its seasonal variation. UHI intensities were typically highest in summer and lowest in winter. Seasonal trends in wind speed and cloud cover generally tracked annual trends in UHI intensity, with the clearer, calmer conditions conducive to stronger UHIs more common in summer. This is consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal trends in wind, clouds, and anti-cyclonic conditions drive UHI seasonality. However, clear, calm summer nights still had higher UHI intensities than clear, calm winter nights, indicating that some background factor shifted baseline UHI intensities throughout the year. We found that regional vegetation and snow cover conditions set distinct seasonal baselines for UHI intensity, with nighttime intensities averaging 4°C in summer and 1°C in winter. Synoptic and biophysical factors that vary on shorter time scales (e.g. wind, clouds, soil moisture, relative humidity) modified daily UHI intensity around those baselines by 1-3°C but were not the primary drivers of UHI seasonality, contrary to the most common

  17. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  18. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  19. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  20. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  1. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-06

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  2. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-06

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service's survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  3. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  4. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  5. Seasonal heat and freshwater cycles in the Arctic Ocean in CMIP5 coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Steele, Michael; Hakkinen, Sirpa

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the processes governing the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcings as they appear in historical simulations of 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled climate models. In both models and observations, the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most of these models, sea ice melt dominates. Seasonal horizontal heat flux divergence driven by the seasonal cycle of volume transport is only important locally. In models and observations, the dominant terms in the basin-average seasonal freshwater budget are the storages of freshwater between the ocean and sea ice, and the exchange between the two. The largest external source term is continental discharge in early summer, which is an order of magnitude smaller. The appearance of sea ice (extent and volume) and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and provides two mechanisms for feedback. One consequence of such an interaction is the fact that models with strong/weak seasonal surface heating also have strong/weak seasonal haline and temperature stratification.

  6. Human acclimation and acclimatization to heat: A compendium of research, 1968-1978. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciaraffa, D.; Fox, S. C.; Stockmann, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts and annotations of the majority of scientific works that elucidate the mechanisms of short-term acclimation to heat in men and women are presented. The compendium includes material from 1968 through 1977. Subject and author indexes are provided and additional references of preliminary research findings or work of a peripheral nature are included in a bibliography.

  7. A comparison of cell killing by heat and/or x rays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia mouse cells, and human thymocyte MOLT-4 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Szekely, J.; Lobreau, A.; Azzam, E.I.

    1983-05-01

    The radiation and/or heat sensitivity of Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia (FELC) mouse cells, and MOLT-4 human transformed thymocytes were compared. MOLT-4 cells were more radiosensitive (D/sub o/=0.50 Gy) than FELC (D/sub o/ = 0.65 Gy) and V79 cells (D/sub o/ = 1.43 Gy). Arrhenius analysis showed that MOLT-4 cells were more heat sensitive than FELC or V79 cells below 42.0/sup 0/C, but more heat resistant at higher temperatures. In addition, the MOLT-4 cells showed a single-heat inactivation energy between 41.0 and 45.0/sup 0/C, while FELC and V79 cells both showed a transition in the inactivation energy at about 43.0 and 43.5/sup 0/C, respectively. These differences may be related to the fact that the upper temperature limit for the development of thermal tolerance during continuous heating was lower for MOLT-4 cells than for FELC or V79 cells. Killing of FELC and V79 cells was dependent on the sequence in which heat and X rays were applied, but the greatest effect was obtained when both treatments were given simultaneously. Recovery occurred when treatments were separated by incubation at 37.0/sup 0/C. The MOLT-4 cells did not show a sequence dependence for heating and irradiation. Survival of MOLT-4 cells after heating and/or irradiation was compared using trypan blue dye exclusion or colony formation. Both assays showed similar qualitative responses, but survival levels measured by the trypan blue assay were much higher than those determined from the colony-forming assay.

  8. Peer Dynamics 1978-79 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winger, Joan

    This is an evaluation of the first year of a program designed to reduce the incidence of destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g., drug-alcohol abuse and juvenile delinquency) among school-age youth. Background research indicates that peer group pressure is the single most important factor in dictating the presence or absence of juvenile delinquency…

  9. SHAFT79 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

    1980-03-01

    SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

  10. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  11. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  12. Seasonal changes in the atmospheric heat balance simulated by the GISS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.; Chow, S.; Helfand, H. M.; Quirk, W. J.; Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the ability of numerical general circulation models to simulate the atmosphere have focussed so far on simulations of the January climatology. These models generally present boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature, but this does not prevent testing their ability to simulate seasonal changes in atmospheric processes that accompany presented seasonal changes in boundary conditions. Experiments to simulate changes in the zonally averaged heat balance are discussed since many simplified models of climatic processes are based solely on this balance.

  13. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part I, Results of the measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Showail, Abdullah

    1982-01-01

    Heat-flow measurements were made at five onland shot points of the 1978 Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction line, which sample major tectonic elements of the Arabian Shield along a profile from Ar Riyad to the Farasan Islands. Because of the pattern drilling at each shot point, several holes (60 m deep) could be logged for temperature at each site and thus allow a better estimate of the geothermal gradient. Each site was mapped and sampled in detail, and modal and. chemical analyses of representative specimens were made in the laboratory. Thermal conductivities were computed from the modal analyses and single-mineral conductivity data. The resulting heat-flow values, combined with published values for the Red Sea and coastal plain, indicate a three-level pattern, with a heat flow of about 4.5 heat-flow unit (HFU) over the Red Sea axial trough, about 3.0 HFU over the shelf and coastal plain, and an essentially constant 1.0 HFU over the Arabian Shield at points well away from the suture zone with the oceanic crust. At three sites where the rocks are granitic, gamma-ray spectrometry techniques were employed to estimate thorium, potassium, and uranium concentrations. The resulting plot of heat generation versus heat flow suggests that in the Arabian Shield the relationship between heat flow and heat production is not linear. More heat-flow data are essential to establish or reject this conclusion.

  14. Seasonal Cycles of Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Tong; Marotzke, Jochem

    1998-01-01

    A general circulation model of the Indian Ocean is fitted to monthly averaged climatological temperatures, salinities, and surface fluxes using the adjoint method. Interannual variability is minimized by penalizing the temporal drift from one seasonal cycle to another during a two-year integration. The resultant meridional overturning and heat transport display large seasonal variations, with maximum amplitudes of 18 and 22 (x 10(exp 6) cubic m/s) for the overturning and 1.8 and 1.4 (x 10(exp 15) W) for heat transport near 10 S and 10 N, respectively. A dynamical decomposition of the overturning and heat transport shows that the time-varying Ekman How plus its barotropic compensation can explain a large part of the seasonal variations in overturning and heat transport. The maximum variations at 10 deg N and 10 deg S are associated with monsoon reversal over the northern Indian Ocean and changes of the easterlies over the southern Indian Ocean. An external mode with variable topography has a moderate contribution where the Somali Current and the corresponding gyre reverse direction seasonally. Contribution front vertical shear (thermal wind and ageostrophic shear) is dominant near the southern boundary and large near the Somali Current latitudes. The dominant balance in the zonally integrated heat budget is between heat storage change and heat transport convergence except south of 15 S. Optimization with seasonal forcings improves estimates of sea surface temperatures, but the annual average overturning and heat transport are very similar to previous results with annual mean forcings. The annual average heat transport consists of roughly equal contributions from time-mean and time-varying fields of meridional velocities and temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean. indicating a significant rectification to the heat transport due to the time-varying fields. The time-mean and time-varying contributions are primarily due to the overturning and horizontal gyre

  15. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  16. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined. PMID:26347537

  17. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form, 1978-79 Comprehensive Validation Guide. Procedural Manual for: Validation of Cases Referred by Institutions; Validation of Cases Referred by the Office of Education; Recovery of Overpayments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen; And Others

    Procedures for validating data reported by students and parents on an application for Basic Educational Opportunity Grants were developed in 1978 for the U.S. Office of Education (OE). Validation activities include: validation of flagged Student Eligibility Reports (SERs) for students whose schools are part of the Alternate Disbursement System;…

  18. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  19. The role of atmospheric heat transport in the seasonal carbon dioxide cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, James R.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out numerical experiments with a general circulations model (GCM) and energy balance model of the martian atmosphere to define the importance of heat transported to the polar regions in determining the amount of CO2 condensed on the surface during the fall and winter seasons and the amount sublimated during the spring and summer seasons. In so doing, we performed both sensitivity experiments, in which the dust opacity was varied over the full range of its observed values, and annual simulations, in which the dust opacity varied continuously with seasonal data, in accord with measurements taken at the Viking landers. Dust opacity represents the key variable for determining the contribution of atmospheric heat advection to the energy budget in the polar regions. The amount of heat advected to the winter polar regions increases monotonically as the dust opacity at low and middle latitudes increases. However, the increase is sharpest between optical depths of 0 and 1 tends to level off at still higher optical depths. Heat advection is more important at times of CO2 condensation than CO2 sublimation, since the temperature gradients are much steeper in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Because dust opacity is much higher during northern winter than during southern winter, atmospheric heat advection reduces the amount of CO2 that condenses in the north by a much larger factor than it does in the south.

  20. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  1. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  2. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  3. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

  4. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  5. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  6. Seasonal variations of physiological responses to heat of subtropical and temperate natives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihzuka, H.; Hori, S.; Akamatsu, T.

    1986-06-01

    In an attempt to compare the physiological responses of subtropical natives to heat with those of temperate natives, seasonal variations in physiological responses to heat were observed in young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa, subtropical zone (group O) and young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland, temperate zone, but moved to Okinawa in less than two years (group M). In both seasons, group O showed less sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat, lower rise in rectal temperature and less increase in heart rate during heat exposure than group M. In both groups, greater sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat and lower rise in rectal temperature in summer than in winter were observed. Seasonal differences in Na concentration in sweat, rise in rectal temperature and increase in heart rate for group O were smaller than those for group M. It was assumed the efficiency of sweat for cooling the body for group O was better than that for group M, and heat tolerance for group O was superior to that for group M.

  7. Seasonal adjustment of solar heat gain independent of coat coloration in a desert mammal.

    PubMed

    Walsberg, G E; Weaver, T; Wolf, B O

    1997-01-01

    Despite the apparent importance of solar radiation as a source of heat for free-living animals, there exists no substantial body of empirical data describing physiological responses to solar radiation under the range of convective conditions likely to occur in nature. We therefore quantified effects of simulated solar radiation and wind on metabolic heat production in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus. This diurnal mammal inhabits the Sonoran Desert and seasonally replaces its pelage in a fashion in which it retains constant external appearance but incorporates optical and structural changes that are thought to significantly alter heat-transfer properties of the coat. At a given wind speed, the presence of 950 W m-2 of simulated solar radiation reduces metabolic heat production by 15% (at a wind speed of 4 m s-1) to 37% (at a wind speed of 0.25 m s-1). Independent of effects of irradiance, metabolic heat production significantly increases with wind speed such that as wind speed is increased from 0.25 m s-1 to 4.0 m s-1, metabolic heat production is elevated by 66% (sunlight absent) or 88% (sunlight present). Previous analyses demonstrated that when exposed to identical radiative and convective environments rock squirrels with summer pelages accrue solar heat loads 33%-71% lower than those experienced by animals with winter coats. This reduction of solar heat gain during the extremely hot Sonoran Desert summer apparently constitutes a previously unappreciated mode of thermal adaptation by seasonal adjustment of radiative heat gain without changes in the animal's appearance. PMID:9231387

  8. Seasonal and interannual variation in water vapor and heat fluxes in a West Siberian continental bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, K.; Hiyama, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Inoue, G.

    2003-10-01

    The seasonal and interannual variation in the energy fluxes of a West Siberian continental bog were measured from April to October in 1999 and 2000 using the eddy covariance method. The energy balance closure rate (=[sensible + latent heat fluxes]/[available energy]) ranged from ˜0.8 to 0.9 and showed a better energy balance and less scattering using the soil heat flux estimated from an area-averaged soil thermal parameter rather than from a plot-based measurement. The net radiation (Rn) increased drastically after snowmelt because the surface albedo (a) dropped from its highest value to its lowest value over the course of the snowmelt. The snowmelt water raised the water table (zwt) to its highest level; it then gradually decreased. The seasonal and interannual variation in a, which ranged from 0.09-0.19, depended on zwt, because surface wetness was closely related to zwt through the capillary uptake of Sphagnum moss. The seasonal variation in the latent heat flux (lE) was similar to that in Rn. The largest lE was observed in the middle of June, and was ˜120 Wm-2 (4.2 mm d-1) in both years. Conversely, the sensible heat flux (H) did not show an obvious seasonal pattern and was lower than lE during the growing season. The Bowen ratio (Br) in the early growing season was 0.57 and 0.60, and the values in the peak growing season were 0.65 and 0.78, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The lower Br was related to the higher zwt; specifically, it was due to the wetter surface conditions. An interannual comparison of the monthly mean atmospheric water vapor deficit (δe) and lE showed a significant relationship with a higher lE observed in the year with a higher δe. Therefore in the bog studied the interannual variation in the water vapor flux was controlled mainly by zwt and δe.

  9. CSU Solar Housee III solar heating and cooling system performance. Annual report: technical summary, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Ward, J.C.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test and evaluate the practicality of an integrated flat-plate state-of-the-art liquid-heating solar collector and absorption cooling system installed on Colorado State University (CSU) Solar House III. This objective was accomplished by designing and installing a complete solar heating and cooling system (including appropriate data acquisition equipment and instrumentation), performing a detailed analysis and evaluation of all aspects of the solar system, and comparing the seasonal performance of the system with two other solar heating and cooling systems installed in adjacent buildings with virtually identical thermal characteristics.

  10. Seasonal variation of the upper ocean responding to surface heating in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunjeong; Noh, Yign; Qiu, Bo; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variations of the upper ocean, such as mixed layer depth (MLD) and sea surface temperature (SST), responding to the atmospheric forcing in the North Pacific (10°N-50°N), are investigated by analyzing the Argo and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1 data. The OAFlux data are also used for comparison. During the early heating period in the high-latitude ocean north of 30°N, where a seasonal thermocline is formed above the deep mixed layer under strong surface heating, the MLD h is found to be scaled as h∝>(Lλ>)1/2, where L is the Monin-Obukhov length scale and λ is the Ekman length scale. On the other hand, in the low-latitude ocean south of 30°N, where the preexisting MLD is shallow and surface heating is weak, h is found to be scaled by λ. It is found that a large amount of heat flux across the MLD occurs, especially in the high-latitude ocean during the late heating period, in which h is small. It suggests the contribution by turbulent mixing across the MLD in addition to radiation penetration, and the eddy diffusivity in the high-latitude ocean is estimated as Kv ˜ 10-4-10-3 m2 s-1. The heat budget of the mixed layer reveals that the contribution from the ocean heat transport is much smaller than the surface heat flux in the high-latitude ocean except in the Kuroshio region, but it is sometimes comparable in the low-latitude ocean.

  11. Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Kanda, M.

    2004-11-01

    Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime had little seasonal variation, irrespective of significant seasonal change of net all-wave radiation Rn. 2) The latent heat flux in the summer daytime was large despite the small areal fraction of natural coverage (trees and bare soil). The estimated local latent heat flux per unit natural coverage was 2 times the available energy (Rn - G), which indicates that the “oasis effect” was significant. 3) The CO2 flux was always upward throughout the year and the magnitude was larger in winter, mainly because of an increase of fossil fuel consumption. The annual total CO2 flux was 6 times the downward CO2 flux at a typical temperate deciduous forest.


