Science.gov

Sample records for 1978 79 heating season

  1. Annual Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Fannie

    This six-part report summarizes the 1978-1979 activities of the Division of Continuing Education and Extension Services at the New York City Community College. Part I discusses tuition courses and programs, including a program for Head Start staff and parents on the mainstreaming of handicapped children, a symposium on hearing aid technology in…

  2. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  3. Merged Federal Files [Academic Year] 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AUI Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    The Merged Federal File for 1978-79 contains school district level data from the following six source files: (1) the Census of Governments' Survey of Local Government Finances--School Systems (F-33) (with 16,343 records merged); (2) the National Center for Education Statistics Survey of School Systems (School District Universe) (with 16,743…

  4. In Retrospect 1978-79: Special Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    The volume is a composite of final reports written for nine special education research and evaluation studies conducted by the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District during the 1978-79 school year. Each report includes three components: an executive summary of research or evaluation questions and responses; an abstract with information on…

  5. Update: physically intimate and sexual behavior on prime-time television, 1978-79.

    PubMed

    Sprafkin, J N; Silverman, L T

    1981-01-01

    The 1978-79 prime time television programming season was examined to determine the frequency and portrayal of sex, and it was compared to the 2 previous seasons analyzed (1975 and 1977). 68 programs, representative of the 1978-79 season, were recorded directly off the air between the hours of 8 p.m. and 11 p.m. during a 2-week period beginning on October 1978. During the 1st week, all regularly scheduled prime time drama, crime/adventure, situation comedy, and variety prorams and movies broadcast by the 3 major networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) were videotaped. During the 2nd week, all regularly scheduled programming which had been preempted by sports events and specials the previous week were recorded. Thus, the final sample included 1 week of the regularly scheduled prime time offerings of the 3 major networks plus 2 weeks of movies. The videotape of each program was coded independently by 2 of 9 trained coders, 1 male and 1 female, using the same formal coding scheme that had been used in the 1978 analysis. The original coding scheme included 12 categories of physically intimate and sexual behavior ranging from nonsexual interpersonal touching (e.g., handshakes) to affectionate displays (e.g., kissing) to typical sexual behaviors of references (e.g., flirtatious behavior, verbal innuendo, heterosexual intercourse). A new category was added, sex education and romance, which was comprised of verbal references to issues such as contraception, pregnancy, and going steady. The frequency of appearance of the least intimate behaviors (kissing and hugging) showed a gradual increase over the 3 sampled years. In contrast, the frequency of occurrence of several of the controversial categories increased substantially. Specifically, contextually implied intercourse from no weekly occurrences in 1975 to 15 in 1977 and 24 in 1978; sexual innuendos increased in frequency from about 1 reference/hour in 1975 to 7 in 1977, and to almost 11 in 1978. Direct verbal references to

  6. Washington Community College Factbook Addendum A: Student Enrollments, Academic Year 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terre

    In order to reveal trends in community college enrollments in Washington, student demographic and enrollment data for academic year 1978-79 were compiled and compared with figures for previous years. The study report provides annualized averages for full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollments for the years 1968-69 to 1978-79 and quarterly and…

  7. Medical College of Georgia Fact Book 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Medical Coll., Augusta.

    The third edition of the Medical College of Georgia (MCG) fact book provides a chronicle of the year 1978-1979, reflecting data and events important to the institution. Sections include: general information/Augusta; general information/MCG; administration; budget and physical plant; library/learning resources; faculty; continuing education;…

  8. Merged Federal Files [Academic Year] 1978-79 [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Merged Federal File for 1978-79 contains school district level data from the following six source files: (1) the Census of Governments' Survey of Local Government Finances--School Systems (F-33) (with 16,343 records merged); (2) the National Center for Education Statistics Survey of School Systems (School District Universe) (with 16,743…

  9. Individualized Bilingual Instruction. Final Evaluation: 1978-79 Program Year. No. 15 in Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Beverly

    The 1978-79 evaluation report of an interstate bilingual early education program for migrant children from age 3 through third grade which operates year-round sites at Connell and Moses Lake, Washington and at La Grulla, Texas, presents a narrative program description and the progress made in each of five components: instruction, training,…

  10. Whole World Handbook. A Student Guide to Work, Study and Travel Abroad. 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marjorie Adoff

    This 1978-79 student guide to work, study, and travel abroad contains chapters on the following areas: Western Europe; the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe; the Middle East and North Africa; Africa south of the Sahara; South Asia (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan); East Asia; Southeast Asia; Australia and New Zealand; Latin America and…

  11. Colorado Migrant Education Program, 1978-79. Annual Evaluation Report Fiscal Year 1979. CDE Evaluation Series No. 80-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetzer, Ann V.

    The 1978-79 evaluation report describes projects, participants, personnel, and services involved in the state's efforts to provide comprehensive educational services to migrant children throughout the state. The program, operated by 10 school districts and 10 boards of cooperative services, highlights 3 projects on the basis of their innovative…

  12. The Esso-Bernicia oil spill, Shetland, 1978-79: Experiences and lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, W. ); Kingham, L.V. )

    1991-03-01

    About 200 tons of Bunker C fuel oil escaped from a ruptured tank in a berthing incident in the winter of 1978-79. The worst weather conditions in a decade and failure of equipment led to widespread environmental damage. Local crofters also suffered some loss of sheep through oiling and subsequent drowning (sheep graze backshore beach areas of Shetland). The environmental response to the experiences of this accident produced reinforcement of baseline and operational monitoring of the physical and biological environments. SOTEAG (the Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Group - a committee set up and funded jointly by industry (the terminal and pipeline operators) and Shetland Island Council and including the Port of Sullom Voe Harbour Authority) also commissioned special surveys to investigate other claims of environmental damage. At a managerial level, links between the Sullom Voe Oil Spills Advisory Committee (SVOSAC) and SOTEAG were reinforced. To prevent any recurrence of the widespread damage caused by 'Bernicia' a multimillion dollar engineering project was completed to build permanent spill booms to intercept oil moving along the coast at strategic points and to boom-off environmentally sensitive areas. Oil spill response equipment and deployment capacity were also increased substantially. Although not related directly to 'Bernicia,' other improvements over the last decade have included an 'area of avoidance' for the prescribed westerly, Atlantic, tanker approach to the terminal (effectively at least 10 mi away from land), aerial and video inspection of all inbound tankers, and the introduction of legislation relating to the amount and quality of ballast water.

  13. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  14. Fall 1978 COM 080 "R" Grade Follow-Up. Research Report 79-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakulich, J. Scott

    At the completion of the fall semester, 1979, a study was conducted at Essex County College to determine the status of the 182 students who had received an "R" grade in a basic communications skills course (COM-080) in fall, 1978. The "R" grade is given to students who have made progress in a developmental course, but who have not attained "C"…

  15. Results from the LIMS experiment for the PMP-1 winter 1978/79. [Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Bailey, P. L.; Lyjak, L. V.; Russell, J. M., III

    1982-01-01

    The results of a preliminary analysis of the data on the global distributions of temperature and trace constituents in the middle atmosphere (15-65 km) obtained with the limb IR monitor (LIMS) are presented. The 6-channel limb-scanning radiometer was sensitive to the 15 micron bands of CO2, as well as other wavelengths, and was launched on the Nimbus 7 satellite in 1978. The derived data were partially compared with Soviet rocketsonde data to track an evolution in a warming trend over Siberia. The morphology of the changes were attributed to stratospheric warming. The comparisons with rocketsonde data indicated that the LIMS data were suitable for the determination of planetary wave amplitudes and phases, heat and momentum transport, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes.

  16. Performance evaluation of a state-of-the-art solar air-heating system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.; Brisbane, T.E.; Waterbury, S.S.; Lantz, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system in Solar House II, evaluated during the heating season of 1978-1979, consists of 57.9 m/sup 2/ of Solaron Series 3000 Collectors, 10.3 m/sup 3/ of pebble bed storage, domestic water preheating capability and a Carrier air-to-air heat pump as an auxiliary heater. Although the control subsystem was specially constructed to facilitate experimental changes and data reduction, the balance of the solar system was assembled with off-the-shelf components. Descriptions of the building and the system, modes of system operation, the data acquisition system, data processing, and performance - thermal, collector, storage, and heat pump - are included. (MHR)

  17. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  18. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  19. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  20. A Bibliography of Environmental Education Articles from "The Journal of Geography". January 1973-March 1978. Publication No. 79-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N., Comp.; Tolbert, Patricia L., Comp.

    This bibliography identifies over 100 articles from 1973 to 1978 printed in the "Journal of Geography." The compilation provides an overview of recent concerns as well as methods of incorporating environmental education into the classroom. Subjects covered include atmosphere, energy, climate-vegetation, field studies, future studies, land-use…

  1. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  2. Waste heat utilization. 1964-1978 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1964-1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hundemann, A.S.

    1980-05-01

    Federally-funded research on techniques of recovering waste heat from power plants, buildings, industrial processes, and waste disposal is covered. Studies of waste heat boilers and the use of waste heat for irrigation, sewage treatment, odor control, desalination, heating, and aquaculture are included. (This updated bibliography contains 299 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.D.; Kruuv, J.; Lepock, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 43 degrees C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and 44.5 degrees C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min exposure to 44.5 degrees C. After 3 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.5 degrees C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistant variant and the parent cell line.

  4. Net energy analysis of district solar heating with seasonal heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.; Kangas, M. T.

    1983-10-01

    A net energy analysis of district solar heating using seasonal heat storage has been performed. The use of seasonal heat storage is of great importance in northern latitudes when the solar contribution is to be increased. Different system alternatives were considered. Net energy ratios for the most favorable options were found to be between 3 and 5.

  5. A comparison of 1978 and 2006 peak pollen seasons and sampling methods in Missoula, Montana

    PubMed Central

    CRISPEN, KELLY L.; GILLESPIE, DONALD N.; WEILER, EMILY C.; NOONAN, CURTIS W.; HAMILTON, RAYMOND F.; WARD, TONY J.

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted in Missoula, Montana to compare local pollen counts from 1978 with those measured nearly 30 years later in 2006 using two different measurement techniques (Durham gravimetric sampler and a Burkard volumetric sampler). Trends in peak pollen times measured during the spring, summer and autumn, respectively, were compared between the two years by Pearson’s correlation and frequency of occurrence of plant genus. Meteorological conditions were also examined during each of the two study periods. In comparing the two years, there was a statistically significant linear association between the different counts for the months of April through August, with similar levels of pollen types for any given month. The five predominant pollen types (based on counts) identified in each study were Pinus, Poaceae, Populus, Alnus, and Betula for 2006 and Pinus, Poaceae, Populus, Acer and Artemisia for 1978. In summary most of the genera displayed similar peak pollination timing between the two years, suggesting that results from the Durham (gravimetric) and Burkard (volumetric) sampling methods are comparable when reporting relative frequency of occurrence. PMID:21151741

  6. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  7. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.

  8. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation. PMID:19131626

  9. A mathematical model for the behaviour of Se-79 in soils and plants that takes account of seasonal variations in soil hydrology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M C; Limer, L M C

    2012-03-01

    Se-79 is a long-lived radionuclide of potential radiological significance in relation to the deep geological disposal of solid radioactive wastes. In the context of release to the terrestrial environment, its main radiological impact is delivered through food chain pathways. Therefore, its accumulation in soils and uptake by plants is an important consideration in post-closure safety assessment studies. However, representation of its behaviour in the soil-plant system requires consideration of the multiple valence states that it can exhibit under different redox conditions and its susceptibility to volatilisation. A simple model is described that includes seasonal variations in soil hydrology and their effects on the mobility and root uptake of Se-79. Illustrative calculations are undertaken with the model, to demonstrate its capabilities for interpreting experimental data on the behaviour of Se-79 in soils and plants, and for making projections on the long-term behaviour of Se-79 transported to soils.

  10. Seasonality of the urban heat island effect: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a rigorous analysis of the drivers of seasonality in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Many studies report annual cycles in UHI intensity and have attributed those patterns to various hypotheses, including seasonal trends in wind and clouds, prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions, soil moisture, and day length. But to our knowledge, those hypotheses have never been tested, leaving a substantial gap in our basic understanding of the urban climate. We tested these and other hypotheses using two years of continuous temperature measurements from an array of 150 sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin USA, an urban area of 407,000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. This is one of the best replicated urban climate arrays ever deployed, which allowed us to characterize the UHI in rich spatial and temporal detail and rigorously assess the biophysical and synoptic drivers of its seasonal variation. UHI intensities were typically highest in summer and lowest in winter. Seasonal trends in wind speed and cloud cover generally tracked annual trends in UHI intensity, with the clearer, calmer conditions conducive to stronger UHIs more common in summer. This is consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal trends in wind, clouds, and anti-cyclonic conditions drive UHI seasonality. However, clear, calm summer nights still had higher UHI intensities than clear, calm winter nights, indicating that some background factor shifted baseline UHI intensities throughout the year. We found that regional vegetation and snow cover conditions set distinct seasonal baselines for UHI intensity, with nighttime intensities averaging 4°C in summer and 1°C in winter. Synoptic and biophysical factors that vary on shorter time scales (e.g. wind, clouds, soil moisture, relative humidity) modified daily UHI intensity around those baselines by 1-3°C but were not the primary drivers of UHI seasonality, contrary to the most common

  11. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  12. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-09-21

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future.

  13. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China’s central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960–2011, resulting in a decline of HL (−2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China’s central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  14. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  15. Performance evaluation of the hydronic heat pump system. Volume 1: Heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Stoltz, S.

    1995-01-01

    A hydronic heat pump system has been developed under EPRI sponsorship as a potential substitute for conventional residential forced-air heat pumps. The use of a hydronic thermal distribution system of circulating water to distribute the output of a residential heat pump compares favorably with other methods of distribution. To evaluate the performance of a hydronic heat pump compared to a conventional forced-air system, EPRI retained GEOMET Technologies, Inc., to test a prototype hydronic system in the controlled environment of an unoccupied research house. A prototype multizone hydronic system, developed and assembled by the Tecogen Division of Thermal Power Corporation, was tested in one of GEOMET`s two research houses during the 1992--1993 heating season and in the 1993 cooling season. The prototype hydronic system was tested to examine its efficiency and reliability. It was tested under several scenarios having different combinations of setpoints while the internal doors were either open or closed. The test data were analyzed to compare the hydronic system`s energy consumption, comfort, and efficiency to those of a conventional forced-air heat pump system. The hydronic system ran smoothly, and there were no operational problems in the heating mode, though the hydronic system required more energy than the conventional system under comparable test conditions. However, the hydronic system provided better thermal comfort than the conventional system, especially in the test mode where all the inside doors were closed. Overall energy efficiency of the hydronic system might be improved with minor modifications in the operating/control scheme; to increase low-speed compressor operation, reduce compressor cycling and circulating the water through the system only when heating or cooling is required in any of the zones. This report describes the heating-season tests of the hydronic heat pump system.

  16. Seasonal predictability of the 2010 Russian heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Varlas, G.; Papadopoulou, E.; Mavromatidis, E.

    2014-06-01

    The atmospheric blocking over eastern Europe and western Russia that prevailed during July and August of 2010 led to the development of a devastating Russian heat wave. Therefore the question of whether the event was predictable or not is highly important. The principal aim of this study is to examine the predictability of this high-impact atmospheric event on a seasonal timescale. To this end, a set of dynamical seasonal simulations have been carried out using an atmospheric global circulation model (AGCM). The impact of various model initializations on the predictability of this large-scale event and its sensitivity to the initial conditions has been also investigated. The ensemble seasonal simulations are based on a modified version of the lagged-average forecast method using different lead-time initializations of the model. The results indicated that only a few individual members reproduced the main features of the blocking system 3 months ahead. Most members missed the phase space and the propagation of the system, setting limitations in the predictability of the event.

  17. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  18. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  19. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  20. Alternative energy heating of dairy process water. Final report, March 1, 1978-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Elwell, D.L.; Roller, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The system made use of three alternative energy sources. First, heat was recovered from the milk. Second, solar energy was collected, and third, off-peak electric heating was used as a back-up energy source during periods of cloudy weather. Heat was recovered from the milk directly through an in-line heat exchanger and indirectly from the bulk-tank, milk refrigeration compressors. It was found that refrigeration heat recovery provided, for the 110 to 120 cow herd studied, 1.6 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/day in direct energy for heating replacement and that, at 4 cents/kWh, this represented a savings of $700/yr. From this, it was concluded that milk refrigeration heat recovery equipment can pay for itself in less than one year for a milking herd of 250 head or more and that this period will increase to roughly five years as herd size is reduced to 50 head.

  1. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  2. Human acclimation and acclimatization to heat: A compendium of research, 1968-1978. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciaraffa, D.; Fox, S. C.; Stockmann, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts and annotations of the majority of scientific works that elucidate the mechanisms of short-term acclimation to heat in men and women are presented. The compendium includes material from 1968 through 1977. Subject and author indexes are provided and additional references of preliminary research findings or work of a peripheral nature are included in a bibliography.

  3. WALKABOUT: Final Evaluation Report 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi Educational Services, Inc., Port Chester, NY.

    The report presents an objective third-party assessment of the WALKABOUT program. Now in its third year in Northern Westchester County, New York, this program offers an optional learning environment for Grade 12 students in which the skills and self confidence needed to be effective adults are nurtured. In order to attain WALKABOUT program goals,…

  4. Directory of Education Associations, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Lois V., Comp.

    This annual directory lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of education associations and their chief officers under the following broad headings: (1) national and regional education associations, (2) national honor and professional associations, (3) state education associations, (4) foundations, (5) religious education associations,…

  5. Seasonal heat and freshwater cycles in the Arctic Ocean in CMIP5 coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Steele, Michael; Hakkinen, Sirpa

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the processes governing the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcings as they appear in historical simulations of 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled climate models. In both models and observations, the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most of these models, sea ice melt dominates. Seasonal horizontal heat flux divergence driven by the seasonal cycle of volume transport is only important locally. In models and observations, the dominant terms in the basin-average seasonal freshwater budget are the storages of freshwater between the ocean and sea ice, and the exchange between the two. The largest external source term is continental discharge in early summer, which is an order of magnitude smaller. The appearance of sea ice (extent and volume) and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and provides two mechanisms for feedback. One consequence of such an interaction is the fact that models with strong/weak seasonal surface heating also have strong/weak seasonal haline and temperature stratification.

  6. SHAFT79 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

    1980-03-01

    SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of geothermal heat pump during the cold season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrașcu, G.; Dumencu, A.; Horbaniuc, B.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is analysing the performances (COP, power and, heating heat rate function of time) for a ground-coupled heat pump that is used to heat a space during winter, for a period of 180 days. The analysis purpose is to evaluate the time based changes in values of COP and, energy transfers of a geothermal heat pump, considering a scenario for the variation of the ambient temperature in time and an analytical solution for the time dependence of the soil one. The temperatures and the energy transfer rates were determined on the basis of the irreversible entropy balance equation.

  8. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part I, Results of the measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Showail, Abdullah

    1982-01-01

    Heat-flow measurements were made at five onland shot points of the 1978 Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction line, which sample major tectonic elements of the Arabian Shield along a profile from Ar Riyad to the Farasan Islands. Because of the pattern drilling at each shot point, several holes (60 m deep) could be logged for temperature at each site and thus allow a better estimate of the geothermal gradient. Each site was mapped and sampled in detail, and modal and. chemical analyses of representative specimens were made in the laboratory. Thermal conductivities were computed from the modal analyses and single-mineral conductivity data. The resulting heat-flow values, combined with published values for the Red Sea and coastal plain, indicate a three-level pattern, with a heat flow of about 4.5 heat-flow unit (HFU) over the Red Sea axial trough, about 3.0 HFU over the shelf and coastal plain, and an essentially constant 1.0 HFU over the Arabian Shield at points well away from the suture zone with the oceanic crust. At three sites where the rocks are granitic, gamma-ray spectrometry techniques were employed to estimate thorium, potassium, and uranium concentrations. The resulting plot of heat generation versus heat flow suggests that in the Arabian Shield the relationship between heat flow and heat production is not linear. More heat-flow data are essential to establish or reject this conclusion.

  9. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  10. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  11. Seasonal Cycles of Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Tong; Marotzke, Jochem

    1998-01-01

    A general circulation model of the Indian Ocean is fitted to monthly averaged climatological temperatures, salinities, and surface fluxes using the adjoint method. Interannual variability is minimized by penalizing the temporal drift from one seasonal cycle to another during a two-year integration. The resultant meridional overturning and heat transport display large seasonal variations, with maximum amplitudes of 18 and 22 (x 10(exp 6) cubic m/s) for the overturning and 1.8 and 1.4 (x 10(exp 15) W) for heat transport near 10 S and 10 N, respectively. A dynamical decomposition of the overturning and heat transport shows that the time-varying Ekman How plus its barotropic compensation can explain a large part of the seasonal variations in overturning and heat transport. The maximum variations at 10 deg N and 10 deg S are associated with monsoon reversal over the northern Indian Ocean and changes of the easterlies over the southern Indian Ocean. An external mode with variable topography has a moderate contribution where the Somali Current and the corresponding gyre reverse direction seasonally. Contribution front vertical shear (thermal wind and ageostrophic shear) is dominant near the southern boundary and large near the Somali Current latitudes. The dominant balance in the zonally integrated heat budget is between heat storage change and heat transport convergence except south of 15 S. Optimization with seasonal forcings improves estimates of sea surface temperatures, but the annual average overturning and heat transport are very similar to previous results with annual mean forcings. The annual average heat transport consists of roughly equal contributions from time-mean and time-varying fields of meridional velocities and temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean. indicating a significant rectification to the heat transport due to the time-varying fields. The time-mean and time-varying contributions are primarily due to the overturning and horizontal gyre

  12. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  13. Effect of heating rate on the glass transition temperature in Se79Te15In6-xPbx bulk alloys using power-law behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, Balbir Singh; Thakur, Nagesh; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of heating rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg) in quaternary Se79Te15In6-xPbx (x = 0.5, 1, 2 and 4) chalcogenide bulk alloys using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment under non-isothermal conditions has been reported and discussed. The heating rate dependence of Tg has been investigated theoretically using power-law behaviour. An excellent agreement of Tg has been observed between experimental values obtained from DSC scans and theoretical values using power-law behaviour.

  14. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  15. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage. Evaluation of systems concepts based on heat storage in aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Chant, V.G.; Breger, D.S.

    1984-10-01

    The work undertaken by the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage team from the USA and Canada is documented. The analytic effort was divided between heat pump systems and systems without heat pumps. The aquifer-based system configurations that have been analyzed are defined, and the approach and methodology employed in this analysis are outlined. Principal results are presented in terms of optimum designs for reference cases, and sensitivity results around the reference cases for selected variables. Characteristics of system designs are given for a wide range of key design parameters. Finally, a detailed list of system parameter values and more detailed results of the analysis are presented. (LEW)

  16. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  17. The role of atmospheric heat transport in the seasonal carbon dioxide cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, James R.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out numerical experiments with a general circulations model (GCM) and energy balance model of the martian atmosphere to define the importance of heat transported to the polar regions in determining the amount of CO2 condensed on the surface during the fall and winter seasons and the amount sublimated during the spring and summer seasons. In so doing, we performed both sensitivity experiments, in which the dust opacity was varied over the full range of its observed values, and annual simulations, in which the dust opacity varied continuously with seasonal data, in accord with measurements taken at the Viking landers. Dust opacity represents the key variable for determining the contribution of atmospheric heat advection to the energy budget in the polar regions. The amount of heat advected to the winter polar regions increases monotonically as the dust opacity at low and middle latitudes increases. However, the increase is sharpest between optical depths of 0 and 1 tends to level off at still higher optical depths. Heat advection is more important at times of CO2 condensation than CO2 sublimation, since the temperature gradients are much steeper in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Because dust opacity is much higher during northern winter than during southern winter, atmospheric heat advection reduces the amount of CO2 that condenses in the north by a much larger factor than it does in the south.

  18. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  19. CSU Solar Housee III solar heating and cooling system performance. Annual report: technical summary, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Ward, J.C.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test and evaluate the practicality of an integrated flat-plate state-of-the-art liquid-heating solar collector and absorption cooling system installed on Colorado State University (CSU) Solar House III. This objective was accomplished by designing and installing a complete solar heating and cooling system (including appropriate data acquisition equipment and instrumentation), performing a detailed analysis and evaluation of all aspects of the solar system, and comparing the seasonal performance of the system with two other solar heating and cooling systems installed in adjacent buildings with virtually identical thermal characteristics.

  20. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  1. Performance evaluation of the hydronic heat pump system: Volume 2, Cooling season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Stoltz, S.; Hagen, E.

    1995-04-01

    A hydronic heat pump system has been developed under EPRI sponsorship as a potential substitute for conventional residential forced-air heat pumps. The use of a hydronic thermal distribution system of circulating water to distribute the output of a residential heat pump compares favorably with other methods of distribution. To evaluate the performance of a hydronic heat pump compared to a conventional forced-air system, EPRI retained GEOMET Technologies, Inc., to test a prototype hydronic system in the controlled environment of an unoccupied research house. A prototype multizone hydronic system, developed and assembled by the Tecogen Division of Thermal Power Corporation, was tested in one of GEOMET`s two research houses during the 1992--1993 heating season and in the 1993 cooling season. This report describes the cooling-season tests of the hydronic heat pump system. The prototype hydronic system was tested to examine its efficiency and reliability. It was tested under several scenarios having different combinations of setpoints while the internal doors were either open or closed. The test data were analyzed to compare the hydronic system`s energy consumption, comfort, and efficiency to those of a conventional forced-air heat pump system. The hydronic system ran smoothly, and there were no operational problems in the cooling mode, though the hydronic system required more energy than the conventional system under comparable test conditions. However, the hydronic system provided a level of thermal comfort equivalent to that of the conventional system. Overall energy efficiency of the hydronic system might be improved with minor modifications in the operating/control scheme to increase low speed compressor operation, reduce compressor cycling and by circulating the water through the system only when heating or cooling is required in any of the zones.

  2. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  3. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

  4. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  5. Seasonal adjustment of solar heat gain independent of coat coloration in a desert mammal.