  12. Latent Heating Retrievals Using the TRMM Precipitation Radar: A Multi-Seasonal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, S.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle and is a primary heat source for the atmosphere. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied by rainfall, modulates the large-scale circulations of the tropics and in turn can impact midlatitude weather. This latent heat release is a consequence of phase changes between vapor, liquid, and solid water. Present largescale weather and climate models can simulate latent heat release only crudely, thus reducing their confidence in predictions on both global and regional scales. This paper represents the first attempt to use NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall information to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to October 2000. The Goddard Convective-Stratiform. Heating (CSH) algorithm and TRMM precipitation radar data are used for this study. We will examine and compare the latent heating structures between 1997-1998 (winter) ENSO and 1998-2000 (non-ENSO). We will also examine over the tropics. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental; Indian oceans vs west Pacific; Africa vs S. America) will be also examined and compared. In addition, we will examine the relationship between latent heating (max heating level) and SST. The period of interest also coincides with several TRMM field campaigns that recently occurred over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and in the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed Q1 budgets from these experiments could provide a means of validating the retrieved profiles of latent heating from the CSH algorithm.

  13. The effect of ocean heat flux on seasonal ice growth in Young Sound (Northeast Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sergei; Dmitrenko, Igor; Babb, David; Rysgaard, Søren; Barber, David

    2015-07-01

    The seasonal ice cover plays an important role in the climate system limiting the exchange of heat and momentum across the air-water interface. Among other factors, sea ice is sensitive to the ocean heat flux. In this study, we use in situ oceanographic, sea ice, and meteorological data collected during winter 2013/2014 in Young Sound (YS) fjord in Northeast Greenland to estimate the ocean heat flux to the landfast ice cover. During the preceding ice-free summer, incident solar radiation caused sea surface temperatures of up to 5-6°C. Subsequently, this heat was transferred down to the intermediate depths, but returned to the surface and retarded ice growth throughout winter. Two different approaches were used to estimate the ocean heat fluxes; (i) a residual method based on a 1-D thermodynamic ice growth model and (ii) a bulk parameterization using friction velocities and available heat content of water beneath the ice. The average heat flux in the inner YS varied from 13 W m-2 in October-December to less than 2 W m-2 in January-May. An average heat flux of 9 W m-2 was calculated for the outer YS. Moreover, we show that the upward heat flux in the outer fjord is strongly modulated by surface outflow, which produced two maxima in heat flux (up to 18-24 W m-2) during 26 December to 27 January and from 11 February to 14 March. By May 2014, the upward ocean heat flux reduced the landfast ice thickness by 18% and 24% in the inner and outer YS, respectively.

  14. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. PMID:26787477

  15. Seasonal variations in heat and carbon dioxide fluxes observed over a reed wetland in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jia, Qingyu; Liu, Jingmiao

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in sensible heat flux (Hs), latent heat flux (LE), and CO2 flux (Fc) during 2006 over a reed wetland ecosystem in Northeast China, as well as their relationships with environmental factors, were investigated based on micrometeorological observations and turbulence data, measured using the eddy covariance technique. The results showed that the LE values were significantly larger (>400 W m-2) in summer (June, July, and August) than those in other seasons because of the summertime abundant precipitation and strong evapotranspiration, whereas the Hs values were smaller (<100 W m-2) in summer but larger in spring (>300 W m-2) and autumn (>200 W m-2). The cumulative evapotranspiration in 2006 was 577.1 mm that was mostly controlled by radiation at surface throughout the whole year but also limited by water supply during the non-growing season. Most of the Fc values ranged between -1.0 mg m-2 s-1 (sometimes close to -2.0 mg m-2 s-1) during daytime and 0.3 mg m-2 s-1 at night during the growing season (May to September) but varied around zero in the non-growing season, and the CO2 mass concentration was in the range of 600-800 mg m-3. Monthly cumulative CO2 flux for the growing season was negatively largest in July (-520 mg m-2 month-1) and smallest in May (-65 mg m-2 month-1), making this reed wetland a net CO2 sink in 2006. The daytime CO2 flux in the growing season was positively correlated with atmospheric stability |z/L| under unstable condition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed, but depended less on air temperature, relative humidity and soil water content on a several-day time scale. However, over a longer time scale, a comparison of March-April conditions during 2005 and 2006 suggested that cooler conditions can result in reduced CO2 production before the growing season.

  16. Seasonal patterns of heat loss in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Erin M; McLellan, William A; Westgate, Andrew J; Wells, Randall S; Blum, James E; Pabst, D Ann

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated patterns of heat loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, where water temperatures vary seasonally from 11 to 33 degrees C. Simultaneous measurements of heat flux (HF) and skin surface temperature were collected at the body wall and appendages of dolphins during health-monitoring events in summer (June 2002-2004) and winter (February 2003-2005). Integument thickness was measured and whole body conductance (W/m(2) degrees C) was estimated using HF and colonic temperature measurements. Across seasons, HF values were similar at the appendages, but their distribution differed significantly at the flipper and fluke. In summer, these appendages displayed uniformly high values, while in winter they most frequently displayed very low HF values with a few high HF values. In winter, blubber thickness was significantly greater and estimated conductance significantly lower, than in summer. These results suggest that dolphins attempt to conserve heat in winter. In winter, though, HF values across the body wall were similar to (flank) or greater than (caudal keel) summer values. It is likely that higher winter HF values are due to the steep temperature gradient between the body core and colder winter water, which may limit the dolphin's ability to decrease heat loss across the body wall. PMID:18183404

  17. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  18. A heating season comparison test of two solar air heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thacher, E.F.; Wen, C.

    1987-06-01

    An outdoor, comparison performance test of two solar air-heating systems was performed between December 1, 1985 and May 17, 1986, near Potsdam, in northern New York. Each system was installed in a small test cell and operated in the direct heating mode. An identical third test cell served as a control. Infiltration air was blown into the cells at 0.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The solar fractions obtained were low, ranging from 0.116 to0.213, with the north cell's fraction somewhat lower than the south cell's. The average solar fraction of both cells in each control range increased as the temperature control range widened. Simulation of the experiment in Albany, Buffalo, Potsdam, and Syracusae using TRNSYS gave solar fractions of similar magnitudes and the same trend. An economic analysis comparing the solar systems to five different conventional energy sources showed no payback during the 20-year term of the analysis.

  19. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

  20. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  1. Post-burning regeneration of the Chaco seasonally dry forest: germination response of dominant species to experimental heat shock.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Díaz, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Plant species of the Chaco seasonally dry forest of central Argentina have presumably been under a low evolutionary pressure to develop specialized fire-response traits, such as heat-stimulated germination. Nevertheless, other historical factors such as seasonal drought and/or endozoochorus dispersal could have led some species to develop heat-tolerant seeds. Therefore, heat-tolerant germination should be more common than heat-stimulated or heat-sensitive germination. To test this, we exposed seeds of 26 dominant species from the Chaco region to a broad range of experimental heat treatments and incubated them for 30 days at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiod. We then scored the percent germination and classified them as heat-stimulated, heat-tolerant or heat-sensitive based on their germination following heat treatments relative to control. Seventeen species showed heat-tolerant germination, including all native graminoids. Seven species showed heat-stimulated germination, under the less-intense heat treatments. Only two species showed heat-sensitive germination. Endozoochory had no influence on germination responses. We suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, fire was not a major evolutionary force in the development of Chaco forests, and our results provide greater understanding of the potential response of Chaco plant communities in the face of increasingly frequent fires. PMID:25421096

  2. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  3. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 6, June 1978. Concentric-Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis and Data Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    Four computer programs written in FORTRAN and BASIC develop theoretical predictions and data reduction for a junior-senior level heat exchanger experiment. Programs may be used at the terminal in the laboratory to check progress of the experiment or may be used in the batch mode for interpretation of final information for a formal report. Several…

  4. A Report on the Knowledge Development Goals of the Illinois Migrant Council Midwest Youth Employment and Training Program for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers; Fiscal Years 1978 through 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laylo, Peter R.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    Knowledge development goals were built into the Illinois Migrant Council (IMC) Midwest Youth Employment Training Program (MYETP) to gain information and insights on the status and conditions of the migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) youth, and to assist in the design and content of programs to improve their economic, educational, and social…

  5. Forecast 1978: $45.2-Billion for R and D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosbacher, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses Research and Development (R&D) funding trends from industry and the federal government. A real increase for the third consecutive year is forecast for 1978, if inflation stays below 7.9 percent. (SL)

  6. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  7. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute, Meeting, 26th, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash., June 26-28, 1978, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, C. T. (Editor); Grosshandler, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    Papers are presented on the heat transfer and fluid mechanics in energy systems including diesel combustion analysis using rapid sampling and the numerical simulation of thermal response of architectural structures. Experiments associated with hypersonic boundary layers, the prediction of nozzle-wall pressure distribution, and the effects of nozzle geometry on an axisymmetric thrust augmentor are outlined. Predictions are made of film thickness on a roll-metering device and the thermal characteristics of multiple-surface submerged condenser modules are described. Numerical studies are made of the interaction between natural and forced convection in a complex geometry and of pressure drop and holdup in two-phase stratified flow. A numerical solution is given for viscous flows at high Reynolds numbers and for compressible boundary layer flows near separation or reattachment. The structure and transport properties in turbulent shear flows are reviewed along with the spectra of Reynolds stresses in a developing pipe flow.

  8. Ocean Net Heat Flux Influences Seasonal to Interannual Patterns of Plankton Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tim J.; Allen, Icarus; Atkinson, Angus; Bruun, John T.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Pingree, Robin D.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the net heat flux (NHF) into the ocean have profound impacts on global climate. We analyse a long-term plankton time-series and show that the NHF is a critical indicator of ecosystem dynamics. We show that phytoplankton abundance and diversity patterns are tightly bounded by the switches between negative and positive NHF over an annual cycle. Zooplankton increase before the transition to positive NHF in the spring but are constrained by the negative NHF switch in autumn. By contrast bacterial diversity is decoupled from either NHF switch, but is inversely correlated (r = −0.920) with the magnitude of the NHF. We show that the NHF is a robust mechanistic tool for predicting climate change indicators such as spring phytoplankton bloom timing and length of the growing season. PMID:24918906

  9. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  10. Seasonal thermal signatures of heat transfer by water exchange in an underground vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Morat, Pierre; Yoshino, Toshio; Sano, Osam; Utada, Hisashi; Gensane, Olivier; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2004-07-01

    The temperature of a 10-point vertical profile at the rock-atmosphere interface has been monitored since 2000 September in an underground vault at Aburatsubo, Japan, where resistivity variations have been reported in association with earthquakes. The non-ventilated vault is characterized by an annual temperature variation of about 1.2 °C peak to peak, compatible with thermal diffusion in the surrounding tuff rock, and by a long-term temperature increase of about 0.1 °C per year, possibly due to a local or global climate change. Owing to a careful relative calibration of the 10 thermistors used in this experiment, these data establish that the ceiling temperature is higher than the floor temperature by 0.04 to 0.28 °C. Transient temperature variations are observed in association with human presence or with typhoons, with a characteristic spatial pattern revealing structural heterogeneity. Variations with periods ranging from 1 day to 1 week, with an amplitude two time larger and a phase advance on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from November to May. Variations with periods larger than 1 week, with an amplitude two times smaller and a phase lag on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from June to October. These cycles are linked to the sign of the seasonal heat flux. We propose an interpretation in which heat transfer in the cavity is dominated by diffusion of water vapour from June to October (heat flux downwards, summer regime) and by convective water transport from November to May (heat flux upwards, winter regime). The water flow inferred from this model can be used to predict the water saturation of the rock as a function of time. Because of a permanent radiative heat flux from top to bottom, the upward water flow in the winter regime is larger than the downward water flow in the summer regime, resulting in a slow depletion of water from the rock below the cavity. This unbalanced water flow could contribute to an observed

  11. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  12. Energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat flux during the warm season at FLUXNET sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kell B.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Aubinet, Marc; Berbigier, Paul; Bernhofer, Christian; Dolman, Han; Falge, Eva; Field, Chris; Goldstein, Allen; Granier, Andre; Grelle, Achim; Halldor, Thorgeirsson; Hollinger, Dave; Katul, Gabriel; Law, B. E.; Lindroth, Anders; Meyers, Tilden; Moncrieff, John; Monson, Russ; Oechel, Walter; Tenhunen, John; Valentini, Riccardo; Verma, Shashi; Vesala, Timo; Wofsy, Steve

    2002-12-01

    The warm season (mid-June through late August) partitioning between sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux, or the Bowen ratio (β = H/LE), was investigated at 27 sites over 66 site years within the international network of eddy covariance sites (FLUXNET). Variability in β across ecosystems and climates was analyzed by quantifying general climatic and surface characteristics that control flux partitioning. The climatic control on β was quantified using the climatological resistance (Ri), which is proportional to the ratio of vapor pressure deficit (difference between saturation vapor pressure and atmospheric vapor pressure) to net radiation (large values of Ri decrease β). The control of flux partitioning by the vegetation and underlying surface was quantified by computing the surface resistance to water vapor transport (Rc, with large values tending to increase β). There was a considerable range in flux partitioning characteristics (Rc, Ri and β) among sites, but it was possible to define some general differences between vegetation types and climates. Deciduous forest sites and the agricultural site had the lowest values of Rc and β (0.25-0.50). Coniferous forests typically had a larger Rc and higher β (typically between 0.50 and 1.00 but also much larger). However, there was notable variability in Rc and Ri between coniferous site years, most notably differences between oceanic and continental climates and sites with a distinct dry summer season (Mediterranean climate). Sites with Mediterranean climates generally had the highest net radiation, Rc, Ri, and β. There was considerable variability in β between grassland site years, primarily the result of interannual differences in soil water content and Rc.

  13. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  14. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat–health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  15. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability. PMID:27351357

  16. Urban heat island by means of city clusters: a statistical assessment of size influence and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, influence factors of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect have been intensively investigated and further broadened through a variety of studies around the world. Briefly, compared to non-built surroundings, built-up areas of cities differ considerably in albedo, thermal capacity, roughness, etc. which can significantly modify the surface energy budget and make downtown areas of cities hotter than their vicinities. Most previous studies were built upon a limited number of cities, and suffered from inconsistency and instability with regard to the urban-rural definition, which hinders the inter-comparison between results. To overcome this limitation in the number of considered cities, we perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) intensity by means of land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. After defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover based on CORINE data, we determine a boundary around the urban cluster of approximately equal area to the cluster area. SUHI intensity is thus defined as the difference between the mean temperature in the cluster and that of the surroundings. We investigate the relationships of the SUHI intensity, respectively with the cluster size and with the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the SUHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a pronounced seasonality of the SUHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. Characterizing the shape by means of Fourier series approximation and consequential work of clustering, we identify apparent regional patterns which suggest a climatological basis for the heterogeneity of UHI.

  17. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  18. Vertical characteristics of PM2.5 during the heating season in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Zhang, Yu-fen; Han, Su-qin; Wu, Jian-hui; Bi, Xiao-hui; Shi, Guo-liang; Wang, Jiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zi-ying; Liu, Jing-le; Feng, Yin-chang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected at four heights (10m, 40m, 120m and 220m) at a meteorological tower in the daytime and nighttime during the heating season in Tianjin, China. The vertical variation and diurnal variability of the concentrations of PM2.5 and main chemical compositions were analyzed in clear days and heavy pollution days. Generally, mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the chemical compositions showed a decreasing trend with increasing height, while mass percentages of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and OC showed an increasing trend with increasing height. Concentrations of ion species and carbon compound in PM2.5 samples in the daytime were higher than those collected at night, which was due to intense human activities and suitable meteorological condition in the daytime. The ratios of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) and OC/EC were also considered, and we have observed that their levels on heavy pollution days were higher than those on clear days. In addition, source apportionments were identified quantitatively using the CMB-iteration model. The results indicated that contributions of secondary ion species increased with increasing height, while contributions of other pollutant sources decreased, and contributions of vehicle exhaust were relatively high on clear days. PMID:25863506

  19. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  20. Reactive force field development for magnesium chloride hydrates and its application for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; van Duin, Adri C T; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-06-21

    MgCl2 hydrates are considered as high-potential candidates for seasonal heat storage materials. These materials have high storage capacity and fast dehydration kinetics. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis may occur. Hydrolysis is an irreversible reaction, which produces HCl gas thus affecting the durability of heat storage systems. In this study, we present the parameterization of a reactive force field (ReaxFF) for MgCl2 hydrates to study the dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O. The ReaxFF parameters have been derived by training against quantum mechanics data obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations consisting of bond dissociation curves, angle bending curves, reaction enthalpies, and equation of state. A single-parameter search algorithm in combination with a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm is successfully used for this ReaxFF parameterization. The newly developed force field is validated by examining the elastic properties of MgCl2 hydrates and the proton transfer reaction barrier, which is important for the hydrolysis reaction. The bulk moduli of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O obtained from ReaxFF are in close agreement with the bulk moduli obtained from DFT. A barrier of 20.24 kcal mol(-1) for the proton transfer in MgCl2·2H2O is obtained, which is in good agreement with the barrier (19.55 kcal mol(-1)) obtained from DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations using the newly developed ReaxFF on 2D-periodic slabs of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O show that the dehydration rate increases more rapidly with temperature in MgCl2·H2O than in MgCl2·2H2O, in the temperature range 300-500 K. The onset temperature of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter in seasonal heat storage systems, is observed at 340 K for MgCl2·H2O, which is in agreement with experiments. The HCl formation is not observed for MgCl2·2H2O. The diffusion coefficient of H2O through MgCl2·H2O is lower than through MgCl2·2H2O, and can

  1. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  2. Work Experience of the Population in 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne McDougall

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses several facets of the labor force based on 1978 data--seasonal and year-round workers; Blacks, Whites, Hispanics; men and women; occupational change; unemployment; and factors such as age--as they relate to employment. Data tables are included. (CT)

  3. Bilingual Early Childhood Centers. Final Evaluation Report 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Jeffrey; And Others

    The bilingual Early Childhood Centers Program was established in three public and four non-public schools ln District 14 (Brooklyn, New York) as a response to the needs of children in grades K-2 with limited English proficiency. Participants were from Spanish or Yiddish dominant homes. The curriculum offered instruction in English as a Second…

  4. Occupational Outlook Book, 1978-79 Edition. Bulletin No. 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is divided into four major sections with the first section serving as a guide to the handbook. This introductory section tells how to use the handbook, where to go for more career information, how employment projections are made, and where tommorrow's jobs will be. The outlook for occupations in section 2 contains 300 occupational…

  5. Paraprofessional Training in Special Education, 1978-79. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlington Community Coll., Pemberton, NJ.

    General objectives for the PEG Program at Burlington County College, New Jersey, were to develop a model curriculum for paraprofessionals in noncategorical special education and to present and disseminate the curriculum and materials. Designed to be offered by a community college, the program was to consist of four courses--two concentrating on…

  6. The Visiting Women Scientists Program, 1978-79: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Carol; And Others

    This is the final report of a program in which 51 women scientists visited 12 junior high and high schools in North Carolina and a total of 128 schools in four large American metropolitan areas. The purpose of these visits was to provide students with a chance to meet women scientists as role models. The report is divided into 9 chapters and 8…

  7. Report of Committee R on Government Relations, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Henry T.

    1979-01-01

    Higher Education must have a higher priority on the agenda of government. This priority should be expressed in funds for student financial assistance, faculty scholarly grants, faculty salaries, program support, and improved facilities. Tenured professors exemption, reauthorization of Higher Education Act of 1965, AAUP's legislative agenda, etc.…

  8. 1978-79 Directory of Physics & Astronomy Staff Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This directory gives names, addresses, and telephone numbers of staff members of astronomy and physics departments. The listings are made under the following headings: (1) American Institute of Physics and its member societies; (2) geographic listing of academic institutions and faculty - U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Central America; (3) U.S.…

  9. I.D.G. Bulletin 1978/79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    The document focuses on the relationship of land and water in the Netherlands. Information, presented in expository, tabular, photographic, and cartographic form, is arranged in four major sections. Section I, which contains the bulk of the document, discusses water and landscape in geography; water in the Netherlands as a source of food,…

  10. Special Needs TESL Program, 1978-79, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, Robert L.

    The Teaching English as a Second Language Program was developed as a response to the needs of a multicultural population. It provides services geared to the individual needs of non-English speaking children in elementary and junior high schools. Children were seen for five 40 to 45 minute periods weekly in groups of 10 to 12. An audio-lingual…

  11. Guidance Exploration Model (GEM) 1978-79. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, M. Candice, Comp.

    The original program goal for development was to provide implementation of a Guidance Exploratory Model (GEM) at the elementary level which combines career education, guidance, exploration and academics. During the planning stages of GEM, monies were received from Title IV-B to purchase books and audio-visual materials to initiate the concept…

  12. Impact of the seasonal cycle on the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic volume and heat transport under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic ocean circulation is projected to change considerably with future climate change. Here, we investigate whether changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the meridional heat transport (OHT) result in changes in their decadal predictability. In MPI-ESM-LR, we generate two hindcast ensembles with 20 start dates and 10 ensemble members per start date for (i) the present climate state in the CMIP5 historical simulation extended with RCP4.5 starting in 1995 and (ii) a future climate state in RCP4.5 starting in 2045. These two hindcast ensembles are compared against the historical simulation and RCP4.5 as control simulation, respectively, using the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and the Brier skill score (BSS) decomposition in combination with reliability diagrams. The analysis is performed for yearly means and multiyear seasonal means of the AMOC and the OHT. Our results show a decrease in predictability of the AMOC and the OHT from the present climate state to the future climate state in RCP4.5. Both, changes in the AMOC and the OHT decadal predictability are largest at latitudes where the mean seasonal cycle of both AMOC and OHT is projected to change. For example around 25°N, the AMOC shows a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.5 Sv and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead times from up to 10 years to 2 years in the ACC. For the OHT, we find a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.1 PW and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead time from up to 4 years to 2 years in the ACC around 25°N. Similarly, the BSS and reliability diagrams show a reduction in skill from the present climate state to the future climate state. For multiyear seasonal means, summer months dominate the predictability in the present and future climate. Even though the changes in the decadal predictability of AMOC and OHT are small in general, their

  13. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  14. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, António C.; Borges, José; Cabral, J. Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V.

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  15. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  16. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  17. The seasonal variation of the Hough modes of the tidal components of ozone heating evaluated from Aura/MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Smith, Anne; Jiang, Guoying; Yuan, Wei; Gao, Hong

    The global distribution of atmospheric ozone from Aug. 2004 to Dec. 2008 observed by Aura/MLS is used to calculate the variation of the ozone heating rate with the local time. The heating rates are calculated using the Strobel/Zhu parameterized model. The harmonic components of the heating rate, which include the daily mean, the 24-hour, the 12-hour, the 8-hour and the 6-hour periodicities are calculated. Each harmonic component of the heating is then decomposed into Hough modes. And the annual (AO), semiannual (SAO), and quasi-biennial (QBO) periodicities of each Hough mode are presented. The results show that, for the diurnal component, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the symmetric (1,-2), (1,1) and (1,-4) modes. The largest propagating mode (1,1) and the largest trapped mode (1,-2) have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The forcing of the propagating (1,1) mode by ozone heating is larger during solstices than during equinoxes. The strongest annual vari-ation takes place in the (1,-1) mode. For the semi-diurnal and ter-diurnal components, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the several initial symmetric modes, such as, (2,2), (2,4), (2,6), (3,3), and (3,5). These modes have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The strongest annual variation takes place in the asymmetric modes, such as, (2,3), (2,5), (2,7), (3,4), (3,6), and (3,8). New parameterizations of these components of the heating rate, which covers the vertical range from 10 km to 70 km, are developed based on the seasonal variations in each Hough mode.

  18. Climate–vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  19. All Season-DX Cooling and Gas Heating. GCS3 Series - Horizontal and Down-Flo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    The Lennox single package all-season rooftop unit and mounting frame is described in detail. This piece of equipment is designed primarily for rooftop installation with bottom handling of conditioned air. In addition, an installation with end handling of conditioned air makes possible three air distribution patterns. Areas discussed are--(1) unit…

  20. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  1. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  2. Preliminary design study of a central solar heating plant with seasonal storage at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, D. S.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1991-04-01

    This report documents the design development and selection of the final preliminary design of a Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) for the University of Massachusetts in Amherst (UMass). The effort has been performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at UMass under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. Phase 1 of this project was directed at site selection for the CSHPSS project and was reported earlier. This report focuses on the Phase 2 development of the site conditions and analytical study of project design, performance, and cost. The UMass site presents an excellent opportunity of a CSHPSS project in terms of land availability for a large collector array, a 100 foot deep deposit of soft, saturated clay for seasonal thermal energy storage, and appropriate low temperature heating loads. The project under study represents the first implementation of this solar technology in the United States and results from the International Energy Agency collaboration on CSHPSS since 1979. The preliminary design calls for a large 10,000 m(exp 2) parabolic trough collector array, 70,000 m(exp 3) storage volume in clay with heat transfer through 900 boreholes. Design optimization is based on computer simulations using MINSUN and TRNSYS. The design is expected to provide 95 percent of the 3500 MWh heating and hot water load. A project cost of $3.12 million (plus $240,000 for HVAC load retrofit) is estimated, which provides an annualized cost of $66.2/MWh per unit solar energy delivered. The project will proceed into an engineering phase in Spring 1991.

  3. Robeson County Indian Education Needs Assessment, FY-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth Dial; And Others

    Robeson County, North Carolina, has the largest Indian population in the state. There are 25,684 Lumbee Indians in the county; Indian students comprise 61 percent of the school population. In compliance with Title IV-A regulations, a 1978-79 needs assessment was conducted to allow the Indian community participation in the development of cultural…

  4. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  5. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  6. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  7. Fluctuations in annual cycles and inter-seasonal memory in West Africa: rainfall, soil moisture and heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, B.; Louvet, S.; Roucou, P.

    2007-01-01

    Annual cycle and inter-seasonal persistence of surface-atmosphere water and heat fluxes are analyzed at a 5-day time step over the West African Monsoon (WAM) through observational precipitation estimates (CMAP), model datasets (NCEP/DOE level 2 reanalyses) and a Soil Water Index (SWI) from the ERS scatterometer. Coherent fluctuations (30-90 days) distinct from supra-synoptic variability (10-25 day periods) are first detected in the WAM precipitation and heat fluxes over the period 1979-2001. During all the northward excursion of the WAM rain band, a succession of four active phases (abrupt rainfall increases) occurs. They are centered in the first days of March, mid-April, the second half of May and from the last week of June to mid-July (the Sahelian onset). A simple statistical approach shows that the Spring to Summer installation of the monsoon tends to be sensitive to these short periods. Other analyses suggest the existence of lagged relationship between rainfall amounts registered in successive Fall, Spring (active periods) and Summer (top of the rainy season) implying land surface conditions. The spatial extension of the generated soil moisture anomalies reaches one maximum in March, mainly at the Guinean latitudes and over the Sahelian belt where the signal can persist until the next monsoon onset. Typically after abnormal wet conditions in September-October two signals are observed: (1) more marked fluctuations in Spring with less (more) Sahelian rainfall in May (June and after) at the Sahelian-Sudanian latitudes; (2) wetter rainy seasons along the Guinean coast (in Spring and Summer with an advance in the mean date of the ‘little dry season’). The reverse arises after abnormal dry conditions in autumn.

  8. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E). PMID:25518559

  9. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  10. Variation of daily warm season mortality as a function of micro-urban heat islands

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, A; Goldberg, M S; Plante, C; Fournier, M; Baudouin, Y; Kosatsky, T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little attention has been paid to how heat-related health effects vary with the micro-urban variation of outdoor temperatures. This study explored whether people located in micro-urban heat islands are at higher risk of mortality during hot summer days. Methods: Data used included (1) daily mortality for Montreal (Canada) for June–August 1990–2003, (2) daily mean ambient outdoor temperatures at the local international airport and (3) two thermal surface images (Landsat satellites, infrared wavelengths). A city-wide temperature versus daily mortality function was established on the basis of a case-crossover design; this function was stratified according to the surface temperature at decedents’ place of death. Results: The risk of death on warm summer days in areas with higher surface temperatures was greater than in areas with lower surface temperatures. Conclusions: This study suggests that measures aimed at reducing the temperature in micro-urban heat islands (eg, urban greening activities) may reduce the health impact of hot temperatures. Further studies are needed to document the variation of heat-related risks within cities and to evaluate the health benefits of measures aimed at reducing the temperature in micro-urban heat islands. PMID:19366997

  11. Annual and seasonal trends of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days in coastal regions of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Khan, Shamsuddin

    2011-06-01

    The present study utilizes daily maximum and minimum values of temperature for a period of 37 years from 1970-2006 in five coastal cities for the estimation of monthly and annual totals of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days at base temperatures of 18°C and 24°C, 18°C and 20°C, 7°C, and 13°C, respectively. Increasing trends were observed in case of annual total cooling degree-days (CDD) and industrial degree-days over the period of study at all base temperatures. Furthermore, well-defined seasonal trends were seen with increasing values from January to July and then decreasing towards the end of the year. The heating degree-days (HDD) analysis indicated slight heating during January to March and in December. The annual total HDD showed decreasing trends at both base temperatures. It is worth mentioning that the rate of increase of annual CDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan with an exception at Yanbo, where it was higher than at Al-Wejh. On the other hand, the rate of decrease of annual HDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan. The seasonal and annual values of cooling degree-days were found to be comparable with corresponding values for stations like international airports in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Musqat, and Cairo with similar types of climatic conditions.

  12. Chemical composition of aerosol particles and light extinction apportionment before and during the heating season in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Du, Wei; Sun, Chengzhu; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts into characterization of the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution in the megacity of Beijing, the response of aerosol composition and optical properties to coal combustion emissions in the heating season remain poorly understood. Here we conducted a 3 month real-time measurement of submicron aerosol (PM1) composition by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor and particle light extinction by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction monitor in Beijing, China, from 1 October to 31 December 2012. The average (±σ) PM1 concentration was 82.4 (±73.1) µg/m3 during the heating period (HP, 15 November to 31 December), which was nearly 50% higher than that before HP (1 October to 14 November). While nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed relatively small changes, organics, sulfate, and chloride were observed to have significant increases during HP, indicating the dominant impacts of coal combustion sources on these three species. The relative humidity-dependent composition further illustrated an important role of aqueous-phase processing for the sulfate enhancement during HP. We also observed great increases of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA) during HP, which was attributed to higher emissions at lower temperatures and coal combustion emissions, respectively. The relationship between light extinction and chemical composition was investigated using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed that the largest contributors to particle extinction were ammonium nitrate (32%) and ammonium sulfate (28%) before and during HP, respectively. In addition, the contributions of SOA and primary OA to particle light extinction were quantified. The results showed that the OA extinction was mainly caused by SOA before HP and by SOA and CCOA during HP, yet with small contributions from HOA and cooking aerosol for the entire study period. Our results elucidate substantial changes of aerosol

  13. Accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets using SESAME-79 field data as revealed by observing system simulation experiments. [Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Y.-H.; Anthes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments are used to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets which employ the AVE-SESAME 1979 data. The time-including, four-dimensional data set of a mesoscale model is used to simulate rawinsonde observations from AVE-SESAME 1979. The 5 C/day (heat budget) and 2 g/kg per day (moisture budget) magnitudes of error obtained indicate difficulties in the diagnosis of the heating rate in weak convective systems. The influences exerted by observational frequency, objective analysis, observational density, vertical interpolation, and observational errors on the budget are also studied, and it is found that the temporal and spatial resolution of the SESAME regional network is marginal for diagnosing convective effects on a horizontal time scale of 550 x 550 km.