    PubMed

    Walsberg, G E; Weaver, T; Wolf, B O

    1997-01-01

    Despite the apparent importance of solar radiation as a source of heat for free-living animals, there exists no substantial body of empirical data describing physiological responses to solar radiation under the range of convective conditions likely to occur in nature. We therefore quantified effects of simulated solar radiation and wind on metabolic heat production in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus. This diurnal mammal inhabits the Sonoran Desert and seasonally replaces its pelage in a fashion in which it retains constant external appearance but incorporates optical and structural changes that are thought to significantly alter heat-transfer properties of the coat. At a given wind speed, the presence of 950 W m-2 of simulated solar radiation reduces metabolic heat production by 15% (at a wind speed of 4 m s-1) to 37% (at a wind speed of 0.25 m s-1). Independent of effects of irradiance, metabolic heat production significantly increases with wind speed such that as wind speed is increased from 0.25 m s-1 to 4.0 m s-1, metabolic heat production is elevated by 66% (sunlight absent) or 88% (sunlight present). Previous analyses demonstrated that when exposed to identical radiative and convective environments rock squirrels with summer pelages accrue solar heat loads 33%-71% lower than those experienced by animals with winter coats. This reduction of solar heat gain during the extremely hot Sonoran Desert summer apparently constitutes a previously unappreciated mode of thermal adaptation by seasonal adjustment of radiative heat gain without changes in the animal's appearance.

  6. [The perception of a temperature rise in human seasonal heat adaptation].

    PubMed

    Khudaĭberdiev, M D; Sultanov, F F; Pokormiakha, L M

    1991-01-01

    At ambient temperatures 20 degrees, 28 degrees and 40 degrees C the exponent of the power function of warmth perception was 1.40, 1.08 and 0.84 in winter and 1.66, 1.32 and 1.50 in summer, resp. Seasonal heat adaptation seems to lead to an increase of the warmth perception due to functional modification of temperature analyser activity.

  7. The effect of ocean heat flux on seasonal ice growth in Young Sound (Northeast Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sergei; Dmitrenko, Igor; Babb, David; Rysgaard, Søren; Barber, David

    2015-07-01

    The seasonal ice cover plays an important role in the climate system limiting the exchange of heat and momentum across the air-water interface. Among other factors, sea ice is sensitive to the ocean heat flux. In this study, we use in situ oceanographic, sea ice, and meteorological data collected during winter 2013/2014 in Young Sound (YS) fjord in Northeast Greenland to estimate the ocean heat flux to the landfast ice cover. During the preceding ice-free summer, incident solar radiation caused sea surface temperatures of up to 5-6°C. Subsequently, this heat was transferred down to the intermediate depths, but returned to the surface and retarded ice growth throughout winter. Two different approaches were used to estimate the ocean heat fluxes; (i) a residual method based on a 1-D thermodynamic ice growth model and (ii) a bulk parameterization using friction velocities and available heat content of water beneath the ice. The average heat flux in the inner YS varied from 13 W m-2 in October-December to less than 2 W m-2 in January-May. An average heat flux of 9 W m-2 was calculated for the outer YS. Moreover, we show that the upward heat flux in the outer fjord is strongly modulated by surface outflow, which produced two maxima in heat flux (up to 18-24 W m-2) during 26 December to 27 January and from 11 February to 14 March. By May 2014, the upward ocean heat flux reduced the landfast ice thickness by 18% and 24% in the inner and outer YS, respectively.

  8. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. PMID:26787477

  9. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates.

  10. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd.

  11. Seasonal variations in heat and carbon dioxide fluxes observed over a reed wetland in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jia, Qingyu; Liu, Jingmiao

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in sensible heat flux (Hs), latent heat flux (LE), and CO2 flux (Fc) during 2006 over a reed wetland ecosystem in Northeast China, as well as their relationships with environmental factors, were investigated based on micrometeorological observations and turbulence data, measured using the eddy covariance technique. The results showed that the LE values were significantly larger (>400 W m-2) in summer (June, July, and August) than those in other seasons because of the summertime abundant precipitation and strong evapotranspiration, whereas the Hs values were smaller (<100 W m-2) in summer but larger in spring (>300 W m-2) and autumn (>200 W m-2). The cumulative evapotranspiration in 2006 was 577.1 mm that was mostly controlled by radiation at surface throughout the whole year but also limited by water supply during the non-growing season. Most of the Fc values ranged between -1.0 mg m-2 s-1 (sometimes close to -2.0 mg m-2 s-1) during daytime and 0.3 mg m-2 s-1 at night during the growing season (May to September) but varied around zero in the non-growing season, and the CO2 mass concentration was in the range of 600-800 mg m-3. Monthly cumulative CO2 flux for the growing season was negatively largest in July (-520 mg m-2 month-1) and smallest in May (-65 mg m-2 month-1), making this reed wetland a net CO2 sink in 2006. The daytime CO2 flux in the growing season was positively correlated with atmospheric stability |z/L| under unstable condition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed, but depended less on air temperature, relative humidity and soil water content on a several-day time scale. However, over a longer time scale, a comparison of March-April conditions during 2005 and 2006 suggested that cooler conditions can result in reduced CO2 production before the growing season.

  12. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  13. Seasonal patterns of heat loss in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Erin M; McLellan, William A; Westgate, Andrew J; Wells, Randall S; Blum, James E; Pabst, D Ann

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated patterns of heat loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, where water temperatures vary seasonally from 11 to 33 degrees C. Simultaneous measurements of heat flux (HF) and skin surface temperature were collected at the body wall and appendages of dolphins during health-monitoring events in summer (June 2002-2004) and winter (February 2003-2005). Integument thickness was measured and whole body conductance (W/m(2) degrees C) was estimated using HF and colonic temperature measurements. Across seasons, HF values were similar at the appendages, but their distribution differed significantly at the flipper and fluke. In summer, these appendages displayed uniformly high values, while in winter they most frequently displayed very low HF values with a few high HF values. In winter, blubber thickness was significantly greater and estimated conductance significantly lower, than in summer. These results suggest that dolphins attempt to conserve heat in winter. In winter, though, HF values across the body wall were similar to (flank) or greater than (caudal keel) summer values. It is likely that higher winter HF values are due to the steep temperature gradient between the body core and colder winter water, which may limit the dolphin's ability to decrease heat loss across the body wall. PMID:18183404

  14. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  15. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk.

  16. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

  17. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  18. Post-burning regeneration of the Chaco seasonally dry forest: germination response of dominant species to experimental heat shock.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Díaz, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Plant species of the Chaco seasonally dry forest of central Argentina have presumably been under a low evolutionary pressure to develop specialized fire-response traits, such as heat-stimulated germination. Nevertheless, other historical factors such as seasonal drought and/or endozoochorus dispersal could have led some species to develop heat-tolerant seeds. Therefore, heat-tolerant germination should be more common than heat-stimulated or heat-sensitive germination. To test this, we exposed seeds of 26 dominant species from the Chaco region to a broad range of experimental heat treatments and incubated them for 30 days at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiod. We then scored the percent germination and classified them as heat-stimulated, heat-tolerant or heat-sensitive based on their germination following heat treatments relative to control. Seventeen species showed heat-tolerant germination, including all native graminoids. Seven species showed heat-stimulated germination, under the less-intense heat treatments. Only two species showed heat-sensitive germination. Endozoochory had no influence on germination responses. We suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, fire was not a major evolutionary force in the development of Chaco forests, and our results provide greater understanding of the potential response of Chaco plant communities in the face of increasingly frequent fires.

  19. Impact of climatic factors on energy consumption during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, A. S.; Reshetar, O. A.; Belova, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    Global and regional climate changes produce a significant effect on energy production and consumption, especially on heating and air conditioning in residential, industrial, commercial, and office rooms. In Russia, with its contracting climate conditions, energy consumption varies a lot in different regions. Thus, we have to review the dynamics of energy consumption during the cold season individually for each region of the country. We analyzed the dynamics of duration and temperature of the heating season in Moscow region and completed a comparative study of heat energy consumption, actual and calculated based on the 'degreedays' concept, in the municipal economy of Moscow during the last decade. Based on the actual data analysis, we proved that conservation of energy resources in a large city relies not so much on a shortening of the heating period as on the growth of atmospheric air temperature in winter. The projected climate warming in the Moscow region in the nearest decades, along with measures of energy conservation, will promote a significant reduction in energy consumption of the municipal economy in winter. The results shown in this article were obtained in the process of preparing and implementing project no. 16-17-00114 by the Russian Science Foundation "Analysis of an impact of the regional climate change on the residential and commercial energy consumption of Russian megacities," within the main area of focus of the Russian Science Foundation, which is "Fundamental Research and Exploration in Main Topical Areas of Focus." The project was implemented within the framework of the scientific area of focus, which is "Reduction of the Risk and Mitigation of Consequences of Natural and Man-made Disasters" ("Studying Economical, Political, and Social Consequences of Global Climate Changes" problem).

  20. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  1. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute, Meeting, 26th, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash., June 26-28, 1978, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, C. T. (Editor); Grosshandler, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    Papers are presented on the heat transfer and fluid mechanics in energy systems including diesel combustion analysis using rapid sampling and the numerical simulation of thermal response of architectural structures. Experiments associated with hypersonic boundary layers, the prediction of nozzle-wall pressure distribution, and the effects of nozzle geometry on an axisymmetric thrust augmentor are outlined. Predictions are made of film thickness on a roll-metering device and the thermal characteristics of multiple-surface submerged condenser modules are described. Numerical studies are made of the interaction between natural and forced convection in a complex geometry and of pressure drop and holdup in two-phase stratified flow. A numerical solution is given for viscous flows at high Reynolds numbers and for compressible boundary layer flows near separation or reattachment. The structure and transport properties in turbulent shear flows are reviewed along with the spectra of Reynolds stresses in a developing pipe flow.

  2. A Report on the Knowledge Development Goals of the Illinois Migrant Council Midwest Youth Employment and Training Program for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers; Fiscal Years 1978 through 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laylo, Peter R.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    Knowledge development goals were built into the Illinois Migrant Council (IMC) Midwest Youth Employment Training Program (MYETP) to gain information and insights on the status and conditions of the migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) youth, and to assist in the design and content of programs to improve their economic, educational, and social…

  3. Summary of environmental geologic studies in the Mid-Atlantic outer continental shelf area; results of 1978-1979 field seasons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the need for knowledge of an offshore area that is undergoing exploration for oil and gas resources, since 1975 the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has funded studies of the environmental characteristics of the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. This volume briefly summarizes a final report to the BLM on the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations stemming from data acquired during 1978 and 1979. The parent final report contains complete accounts of those investigations. The subjects of the studies range from the geologic effects of water currents and their capabilities of erosion and transportation, to delineation of potentially hazardous geologic characteristics of the area. Nine specific studies address the complexities of water currents, the nature of materials suspended in the sea waters, rates of mixing-in of material deposited on the bottom, and the sites of probable deposition of such materials, as well as sites and mechanisms of possible submarine landsliding or unstable bottom (engineering characteristics) of the Continental Slope and shelf.

  4. Seasonal evolution of the West African heat low: a climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaysse, C.; Flamant, C.; Janicot, S.; Parker, D. J.; Lafore, J.-P.; Sultan, B.; Pelon, J.

    2009-08-01

    The West African heat low (WAHL), a region of high surface temperatures and low surface pressures, is a key element of the West African monsoon system. In this study, we propose a method to detect the WAHL in order to monitor its climatological seasonal displacement over West Africa during the period 1979-2001, using the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) ERA-40 reanalyses. The low-level atmospheric thickness (LLAT), a variable defined as the difference of geopotential heights at 700 and 925 hPa, is used to detect the dilatation of these levels generated by an increase of the temperature. We define grid points with 10% highest values of the LLAT as the WAHL. We show that our method reliably positions the WAHL over areas of high surface temperatures and low surface pressures, and that it is effective at detecting heat lows. In the course of the year, the climatological WAHL is shown to migrate north-westward from a position south of the Darfur mountains in the winter (November-March) to a location over the Sahara, between the Hoggar and the Atlas mountains, during the summer (June-September). The temperature tendency equation is used to investigate the processes controlling the displacement of the WAHL, and more particularly the heating at low levels. The specific period of the onset of the WAHL in its summer location over the Sahara (referred to as the Saharan heat low -SHL- onset) is also analysed during the 1984-2001 period, using complementary brightness temperature data from the European Union-funded Cloud Archive User Service (CLAUS). The climatological onset of the SHL occurs around 20 June, i.e. just before the climatological monsoon onset date. The present study suggests that the onset of the WAHL occurs approximately 5 days before the monsoon onset for the 1984-2001 period. This is confirmed independently by comparing the SHL onset date and the monsoon onset date for the 1984-2001 period. The seasonal evolution of the WAHL for the

  5. Evaluation of EUREKA Project, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Paul J., Ed.

    An evaluation for 1978-79 was conducted of EUREKA, a career information system in California. Personal visits were made to sixteen EUREKA sites throughout the state, accounting for over 75% of the high schools and agencies with active programs. Both the directors of the programs and counselors were interviewed for their reactions. It was found…

  6. Eddy heat and salt transports in the South China Sea and their seasonal modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Gan, Jianping; Xie, Qiang; Chu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dongxiao; Hou, Yijun

    2012-05-01

    This study describes characteristics of eddy (turbulent) heat and salt transports, in the basin-scale circulation as well as in the embedded mesoscale eddy found in the South China Sea (SCS). We first showed the features of turbulent heat and salt transports in mesoscale eddies using sea level anomaly (SLA) data, in situ hydrographic data, and 375 Argo profiles. We found that the transports were horizontally variable due to asymmetric distributions of temperature and salinity anomalies and that they were vertically correlated with the thermocline and halocline depths in the eddies. An existing barrier layer caused the halocline and eddy salt transport to be relatively shallow. We then analyzed the transports in the basin-scale circulation using an eddy diffusivity method and the sea surface height data, the Argo profiles, and the climatological hydrographic data. We found that relatively large poleward eddy heat transports occurred to the east of Vietnam (EOV) in summer and to the west of the Luzon Islands (WOL) in winter, while a large equatorward heat transport was located to the west of the Luzon Strait (WLS) in winter. The eddy salt transports were mostly similar to the heat transports but in the equatorward direction due to the fact that the mean salinity in the upper layer in the SCS tended to decrease toward the equator. Using a 21/2-layer reduced-gravity model, we conducted a baroclinic instability study and showed that the baroclinic instability was critical to the seasonal variation of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and thus the eddy transports. EOV, WLS, and WOL were regions with strong baroclinic instability, and, thus, with intensified eddy transports in the SCS. The combined effects of vertical velocity shear, latitude, and stratification determined the intensity of the baroclinic instability, which intensified the eddy transports EOV during summer and WLS and WOL during winter.

  7. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  8. Ocean Net Heat Flux Influences Seasonal to Interannual Patterns of Plankton Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tim J.; Allen, Icarus; Atkinson, Angus; Bruun, John T.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Pingree, Robin D.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the net heat flux (NHF) into the ocean have profound impacts on global climate. We analyse a long-term plankton time-series and show that the NHF is a critical indicator of ecosystem dynamics. We show that phytoplankton abundance and diversity patterns are tightly bounded by the switches between negative and positive NHF over an annual cycle. Zooplankton increase before the transition to positive NHF in the spring but are constrained by the negative NHF switch in autumn. By contrast bacterial diversity is decoupled from either NHF switch, but is inversely correlated (r = −0.920) with the magnitude of the NHF. We show that the NHF is a robust mechanistic tool for predicting climate change indicators such as spring phytoplankton bloom timing and length of the growing season. PMID:24918906

  9. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability.

  10. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Kasurak, A.; Kelly, R. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Derksen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  11. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  12. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-06

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  13. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  14. Environmental assessment of Buccaneer gas and oil field in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1978-1979. Volume III. Effects of gas and oil field structures and effluents on pelagic and reef fishes, demersal fishes and macrocrustaceans. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaway, B.J.; Martin, L.R.

    1980-12-01

    Demersal nekton communities in the Buccaneer Oil Field during research year 1978-79 were dominated by macrocrustaceans, particularly sugar shrimp, Trachypenaeus similis. The most abundant fish was the shoal flounder, Syacium gunteri. The effects of substrate and platform type on seasonal and areal distributional patterns are provided for dominate, demersal species. Several important species, including sugar shrimp, were indicated more abundant at production platforms than at control structures having the same bottom type.

  15. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  16. 1978-79 Michigan Social Studies Textbook Study, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John M., Ed.

    This document, Volume II of a two-volume report on the extent to which four elementary level social studies programs reflect the multi-racial, multi-cultural nature of American society, contains individual reports of each reviewer. Fifteen reviewers examined textbooks and accompanying instructional materials according to the degree to which they…

  17. 1978-79 Michigan Social Studies Textbook Study, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John, M., Ed.

    This document represents Volume I of a two volume study to determine the extent to which four elementary level social studies programs reflect the multi-racial, multi-cultural nature of American society. The document is presented in three parts. Part I covers the Michigan Social Studies Textbook Act, an historical overview of previous Michigan…

  18. I.D.G. Bulletin 1978/79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    The document focuses on the relationship of land and water in the Netherlands. Information, presented in expository, tabular, photographic, and cartographic form, is arranged in four major sections. Section I, which contains the bulk of the document, discusses water and landscape in geography; water in the Netherlands as a source of food,…

  19. The Visiting Women Scientists Program, 1978-79: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Carol; And Others

    This is the final report of a program in which 51 women scientists visited 12 junior high and high schools in North Carolina and a total of 128 schools in four large American metropolitan areas. The purpose of these visits was to provide students with a chance to meet women scientists as role models. The report is divided into 9 chapters and 8…

  20. Report of Committee R on Government Relations, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Henry T.

    1979-01-01

    Higher Education must have a higher priority on the agenda of government. This priority should be expressed in funds for student financial assistance, faculty scholarly grants, faculty salaries, program support, and improved facilities. Tenured professors exemption, reauthorization of Higher Education Act of 1965, AAUP's legislative agenda, etc.…

  1. Occupational Outlook Book, 1978-79 Edition. Bulletin No. 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is divided into four major sections with the first section serving as a guide to the handbook. This introductory section tells how to use the handbook, where to go for more career information, how employment projections are made, and where tommorrow's jobs will be. The outlook for occupations in section 2 contains 300 occupational…

  2. Guidance Exploration Model (GEM) 1978-79. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, M. Candice, Comp.

    The original program goal for development was to provide implementation of a Guidance Exploratory Model (GEM) at the elementary level which combines career education, guidance, exploration and academics. During the planning stages of GEM, monies were received from Title IV-B to purchase books and audio-visual materials to initiate the concept…

  3. Work Experience of the Population in 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne McDougall

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses several facets of the labor force based on 1978 data--seasonal and year-round workers; Blacks, Whites, Hispanics; men and women; occupational change; unemployment; and factors such as age--as they relate to employment. Data tables are included. (CT)

  4. Urban heat island by means of city clusters: a statistical assessment of size influence and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, influence factors of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect have been intensively investigated and further broadened through a variety of studies around the world. Briefly, compared to non-built surroundings, built-up areas of cities differ considerably in albedo, thermal capacity, roughness, etc. which can significantly modify the surface energy budget and make downtown areas of cities hotter than their vicinities. Most previous studies were built upon a limited number of cities, and suffered from inconsistency and instability with regard to the urban-rural definition, which hinders the inter-comparison between results. To overcome this limitation in the number of considered cities, we perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) intensity by means of land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. After defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover based on CORINE data, we determine a boundary around the urban cluster of approximately equal area to the cluster area. SUHI intensity is thus defined as the difference between the mean temperature in the cluster and that of the surroundings. We investigate the relationships of the SUHI intensity, respectively with the cluster size and with the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the SUHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a pronounced seasonality of the SUHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. Characterizing the shape by means of Fourier series approximation and consequential work of clustering, we identify apparent regional patterns which suggest a climatological basis for the heterogeneity of UHI.

  5. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability. PMID:27351357

  6. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  7. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  8. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  9. Reactive force field development for magnesium chloride hydrates and its application for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; van Duin, Adri C T; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-06-21

    MgCl2 hydrates are considered as high-potential candidates for seasonal heat storage materials. These materials have high storage capacity and fast dehydration kinetics. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis may occur. Hydrolysis is an irreversible reaction, which produces HCl gas thus affecting the durability of heat storage systems. In this study, we present the parameterization of a reactive force field (ReaxFF) for MgCl2 hydrates to study the dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O. The ReaxFF parameters have been derived by training against quantum mechanics data obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations consisting of bond dissociation curves, angle bending curves, reaction enthalpies, and equation of state. A single-parameter search algorithm in combination with a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm is successfully used for this ReaxFF parameterization. The newly developed force field is validated by examining the elastic properties of MgCl2 hydrates and the proton transfer reaction barrier, which is important for the hydrolysis reaction. The bulk moduli of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O obtained from ReaxFF are in close agreement with the bulk moduli obtained from DFT. A barrier of 20.24 kcal mol(-1) for the proton transfer in MgCl2·2H2O is obtained, which is in good agreement with the barrier (19.55 kcal mol(-1)) obtained from DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations using the newly developed ReaxFF on 2D-periodic slabs of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O show that the dehydration rate increases more rapidly with temperature in MgCl2·H2O than in MgCl2·2H2O, in the temperature range 300-500 K. The onset temperature of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter in seasonal heat storage systems, is observed at 340 K for MgCl2·H2O, which is in agreement with experiments. The HCl formation is not observed for MgCl2·2H2O. The diffusion coefficient of H2O through MgCl2·H2O is lower than through MgCl2·2H2O, and can

  10. Reactive force field development for magnesium chloride hydrates and its application for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; van Duin, Adri C T; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-06-21

    MgCl2 hydrates are considered as high-potential candidates for seasonal heat storage materials. These materials have high storage capacity and fast dehydration kinetics. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis may occur. Hydrolysis is an irreversible reaction, which produces HCl gas thus affecting the durability of heat storage systems. In this study, we present the parameterization of a reactive force field (ReaxFF) for MgCl2 hydrates to study the dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O. The ReaxFF parameters have been derived by training against quantum mechanics data obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations consisting of bond dissociation curves, angle bending curves, reaction enthalpies, and equation of state. A single-parameter search algorithm in combination with a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm is successfully used for this ReaxFF parameterization. The newly developed force field is validated by examining the elastic properties of MgCl2 hydrates and the proton transfer reaction barrier, which is important for the hydrolysis reaction. The bulk moduli of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O obtained from ReaxFF are in close agreement with the bulk moduli obtained from DFT. A barrier of 20.24 kcal mol(-1) for the proton transfer in MgCl2·2H2O is obtained, which is in good agreement with the barrier (19.55 kcal mol(-1)) obtained from DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations using the newly developed ReaxFF on 2D-periodic slabs of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O show that the dehydration rate increases more rapidly with temperature in MgCl2·H2O than in MgCl2·2H2O, in the temperature range 300-500 K. The onset temperature of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter in seasonal heat storage systems, is observed at 340 K for MgCl2·H2O, which is in agreement with experiments. The HCl formation is not observed for MgCl2·2H2O. The diffusion coefficient of H2O through MgCl2·H2O is lower than through MgCl2·2H2O, and can

  11. Seasonal variation in food insecurity is associated with heating and cooling costs among low-income elderly Americans.

    PubMed

    Nord, Mark; Kantor, Linda S

    2006-11-01

    In this study we examine the association between household food insecurity and seasonally high heating and cooling costs. Logistic regression models, controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, were estimated using data on household food security and economic and demographic data from the 1995-2001 Current Population Survey Food Security Supplements and state-level data on heating and cooling degree days from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Low-income households, especially those consisting entirely of elderly persons, experienced substantial seasonal differences in the incidence of very low food security (the more severe range of food insecurity) in areas with high winter heating costs and high summer cooling costs. In high-cooling states, the odds of very low food security for poor, elderly only households were 27% higher in the summer than in the winter. In high-heating states, the pattern was reversed for such households; the odds of very low food security were 43% lower in the summer. In light of recent sharp increases in home heating and cooling costs in many parts of the U.S., it is important to understand the extent to which households make tradeoffs between heating and cooling costs and other basic needs that affect their food security.

  12. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  13. Seasonal effects of heat shock on bacterial populations, including artificial Vibrio parahaemolyticus exposure, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Aagesen, Alisha M; Häse, Claudia C

    2014-04-01

    During the warmer summer months, oysters are conditioned to spawn, resulting in massive physiological efforts for gamete production. Moreover, the higher temperatures during the summer typically result in increased bacteria populations in oysters. We hypothesized that these animals are under multiple stresses that lead to possible immune system impairments during the summer months that can possibly lead to death. Here we show that in the summer and the fall animals exposed to a short heat stress respond similarly, resulting in a general trend of more bacteria being found in heat shocked animals than their non-heat shocked counterparts. We also show that naturally occurring bacterial populations are effected by a heat shock. In addition, oysters artificially contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were also affected by a heat shock. Heat shocked animals contained higher concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus in their tissues and hemolymph than control animals and this was consistent for animals examined during summer and fall. Finally, oyster hemocyte interactions with V. parahaemolyticus differed based on the time of the year. Overall, these findings demonstrate that seasonal changes and/or a short heat shock is sufficient to impact bacterial retention, particularly V. parahaemolyticus, in oysters and this line of research might lead to important considerations for animal harvesting procedures.

  14. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, António C.; Borges, José; Cabral, J. Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V.