  14. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  15. Scaffolding Classroom Discourse in an Election Year: Keeping a Cool Mood in a Heated Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; May, Laura A.; Stenhouse, Vera L.; Meyers, Laura E.; Holbrook, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Certainly, teaching about politics can be daunting, especially as the political climate in the United States becomes increasingly partisan as a result of heated political rhetoric amplified through a variety of media outlets. However, elementary teachers can help students develop the respectful dispositions they will need as young adults living in…

  16. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates. PMID:27000955

  17. Remedial Education at College of the Sequoias (1978-1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Marietta

    In 1982, the California Postsecondary Education Commission conducted a statewide survey of remedial education in California's community colleges for the 3-year period, 1978-79, 1979-80, and 1980-81. College of the Sequoias's (COS's) response to this survey included the following information: (1) COS offered 6 remedial reading courses, 4 remedial…

  18. Diurnal and seasonal variability of surface urban heat island phenomena in Warsaw (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawuć, Lech; Struzewska, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of urbanization is an important environmental and social issue that modern society has to face. According to current estimates half of world's population lives in urban areas. It is expected that urban population will grow in the future. Urbanization and subsequent release of anthropogenic heat pollution lead to formation of an urban heat island (UHI). Development of UHI is a highly non-linear process (Kato et al., 2007) that depends on a number of factors such as magnitude of the anthropogenic heat flux, the texture of the city, local geophysical conditions and mesoscale meteorology (Sailor and Lu, 2004 after Narumi et al., 2003). We will present analyses of the magnitude and spatial extend of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) in the capital of Poland, Warsaw. SUHI characteristics will be identified based on the Land Surface Temperature (LST) product derived for MODIS observations, which will be collected for time-series for April 2009 (34 acquisitions) and November 2011 (33 acquisitions). We will present maps of SUHI for morning, evening and night hours, for April and November separately. Several locations representing different types of land cover will be selected in order to analyze the temporal variability and amplitude of surface temperature in various parts of the city. In addition, air temperature from six automatic stations, maintained by Voivodeship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection, for periods coincident with satellite observations will be collected. Air and land temperature comparisons will be performed in order to investigate correspondence between surface UHI and air UHI. Impact of the synoptic conditions will be also discussed, with a particular caution for those terms when effect of UHI will be the strongest.

  19. Seasonal patterns of surface wind stress and heat flux over the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winant, Clinton D.; Dorman, Clive E.

    1997-03-01

    Patterns of wind stress and heat flux between the atmosphere and the ocean over the Southern California Bight are described based on observations from buoys and ships. During the winter, the wind stress is spatially homogeneous and temporally variable, with strong events corresponding to low-pressure systems sweeping through the area. During the summer, spatial patterns are more persistent, with large gradients. Inshore of a line running approximately between Point Conception and Ensenada, Mexico, winds are weak. Offshore wind speeds are comparable in magnitude to those found over the continental shelf north of Point Conception. The boundary is the location of maximum wind stress curl, and the spatial resolution afforded by California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI) observations suggests maximum wind stress curls over 3 times larger than the values proposed by Nelson [1977]. Net heat flux estimates derived from the CalCOFI measurements are somewhat larger than the values proposed by Nelson and Husby [1983], due to differences in latent heat flux estimates. Possible mechanisms responsible for the spring-summer spatial structure in the wind and the relationship between these gradients and the properties of the underlying ocean are discussed.

  20. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part II, Discussion and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    The heat-flow profile across the Arabian Shield from Ar Riyad to Ad Darb and across the Red Sea is examined for compatibility with the lithospheric structure of the area as deduced from geologic and other geophysical data. Broad continental uplift associated with Red Sea rifting is symmetric about the Red Sea axis, and geologic and geochronologic evidence indicate that uplift has occurred mainly in the interval 25-13 Ma (mega-annum) ago. Thermal-profile changes in the upper mantle resulting from an influx of hot material associated with rifting yield the correct order of magnitude of uplift, and this mechanism is suggested as the explanation for the regional doming. A lithospheric section, constructed from seismic refraction, gravity, and regional geologic data, provides the framework for construction of thermal models. Thermal gradient measurements were made in drill holes at five shot points. Geotherms for the Shield, which assume a radiogenic heat-source distribution that decreases exponentially with depth, yield temperatures of about 450?C at a depth of 40 km (base of the crust) for shot points 2 (Sabhah) and 3. The geotherm for shot point 4 (near Bishah) yields a distinctly higher temperature (about 580?C) for the same depth. Static models used to model the heat flow in the oceanic crust of the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain either yield too small a heat flow to match the observed heat flow or give lithosphere thicknesses that are so thin as to be improbable. Dynamic (solid-state accretion) models, which account for mantle flow at the base of the lithosphere, adequately match the observed heat-flow values. In the deep-water trough of the Red Sea, which is presently undergoing active sea-floor spreading, classical models of heat flow for a moving slab with accretion at the spreading center are adequate to explain the average heat-flow level. At shot point 5 (Ad Darb), the anomalous heat flow of 2 HFU (heat-flow units) can be explained in terms of a Shield

  1. Heat treatment dependences of the ultrasound velocities in the Fe79Cr6.6B14.4 metallic glasses produced in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczkowski, Zbigniew; Kisdi-Koszó, Éva; Potockỳ, Ladislav

    1991-11-01

    The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of the magnetic and thermal treatments and of the magnetic bias field on the ultrasound velocities c in Fe79Cr6.6B14.4 metallic glass ribbons prepared in a longitudinal or transverse magnetic field. The values of c for the points near the demagnetization state and near the magnetic saturation were changing from about 4550-4600 m/s for as-cast state to 4700-4900 m/s after the last annealing at 360 °C. After the annealings between 280 and 350 °C the minimum values of c dropped to 4360 m/s and this phenomenon is connected with the ΔE effect and and with increasing of the magnetomechanical coupling coefficient k with annealing (up to about 0.25 after annealing at 350 °C from km = 0.1 for as-cast state). This material may be useful in magnetostrictive delay line applications.

  2. Heat treatment dependences of the ultrasound velocities in the Fe sub 79 Cr sub 6. 6 B sub 14. 4 metallic glasses produced in magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczkowski, Z. ); Kisdi-Koszo, E. ); Potocky, L. )

    1991-11-15

    The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of the magnetic and thermal treatments and of the magnetic bias field on the ultrasound velocities {ital c} in Fe{sub 79}Cr{sub 6.6}B{sub 14.4} metallic glass ribbons prepared in a longitudinal or transverse magnetic field. The values of {ital c} for the points near the demagnetization state and near the magnetic saturation were changing from about 4550--4600 m/s for as-cast state to 4700--4900 m/s after the last annealing at 360 {degree}C. After the annealings between 280 and 350 {degree}C the minimum values of {ital c} dropped to 4360 m/s and this phenomenon is connected with the {Delta}{ital E} effect and and with increasing of the magnetomechanical coupling coefficient {ital k} with annealing (up to about 0.25 after annealing at 350 {degree}C from {ital k}{sub {ital m}} = 0.1 for as-cast state). This material may be useful in magnetostrictive delay line applications.

  3. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  4. ACTION. Annual Report 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1978. The introduction notes a continued growth in programs and comments on new developments. Older American Volunteer Programs are discussed in the next section, specifically the Retired Senior Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and…

  5. Youth Unemployment, 1978. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This study of measures taken to reduce youth unemployment in Denmark is based on reports from local authorities, county authorities, and labor market boards, and on surveys made by the central government. The first section describes the total efforts made during 1978. The second section describes programs undertaken by the Danish Ministry of Labor…

  6. BA Degree Handbook, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    This 1978 Open University BA degree Handbook begins with information about the university organization, correspondence materials, assignments and examinations, television and radio broadcasts, audio-cassette loan service, books and libraries, study centers, the computing service, handicapped students, tutor-counselors and course tutors, tuition,…

  7. The satellite-determined thermal structure of heat low during Indian south-west monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Desai, Pranav S.

    One of the important climatic features of the south-west (SW) monsoon period in the Indian subcontinent is the appearance of a shallow heat low centred around Pakistan region. The details of this system are not easy to observe, as the region lies mostly over a desert area. However, satellite soundings provide a frequent and synoptic view of the system. We have undertaken a study of the properties of this system through lower level and upper level thermal structure around the region using NOAA temperature soundings. The results for the months of April, May and June in the year 1982 are presented here. The temperature changes in the region are studied in relation to the date of the onset of SW-monsoon and its activity in the Indian sub-continent.

  8. Warm-season diurnal circulations and heat extremes over the northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew C.

    Summer synoptic circulations over the northwest U.S., and their interactions with regional terrain, land/water contrasts, and surface heating, give rise to a variety of fascinating meteorological phenomena, many of which have yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how projected future warming associated with increased greenhouse gases will modify these important features. The work herein seeks to ameliorate this with a comprehensive examination of two important aspects of northwest U.S. summer weather and climate: diurnal circulations and changes to the conditions associated with extreme temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. To simulate regional diurnal circulations, GFS model output was obtained for July and August 2009-2011. These data were categorized into hour of the day, composited, and the resulting files were used to initialize and provide boundary conditions to a WRF (version 3.5) model run. It was shown that, when compared to observations, this WRF run sufficiently simulates average diurnal variability. Using this simulation, the diurnal circulations of the region were described, including several important wind features within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Snoqualmie Pass, and the Columbia River Gorge. Also, regional nocturnal low-level wind maxima are described, including one over the northern Willamette valley and another over the high plateau of eastern Oregon. Recent work by the authors has elucidated the physical mechanisms that drive heat extremes over the northwest U.S., including the necessity of a ridge aloft, with associated subsidence and advection warming. Also, easterly flow is crucial for keeping the marine air at bay, and producing downslope flow and adiabatic warming on the western slopes of regional north-south terrain barriers. Given the rising temperatures projected under anthropogenic global warming, how are these conditions, and associated low-level temperature distributions, projected to change? As a

  9. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  10. Investigations of Dust Radiative Heating Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains During the Pre- Monsoon Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, R.; Hsu, C.; Tsay, S.; Lau, W.; Kafatos, M.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite and ground observations show maximum column aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) during the pre-monsoon period (April-May-June) caused by wind-blown dust storms that originate in deserts around the Arabian Peninsula. High dust loading significantly affects aerosol optical properties and the radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere and surface. The frequency of dust storms over IGP peaks during May and long- term satellite data show strong positive trend in the aerosol loading over desert regions around the IGP. We use multi-satellite and ground observations obtained from MODIS, CERES, AIRS and AERONET data along with radiative transfer simulations to calculate the radiative forcing due to dust aerosols and analyze changes in temperature profiles caused by the heating associated with dust aerosols over the IGP during the pre-monsoon period. Long-term analysis of the mid-tropospheric temperature obtained from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) data indicates a significant upward trend over the IGP. This positive trend is found to be highest in May with an increase of ~2.0º C in the last 25 years. In addition, higher values of temperature were found in the AIRS profile data on heavy dust loading days compared to low dust environment. This effect was particularly observed in the mid-troposphere from AIRS data. Radiative transfer model simulations combined with inputs from ground measurements of aerosol optical properties from AERONET data and CERES fluxes in conjunction with Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) modeled values of aerosol properties are used to estimate the radiative heating associated with dust aerosols.

  11. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  12. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  13. Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

  14. Research into lightning protection of distribution systems II - results from Florida Field work 1978 and 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Darveniza, M.; Uman, M.A.

    1984-04-01

    Experience in the Tampa Bay area during August 1978 thunderstorms resulted in significant improvements in the field work carried out during 1979. This paper describes the changes to equipment and data sources, and presents overall results for the 1979 thunderstorm season. Where appropriate, these are linked to 1978 data and to data obtained from equipment which operated on a year-long basis.

  15. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  16. Dateline '79 Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    1980-01-01

    Recaps major criticisms of the community college and predictions made in "Dateline '79" (Cohen, 1969). Plots trends for the 1980s, envisioning five distinct institutions: the resurrected secondary school, educational broker, rapid response college, and certification and satellite centers. Forewarns community colleges not to neglect their basic…

  17. Heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes at the first Vietnamese eddy covariance site in tropical seasonal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskaya, Olga; Anichkin, Alexandr; Avilov, Vitaly; Duy Dinh, Ba; Luu Do, Phong; Novichonok, Artem; Huan Tran, Cong; Kurbatova, Juliya

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange is one of important issue concerning the understanfing of ecosystem functioning in conditions of global climate change. In this study the first results of eddy covariance observations in semievergreen tropical seasonal forest in Southern Vietnam, Cat Tien national park (N 11°27', E 107°24', 134 m a.s.l.), in 2011-2012 are presented. Three characteristic months (December, March, September) were chosen for comparing of fluxes in different meteorological conditions. According to Keppen-Geiger climate classification Southern Vietnam has tropical monsoon climate with dry-warm...hot winter and rainy-warm summer. December, the month of the first part of dry period, had lowest (24.0°?) average canopy temperature, not so big precipitation rate (49.8 mm) and medium soil moisture content (25 %vol.). March was the hottest month (26.9°?) in the end of dry period with both lowest precipitation (24.1 mm) and soil moisture content (15 %vol.). September was the peak of rainy season (607.6 mm of rain per month) with flooding of vast areas in Cat Tien and highest soil moisture content (38 %vol.). Highest radiation sums were recorded in March (426.0 MJ m-2 mon-1). December and September sums (336.7 and 342.1 MJ m-2 mon-1) were not so high due to increased hade of sunlight in the first case and cloudiness in the second case. Sensible heat flux (H) rate rose sharply in the second half of dry season (from about 35 MJ m-2 mon-1 in December and September to 155.4 MJ m-2 mon-1 in March). Evapotranspiration (LE) dominated considerably in the heat expenditures during all the year (216.7...271.6 MJ m-2 mon-1). Bowen ratio (H/LE) varied from 0.13 in September to 0.71 in March. For the whole period of observation, the tropical forest was a slight carbon sink from the atmosphere (calculation included u*-correction with threshold of 0.4 m s-1, which appreciably heighten NEE value). Highest rate of CO2 absorption was observed in

  18. Seasonal sensitivity of the eddy-driven jet to tropospheric heating in an idealized atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Marie C.

    A dry dynamical core is used to investigate the seasonal sensitivity of the circulation to two idealized thermal forcings--a tropical upper tropospheric forcing, and a polar lower tropospheric forcing. The circulation is modified using a set of perpetual simulations to simulate each month of the year, while the thermal forcings are held constant. The circu- lation responses to tropical warming and polar warming are studied separately, and then the response to the simultaneously applied forcings is analyzed. Finally, the seasonality of the internal variability of the circulation is explored as a possible mechanism to explain the seasonality of the responses. The primary results of these experiments are: 1) There is a seasonal sensitivity in the circulation response to both the tropical and polar forcings. 2) The jet position response to each forcing is greatest in the transition seasons, and the jet speed response exhibits a seasonal sensitivity to both forcings although the seasonal sensi- tivities are not the same. 3) The circulation response is nonlinear in the transition seasons, but approximately linear in the summer and winter months. 4) The internal variability of the unforced circulation exhibits a seasonal sensitivity that may partly explain the seasonal sensitivity of the forced response. The seasonality of the internal variability of daily MERRA reanalysis data is compared to that of the model, demonstrating that the broad conclusions drawn from this idealized modeling study may be useful for understanding the jet response to anthropogenic forcing.