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  15. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  16. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  17. Time and space variability of freshwater content, heat content and seasonal ice melt in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Meri; Rudels, Bert; Zhou, Jinping

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean water column is strongly stratified in salinity due to large freshwater input from river runoff, net precipitation and the inflow of low salinity Pacific water through Bering Strait: The strong stability allows sea ice to form in winter and to be exported. In summer seasonal ice melt adds freshwater to the stability in the upper part of the water column. The distribution of heat, relative to -1.9C, and freshwater, relative to 34.9, in the upper 1000m of the water column and in different areas of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the amount and distribution of seasonal ice melt have been determined from hydrographic data obtained from ice breaker cruises conducted in the Arctic Ocean during the last 15 years. The water column is subdivided into six layers: the Polar Mixed Layer, the upper halocline (S<34), the lower halocline (S>34, T<0C), two Atlantic layers (T>0C) separated at the temperature maximum, and the intermediate layer (T<0C) down to 1000m. The time variability of thickness, freshwater content and heat content in these layers is then determined for the Nansen Basin, the Gakkel Ridge, the Amundsen Basin, the Lomonosov Ridge, the Makarov Basin, the northern Canada Basin and the southern Canada Basin. The temporal variations in freshwater content are largest in the uppermost layers, the Polar Mixed Layer and the upper halocline and magnify towards Bering Strait. The seasonal ice melt is estimated from the freshwater stored in the Polar Surface Layer above the temperature minimum indicating the depth of the local winter convection and homogenisation. The melt water content is computed relative to the salinity at the temperature minimum. The required latent heat of melting and the sensible heat stored above the temperature minimum are compared with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis heat input data. The estimated freshwater input is 1-2m, in Nansen Basin usually below 1m and over the Lomonosov Ridge and in the Makarov Basin sometimes above 2m. This is close

  18. Robeson County Indian Education Needs Assessment, FY-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth Dial; And Others

    Robeson County, North Carolina, has the largest Indian population in the state. There are 25,684 Lumbee Indians in the county; Indian students comprise 61 percent of the school population. In compliance with Title IV-A regulations, a 1978-79 needs assessment was conducted to allow the Indian community participation in the development of cultural…

  19. Climate-vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  20. Climate–vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  1. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  2. All Season-DX Cooling and Gas Heating. GCS3 Series - Horizontal and Down-Flo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    The Lennox single package all-season rooftop unit and mounting frame is described in detail. This piece of equipment is designed primarily for rooftop installation with bottom handling of conditioned air. In addition, an installation with end handling of conditioned air makes possible three air distribution patterns. Areas discussed are--(1) unit…

  3. Field evaluation of green and red leaf lettuce cultivars in the Imperial, San Joaquin, and Salinas Valleys of California for heat tolerance and extension of the growing seasons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming poses serious threats and challenges to the production of leafy vegetables. Being a cool-season crop, lettuce is vulnerable to heat-stress. To adapt to climate change, this study was conducted to evaluate the performance of leaf lettuce genotypes for heat tolerance by growing them in ...

  4. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part II, Discussion and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    The heat-flow profile across the Arabian Shield from Ar Riyad to Ad Darb and across the Red Sea is examined for compatibility with the lithospheric structure of the area as deduced from geologic and other geophysical data. Broad continental uplift associated with Red Sea rifting is symmetric about the Red Sea axis, and geologic and geochronologic evidence indicate that uplift has occurred mainly in the interval 25-13 Ma (mega-annum) ago. Thermal-profile changes in the upper mantle resulting from an influx of hot material associated with rifting yield the correct order of magnitude of uplift, and this mechanism is suggested as the explanation for the regional doming. A lithospheric section, constructed from seismic refraction, gravity, and regional geologic data, provides the framework for construction of thermal models. Thermal gradient measurements were made in drill holes at five shot points. Geotherms for the Shield, which assume a radiogenic heat-source distribution that decreases exponentially with depth, yield temperatures of about 450?C at a depth of 40 km (base of the crust) for shot points 2 (Sabhah) and 3. The geotherm for shot point 4 (near Bishah) yields a distinctly higher temperature (about 580?C) for the same depth. Static models used to model the heat flow in the oceanic crust of the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain either yield too small a heat flow to match the observed heat flow or give lithosphere thicknesses that are so thin as to be improbable. Dynamic (solid-state accretion) models, which account for mantle flow at the base of the lithosphere, adequately match the observed heat-flow values. In the deep-water trough of the Red Sea, which is presently undergoing active sea-floor spreading, classical models of heat flow for a moving slab with accretion at the spreading center are adequate to explain the average heat-flow level. At shot point 5 (Ad Darb), the anomalous heat flow of 2 HFU (heat-flow units) can be explained in terms of a Shield

  5. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  6. Limnology of Mt. Elbert Forebay, 1978-1979. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmke, J.R.; LaBounty, J.F.; Sartoris, J.J.; Roline, R.A.

    1982-03-01

    The 1978-79 limnological study of Mt. Elbert Forebay was done in conjunction with other limnological studies at Twin Lakes. The purpose of the overall study is to determine the effects of pumped storage on the aquatic environment of Twin Lakes. Information will help maximize ecological resources while meeting the water storage and power generation objectives of Fryingpan-Arkansas Project.

  7. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  8. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E).

  9. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E). PMID:25518559

  10. Seasonal heat stress: Clinical implications and hormone treatments for the fertility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Rensis, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2015-09-15

    Heat stress has consequences on both the physiology and reproductive performance of cows, but the most dramatic effect for dairy producers is the decrease produced in fertility. The effects of heat stress on fertility include an increased number of days open, reduced conception rate, and larger number of cows suffering different types of anestrus. Once becomes pregnant, heat stress affects also the reproductive success of the cow through its direct effects on the ovary, uterus, gametes, embryo, and early fetus. This article reviews current knowledge of the effects of heat stress on fertility in dairy cows and the hormonal strategies used to mitigate these effects at the farm level. Administration of GnRH at the moment of artificial insemination can improve the conception rate. Breeding synchronization protocols for fixed-time insemination may reduce the calving conception interval and the number of services per conception. Progesterone-based protocols seem resolve better the reproductive disorders related to a hot environment (anestrus) than GnRH-based protocols. The use of combinations of GnRH, eCG, and hCG in progesterone-based protocols can improve results. Progesterone supplementation during the late embryonic and/or early fetal period would be useful in curtailing pregnancy losses, mainly in single pregnancies, whereas a more positive effect of treatment with GnRH than progesterone has been found in twin pregnancies. Melatonin therapy is emerging as a promising strategy to improve the natural reproductive performance of cows suffering conditions of heat stress. PMID:26025242

  11. Chemical composition of aerosol particles and light extinction apportionment before and during the heating season in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Du, Wei; Sun, Chengzhu; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts into characterization of the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution in the megacity of Beijing, the response of aerosol composition and optical properties to coal combustion emissions in the heating season remain poorly understood. Here we conducted a 3 month real-time measurement of submicron aerosol (PM1) composition by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor and particle light extinction by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction monitor in Beijing, China, from 1 October to 31 December 2012. The average (±σ) PM1 concentration was 82.4 (±73.1) µg/m3 during the heating period (HP, 15 November to 31 December), which was nearly 50% higher than that before HP (1 October to 14 November). While nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed relatively small changes, organics, sulfate, and chloride were observed to have significant increases during HP, indicating the dominant impacts of coal combustion sources on these three species. The relative humidity-dependent composition further illustrated an important role of aqueous-phase processing for the sulfate enhancement during HP. We also observed great increases of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA) during HP, which was attributed to higher emissions at lower temperatures and coal combustion emissions, respectively. The relationship between light extinction and chemical composition was investigated using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed that the largest contributors to particle extinction were ammonium nitrate (32%) and ammonium sulfate (28%) before and during HP, respectively. In addition, the contributions of SOA and primary OA to particle light extinction were quantified. The results showed that the OA extinction was mainly caused by SOA before HP and by SOA and CCOA during HP, yet with small contributions from HOA and cooking aerosol for the entire study period. Our results elucidate substantial changes of aerosol

  12. Financing Community Colleges, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Stepp, William F.

    The fourth in a series of analytical studies of the financing of community colleges in the United States, this report provides information for the 38 states which accounted for more than 95% of the total Fall 1978 community college enrollment. Data indicate that allocation of funds to community colleges still follows four traditional patterns and…

  13. Scaffolding Classroom Discourse in an Election Year: Keeping a Cool Mood in a Heated Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; May, Laura A.; Stenhouse, Vera L.; Meyers, Laura E.; Holbrook, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Certainly, teaching about politics can be daunting, especially as the political climate in the United States becomes increasingly partisan as a result of heated political rhetoric amplified through a variety of media outlets. However, elementary teachers can help students develop the respectful dispositions they will need as young adults living in…

  14. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates. PMID:27000955

  15. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  16. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  17. Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

  18. [The hygienic characteristics of the hospital environment in a cardiovascular pathology ward during the heating season].

    PubMed

    Toshkov, S; Chuchkova, M; Chipilska, L; Popivanova, I

    1993-01-01

    A study is carried out on the microclimate, physiological reaction of patients, chemical and bacteriological composition of the air in rooms of different location in the ward for cardiovascular pathology during the heating period of the year, according to some basic and integral indices. The characteristics of the interhospital environment in the rooms of the investigated ward is determined mainly by the irrational regime of heating, location, size of the glazed transparent area. In the hospital rooms are formed unsatisfactory hygienic norm parameters of the microclimate and the chemical composition of the air. The specific thermal environment affects the physiological reactions of the patients and leads to creation of conditions of discomfort and loading of the thermoregulation in direction of overheating.

  19. Research into lightning protection of distribution systems II - results from Florida Field work 1978 and 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Darveniza, M.; Uman, M.A.

    1984-04-01

    Experience in the Tampa Bay area during August 1978 thunderstorms resulted in significant improvements in the field work carried out during 1979. This paper describes the changes to equipment and data sources, and presents overall results for the 1979 thunderstorm season. Where appropriate, these are linked to 1978 data and to data obtained from equipment which operated on a year-long basis.

  20. Warm-season diurnal circulations and heat extremes over the northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew C.

    Summer synoptic circulations over the northwest U.S., and their interactions with regional terrain, land/water contrasts, and surface heating, give rise to a variety of fascinating meteorological phenomena, many of which have yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how projected future warming associated with increased greenhouse gases will modify these important features. The work herein seeks to ameliorate this with a comprehensive examination of two important aspects of northwest U.S. summer weather and climate: diurnal circulations and changes to the conditions associated with extreme temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. To simulate regional diurnal circulations, GFS model output was obtained for July and August 2009-2011. These data were categorized into hour of the day, composited, and the resulting files were used to initialize and provide boundary conditions to a WRF (version 3.5) model run. It was shown that, when compared to observations, this WRF run sufficiently simulates average diurnal variability. Using this simulation, the diurnal circulations of the region were described, including several important wind features within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Snoqualmie Pass, and the Columbia River Gorge. Also, regional nocturnal low-level wind maxima are described, including one over the northern Willamette valley and another over the high plateau of eastern Oregon. Recent work by the authors has elucidated the physical mechanisms that drive heat extremes over the northwest U.S., including the necessity of a ridge aloft, with associated subsidence and advection warming. Also, easterly flow is crucial for keeping the marine air at bay, and producing downslope flow and adiabatic warming on the western slopes of regional north-south terrain barriers. Given the rising temperatures projected under anthropogenic global warming, how are these conditions, and associated low-level temperature distributions, projected to change? As a

  1. STS-79 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-79 mission included (seated front left to right) Jerome (Jay) Apt, mission specialist; Terrence W. Wilcutt, pilot; William F. Readdy, commander; Thomas D. Akers, and Carl E. Walz, both mission specialists. On the back row (left to right) are mission specialists Shannon W. Lucid, and John E. Blaha. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on September 16, 1996 at 4:54:49 am (EDT), the STS-79 mission marked the fourth U.S. Space Shuttle-Russian Space Station Mir docking, the second flight of the SPACEHAB module in support of Shuttle-Mir activities and the first flight of the SPACEHAB Double Module Configuration.

  2. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  3. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  4. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods.

  5. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  6. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  7. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  8. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  9. Corrosion protection of solar-collctor heat exchangers with electrochemically deposited films. Final report, 15 May 1978-15 November 1979. [Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.R.; Schnaper, G.H.; Brummer, S.B.

    1980-05-01

    The goal of this program was the demonstration of a novel corrosion protection technique for the common solar collector metals: Al, Cu, and Fe as mild steel. This involves the electrochemical deposition of thin, adherent polymer films on the interior of heat-exchanger tubes by application of a current in the presence of a suitable organic monomer. Polyphenylene oxide (PPO) films were anodically deposited onto Cu and Fe coupons from methanolic media. However, defects in these films afforded poor corrosion protection. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, suitably functionalized PPO films were cross-linked via Schiff base formation in a subsequent chemical step. While these chemically modified PPO films were demonstrably more resistant to ethylene glycol H/sub 2/O media at elevated temperatures, they were eventually undetermined by the thermal transfer fluid. Cinnamaldehyde, a styrene-type monomre, has been successfully electrodeposited onto Al coupons. This process involved a constant, albeit unreferenced potential technique in which the Al is made the negative electrode. Cathodic deposition onto Al avoids passivating Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ barrier coating formation, and is amenable to the cross-linking technique. Filmed and cross-linked Al samples stored at elevated temperatures resisted corrosive processes compared to unfilmed control samples. Pitting, however, was the ultimate fate of all filmed samples.

  10. STS-79 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The drag chute is jettisoned as the orbiter Atlantis swoops down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT, September 26, bringing to a successful conclusion U.S. astronaut Shannon Lucid's record- setting, 188-day stay in space. Lucid's approximately six-month stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir establishes a new U.S. record for long-duration spaceflight and also is the longest for a woman, surpassing Russian cosmonaut Elena Kondakova's 169-day stay on Mir. Lucid returns to Earth with the flight crew of Mission STS-79: Commander William F. Readdy; Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Thomas D. Akers, Jay Apt and Carl E. Walz. Succeeding her aboard Mir for an approximately four-month stay is fellow veteran astronaut John E. Blaha, who traveled to the station with the STS-79 flight crew. The STS-79 mission is part of the NASA/Mir program which is now into the Phase 1B portion, consisting of nine Shuttle-Mir dockings and seven long-duration flights of U.S. astronauts aboard the Russian space station between early 1996 and late 1998.