  19. Effects of Heating Season on Residential Indoor and Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Particulate Matter in an Urban Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM)2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n=334) living in New York City’s Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into Σ8PAHsemivolatile (MW 178–206), and Σ8PAHnonvolatile (MW 228–278)), Abs, and PM2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater Σ8PAHnonvolatile (p<0.001) and Abs (p<0.05), and lower levels of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of Σ8PAHnonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, Σ8PAHnonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration (p<0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends. PMID:20938487

  20. Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM) 2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5-6 year old children ( n = 334) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into ∑ 8PAH semivolatile (MW 178-206), and ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile (MW 228-278)), Abs, and PM 2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile ( p < 0.001) and Abs ( p < 0.05), and lower levels of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration ( p < 0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends.

  1. Time series decomposition of remotely sensed land surface temperature and investigation of trends and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jinling; Zhan, Wenfeng; Chen, Yunhao; Wang, Mengjie; Wang, Jinfei

    2016-03-01

    Previous time series methods have difficulties in simultaneous characterization of seasonal, gradual, and abrupt changes of remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST). This study proposed a model to decompose LST time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components. The trend component indicates long-term climate change and land development and is described as a piecewise linear function with iterative breakpoint detection. The seasonal component illustrates annual insolation variations and is modeled as a sinusoidal function on the detrended data. This model is able to separate the seasonal variation in LST from the long-term (including gradual and abrupt) change. Model application to nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/LST time series during 2000-2012 over Beijing yielded an overall root-mean-square error of 1.62 K between the combination of the decomposed trend and seasonal components and the actual MODIS/LSTs. LST decreased (~ -0.086 K/yr, p < 0.1) in 53% of the study area, whereas it increased with breakpoints in 2009 (~0.084 K/yr before and ~0.245 K/yr after 2009) between the fifth and sixth ring roads. The decreasing trend was stronger over croplands than over urban lands (p < 0.05), resulting in an increasing trend in surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII, 0.022 ± 0.006 K/yr). This was mainly attributed to the trends in urban-rural differences in rainfall and albedo. The SUHII demonstrated a concave seasonal variation primarily due to the seasonal variations of urban-rural differences in temperature cooling rate (related to canyon structure, vegetation, and soil moisture) and surface heat dissipation (affected by humidity and wind).

  2. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite. PMID:26314033

  3. Corrosion protection of solar-collctor heat exchangers with electrochemically deposited films. Final report, 15 May 1978-15 November 1979. [Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.R.; Schnaper, G.H.; Brummer, S.B.

    1980-05-01

    The goal of this program was the demonstration of a novel corrosion protection technique for the common solar collector metals: Al, Cu, and Fe as mild steel. This involves the electrochemical deposition of thin, adherent polymer films on the interior of heat-exchanger tubes by application of a current in the presence of a suitable organic monomer. Polyphenylene oxide (PPO) films were anodically deposited onto Cu and Fe coupons from methanolic media. However, defects in these films afforded poor corrosion protection. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, suitably functionalized PPO films were cross-linked via Schiff base formation in a subsequent chemical step. While these chemically modified PPO films were demonstrably more resistant to ethylene glycol H/sub 2/O media at elevated temperatures, they were eventually undetermined by the thermal transfer fluid. Cinnamaldehyde, a styrene-type monomre, has been successfully electrodeposited onto Al coupons. This process involved a constant, albeit unreferenced potential technique in which the Al is made the negative electrode. Cathodic deposition onto Al avoids passivating Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ barrier coating formation, and is amenable to the cross-linking technique. Filmed and cross-linked Al samples stored at elevated temperatures resisted corrosive processes compared to unfilmed control samples. Pitting, however, was the ultimate fate of all filmed samples.

  4. Seasonal cycle of oceanic mixed layer and upper-ocean heat fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea from in-situ observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, Loïc; Testor, Pierre; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Estournel, Claude; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    Heat fluxes across the ocean-atmosphere interface play a crucial role in the upper turbulent mixing. The depth reached by this turbulent mixing is indicated by an homogenization of seawater properties in the surface layer, and is defined as the Mixed Layer Depth (MLD). The thickness of the mixed layer determines also the heat content of the layer that directly interacts with the atmosphere. The seasonal variability of these air-sea fluxes is crucial in the calculation of heat budget. An improvement in the estimate of these fluxes is needed for a better understanding of the Mediterranean ocean circulation and climate, in particular in Regional Climate Models. There are few estimations of surface heat fluxes based on oceanic observations in the Mediterranean, and none of them are based on mixed layer observations. So, we proposed here new estimations of these upper-ocean heat fluxes based on mixed layer. We present high resolution Mediterranean climatology (0.5°) of the mean MLD based on a comprehensive collection of temperature profiles of last 43 years (1969-2012). The database includes more than 150,000 profiles, merging CTD, XBT, ARGO Profiling floats, and gliders observations. This dataset is first used to describe the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer depth on the whole Mediterranean on a monthly climatological basis. Our analysis discriminates several regions with coherent behaviors, in particular the deep water formation sites, characterized by significant differences in the winter mixing intensity. Heat storage rates (HSR) were calculated as the time rate of change of the heat content integrated from the surface down to a specific depth that is defined as the MLD plus an integration constant. Monthly climatology of net heat flux (NHF) from ERA-Interim reanalysis was balanced by the 1°x1° resolution heat storage rate climatology. Local heat budget balance and seasonal variability in the horizontal heat flux are then discussed by taking into account

  5. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  6. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  7. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  8. World Natural Gas, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

  9. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S., III; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  10. Pioneer Venus 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An orbiter and a multiprobe spacecraft will be sent to Venus in 1978 to conduct a detailed examination of the planet's atmosphere and weather. The spin-stabilized multiprobe spacecraft consists of a bus, a large probe and three identical small probes, each carrying a complement of scientific instruments. The large probe will conduct a detailed sounding of the lower atmosphere, obtaining measurements of the clouds, atmospheric structure, wind speed, and atmospheric composition. Primary emphasis will be placed on the planet's energy balance and clouds. The three small probes will provide information on the circulation pattern of the lower atmosphere. The probe bus will provide data on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere down to an altitude of about 120 km. The orbiter is designed to globally map the atmosphere, ionosphere, and the solar wind/ionosphere interaction. In addition, it will utilize radar mapping techniques to study the surface.

  11. 29 CFR 1978.112 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Judicial review. 1978.112 Section 1978.112 Labor....112 Judicial review. (a) Within 60 days after the issuance of a final order under §§ 1978.109 and 1978... to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceeding. (c) If a timely petition for review...

  12. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change. PMID:23417331

  13. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  14. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  15. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  16. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  17. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  18. Enrollment and Attendance: 1968-1978. Research Report 78-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Judee; Weiser, Irv

    This report provides historical data on enrollment, weekly student contact hours, and average daily attendance during 1968-1978 for the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD). Enrollment was 129,296 in fall 1977, a 2.5% increase over fall 1976 (when enrollments had dropped 7.9%); major contributing factors were more vigorous recruitment…

  19. Ontario Council on University Affairs Fourth Annual Report, March 1, 1977 to February 28, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Council on University Affairs, Toronto.

    The annual report contains an introduction addressing three issues (enrollment, funding and the challenge past, and funding and the challenge to come) and the full text of all advisory memoranda issued during the year. Those memoranda have as their subjects: the Ontario Graduate Scholarship Program, 1978-79; the secondary/postsecondary education…

  20. 1978-1979 Comparative Costs and Staffing Report for Physical Plants of College and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Comparative data on physical plant costs and staffing in higher education for 1978-79 are presented. Questionnaires were sent to member institutions of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges (APPA) and the National Association of College and University Business Officers. Unit cost summaries and wage and…

  1. Seasonal gonadal development and age-related maturity patterns of introduced pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758) in a heated thermal reservoir and an adjacent river reach.

    PubMed

    Valente, E; Masson, G; Maul, A; Fox, M G; Meyer, A; Pihan, J C

    2016-05-01

    Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0.73, P<0.001). GSI of females in the reservoir increased with the stage at maturity, but GSI was not significantly correlated with total length, age or growth rate of the individual. All sampled individuals of both sexes were mature at age 1 in the heated reservoir, whereas 48% of age 1 males and 57% of age 1 females were not mature in the river. GSI patterns suggest that males in the reservoir adopted one of two reproductive strategies (nesters or cuckolders), whereas no small males with large enough testes to be considered cuckolders were apparent in the river. The warm thermal regime of Mirgenbach Reservoir led to precocial maturity, early season reproduction, and the greater prevalence of apparent cuckolder males than would normally occur in this climatic zone. PMID:27157335

  2. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  3. The Development of Urban Heat Islands in the Southeast Region of the United States in the Winter Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Jan

    The study of the urban heat island has gained increased importance due to its relation to global warming. The effect of urbanization and land use changes in general on thermometer readings can bias long-term records resulting in a false global warming signal. Therefore, understanding the urban heat island phenomenon is important for an assessment of the global warming magnitude. A modeling approach has been chosen since it can overcome some restrictions of "conventional" methods (in situ and satellite observations), such as limited spatial and temporal resolution and topography effects. Models can provide better resolution and extend our understanding of the underlying physics of urban heat island development. In order to demonstrate this concept, the city of Atlanta was selected for numerical simulation under clear sky conditions on 6-7 and 25-26 February 1988. A mesoscale model developed by Pielke (1974) was employed in the numerical simulation. The first step was determination of the soil thermal inertia and moisture availability using AVHRR satellite-derived skin surface temperatures in a technique developed by Carlson et al. (1981). The thermal inertia exhibited elevated values over the city in both cases. The moisture availability field showed a larger degree of variability. The case of 25-26 February 1988 exhibited lower values of moisture availability in the city as compared to the rural surroundings, which is considered to be a typical situation. However, the case of 6-7 February 1988 showed extremely high moisture availability in the city. A possible explanation can be found in the cumulative rainfall, which shows a positive correlation between 14 -day cumulative rainfall amount and the moisture availability. A technique proposed by Hjelmfelt (1982) was used to simulate the urban effect. The urban heat island itself was investigated in terms of the skin surface and 2-m height temperatures. The horizontal and temporal evolution of these variables was

  4. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; López-Baca, M A; Vicente, R; Mejía, A; Álvarez, F D; Correa-Calderón, A; Meza-Herrera, C A; Mellado, M; Guerra-Liera, J E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress. PMID:26715136

  5. Estimating seasonal crop ET using calendar and heat unit based crop coefficients in the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network utilizes a heat unit-based approach (growing degree day concept) in the timing of various crop growth stages along with crop coefficients for computation of crop water use with the newly standardized ASCE/EWRI reference evapotranspiration (E...

  6. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  7. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  8. Gateway Report, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community School District 22, Brooklyn, NY.

    This annual report delineates Brooklyn District 22's program goals and activities for the school year 1977-1978. Included are reports on language arts programs, the district ecology center, science education, math education, staff development, social studies, consumer education, libraries, Title IX, education for the gifted, guidance services, art…

  9. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 29 CFR 1978.103 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation. 1978.103 Section 1978.103 Labor Regulations... Procedure Complaints, Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1978.103 Investigation. (a) OSHA... been discovered in the course of its investigation. (c) If, on the basis of information gathered...

  20. 29 CFR 1978.112 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Judicial review. 1978.112 Section 1978.112 Labor... THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 Miscellaneous Provisions § 1978.112 Judicial review... judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceeding. (c) If a timely petition for review is...

  1. 29 CFR 1978.112 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Judicial review. 1978.112 Section 1978.112 Labor... THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 Miscellaneous Provisions § 1978.112 Judicial review... judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceeding. (c) If a timely petition for review is...

  2. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  3. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  4. Heating Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from heating equipment, such as the furnace, fireplace, wood stove, or portable heater. • Only use heating equipment ... into the room and burn only dry, seasoned wood. Allow ashes to cool before disposing in a ...

  5. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

  6. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  7. Physiological and performance adaptations to an in-season soccer camp in the heat: associations with heart rate and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Voss, S C; Nybo, L; Mohr, M; Racinais, S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between adaptive responses to an in-season soccer training camp in the heat and changes in submaximal exercising heart rate (HRex, 5-min run at 9  km/h), postexercise HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV). Fifteen well-trained but non-heat-acclimatized male adult players performed a training week in Qatar (34.6 ± 1.9°C wet bulb globe temperature). HRex, HRR, HRV (i.e. the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability measured from Poincaré plots SD1, a vagal-related index), creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma volume (PV) changes, and post-5-min run rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at six occasions in temperate environmental conditions (22°C). Players also performed the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in the same environmental conditions (22°C), both at the beginning and at the end of the training week. Throughout the intervention, HRex and HRV showed decreasing (P < 0.001) and increasing (P < 0.001) trends, respectively, while HRR remained unaffected (P = 0.84). Changes in HRex [-0.52, 90% confidence limits (-0.64; -0.38), P < 0.001] and SD1 [0.35 (0.19; 0.49), P < 0.001] were correlated with those in PV. There was no change in RPE (P = 0.92), while CK varied according to training contents (P < 0.001), without association with HR-derived measures. Yo-Yo IR1 performance increased by 7 ± 9% (P = 0.009), which was correlated with changes in HRex [-0.64 (-0.84; -0.28), P = 0.01]. In conclusion, we found that an in-season soccer training camp in the heat can significantly improve PV and soccer-specific physical performance; both of which are associated with changes in HRex during a 5-min submaximal run. PMID:22092960

  8. Publications of LASL research, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.K.; Salazar, C.A.

    1980-04-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for 1978. Papers published in 1978 are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations are also listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory reports, papers released as non-LASL reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers (whether published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports), papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by LASL authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are also included.

  9. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  10. Food Merchandising Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on food merchandising occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include bartenders, cooks and chefs, dining room…

  11. Tuition and Living Accommodation Costs at Canadian Universities, 1978-79 and 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulac, Claude

    Tuition and living accommodation costs for students at most Canadian universities are summarized in this publication from Statistics Canada. Extensive data tables include information on accommodation costs for university-operated residences and housing and tuition fees. The range of tuition fees at the undergraduate level reflects a fee structure…

  12. Learning Resources Center, North Carolina Central University. Twenty-Ninth Annual Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jermundson, Aaron

    This overview of services extended to students, faculty, staff, and administration by the Learning Resources Center includes an assessment of the staff and funding needed to support its continued growth, as well as reports on the various facets of its operation. Both narrative and statistical reports are provided in each of the service areas: (1)…

  13. Final Report of Development of a Clinical Performance Evaluation Tool, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloucester County Coll., Sewell, NJ.