  11. World Natural Gas, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

  12. Time trends of viral meningitis among young adults in Israel: 1978-2012.

    PubMed

    Levine, Hagai; Mimouni, Daniel; Zurel-Farber, Anat; Zahavi, Alon; Molina-Hazan, Vered; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Huerta-Hartal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Viral meningitis (VM) is a medical condition of public health concern, as it is a common sporadic and epidemic illness. However, there is limited data on the epidemiology of VM. The purpose of this study was to analyze long-term and seasonal trends of VM in a young adult military population. VM is a obligatory notifiable disease in the Israel Defense Forces. For the present study, the archives of the Army Health Branch were reviewed for all cases of VM from January 1, 1978 to December 31, 2012, and the annual, monthly, and seasonal rates were calculated. The annual incidence over the 35-year period showed a high peak every 3-5 years followed by a quiescent period of 2-3 years, reaching as high as 58.4 per 100,000 in 1980 and as low as 3.0 per 100,000 in 2005. This cyclic pattern has diminished over the last decade, reflected by a decline in mean incidence (10.46 per 100,000 in 2003-2012 compared to 19.79 per 100,000 in 1978-2002). Average monthly rates ranged from 1.0 cases per 100,000 soldiers in January/February to 2.2 per 100,000 in July/August. The difference in average rates between winter (1.2 cases per 100,000) and summer (1.9 cases per 100,000) was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Analysis of the long-term epidemiology of VM shows an epidemic pattern, with predominance in the warmer months. Identifying viral causes of meningitis may spare patients unnecessary treatment while prompting the introduction of public health interventions and control measures, especially in crowded settings.

  13. Heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes at the first Vietnamese eddy covariance site in tropical seasonal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskaya, Olga; Anichkin, Alexandr; Avilov, Vitaly; Duy Dinh, Ba; Luu Do, Phong; Novichonok, Artem; Huan Tran, Cong; Kurbatova, Juliya

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange is one of important issue concerning the understanfing of ecosystem functioning in conditions of global climate change. In this study the first results of eddy covariance observations in semievergreen tropical seasonal forest in Southern Vietnam, Cat Tien national park (N 11°27', E 107°24', 134 m a.s.l.), in 2011-2012 are presented. Three characteristic months (December, March, September) were chosen for comparing of fluxes in different meteorological conditions. According to Keppen-Geiger climate classification Southern Vietnam has tropical monsoon climate with dry-warm...hot winter and rainy-warm summer. December, the month of the first part of dry period, had lowest (24.0°?) average canopy temperature, not so big precipitation rate (49.8 mm) and medium soil moisture content (25 %vol.). March was the hottest month (26.9°?) in the end of dry period with both lowest precipitation (24.1 mm) and soil moisture content (15 %vol.). September was the peak of rainy season (607.6 mm of rain per month) with flooding of vast areas in Cat Tien and highest soil moisture content (38 %vol.). Highest radiation sums were recorded in March (426.0 MJ m-2 mon-1). December and September sums (336.7 and 342.1 MJ m-2 mon-1) were not so high due to increased hade of sunlight in the first case and cloudiness in the second case. Sensible heat flux (H) rate rose sharply in the second half of dry season (from about 35 MJ m-2 mon-1 in December and September to 155.4 MJ m-2 mon-1 in March). Evapotranspiration (LE) dominated considerably in the heat expenditures during all the year (216.7...271.6 MJ m-2 mon-1). Bowen ratio (H/LE) varied from 0.13 in September to 0.71 in March. For the whole period of observation, the tropical forest was a slight carbon sink from the atmosphere (calculation included u*-correction with threshold of 0.4 m s-1, which appreciably heighten NEE value). Highest rate of CO2 absorption was observed in

  14. Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM) 2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5-6 year old children ( n = 334) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into ∑ 8PAH semivolatile (MW 178-206), and ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile (MW 228-278)), Abs, and PM 2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile ( p < 0.001) and Abs ( p < 0.05), and lower levels of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration ( p < 0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends.

  15. Time series decomposition of remotely sensed land surface temperature and investigation of trends and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jinling; Zhan, Wenfeng; Chen, Yunhao; Wang, Mengjie; Wang, Jinfei

    2016-03-01

    Previous time series methods have difficulties in simultaneous characterization of seasonal, gradual, and abrupt changes of remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST). This study proposed a model to decompose LST time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components. The trend component indicates long-term climate change and land development and is described as a piecewise linear function with iterative breakpoint detection. The seasonal component illustrates annual insolation variations and is modeled as a sinusoidal function on the detrended data. This model is able to separate the seasonal variation in LST from the long-term (including gradual and abrupt) change. Model application to nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/LST time series during 2000-2012 over Beijing yielded an overall root-mean-square error of 1.62 K between the combination of the decomposed trend and seasonal components and the actual MODIS/LSTs. LST decreased (~ -0.086 K/yr, p < 0.1) in 53% of the study area, whereas it increased with breakpoints in 2009 (~0.084 K/yr before and ~0.245 K/yr after 2009) between the fifth and sixth ring roads. The decreasing trend was stronger over croplands than over urban lands (p < 0.05), resulting in an increasing trend in surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII, 0.022 ± 0.006 K/yr). This was mainly attributed to the trends in urban-rural differences in rainfall and albedo. The SUHII demonstrated a concave seasonal variation primarily due to the seasonal variations of urban-rural differences in temperature cooling rate (related to canyon structure, vegetation, and soil moisture) and surface heat dissipation (affected by humidity and wind).

  16. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite.

  17. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite. PMID:26314033

  18. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  19. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  20. Aerosol and Trace Gas Sources in Northern China: Changes in Concentrations Before and After the Official "Heating Season" Help Characterize Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Marufu, L. T.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, Z.; Stehr, J. W.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.

    2006-05-01

    In March 2005, as a part of the project EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment), in-situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties were made at Xianghe, a rural surface site about 70 km east-southeast, generally downwind, of Beijing metropolitan area. CO, SO2, NO/NOy, O3, aerosol absorption coefficient, and aerosol scattering coefficients were determined simultaneously using the University of Maryland light aircraft instrument package. Pollutant ratios have been calculated to characterize the emission sources around the site. A dramatic drop in the NOy/CO ratio found around March 13/14 suggesting a sudden shutoff of a large fraction of the high- temperature combustion sources in the region. This observed change in concentrations occurred simultaneously with the transition from "heating season" to "non-heating season" in Northern China. Over the course of just a few days (around March 15), all boilers used to provide heat for cities and towns in this region are shut down in accordance with a governmental guideline. Most of these boilers operate with coal, and by using ratios of NOy/CO, SO2/CO, aerosol scattering/CO, and aerosol absorption/CO during and after the "heating season", emissions from these small to medium sized coal-fired boilers can be characterized. Results indicate that these residential and small-scale industrial heaters are a major source of NOy and SO2. Besides elevating the regional atmospheric pollutant level, the trace gases and aerosols emitted also have potential effects in other aspects such as the biogeochemical cycle of N and the agricultural production in this region.

  1. Mars at Ls 79o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  2. Mars at Ls 79o: Tharsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    4 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  3. STS-79 Flight Day 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, start another busy day on orbit activating experiments in the Spacehab module. Readdy and Wilcutt are seen conducting two rendezvous burns while other crew members are seen working in the Spacehab module. The Active Rack Isolation System, or ARIS, is tended to by Walz, who performs a minor maintenance procedure on one of ARIS' vibration-damping pushrods while Akers works with an inventory management system using a bar code reader to more effectively keep track of items that will be transferred back and forth between the Shuttle and the Mir. Apt continues work with a furnace which heats to nearly 1,600 degrees centigrade to melt metal samples for study after the flight. Apt also provides a television tour of the Spacehab, which is twice its normal size for this flight to allow extra room for science experiments and logistical items slated for transfer to Mir.

  4. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  5. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  6. Bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system in the ice melt season derived from concentration-temperature relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2008-06-01

    The bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system (Kb) in the ice melt season is estimated by a new method at 18 areas that cover much of the Antarctic seasonal ice zone. The method is based on a model in which ice melting is caused only by heat input through open water and is treated in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system. Kb is estimated by fitting a convergent curve derived from the model to an observed ice concentration-temperature plot (CT-plot). Estimated Kb is 1.15 ± 0.72 × 10-4 m s-1 on average. If Kb can be expressed by the product of the heat transfer coefficient (ch) and the friction velocity (uτ), ch is 0.0113 ± 0.0055. This value is about two times larger than that estimated at the ice bottom. The relationship between Kb and the geostrophic wind speed (Uw), which is roughly proportional to uτ, shows a significant positive correlation, as expected. Further, Kb seems more likely to be proportional to the square or cube of Uw rather than a linear relationship. Since Kb estimated from our method is associated with ice melting in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system, this relationship likely indicates both the mixing process of heat in the upper ocean (proportional to uτ3) and the local heat transfer process at the ice-ocean interface (proportional to uτ).

  7. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  8. National Council on Educational Research. Fifth Report: Fiscal Years 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Educational Research (NIE), Washington, DC.

    In five chapters and two appendices, this report discusses the goals and activities for 1978-79 of the National Institute of Education (NIE) and the National Council on Educational Research (NCER), which is the policy-making body for the NIE. In the first chapter, outgoing NCER chairman John E. Corbally reviews problems involved in utilizing NIE…

  9. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  10. Expression profiling of major heat shock protein genes during different seasons in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  11. Interannual Variations and Recurrent Seasonal Discrepancies in Land Surface Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes from Satellite Data and a Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, A.; Liang, P.; Jimenez, C.; Moncet, J. L.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Lynch, R.; d'Entremont, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variability of land surface latent and sensible heat fluxes has been analyzed at seasonal and sub-seasonal time scales for flux estimates derived from satellite data and from a land surface model. The satellite-derived estimates were produced with a neural network operating on a combination of microwave, visible, and infrared satellite data products. Properties of these flux datasets were assessed by subjective and statistical methods, including comparisons with data from flux towers. The agreement with tower fluxes is closer for the satellite-derived fluxes than for the LSM fluxes with respect to overall temporal variability. For interannual variations of sub-seasonal fluxes, the satellite/NN and LSM fluxes have similar, moderate correlations (~0.4) with the tower fluxes. Driving factors contributing to the interannual variability and recurrent discrepancies between these flux estimates were identified. These factors include the sensitivity of satellite-derived fluxes to the satellite inputs and the responses of modeled fluxes to changes in soil moisture induced by prior precipitation.

  12. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  13. Seasonal gonadal development and age-related maturity patterns of introduced pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758) in a heated thermal reservoir and an adjacent river reach.

    PubMed

    Valente, E; Masson, G; Maul, A; Fox, M G; Meyer, A; Pihan, J C

    2016-05-01

    Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0.73, P<0.001). GSI of females in the reservoir increased with the stage at maturity, but GSI was not significantly correlated with total length, age or growth rate of the individual. All sampled individuals of both sexes were mature at age 1 in the heated reservoir, whereas 48% of age 1 males and 57% of age 1 females were not mature in the river. GSI patterns suggest that males in the reservoir adopted one of two reproductive strategies (nesters or cuckolders), whereas no small males with large enough testes to be considered cuckolders were apparent in the river. The warm thermal regime of Mirgenbach Reservoir led to precocial maturity, early season reproduction, and the greater prevalence of apparent cuckolder males than would normally occur in this climatic zone.

  14. 29 CFR 1978.107 - Parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 1978.107 Section 1978.107 Labor Regulations... Procedure Litigation § 1978.107 Parties. (a) In any case in which only the named person objects to the findings or the preliminary order the Assistant Secretary ordinarily shall be the prosecuting party....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  20. The Development of Urban Heat Islands in the Southeast Region of the United States in the Winter Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Jan

    The study of the urban heat island has gained increased importance due to its relation to global warming. The effect of urbanization and land use changes in general on thermometer readings can bias long-term records resulting in a false global warming signal. Therefore, understanding the urban heat island phenomenon is important for an assessment of the global warming magnitude. A modeling approach has been chosen since it can overcome some restrictions of "conventional" methods (in situ and satellite observations), such as limited spatial and temporal resolution and topography effects. Models can provide better resolution and extend our understanding of the underlying physics of urban heat island development. In order to demonstrate this concept, the city of Atlanta was selected for numerical simulation under clear sky conditions on 6-7 and 25-26 February 1988. A mesoscale model developed by Pielke (1974) was employed in the numerical simulation. The first step was determination of the soil thermal inertia and moisture availability using AVHRR satellite-derived skin surface temperatures in a technique developed by Carlson et al. (1981). The thermal inertia exhibited elevated values over the city in both cases. The moisture availability field showed a larger degree of variability. The case of 25-26 February 1988 exhibited lower values of moisture availability in the city as compared to the rural surroundings, which is considered to be a typical situation. However, the case of 6-7 February 1988 showed extremely high moisture availability in the city. A possible explanation can be found in the cumulative rainfall, which shows a positive correlation between 14 -day cumulative rainfall amount and the moisture availability. A technique proposed by Hjelmfelt (1982) was used to simulate the urban effect. The urban heat island itself was investigated in terms of the skin surface and 2-m height temperatures. The horizontal and temporal evolution of these variables was

  1. Characterization of the constitutive pig ovary heat shock chaperone machinery and its response to acute thermal stress or to seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Pennarossa, Georgia; Maffei, Sara; Rahman, Mahbubur M; Berruti, Giovanna; Brevini, Tiziana A L; Gandolfi, Fulvio

    2012-11-01

    Reduced oocyte competence causes the lower fertility reported in domestic sows during the warm months of the year. Somatic cells express heat shock proteins (HSPs) to protect themselves from damage caused by thermal stress. HSPs are classified as molecular chaperones and control the correct folding of newly synthesized or damaged proteins. The present work performed a comprehensive survey of the different components of the heat shock chaperone machinery in the pig ovary, which included the HSP40, HSP70, HSP90, and HSP110 families, as well as heat shock factors (HSF) 1 and 2. Pig ovarian follicles constitutively expressed different members of these families; therefore, we examined their ability to respond to heat stress. In order to take into account the role of the complex follicular architecture, whole pig ovaries were exposed to 41.5°C for 1 h. This exposure significantly disrupted oocyte maturation and determined the upregulation of the HSP70, HSP40, HSPH1, HSPA4, HSPA4L, HSF1, and HFS2 genes, whereas expression levels of HSP90A and HSP90B, as well as those of genes unrelated to heat stress were not altered. Unexpectedly HSP and HSF expression levels changed only in oocytes but not in cumulus cells. Cumulus-oocyte complexes isolated from ovaries collected in summer showed the same pattern as those collected in winter. We conclude that the HSP chaperone machinery is constitutively fully operational in the pig ovary. However, following thermal stimuli or seasonal variations, cumulus cell HS-related gene expression remains unchanged, and only oocytes activate a response, suggesting why this mechanism is insufficient to preserve their competence both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

  3. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  4. Publications of LASL research, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.K.; Salazar, C.A.

    1980-04-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for 1978. Papers published in 1978 are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations are also listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory reports, papers released as non-LASL reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers (whether published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports), papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by LASL authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are also included.

  5. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  6. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  7. Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation1

    PubMed Central

    Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Yoshida, Shizuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

    1999-01-01

    Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation of 20-kD (WAP20) and 27-kD (WAP27) proteins in winter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WAP20 exhibited homology to ER-localized small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs), whereas that of WAP27 did not exhibit homology to any known proteins. Like other smHSPs, WAP20 formed a complex of high molecular mass in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, not only WAP20 but also 21-kD proteins reacted with antibodies against WAP20. Fractionation of the crude microsomes by isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation revealed that both WAP27 and WAP20 were distributed on a density corresponding to the fractions with higher activity of ER marker enzyme, suggesting localization of these proteins in the ER. When ER-enriched fractions were treated with trypsin in the absence of detergent, WAP20 and WAP27 were undigested, suggesting localization of these proteins inside the ER vesicle. The accumulation of a large quantity of smHSPs in the ER in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation indicates that these proteins may play a significant role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry trees. PMID:10364399

  8. Public Utilities Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on public utilities occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the electric power…

  9. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1978-79. Part A, Macro-Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Macro-indicators on the conditions of Ontario universities and supporting data that might be used to generate such indicators were developed, and analyses of both indicators and data were undertaken. Overall objectives were as follows: (1) to measure the real resources available to the Ontario university system as a function of the volume of…

  10. Bilingual/Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Proceedings of Head Start Regional Conferences, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Kenneth A.; Arenas, Soledad

    This summary of the presentation given at four Head Start Regional Bilingual/Multicultural Conferences consists of materials related to the Head Start Strategy for Spanish-speaking Children. Keynote addresses focus on Head Start policy implications, the future of Head Start in the 1980s, and the relation of bilingual/bicultural programs to the…

  11. Evaluation of the Multiple Careers Magnet and Assessment Centers at William B. Carrell, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Wayne; And Others

    The report evaluates Texas' Multiple Careers Magnet Center (MCMC), a part time program to provide special education secondary students with career training. It is explained that students enter one of six career education clusters: furniture repair and upholstery, general construction trades, building and grounds maintenance, laundry and dry…

  12. Sales Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on sales occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile sales workers, buyers, insurance…

  13. Oil diplomacy: the Atlantic nations in the oil crisis of 1978-79

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Six essays examine how the US, Western Europe, and Japan have handled their common energy problems and to what extent their traditional cooperation has been enhanced or diminished by the OPEC actions. They explore the interdependencies of the developed countries, along with the strains that the energy crisis has placed on the search for common solutions. An introduction by Alexander Haig is followed by essays titled: The Permanent Crisis: Change in the World Oil System; The American Response: On-the-Job Training; Western Europe: A Fragmented Response to a Fragmenting Order; The West in Concert: A Very Complex Score; Politics of Dependence: Western Europe and the Arab-Israeli Conflict; Oil on Troubled Waters: The Industrial World and the OPEC; Oil and Money: A Note on the Western Financial Community; and Getting Out of the Crisis: excerpt of interviews. 2 tables. (DCK)

  14. Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providng current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include building custodians, pest controllers, private…

  15. A Study of Public Radio Stations' Educational Services, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This second national survey of public radio stations' involvement in educational services to schools, colleges, and universities was conducted by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for use by individual public radio stations, educational agencies, and other organizations interested and involved in planning public radio's services to…

  16. Physical and Life Scientists. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on physical and life scientists, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include biochemists, life scientists, soil…

  17. Earned Degrees, by Racial/Ethnic Status: 1978-79. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.

    Data on college degrees awarded in the United States in 1979 are examined by racial/ethnic status of the recipients. Approximately 920,000 bachelor's degrees and over 400,000 postbaccalaureate degrees were awarded nationally. In 1979, 87.3 percent of bachelor's degrees went to white graduates, with the next largest portion (6.6 percent) going to…

  18. Factory Production Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on factory production occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include assemblers, blue collar worker…

  19. Social Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on social service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dietitians, home economist, homemaker-home…

  20. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  1. Tomorrow's Jobs. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Presenting employment projections for the total labor market through 1985, this document accompanies a series of forty-one reprints (CE 017 757-797) from the Occupational Outlook Handbook which provide current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The employment projections and related…

  2. Libraries of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, Annual Survey, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euster, Joanne R.

    This collection of statistics provided by the directors of 26 Jesuit college and university libraries in answer to a survey contains numerical information on (1) library collections, including number of volumes and titles held, periodical subscriptions, government documents, microforms, and audiovisual materials; (2) library expenditures,…

  3. Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

  4. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  5. Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

  6. Children's Interpretive Programs. National Park Service. National Capital Region. 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeple, Berne, Ed.

    Children's park programs in and near the District of Columbia are listed in this directory which is designed for people who plan field trips for children and people interested in developing similar programs. The directory describes more than 80 programs conducted in 30 parks and gives age ranges, schedules, and phone numbers for obtaining further…

  7. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  8. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  9. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  10. Simulation of Water and Energy Fluxes in an Old Growth Seasonal Temperate Rainforest Using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, T. E.; Unsworth, M. H.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW), concern about the impacts of climate and land cover change on water resources and flood-generating processes emphasize the need for a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between forest canopies and hydrological processes. A detailed measurement and modeling program in the 1999 and 2000 hydrologic years characterized hydrological processes in a 500-600 year old Douglas fir-western hemlock seasonal temperate rainforest. The measurement program included sub-canopy arrays of radiometers, tipping bucket rain gauges, and soil temperature and moisture probes, to supplement a vertical temperature and humidity profile within the forest canopy. The measurements were used to modify the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model for application in forested systems. Changes to the model include improved representation of interception dynamics, stomatal conductance, and within- canopy energy transfer processes. The model was calibrated for the 1999 hydrologic year, and validated for the 2000 season. The model effectively simulated canopy air and vapor density profiles, snowcover processes, throughfall, soil water content profiles, shallow soil temperatures, and transpiration fluxes for both years. The largest discrepancies between soil moisture and temperature were observed during periods of discontinuous snowcover. Soil warming at bare locations was delayed until most of the snowcover ablated due to the large heat sink associated with the residual snow patches. During the summer, simulated evapotranspiration decreased from a maximum monthly mean of 2.17 mm day-1 in July to 1.34 mm day-1 in September, as a result of decreasing soil moisture and declining net radiation. Our results indicate that a relatively simple parameterization of the SHAW model for the vegetation canopy can accurately simulate seasonal hydrological fluxes in this environment. The model could be used to assess the potential effects of climate or landcover changes on

  11. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cervical Spine Injury during Heating Season in the Patients with Cervical Trauma: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong; Gu, Tixin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Di; Sun, Yapeng; Ma, Lei; Song, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of cervical spine injury in the patients with cervical trauma and analyze its associated risk factors during the special heating season in North China. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated predictors for cervical spine injury in cervical trauma patients using retrospectively collected data of Hebei Provincial Orthopaedic Hospital from 11/2011 to 02/2012, and 11/2012 to 02/2013. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for cervical fractures/dislocations or cord injury. Results A total of 106 patients were admitted into this study. Of all, 34 patients (32.1%) were treated from 11/2011 to 02/2012 and 72 patients (67.9%) from 11/2012 to 02/2013. The mean age was 41.9±13.3 years old; 85 patients (80.2%) were male and 82 (77.4%) from rural areas. Eighty patients (75.5%) were caused by fall including 45 (42.5%) by severe fall (>2 m). Sixty-five patients (61.3%) of all suffered injuries to other body regions and 32 (30.2%) got head injury. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) sustained cervical cord injury with cervical fractures/dislocations. Twenty-six (83.9%) of cervical cord injury patients were from rural areas and 24 (77.4%) of those resulted from fall including 15 (48.4%) from severe fall (>2 m). Logistic regression displayed that age (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.07), head injury (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.23–14.26), were risk factors for cervical cord injury and snowing (OR, 8.25; 95% CI, 2.26–30.15) was a risk factor for cervical spine injury due to severe fall (>2 m). Conclusions The elder male patients and patients with head trauma are high-risk population for cervical cord injury. As a seasonal factor, snowing during heating season is of note a risk factor for cervical spine injury resulting from severe fall (>2 m) in the patients with cervical trauma in North China. PMID:24223795

  12. Trends in surface ozone over Europe, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Pak Sum; Kelly, P. Michael; Davies, Trevor D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that surface ozone concentrations in rural areas of Europe have been increasing at a rate of 1 to 3 percent per year over the past two to three decades, presumably due to human influences (Feister and Warmbt, 1987; Bojkov, 1988; Penkett, 1989). Recently, we have analyzed surface ozone data from 20 European stations of differing character (remote, rural, suburban and urban) for a common period of 1978-1988 (Low et al., 1992). It was found that there were pronounced annual and seasonal variations in the linear trends in different areas, and there was no dominant region-wide trend. In spring and, most notably, summer, stations on the maritime fringe of the network generally exhibited negative trends whilst those located further into the continental interior exhibited positive trends. In winter, most of the stations in the network exhibited positive trends. Relatively few of these trends were statistically significant. This paper updates our earlier analysis by extending the data sets of the network up to the year 1990. The spatial variations in surface ozone trends over the extended period 1978-1990 are examined and discussed in comparison to the 1978-1988 patterns. The update confirms the overall conclusions of the earlier analysis, specifically that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results of trend analyses based on station data representative of a limited period of time and/or geographical area.

  13. Building heat conservation and the feasibility of solar hot water heating in Long Island shellfish hatcheries

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature regulation is a vital component of any aquaculture system. Existing facilities can be retrofitted with extra insulation, waste heat recovery systems and in some cases, active solar water heating. Those aquaculture ventures that seek to raise organisms to market size under controlled conditions are currently hindered by high operating costs, including fuel. These outfits can also benefit from conservation and alternative energy technologies. In addition, the industry may be more willing to cultivate species normally restricted by climatic conditions if a less expensive source of heating were available. This report focuses on three of the bivalve shellfish aquaculture enterprises of Long Island, New York. In the 1978 to 1979 growing season, Long Island shellfish growers collectively burned over 50,000 gallons of heating oil to warm their hatchery waters and buildings. Since then, heating oil prices have doubled. Currently, some growers are limited by these fuel costs from beginning production earlier in the season. In this report, several heat conservation measures are discussed, and the feasibility of active solar hot water is examined.

  14. Characteristics of the seasonal variation of the surface total heating over the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding area in summer 1998 and its relationship with the convection over the subtropical area of the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Longxun

    2003-05-01

    Using the dataset of 1998 TIPEX, the data of 6 automatic heat balance observational stations (AWS) from May to August 1998, a dataset of 52 surface observational stations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its adjacent region, the daily rainfall amounts from about 300 stations in China, the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data received by the National Satellite Meteorological Center(NSMC) of China, and TBB data from GMS remote sensing of Japan, the characteristics of the seasonal variation of the surface total heating over TP and its surrounding area in summer 1998 and its relationship with the convection over the subtropical area of the western Pacific is studied in this paper. The results show that the surface total heating over TP had a close relationship with the onset of the rainy season, and after the onset of the rainy season, the regional mean surface total heating over TP decreased distinctly. Furthermore, the regional mean surface total heating over TP had very good negative correlation with TBB over the subtropical area of the western Pacific along 20 30°N, which shows that the surface total heating over TP was able to affect the convection over the subtropical area of the western Pacific.

  15. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  16. STS-79 Flight Day 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis glided into the Kennedy Space Center to mark the ending of the fourth docking flight with Mir and the end of Shannon Lucid's record setting 188 day stay on board the Russian space station.