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a criterion-referenced test of clinical performance capable of evaluating skill mastery, (2) establish congruent validity, (3) establish degree of inter-rater agreement, (4) determine whether performance expectations were the same for challenge exam applicants as for course-enrolled students, (5)…

  14. Health Practitioners. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health practitioners, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include physicians, podiatrists, veterinarians,…

  15. Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providng current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include building custodians, pest controllers, private…

  16. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  17. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  18. Teaching Music Grades K-4. Curriculum Bulletin 1978-79, Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide contains lesson plans for music teachers and music specialists in grades K-4. The role of music education is to provide a balanced exposure to all music and musical experiences, allowing students to develop tastes and skills based upon a broad knowledge of music. The guide consists of two levels. The first half of the guide contains…

  19. Bilingual/Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Proceedings of Head Start Regional Conferences, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Kenneth A.; Arenas, Soledad

    This summary of the presentation given at four Head Start Regional Bilingual/Multicultural Conferences consists of materials related to the Head Start Strategy for Spanish-speaking Children. Keynote addresses focus on Head Start policy implications, the future of Head Start in the 1980s, and the relation of bilingual/bicultural programs to the…

  20. Physical and Life Scientists. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on physical and life scientists, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include biochemists, life scientists, soil…

  1. Immunization: A Handbook for Schools, 1978-79. Vaccine-Preventable Communicable Disease Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This handbook is intended to provide school authorities with a guide to the development of an effective school immunization program. The handbook is divided into three sections and seven appendices. Section One explains the legal definitions of various terms related to mandatory immunization practices. Section Two outlines the elements necessary…

  2. Printing and Publishing Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on printing and publishing occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include newspaper reporters, photographers,…

  3. Congenital rubella in Israel following the 1978-79 rubella epidemic.

    PubMed

    Brand, N; Legum, S; Saunders, J; Fogel, A

    1983-10-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey of children who were born with congenital rubella syndrome (CR) resulting from a recent rubella epidemic. Sources of information were hospital and laboratory records and data collected in an active search for deaf children born following the epidemic and attending rehabilitation centers for the deaf (Micha). Criteria for inclusion in the survey were: 1) major clinical defects, and 2) one or more of the following positive laboratory findings--virus isolation, presence of rubella-specific IgM antibodies, or the presence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies in children beyond the age of 1 year. Excluded from the study were 28 children with persistent HI antibodies, but without clinically detected defects. CR was identified in 45, among them 43 with deafness. Other major defects were psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, cataracts and heart defects. Transient abnormalities included encephalitis, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, intrauterine grown retardation and failure to thrive. Thirty-one mothers (70%) reported a history of clinical rubella in pregnancy, the others having experienced subclinical infection. Multiple defects were found in children born following early gestational rubella (less than 2 months); abnormalities also occurred as a consequence of rubella as late as the fifth month of gestation. PMID:6662676

  4. The Second Assessment of Music, 1978-79. Released Exercise Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The document presents exercises, documentation, and summaries from the second assessment of music by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Objectives were to test 9-, 13-, and 17-year-old students' ability to value music as an important realm of human experience, to identify the elements and expressive controls of music, and to…

  5. Driving Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on driving occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include intercity busdrivers, local transit busdrivers,…

  6. Sales Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on sales occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile sales workers, buyers, insurance…

  7. A Decade of Financial Information. Ontario Universities 1978-79 to 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto. Research Div.

    A report by the Council of Ontario Universities provides a 10-year review of the revenue and expenses of universities in Ontario. Information is derived from an annual publication entitled "Financial Report of Ontario Universities." The policy environment as well as revenues and expenses are discussed. An overview identifies major trends (using…

  8. Environmental Scientists and Conservation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on environmental scientists and conservation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include foresters,…

  9. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  10. Social Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on social service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dietitians, home economist, homemaker-home…

  11. Construction Occupations--Finishing. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on finishing construction occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include air…

  12. Protective and Related Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on protective and related service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include correction officers,…

  13. Construction Occupations--Structural. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on structural construction occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include bricklayers, stonemasons, marble…

  14. Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

  15. Factory Production Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on factory production occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include assemblers, blue collar worker…

  16. Children's Interpretive Programs. National Park Service. National Capital Region. 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeple, Berne, Ed.

    Children's park programs in and near the District of Columbia are listed in this directory which is designed for people who plan field trips for children and people interested in developing similar programs. The directory describes more than 80 programs conducted in 30 parks and gives age ranges, schedules, and phone numbers for obtaining further…

  17. Public Utilities Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on public utilities occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the electric power…

  18. Oil diplomacy: the Atlantic nations in the oil crisis of 1978-79

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Six essays examine how the US, Western Europe, and Japan have handled their common energy problems and to what extent their traditional cooperation has been enhanced or diminished by the OPEC actions. They explore the interdependencies of the developed countries, along with the strains that the energy crisis has placed on the search for common solutions. An introduction by Alexander Haig is followed by essays titled: The Permanent Crisis: Change in the World Oil System; The American Response: On-the-Job Training; Western Europe: A Fragmented Response to a Fragmenting Order; The West in Concert: A Very Complex Score; Politics of Dependence: Western Europe and the Arab-Israeli Conflict; Oil on Troubled Waters: The Industrial World and the OPEC; Oil and Money: A Note on the Western Financial Community; and Getting Out of the Crisis: excerpt of interviews. 2 tables. (DCK)

  19. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1978-79. Part A, Macro-Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Macro-indicators on the conditions of Ontario universities and supporting data that might be used to generate such indicators were developed, and analyses of both indicators and data were undertaken. Overall objectives were as follows: (1) to measure the real resources available to the Ontario university system as a function of the volume of…

  20. Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

  1. Office Machine and Computer Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on office machine and computer occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include business machine repairers,…

  2. Machine Repairers and Operators. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on machine repairers and operators, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include appliance repairers,…

  3. Small Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on small business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include barbers, cosmetologists, funeral…

  4. An Analysis of Teacher Aide Administrative Practices in Kansas Public Schools, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Robert C.

    Responses to a questionnaire sent to all Kansas public school districts with enrollments of 500 and over revealed several characteristics of teacher aide utilization in the state. Such utilization is increasing, especially among larger districts where paid aides predominated over volunteers. In most districts all aides were paid, usually by the…

  5. Substance Use Among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Central Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Beth

    A study of alcohol and drug use among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Orange and Lake counties (Central Florida) was conducted in 1978 to determine substance abuse among migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the subgroups with substance abuse problems, the farmworkers' knowledge of and attitudes toward alcohol and drug treatment programs, and the…

  6. Trends in surface ozone over Europe, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Pak Sum; Kelly, P. Michael; Davies, Trevor D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that surface ozone concentrations in rural areas of Europe have been increasing at a rate of 1 to 3 percent per year over the past two to three decades, presumably due to human influences (Feister and Warmbt, 1987; Bojkov, 1988; Penkett, 1989). Recently, we have analyzed surface ozone data from 20 European stations of differing character (remote, rural, suburban and urban) for a common period of 1978-1988 (Low et al., 1992). It was found that there were pronounced annual and seasonal variations in the linear trends in different areas, and there was no dominant region-wide trend. In spring and, most notably, summer, stations on the maritime fringe of the network generally exhibited negative trends whilst those located further into the continental interior exhibited positive trends. In winter, most of the stations in the network exhibited positive trends. Relatively few of these trends were statistically significant. This paper updates our earlier analysis by extending the data sets of the network up to the year 1990. The spatial variations in surface ozone trends over the extended period 1978-1990 are examined and discussed in comparison to the 1978-1988 patterns. The update confirms the overall conclusions of the earlier analysis, specifically that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results of trend analyses based on station data representative of a limited period of time and/or geographical area.

  7. Case study of a tropical-extratropical interaction and associated heat low development during the AMMA SOP 2006 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; Pohle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical Extra-tropical Interactions (TEIs) are often observed in association with an upper-level subtropical trough that penetrates into the tropics and, therefore, interacts with the tropical circulation. As a visible sign, a mid- to upper-level cloud band at the eastern flank of the trough and its related Subtropical Jet, named Tropical Plume (TP), is identifiable in infrared satellite imagery. McGuirk et al. (1987) gave a definition of Tropical Plumes and described the cloud bands as a northern hemisphere winter time phenomena. Previous studies identified TPs throughout the year with being rare in the June-mid- September period. Results of convection dynamics influenced/caused by TEIs during a pre-monsoon season event between 19 and 30 May 2006 will be presented. This case is characterized by two different investigation regions affected by TEI: During the first half of the event high precipitation amounts south-east of the cloud band over Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, and Ivory Coast are observed caused by thermal forcing and dynamical maintenance by trough related good upper-level outflow conditions due to ageostrophic acceleration towards the trough and low inertial stability, or even inertial instability. This presentation is focused on the second half of this TEI event, which is characterized by the development of a pronounced heat low (HL) south-east of the upper-level trough over tropical West Africa, followed by convection south-east of the low pressure centre. A modified form of the pressure tendency equation (PTE) used by Knippertz and Fink (2008) is a diagnostic tool to investigate, which processes cause pressure drop near the Mali-Burkina Faso border by using both, the operational ECMWF Analysis and the AMMA EU re-analysis. The latter contains additionally the diabatic heating tendencies. Therefore, all terms of the PTE were calculated and will be discussed.

  8. Annual Report to the Governor, Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, July 1, 1978--June 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

    The 1978-79 annual report to the governor by the Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education is presented. The specific mission, responsibilities, and services of the commission are designated, and details are presented concerning commission meetings, hearings, rules and procedures, staff, and the budget. Information is presented…

  9. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  10. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  11. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  13. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  14. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1978 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Total ground-water pumpage in 1978 was 692,045,700 gallons or 7,248,300 less than in 1977. Wells at the Post Headquarters produced 98 percent of the total volume. Water levels in test wells around the Post Headquarters well field show seasonal declines ranging from 14.78 feet to 0.71 feet. The water samples collected from the supply wells show that the chemical quality of the water is slightly better during the period of greatest declines. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. STS-79 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, share a brief video tour of the Mir Space Station with flight controllers, taking a break from the transfer activities that has occupied the astronauts' time during three days of docked operations. Readdy and Apt floated through several of Mir's modules and back into Atlantis' double Spacehab module during the tour pointing out the numerous transfer items stowed on both spacecraft. Readdy, Wilcutt, Lucid and Blaha are seen discussing their mission in an interview with CNN's John Holliman.

  16. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978–1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton.

  17. STS-79 Mission Highlight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-79, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. STS-79 is the second Shuttle-Mir mission to carry a SPACEHAB module on board, and the first to carry a double module. The forward portion of the double module will house experiments conducted by the crew before, during and after Atlantis is docked to the Russian space station. The aft portion of the double module primarily houses the logistics equipment to be transferred to the Russian space station. Logistics include food, clothing, experiment supplies, and spare equipment for Mir.

  18. STS-79 Flight Day 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen in activating the double Spacehab module in the shuttle's payload bay, packing materials and supplies and filling the first four containers of water which will be delivered to the Mir Space Station. Apt and Walz set up the Active Rack Isolation System experiment in the Spacehab, a prototype of an International Space Station payload system designed to eliminate vibrations or disturbances caused by crew activity or engine firings. The double-rack which houses ARIS also contains almost 400 pounds of Russian food which is being used to simulate the weight and mass of a scientific investigation for this first test.

  19. STS-79 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-79 mission, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, and Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include: pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. Following an on-time launch, the crew of Endeavor are shown setting up a variety of experiments that will operate for much of the mission.

  20. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  1. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  2. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3 Section 79.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and...

  3. 14 CFR 13.79 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 13.79 Section 13.79 Aeronautics....79 Hearing. If an alleged violator requests a hearing in accordance with § 13.75, the procedure of Subpart D of this part applies. At the close of the hearing, the Hearing Officer, on the record...

  4. 45 CFR 79.37 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial decision. 79.37 Section 79.37 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.37 Initial decision. (a) The ALJ shall issue an initial decision based only on the record,...

  5. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.4... addressed of the authority under which the subpoena is issued and shall identify the records or...

  6. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage....

  7. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage....

  8. 45 CFR 79.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanctions. 79.29 Section 79.29 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.29 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction a person, including any party or representative, for— (1) Failing to comply with an order, rule, or...

  9. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  10. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  11. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79... being sealed be opened only by order of the ALJ; (8) That a trade secret or other confidential...

  12. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  13. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  14. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  15. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  16. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  17. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  18. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  19. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  20. 32 CFR 79.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 79.2 Section 79.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS (CDPs) § 79.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of the Secretary of...

  1. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discovery. 79.21 Section 79.21 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents...

  2. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discovery. 79.21 Section 79.21 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents...

  3. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discovery. 79.21 Section 79.21 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents...

  4. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discovery. 79.21 Section 79.21 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents...

  5. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 79.21 Section 79.21 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents...

  6. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  7. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  8. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  9. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  10. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  11. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  12. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  13. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  14. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless lugs with ring type or captive spade...

  15. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 79.41 Section 79.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including hypertrophy of the...

  16. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight training. 141.79 Section 141.79... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.79 Flight training. (a) No person other than a certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who has...

  17. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Reports, Books, and Other Records § 984.79 Confidential information. All reports...

  18. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  19. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  20. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  1. 49 CFR 79.5 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigation. 79.5 Section 79.5 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.5 Investigation. The Department of Transportation may make any investigation of an application that it deems appropriate, including the taking...

  2. 49 CFR 79.5 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation. 79.5 Section 79.5 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.5 Investigation. The Department of Transportation may make any investigation of an application that it deems appropriate, including the taking...

  3. 40 CFR 79.30 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.30 Scope. Fuels and additives designated and dates prescribed by the Administrator for the registration of such fuels and additives... requirements under §§ 79.11(f) and 79.21(e) are set forth for each designated fuel or additive....

  4. 40 CFR 79.30 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.30 Scope. Fuels and additives designated and dates prescribed by the Administrator for the registration of such fuels and additives... requirements under §§ 79.11(f) and 79.21(e) are set forth for each designated fuel or additive....

  5. 40 CFR 79.57 - Emission generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission generation. 79.57 Section 79.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.57 Emission generation. This section specifies the equipment...

  6. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.4... documents sought; and (3) The person receiving such subpoena shall be required to tender to...

  7. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.4... documents sought; and (3) The person receiving such subpoena shall be required to tender to...

  8. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.4... documents sought; and (3) The person receiving such subpoena shall be required to tender to...

  9. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community service employment...

  10. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  11. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  12. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  13. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  14. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  15. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  16. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community service employment...

  17. 40 CFR 79.57 - Emission generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission generation. 79.57 Section 79.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.57 Emission generation. This section specifies the equipment...

  18. 40 CFR 79.57 - Emission generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission generation. 79.57 Section 79.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.57 Emission generation. This section specifies the equipment...

  19. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  20. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  1. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  2. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  3. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage....

  5. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage....

  6. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage....

  7. 45 CFR 79.25 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fees. 79.25 Section 79.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.25 Fees. The party requesting a subpoena shall pay the cost of the fees and mileage of any witness subpoenaed in...

  8. 19 CFR 210.79 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advisory opinions. 210.79 Section 210.79 Customs... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.79 Advisory opinions. (a) Advisory opinions. Upon request of any person, the Commission may, upon such investigation as it...

  9. 19 CFR 210.79 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advisory opinions. 210.79 Section 210.79 Customs... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.79 Advisory opinions. (a) Advisory opinions. Upon request of any person, the Commission may, upon such investigation as it...

  10. 19 CFR 210.79 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advisory opinions. 210.79 Section 210.79 Customs... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.79 Advisory opinions. (a) Advisory opinions. Upon request of any person, the Commission may, upon such investigation as it...

  11. 19 CFR 210.79 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advisory opinions. 210.79 Section 210.79 Customs... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.79 Advisory opinions. (a) Advisory opinions. Upon request of any person, the Commission may, upon such investigation as it...

  12. 19 CFR 210.79 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advisory opinions. 210.79 Section 210.79 Customs... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.79 Advisory opinions. (a) Advisory opinions. Upon request of any person, the Commission may, upon such investigation as it...

  13. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  14. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  15. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  16. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  17. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  18. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  19. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  20. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  1. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  2. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  3. 40 CFR 79.54 - Tier 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier 3. 79.54 Section 79.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.54 Tier 3. (a) General Criteria for Requiring Tier 3 Testing. (1) Tier 3...

  4. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  5. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  6. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  7. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 79.41 Section 79.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including hypertrophy of the...

  8. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  9. Coming Home—1978 Annual Meeting in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ira R.

    1978-01-01

    Chicago is the setting for the 1978 MLA Annual Meeting. The city offers MLA members a varied selection of activities. Recommendations are made for viewing highlights of the “Windy City.” Images PMID:16017729

  10. 40 CFR 86.309-79 - Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heated as is indicated in Figure D79-1. (iii) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements must be... savers” or “protectors” with nonreactive diaphragms to reduce dead volumes is permitted. The...

  11. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  12. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. STS-79 Flight Day 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz having completed five days of joint operations between the American astronauts and the Russian cosmonauts are seen flying solo once again after undocking from the Mir Space Station. As Atlantis/Mir flew over the Ural Mountains of central Asia, the docking hooks and latches that joined the vehicles together were commanded open and Atlantis drifted slowly away from Mir. Wilcutt then initiated a tail-forward fly-around of the Russian space station. After one and one-half revolutions around Mir, Atlantis' jets were fired in a separation maneuver to enable Atlantis to break away from Mir. On board Atlantis, the six-member crew is settling back into its normal routine with a fairly light schedule for the remainder of the day. Early in the morning as Atlantis flew over the United States, the crew took time to talk with anchors for the CBS Up to the Minute' network news broadcast.

  14. Recession of Martian north polar cap - 1977-1978 Viking observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The regression curve for the 1977-1978 sublimation of the north polar cap of Mars is extracted from Viking orbiter imaging data. The recession observed during the spring season is quite consistent with previous observations and is in excellent agreement with telescopic data obtained concurrently. A receding late winter boundary is identified, but owing to hood obscuration this boundary cannot be definitely attributed to a surface cap.

  15. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  16. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season. PMID:21562167

  17. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by...

  18. Early season spring small grains proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D. E.; Trichel, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    An accurate, automated method for estimating early season spring small grains from Landsat MSS data is discussed. The method is summarized and the results of its application to 100 sample segment-years of data from the US Northern Great Plains in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1979 are summarized. The results show that this estimator provides accurate estimates earlier in the growing season than previous methods. Ground truth is required only in the estimator development, and data storage, transmission, preprocessing, and processing requirements are minimal.

  19. Status of Black New York '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban League of Greater New York, NY.

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of the constituency of the New York Urban League regarding concerns affecting their day-to-day lives in 1978. Questionnaires from 998 individuals were used in compiling the survey results. Results indicate the following: (1) seventy-five percent of respondents felt that the public schools were not…

  20. Title I.E.S.E.A. Umbrella Program and Impact Aid for District 29. Academic Year 1978-1979. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye Educational Evaluators, Inc., Bronx, NY.

    Major characteristics of seven Title I and Impact Aid components implemented in New York City School District 29 in 1978-79 are described in this evaluation. The components are: (1) an elementary grade Reading Diagnostic Program; (2) a project to raise reading achievement in the intermediate schools; (3) an Early Childhood Center for students in…

  1. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  2. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  3. 45 CFR 79.47 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations. 79.47 Section 79.47 Public Welfare... Limitations. (a) The notice of hearing with respect to a claim or statement must be served in the manner... hearing for purposes of this section. (c) The statute of limitations may be extended by agreement of...

  4. 45 CFR 79.47 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations. 79.47 Section 79.47 Public Welfare... Limitations. (a) The notice of hearing with respect to a claim or statement must be served in the manner... hearing for purposes of this section. (c) The statute of limitations may be extended by agreement of...

  5. 27 CFR 46.79 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision. 46.79 Section... § 46.79 Supervision. Before payment is made under this subpart in respect of the tax, or tax and duty... under the supervision of an appropriate TTB officer who will be assigned for that purpose by...

  6. 48 CFR 552.236-79 - Samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samples. 552.236-79 Section 552.236-79 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND... writing by the Contracting Officer. (b) Each sample shall have a label indicating: (1) Name of...

  7. 45 CFR 79.42 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Judicial review. 79.42 Section 79.42 Public....42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an... assessments under this part and specifies the procedures for such review....

  8. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  9. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  10. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  11. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  12. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... has relied upon inadequate test data, then the manufacturer will not be considered to be in...

  13. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... information on this test guideline, the following references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.6400... this purpose. The staining shall be differentiated properly to achieve bluish nuclei with...

  14. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... information on this test guideline, the following references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.6400... this purpose. The staining shall be differentiated properly to achieve bluish nuclei with...

  15. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... information on this test guideline, the following references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.6400... this purpose. The staining shall be differentiated properly to achieve bluish nuclei with...

  16. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... information on this test guideline, the following references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.6400... this purpose. The staining shall be differentiated properly to achieve bluish nuclei with...

  17. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... information on this test guideline, the following references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.6400... this purpose. The staining shall be differentiated properly to achieve bluish nuclei with...

  18. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing,...

  19. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... enterprises owned by Indian tribes, bands, or groups, or Native Alaskan entities, provided the profits...

  20. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  1. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  2. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  3. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  4. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare... Investigation. (a) If an investigating official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the authority conferred by... conclusions of such investigation to the reviewing official. (c) Nothing in this section shall preclude...

  5. 40 CFR 79.23 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.23 Registration. (a) If the... additive which includes all of the information and assurances required by § 79.21 and has satisfactorily... the fuel additive and notify the fuel manufacturer of such registration. (b) The Administrator...

  6. 40 CFR 79.23 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.23 Registration. (a) If the... additive which includes all of the information and assurances required by § 79.21 and has satisfactorily... the fuel additive and notify the fuel manufacturer of such registration. (b) The Administrator...

  7. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  12. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  13. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  14. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  15. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  16. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  17. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  18. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  19. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  20. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  1. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  2. 45 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... advantage, preference, privilege, license, permit, favorable decision, ruling, status, or loan guarantee.... Individual means a natural person. Initial decision means the written decision of the ALJ required by §§ 79.10 or 79.37, and includes a revised initial decision issued following a remand or a motion...

  3. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer. 86.108-79 Section 86.108-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... weight as specified in § 86.129. (b)(1) The dynamometer shall have a roll or shaft revolution counter...

  4. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer. 86.108-79 Section 86.108-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... weight as specified in § 86.129. (b)(1) The dynamometer shall have a roll or shaft revolution counter...

  5. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer. 86.108-79 Section 86.108-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... weight as specified in § 86.129. (b)(1) The dynamometer shall have a roll or shaft revolution counter...

  6. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer. 86.108-79 Section 86.108-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... weight as specified in § 86.129. (b)(1) The dynamometer shall have a roll or shaft revolution counter...

  7. 45 CFR 79.42 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Judicial review. 79.42 Section 79.42 Public....42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an... assessments under this part and specifies the procedures for such review....

  8. 45 CFR 79.42 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Judicial review. 79.42 Section 79.42 Public....42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an... assessments under this part and specifies the procedures for such review....

  9. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public....24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the...

  10. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public....24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the...

  11. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  12. 40 CFR 86.337-79 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information. 86.337-79 Section 86.337-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty...

  13. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  15. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  16. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  17. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  18. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balraj

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 79 (Ni,Cu,Zn,Ga,Ge,As,Se,Br,Kr,Rb, Sr,Y,Zr) has been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies, Jπ, and decay modes of levels in these nuclei. No data are yet available for excited states in 79Ni, 79Cu and 79Zr. The half-life of 79Se, a nuclide of importance in reactor-irradiated fuel composition has been measured by several independent groups and reported in a number of publications after 1995, and seems to be converging to a narrow margin of experimental values. These measurements were likely prompted by a recommendation made in the 1993 update of A = 79 nuclides (1993Si28), that since a 1949PaZZ report, there had been no measurement until 1993, and that based on simulation studies by 1993HeZW, the value listed in 1949PaZZ, and cited in all data tables and charts for 44 years, was quite likely in error, being too low by a factor of 10. According to conclusions in recent papers such as 2014Do20, there is still room for improvement in the measurement of this half-life, and further experiments are expected. This evaluation supersedes earlier Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 79 (2002Si13,1993Si28, 1982Si21,1975Ur03).

  20. Trend analysis of weekly acid rain data, 1978-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Hirsch, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    There are 19 stations in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program which operated over the period 1978-83 and were subsequently incorporated into the National Trends Network in 1983. The precipitation chemistry data for these stations for this period were analyzed for trend, spatial correlation, seasonality, and relationship to precipitation volume. The intent of the analysis was to provide insights on the sources of variation in precipitation chemistry and to attempt to ascertain what statistical procedures may be most useful for ongoing analysis of the National Trends Network data. The Seasonal Kendall test was used for detection of trends in raw concentrations of dissolved constituents, pH and specific conductance, and residuals of these parameters from regression analysis. Forty-one percent of the trends detected in the raw concentrations were downtrends, 4 percent were uptrends, and 55 percent showed no trends at a = 0.2. At a more restrictive significance level of a = 0.05, 24 percent of the trends detected were downtrends, 2 percent were uptrends, and 74 percent showed no trends. The two constituents of greatest interest in terms of human generated emissions and environmental effects, sulfate and nitrate, showed only downtrends, and sulfate showed the largest decreases in concentration per year of all the ions tested.

  1. Estimating seasonal changes of land cover, surface wetness and latent heat flux of wet polygonal tundra (Samoylov Island, Lena-Delta, Siberia) with high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral CHRIS Proba satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation cover, land cover and surface wetness are few of the many factors exerting control on the partitioning of energy to latent, sensible and ground heat flux. Spatial estimates of these factors can be inferred from remote sensing data. The fractionated polygonal tundra landscape of Samoylov Island of wet and dry surfaces induces strong spatial variations of resistance to evapotranspiration. The development of low-centered ice-wedge polygons results in a prominent microrelief that is the most important factor for small-scale differences in vegetation type and near surface soil moisture. Depressed polygon centers alternate with elevated polygon rims with elevation differences of up to 0.5 m over a few meters distance. In the depressed polygon centers, drainage is strongly impeded due to the underlying permafrost resulting in water-saturated soils or small ponds. A process-based understanding of the surface energy balance, however, needs to consider both the temporal and the spatial variations of the surface. In the course of the summer season, the surface wetness changes significantly since the water table falls about 5 cm below the surface. This change in surface wetness is likely to be associated with changing evapotranspiration rates. We consider the effect of seasonal changes in land cover, vegetation cover and surface wetness on latent heat flux by investigating a time-series of high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral satellite imagery and comparing them to ground-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent heat flux. Two sets of aerial images from August 15 and September 11, 2008 in the VNIR provide detailed information of the polygonal landscape with a resolution of 0.3m. CHRIS Proba imagery provides hyperspectral data with 18 spectral bands in the VNIR range (400 - 1050 nm) and a resolution of 17 m. Acquisition dates are June 21, July 23 and September 10, 2008. Daily point-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent

  2. 1978-1979 Fall Enrollment Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillberg, Rebecca

    Enrollment in the Los Angeles Community Colleges in fall 1978 dropped to 124,523, a 3.7% decrease from fall 1977. Instructional Television and West Los Angeles College showed the only increases, although the increase at West (and the decrease at Trade-Technical College) were related to the administrative tranfer of the Airport Center from Trade to…

  3. Long-Range Plan, 1978-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Stephen

    This nine-part, long-range plan discusses the internal and external factors that will affect Lorain County Community College's (LCCC's) development from 1978 to 1983 and presents a forecast of LCCC's future needs. Part I traces the history of LCCC, provides a conceptual framework for college planning, and discusses the plan development process…

  4. 29 CFR 1978.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged in a business affecting commerce between States or between a State and a place outside thereof who... operate such a vehicle. (e) Commercial motor vehicle means a vehicle as defined by 49 U.S.C. 31101(1). (f...) Complaint, for purposes of § 1978.102(b)(1) and (e)(1), includes both written and oral complaints...

  5. Astrometric positions of minor planets in 1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debehogne, H.; Houziaux, L.

    1980-04-01

    Minor planets 6 Hebe, 7 Iris, 146 Lucina, 310 Margarita, 389 Industria, 407 Arachne, 582 Olympia, 608 Adolfina, 704 Interamnia, 1201 Strenua, 1257 Mora, 1649 = 1951 DE, and 1964 = 2007 P-L have been observed between 11 and 15 April 1978. 1950.0 astrometric positions are given.

  6. Kansas Rural Villages Project, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Edward P.; Shelley, Scott

    Aurora, a village of 147 residents in north central Kansas, was the focus of a 1978 investigation of the community development potential for Kansas rural villages. Students and staff from the University of Kansas School of Social Welfare worked with community residents to identify three programs the village wanted (a recreation program, a…

  7. Fertility of American Women: June 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Maurice J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This report examines the childbearing experience and birth expectations of American women based on data collected in the June 1978 Current Population Survey. Among the major findings are that: (1) one-third of married women who were 18 to 34 years old at the time of the survey and who had given birth within 1 year of the survey are currently in…

  8. Utah Statewide Educational Assessment 1978: General Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Robert L.; And Others

    As part of Utah's 1978 statewide assessment, a number of tests were administered to over 4,000 fifth grade students from 64 elementary schools and over 2,000 eleventh graders from thirty high schools. This report presents the results in each of the areas tested: (1) intellectual maturity--measured by reading and mathematics achievement on the…

  9. United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Review, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsfield, Mairuth, Ed.; Emes, John, Ed.

    The 1978 Annual State of the Environment Report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) focused on four selected environmental problems of international significance: (1) chemicals and the environment; (2) malaria; (3) the use of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to increase the base for food production; and (4) the conservation…

  10. Data Bases On-Line in 1978

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted; Williams, Martha

    1978-01-01

    The subject and scope, years covered, update frequency, record count, and connect and print charges are provided for the 108 data bases available online as of June 1978 through Lockheed Information Systems, System Development Corporation, Bibliographic Retrieval Services, National Library of Medicine, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, and the New…

  11. A Bibliography on Euthanasia, 1958-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilker, Christine; And Others

    This collection of materials represents a 20-year span (1958-1978) of references on euthanasia found through select indexes and abstracting services. The contents are organized into two general reference sections, periodicals and books, with citations listed alphabetically by author. The last two sections focus on the locations of these materials…

  12. 29 CFR 1978.108 - Role of Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Role of Federal agencies. 1978.108 Section 1978.108 Labor... THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 Litigation § 1978.108 Role of Federal agencies. (a... respondent. (2) If the Assistant Secretary assumes the role of prosecuting party in accordance with...

  13. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  14. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  15. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  16. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  17. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  18. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  19. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  20. STS-79 Flight deck camera during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A camera inside the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis previews crew seating assignments come launch day. Seated in front are STS-79 Commander William F. Readdy (left) and Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt. Seated elsewhere are Mission Specialists Carl E. Walz, Tom Akers, John E. Blaha and Jay Apt. This photo was taken during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff on STS-79 no earlier than Sept. 12.

  1. MAP3S precipitation chemistry network. Third periodic summary report, July 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network consists of eight collection sites in the northeastern United States. Precipitation event samples are collected by cooperating site operators, using specially developed sampling equipment. In this, the third periodic summary report, are listed field and concentration data for the period July 1, 1978 to December 31, 1979. Over three years' samples have been collected at most of the sites, which went into operation between September 1976 and October 1978. Samples are chemically analyzed at a central laboratory for 13 pollutant species. Weekly samples in addition to event samples were collected over a 1 1/2 year period at three sites. Analysis of one year's results indicates that there is little difference between the concentrations collected by the two methods in terms of seasonal precipitation-weighted means for all species except dissolved SO/sub 2/. Event samples tend to average about 25% higher in SO/sub 2/ than weekly samples.

  2. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  3. Blastocyst rate of in vitro embryo production in sheep is affected by season.

    PubMed

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Dattena, M; Muñoz, I M Mayorga

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the number and quality of in vitro produced embryos is season related. This study was conducted to assess the effect of season on cleavage, blastocyst and lambing rates of in vitro produced ovine embryos during 3 years of collection data. Ovaries of Sarda sheep were collected from a slaughterhouse. In total, 5035 oocytes were recovered and matured in TCM-199 with 4 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 100 μM cysteamine, 0.3 mM Na pyruvate, 0.1 UI/ml recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH), 0.1 UI/ml recombinant luteinising hormone (r-LH), and 1 μg/ml estradiol-17β. Matured oocytes were fertilized with fresh semen in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with 20% heat inactivated estrous sheep serum. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6-7 days (blastocyst stage) in SOF medium supplemented with 1% Basel Medium Eagle (BME), 1% Minimum Essential Medium, 1 mM glutamine and 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA. The embryos produced were vitrified and a total of 165 blastocysts (80 from the breeding season and 85 from the anoestrous season) were transferred in pairs into recipient ewes during the reproductive period. There were no significant differences in cleavage rates between seasons in any of the 3 years examined (84% versus 83%, 81% versus 80% and 80% versus 79%, respectively). The blastocyst rate varied significantly between seasons in 2005 and 2007 (P < 0.05), and in 2006 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in pregnancy and lambing rates between embryos during anoestrous versus during the breeding season. In conclusion, only the blastocyst rate appeared to have been affected by season, possibly due to variation in the number of developmentally competent oocytes. PMID:23458093

  4. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

  5. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography cites 958 externally distributed technical papers released during calendar year 1978, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The publications are indexed by author, subject, publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author.

  6. Coal: Pennsylvania anthracite 1978. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.

    1980-10-01

    Production of Pennsylvania Anthracite in 1978 decreased 14.1 percent or 824 thousand short tons from the 1977 figure of 5861 thousand short tons to 5037 thousand short tons. Buckwheat No. 1 and smaller sizes accounted for 3768 thousand short tons or 75 percent of production. Pea and larger sizes accounted for 1259 thousand short tons or 25 percent of production. Average price per ton (f.o.b. preparation plant) increased 1.1 percent from the 1977 figure of $34.86 to $35.25. Productivity declined 6.6 percent from 6.97 to 6.51 short tons per miner per day. Domestic distribution of anthracite in 1978 totaled 3895 thousand short tons or 77.3 percent of production. Of this amount, 1597 thousand short tons or 41 percent went to residential and commercial consumers, 1064 thousand short tons or 27.3 percent went to electric utilities, 748 thousand short tons or 19.2 percent went to other industrial users, 476 thousand short tons or 12.2 percent went to the iron and steel industry, and 10 thousand short tons or 0.3 percent was consumed at mining operations. US exports of anthracite in 1978 totaled 1142 thousand short tons or 22.7 percent of production. Exports to Canada were 405 thousand short tons, to South Korea - 331 thousand short tons, and to US military forces in West Germany - 276 thousand short tons. The Canadian, Korean, and German exports accounted for 1012 thousand short tons or 88.6 percent of all exports in 1978.

  7. Farm Population of the United States: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Vera J.; DeAre, Diana

    1979-01-01

    Based on the new farm definition (places of 10 or more acres if at least $50 worth of agricultural products were sold in the reporting year, and places of under 10 acres if at least $250 worth of agricultural products were sold), 6,501,000 persons, or 3% of the nation's population, lived on farms for the 12-month period centered on April 1978.…

  8. STS-79 John Blaha address news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Mission Specialist John E. Blaha addresses news media gathered for the flight crew's late night arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. A veteran space traveler who served as either commander or pilot on his four previous Shuttle flights, Blaha is taking a mission specialist's slot on STS-79 because he will be transferring to the Russian Space Station Mir for an extended stay. American astronaut Shannon Lucid will take his place aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis for the return trip home. Final preparations are under way for launch of Atlantis on Mission STS-79, with liftoff scheduled to occur during an approximately seven-minute window opening at 4:54 a.m. EDT, Sept.16.

  9. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  10. FY 1978-79 Zero-Base Budget Review. The Colorado State System of Community and Junior Colleges: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Terrence A.

    Two reports are presented in this document prepared for the Colorado State Legislature. The first, a zero-base budget review, presents a summary of the characteristics of the student population served by Colorado's 11 junior colleges. The summary includes statistics on age range, state of residence, gender, ethnic background, types of financial…

  11. Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the various metal industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the aluminum…

  12. Agriculture and Logging and Lumber Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in agriculture and logging and lumber mill products industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document…

  13. Lawyers, City Managers, and Social Science Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on lawyers, city managers, and social science occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include city managers,…

  14. Industrial Arts Metalworking for Intermediate and Junior High Schools. Curriculum Bulletin. 1978-79 Series. No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Educational Planning and Support.

    This curriculum bulletin is designed to present seventh and eighth graders with an overview of the metalworking industry from the acquisition of raw materials to the fabrication of the completed product. The manual is organized into five major instructional units: sheet metal, wrought metal, jewelry and art metal, bench and machine metal, and cast…

  15. Influence of a local source of DDT pollution on statewide DDT residues in waterfowl wings, northern Alabama, 1978-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy DDT contamination resulting from a former DDT manufacturing plant in northern Alabama has influenced statewide averages of DDT, DDE, and TDE residues in duck wings tested in the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. In states where contaminant levels in duck wings are high, residue analyses of wings categorized by finer geographic subdivision may be useful in defining the areas of heaviest contamination.

  16. The Economic Impact of Bucks County Community College on the Local Economy During Fiscal Year 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Jack

    The effects of Bucks County Community College (BCCC) on the local economy during fiscal year (FY) 1979 were investigated in terms of the monies spent in operating BCCC through purchases of goods and services, salaries to college employees, student financial aid expenditures, veterans' benefits, and property taxes paid by college employees, as well…

  17. Home Economics: Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 74 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics instruction in grades 7-9. It is organized into the following categories: child development--including toys, babysitting, and home discipline; clothing and textiles; consumer practices; foods and nutrition; and home management and family economics. Each…

  18. 43 CFR 2.79 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Act § 2.79 Exemptions. (a) Criminal law enforcement records exempt under 5 U.S.C. 552a(j)(2). Pursuant.... (2) Law Enforcement Services System, Interior/BIA-18. (3) Law Enforcement Statistical Reporting System, Interior/NPS-19. (4) Investigative Records, Interior/Office of Inspector General—2. (b)...

  19. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comparable to that provided by such testing. (3) The test animals shall be rodents, preferably a strain of... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.53 Tier 2. (a) Generally. Subject to... subject to testing under this subpart must be tested in accordance with each of the testing guidelines...

  20. 28 CFR 79.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.11 Definitions. (a) Affected area means one of the following... onsite in an atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device, whichever is applicable. (e) Leukemia means any medically recognized form of acute or chronic leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (f)...

  1. 28 CFR 79.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.11 Definitions. (a) Affected area means one of the following... onsite in an atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device, whichever is applicable. (e) Leukemia means any medically recognized form of acute or chronic leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (f)...

  2. 28 CFR 79.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.11 Definitions. (a) Affected area means one of the following... onsite in an atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device, whichever is applicable. (e) Leukemia means any medically recognized form of acute or chronic leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (f)...

  3. 28 CFR 79.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.11 Definitions. (a) Affected area means one of the following... onsite in an atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device, whichever is applicable. (e) Leukemia means any medically recognized form of acute or chronic leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (f)...

  4. 28 CFR 79.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.11 Definitions. (a) Affected area means one of the following... onsite in an atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device, whichever is applicable. (e) Leukemia means any medically recognized form of acute or chronic leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (f)...

  5. 28 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (“Act”), as amended by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000...

  6. 28 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (“Act”), as amended by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000...

  7. 28 CFR 79.2 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.2 General definitions. (a) Act means the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Public Law 101-426, as amended by sections 3139 and 3140 of Public Law 101-510, the Radiation...

  8. 28 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (“Act”), as amended by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000...

  9. 28 CFR 79.2 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.2 General definitions. (a) Act means the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Public Law 101-426, as amended by sections 3139 and 3140 of Public Law 101-510, the Radiation...

  10. 28 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (“Act”), as amended by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000...

  11. 28 CFR 79.2 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.2 General definitions. (a) Act means the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Public Law 101-426, as amended by sections 3139 and 3140 of Public Law 101-510, the Radiation...

  12. 28 CFR 79.2 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.2 General definitions. (a) Act means the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Public Law 101-426, as amended by sections 3139 and 3140 of Public Law 101-510, the Radiation...

  13. 28 CFR 79.2 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.2 General definitions. (a) Act means the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Public Law 101-426, as amended by sections 3139 and 3140 of Public Law 101-510, the Radiation...

  14. 28 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (“Act”), as amended by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000...

  15. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; and (vi) Minor physical localized flood reduction measures that lessen the frequency or severity of... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.6..., addresses flood hazards. (c) Eligible activities. (1) Planning. FMA planning grants may be used to...

  16. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; and (vi) Minor physical localized flood reduction measures that lessen the frequency or severity of... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.6..., addresses flood hazards. (c) Eligible activities. (1) Planning. FMA planning grants may be used to...

  17. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; and (vi) Minor physical localized flood reduction measures that lessen the frequency or severity of... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.6..., addresses flood hazards. (c) Eligible activities. (1) Planning. FMA planning grants may be used to...

  18. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; and (vi) Minor physical localized flood reduction measures that lessen the frequency or severity of... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.6..., addresses flood hazards. (c) Eligible activities. (1) Planning. FMA planning grants may be used to...

  19. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; and (vi) Minor physical localized flood reduction measures that lessen the frequency or severity of... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.6 Eligibility..., addresses flood hazards. (c) Eligible activities. (1) Planning. FMA planning grants may be used to...

  20. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Responsibilities. 79.3 Section... Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide oversight to all FEMA... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  1. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.8... assistance programs, legal awards, or any other source to address the same purpose. Such individual or entity must notify the grantee and FEMA of all benefits that it receives or anticipates from other sources...

  2. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  3. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  4. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  5. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  6. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  7. 40 CFR 79.13 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel Registration Procedures § 79.13 Registration. (a) If the Administrator determines that a manufacturer has submitted an application for registration of a designated fuel... the fuel and notify the fuel manufacturer of such registration. (b) The Administrator shall maintain...

  8. 40 CFR 79.13 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel Registration Procedures § 79.13 Registration. (a) If the Administrator determines that a manufacturer has submitted an application for registration of a designated fuel... the fuel and notify the fuel manufacturer of such registration. (b) The Administrator shall maintain...

  9. 28 CFR 79.61 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.61 Definitions. (a) Chronic renal disease means the chronic... January 1, 1942, and ending on December 31, 1971. (d) Employment as an ore transporter means employment involving the transporting or hauling of uranium ore or vanadium-uranium ore from a uranium mine or...

  10. 28 CFR 79.61 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.61 Definitions. (a) Chronic renal disease means the chronic... January 1, 1942, and ending on December 31, 1971. (d) Employment as an ore transporter means employment involving the transporting or hauling of uranium ore or vanadium-uranium ore from a uranium mine or...

  11. Industrial Arts 7-9. Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide for industrial arts grades 7-9 provides teachers with a curriculum for the subject cluster of construction. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, discusses how the content of the proqram is related to the developmental stages of the adolescent, describes the structure of the industrial arts program, and lists program goals and…

  12. 28 CFR 79.61 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., surgery, and thoracic surgery (and including subspecialties such as cardiovascular disease, medical... Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.61 Definitions. (a) Chronic renal disease means the chronic...) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including hypertrophy of the right ventricle, due to...

  13. 28 CFR 79.51 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... including subspecialties such as cardiovascular disease, medical oncology, pulmonary disease) as listed by... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.51 Definitions. (a) Chronic renal disease means the chronic...) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including hypertrophy of the right ventricle, due to...

  14. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., surgery, and thoracic surgery (and including subspecialties such as cardiovascular disease, medical... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including... Compensation Program upon request. (g) Nonmalignant respiratory disease means fibrosis of the lung,...

  15. Seasonality of suicides: environmental, sociological and biological covariations.

    PubMed

    Souêtre, E; Salvati, E; Belugou, J L; Douillet, P; Braccini, T; Darcourt, G

    1987-01-01

    The monthly rates of completed suicides in France from 1978 until 1982 were analyzed. The seasonal variations of environmental (daylight and sunlight durations, mean temperature, geomagnetism), sociological (unemployment, deaths of all causes, birth and conception rates), and biological (melatonin, cortisol and serotonin circannual rhythms) factors were compared to the seasonal patterns of suicides. A clear seasonal variation (with peaks in May and September) in suicidal behavior was detected. These patterns tended to differ as a function of age (bimodal in young, unimodal in old people). The component analysis clearly pointed out that seasonal patterns of suicides may be considered as the sum of two components, unimodal and bimodal. Almost similar covariations were found between the main seasonal (unimodal) component of suicides and environmental (daylight duration and mean monthly temperature) or sociological factors whereas the secondary component was more correlated to variations in environmental factors and, to some extent, to biological parameters. PMID:2960714

  16. 22. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June, 1978. WHEELHOUSE, MCINTYRE IRON WORKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June, 1978. WHEELHOUSE, MCINTYRE IRON WORKS, TAILRACE, SOUTHEAST VIEW, RIVERSIDE WALL. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  17. Should the Federal Government Implement a Program Which Guarantees Employment Opportunities for All U.S. Citizens in the Labor Force? Inter-Collegiate Debate Topic, 1978-1979, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dennis M.

    This is a compilation of selected articles and a bibliography on the 1978-79 intercollegiate debate proposition: Resolved, that the Federal Government should implement a program which guarantees employment opportunities for all U.S. citizens in the labor force. The introduction briefly reviews the United States post-World War II history of…

  18. The Jovian electron spectrum: 1978-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, D.; Evenson, P. A.; Meyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of Jovian electrons through six consecutive 13-month Jovian synodic periods from 1978 to 1984 have been made by the University of Chicago electron spectrometer onboard the ISEE-3 (ICE) spacecraft. The Jovian electron spectrum was determined from 5 to 30 Mev and was found to have a shape which is not a power law in kinetic energy, but cuts off at approximately 30 MeV. The average shape of the spectrum over each of the six intervals of best magnetic connection remains the same for all intervals within uncertainties.

  19. Dedication: John W. Wright, 1929-1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John W.

    1980-09-01

    The death of John W. Wright in an automobile accident on November 20, 1978, came as a great shock to all who knew him. His family and friends lost a stimulating, compassionate human being whose many-faceted personality they greatly admired. The scientific community working on remote sensing of the air-water interface lost one of its pioneers and leaders. To dedicate this issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research to Dr. Wright seems a fitting tribute to his many scientific achievements.

  20. Children's Television Workshop. Quarterly Progress Report, January 1, 1978 to March 31, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The research and general activities of the Children's Television Workshop (CTW) are reported for January through March 1978. This report includes general research, activities, and programming of Sesame Street and The Electric Company; outreach activities of the Community Education Services Division; and general CTW public affairs, personnel, CTW…