  17. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)

  18. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  19. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  20. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  2. 9 CFR 3.79 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing... sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect nonhuman primates from temperature extremes and to... not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are...

  3. 9 CFR 3.79 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mobile or traveling housing facilities... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must...

  4. 29 CFR 1978.113 - Judicial enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial enforcement. 1978.113 Section 1978.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... agreement, the Secretary may file a civil action seeking enforcement of the order in the United...

  5. 45 CFR 79.47 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations. 79.47 Section 79.47 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.47... defendant fails to file a timely answer, service of a notice under § 79.10(b) shall be deemed a notice...

  6. Substance Use Among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Central Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Beth

    A study of alcohol and drug use among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Orange and Lake counties (Central Florida) was conducted in 1978 to determine substance abuse among migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the subgroups with substance abuse problems, the farmworkers' knowledge of and attitudes toward alcohol and drug treatment programs, and the…

  7. Case study of a tropical-extratropical interaction and associated heat low development during the AMMA SOP 2006 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; Pohle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical Extra-tropical Interactions (TEIs) are often observed in association with an upper-level subtropical trough that penetrates into the tropics and, therefore, interacts with the tropical circulation. As a visible sign, a mid- to upper-level cloud band at the eastern flank of the trough and its related Subtropical Jet, named Tropical Plume (TP), is identifiable in infrared satellite imagery. McGuirk et al. (1987) gave a definition of Tropical Plumes and described the cloud bands as a northern hemisphere winter time phenomena. Previous studies identified TPs throughout the year with being rare in the June-mid- September period. Results of convection dynamics influenced/caused by TEIs during a pre-monsoon season event between 19 and 30 May 2006 will be presented. This case is characterized by two different investigation regions affected by TEI: During the first half of the event high precipitation amounts south-east of the cloud band over Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, and Ivory Coast are observed caused by thermal forcing and dynamical maintenance by trough related good upper-level outflow conditions due to ageostrophic acceleration towards the trough and low inertial stability, or even inertial instability. This presentation is focused on the second half of this TEI event, which is characterized by the development of a pronounced heat low (HL) south-east of the upper-level trough over tropical West Africa, followed by convection south-east of the low pressure centre. A modified form of the pressure tendency equation (PTE) used by Knippertz and Fink (2008) is a diagnostic tool to investigate, which processes cause pressure drop near the Mali-Burkina Faso border by using both, the operational ECMWF Analysis and the AMMA EU re-analysis. The latter contains additionally the diabatic heating tendencies. Therefore, all terms of the PTE were calculated and will be discussed.

  8. STS-79 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, share a brief video tour of the Mir Space Station with flight controllers, taking a break from the transfer activities that has occupied the astronauts' time during three days of docked operations. Readdy and Apt floated through several of Mir's modules and back into Atlantis' double Spacehab module during the tour pointing out the numerous transfer items stowed on both spacecraft. Readdy, Wilcutt, Lucid and Blaha are seen discussing their mission in an interview with CNN's John Holliman.

  9. STS-79 Flight Day 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz spent the day stowing equipment and deactivating experiments in preparation for the planned landing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. All systems aboard the orbiter were checked out overnight in preparation for landing day, including testing the flight control surfaces and thruster jets that will be used to maneuver the spacecraft through the atmosphere.

  10. STS-79 Flight Day 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, and Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, can be seen preforming pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  11. STS-79 Mission Highlight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-79, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. STS-79 is the second Shuttle-Mir mission to carry a SPACEHAB module on board, and the first to carry a double module. The forward portion of the double module will house experiments conducted by the crew before, during and after Atlantis is docked to the Russian space station. The aft portion of the double module primarily houses the logistics equipment to be transferred to the Russian space station. Logistics include food, clothing, experiment supplies, and spare equipment for Mir.

  12. STS-79 Flight Day 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fourth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen docking with the Mir Space Station. After two hours of pressure and leak checks, the hatches between the two spacecraft is then opened. The two crews are seen greeting one another to begin five days of joint operations. The rendezvous and docking went flawlessly as Readdy flew the orbiter manually through the final 2,000 feet. Docking occurred within seconds of the pre-planned time and flight controllers reported that only slight oscillations were felt through the Orbiter Docking System as the two spacecraft locked together. Within hours of the hatch opening, crew members John Blaha and Shannon Lucid formally swapped places before going to bed with Blaha becoming a member of the Mir-22 crew and Lucid joining the STS-79 crew to wrap up 179 days as a member of the Mir station. Blaha joins Mir 22 Commander Valery Korzun and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri on Mir for the next four months. Soon after the crew members completed their welcoming ceremony, they went to work, hauling bags of water and other supplies from the Shuttle's Spacehab module into the Mir. More than 4000 pounds of equipment and logistical supplies will be transferred to the Mir before Atlantis undocks from the space station.

  13. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    water and heat balance components as well as land surface temperature and moisture area-distributed over the territory of interest have been resulted from the model calculations for the years 2009-2013 vegetation seasons. These calculations have been carried out utilizing satellite-derived estimates of the vegetation characteristics, LST and precipitation. E and W calculation errors have not exceeded the standard values.

  14. STS-79 Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, in the first full day of joint Shuttle/Mir operations begin in with the transfer of a biotechnology investigation and logistical supplies from Atlantis to Mir. The Biotechnology System, an investigation that will study the long-term development of cartilage cells in microgravity, was transported to Mir early this morning. During his planned four-month stay on Mir, John Blaha will take weekly samples of the culture which may provide researchers with information on engineering cartilage cells for possible use in transplantation. They also took time out of their schedules to talk with Good Morning America's Elizabeth Vargas in a brief interview. Prior to beginning the day's transfer activities, all nine astronauts and cosmonauts participated in a joint planning session to outline the day's schedule.

  15. STS-79 Flight Day 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen bidding the crew of Mir farewell and then closing the hatches between their two spacecraft in preparation for undocking. The nine astronauts and cosmonauts gathered in the Core Module of the Russian space station for a formal goodbye. With the official ceremony complete, the crewmembers shared a final meal together and exchanged private farewells as Shannon Lucid prepared to return home in Atlantis and her replacement on Mir, John Blaha, began a four month stay on the station. Walz and Apt and Mir 22 Commander Valery Korzun with assistance from Flight Engineer 2 John Blaha, swung the hatches between their spacecraft closed concluding five days of joint operations. The vestibule between Atlantis and Mir was depressurized and leak checks were performed in readiness for undocking.

  16. STS-79 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-79 mission, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, and Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include: pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. Following an on-time launch, the crew of Endeavor are shown setting up a variety of experiments that will operate for much of the mission.

  17. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  18. 29 CFR 1978.108 - Captions, titles of cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Captions, titles of cases. 1978.108 Section 1978.108 Labor...) Rules of Procedure Litigation § 1978.108 Captions, titles of cases. (a) Cases described in § 1978.107(a...), Complainant v. (Name of named person), Respondent. (d) The titles listed in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)...

  19. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978–1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton.

  20. Time and space variability of freshwater content, heat content and seasonal ice melt in the Arctic Ocean from 1991 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, M.; Rudels, B.; Marnela, M.; Wisotzki, A.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean have recently been reported. The upper ocean has been freshening and pulses of warm Atlantic Water have been observed to spread into the Arctic Ocean. Although these changes have been intensively studied, salinity and temperature variations have less frequently been considered together. Here hydrographic observations, obtained by icebreaker expeditions conducted between 1991 and 2011, are analyzed and discussed. Five different water masses in the upper 1000 m of the water column are examined in five sub-basins of the Arctic Ocean. This allows for studying the variations of the distributions of the freshwater and heat contents in the Arctic Ocean not only in time but also laterally and vertically. In addition, the seasonal ice melt contribution is separated from the permanent, winter, freshwater content of the Polar Mixed Layer. Because the positions of the icebreaker stations vary between the years, the icebreaker observations are at each specific point in space and time compared with the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology to separate the effects of space and time variability on the observations. The hydrographic melt water estimate is discussed and compared with the potential ice melt induced by atmospheric heat input estimated from the ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. After a period of increased salinity in the upper ocean during the 1990s, both the Polar Mixed Layer and the upper halocline have been freshening. The increase in freshwater content in the Polar Mixed Layer is primarily driven by a decrease in salinity, not by changes in Polar Mixed Layer depth, whereas the freshwater is accumulating in the upper halocline mainly through the increasing thickness of the halocline. This is especially evident in the Northern Canada Basin, where the most substantial freshening is observed. The warming, and to some extent also the increase in salinity, of the Atlantic Water during the early 1990s extended

  1. Coming Home—1978 Annual Meeting in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ira R.

    1978-01-01

    Chicago is the setting for the 1978 MLA Annual Meeting. The city offers MLA members a varied selection of activities. Recommendations are made for viewing highlights of the “Windy City.” Images PMID:16017729

  2. Study of the reversible water vapour sorption process of MgSO4.7H2O and MgCl2.6H2O under the conditions of seasonal solar heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferchaud, C. J.; Zondag, H. A.; Veldhuis, J. B. J.; de Boer, R.

    2012-11-01

    The characterization of the structural, compositional and thermodynamic properties of MgSO4.7H2O and MgCl2.6H2O has been done using in-situ X-ray Diffraction and thermal analyses (TG/DSC) under practical conditions for seasonal heat storage (Tmax=150°C, p(H2O)=13 mbar). This study showed that these two materials release heat after a dehydration/hydration cycle with energy densities of 0.38 GJ/m3 for MgSO4.7H2O and 0.71 GJ/m3 MgCl2.6H2O. The low heat release found for MgSO4.7H2O is mainly attributed to the amorphization of the material during the dehydration performed at 13 mbar which reduces its sorption capacity during the rehydration. MgCl2.6H2O presents a high energy density which makes this material interesting for seasonal heat storage in domestic applications. This material would be able to fulfil the winter heat demand of a passive house estimated at 6 GJ with a packed bed reactor of 8.5 m3. However, a seasonal heat storage system built with this material should be carefully set with a restricted temperature at 40°C for the hydration reaction to avoid the liquefaction of the material at lower temperature which limits its performances for long term storage.

  3. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79... Regulating Handling Reports, Books, and Other Records § 984.79 Confidential information. All reports and records submitted by handlers to the Board, which include data or information constituting a trade...

  4. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  5. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  6. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  7. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  8. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  9. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  10. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight training. 141.79 Section 141.79... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.79 Flight training. (a) No person other... ratings and the minimum qualifications specified in the approved training course outline may give...

  11. 40 CFR 282.79 - New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If New Hampshire... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Hampshire. 282.79 Section 282.79... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.79 New Hampshire. (a) The State of...

  12. 40 CFR 282.79 - New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If New Hampshire... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Hampshire. 282.79 Section 282.79... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.79 New Hampshire. (a) The State of...

  13. 49 CFR 79.7 - Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Award. 79.7 Section 79.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.7 Award. If the Secretary of Transportation decides that it is warranted, the Secretary shall award the Medal on behalf of and in the name of...

  14. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a)...

  15. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  16. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  17. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  18. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  19. 14 CFR 13.79 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 13.79 Section 13.79 Aeronautics....79 Hearing. If an alleged violator requests a hearing in accordance with § 13.75, the procedure of Subpart D of this part applies. At the close of the hearing, the Hearing Officer, on the record...

  20. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  1. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  2. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  3. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  4. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  5. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  6. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  7. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  8. 46 CFR 201.79 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motions. 201.79 Section 201.79 Shipping MARITIME... Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) § 201.79 Motions. All motions and requests for... after the hearing, such motions shall be in writing. If made at the hearing, they may be stated...

  9. 45 CFR 79.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motions. 79.28 Section 79.28 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state...

  10. 32 CFR 79.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 79.2 Section 79.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS (CDPs) § 79.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of the Secretary of...

  11. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 79.41 Section 79.41 Judicial... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including hypertrophy of the right ventricle, due to pulmonary hypertension secondary to fibrosis of the lung....

  12. 40 CFR 79.50 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 79.50 Section 79.50... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.50 Definitions. The definitions listed in this section apply only to subpart F of this part. Additive/base fuel mixture means...

  13. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  14. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  15. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  16. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  17. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  18. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  19. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  20. 40 CFR 79.30 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 79.30 Section 79.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.30 Scope. Fuels and...

  1. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  2. 45 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 79.2 Section 79.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.2 Definitions. ALJ means an Administrative Law Judge in the authority appointed pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 3105...

  3. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  4. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  5. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  6. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  7. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  8. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  9. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  10. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  11. 45 CFR 79.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanctions. 79.29 Section 79.29 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.29 Sanctions...), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure...

  12. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  13. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  14. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the...

  15. 9 CFR 79.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 79.1 Section 79.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.1...

  16. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.79 Section 65.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for...

  17. 36 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 79.1 Section 79.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CURATION OF FEDERALLY-OWNED AND ADMINISTERED ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS § 79.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this part establish definitions, standards,...

  18. 36 CFR 79.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority. 79.2 Section 79.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CURATION OF FEDERALLY-OWNED AND ADMINISTERED ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS § 79.2 Authority. (a) The regulations in this part are promulgated pursuant to section...

  19. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79... being sealed be opened only by order of the ALJ; (8) That a trade secret or other confidential...

  20. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  1. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  2. STS-79 Flight Day 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, continue activities aboard Atlantis/Mir as the nine astronauts and cosmonauts work in their second full day of docked operations. The continuing transfer of logistical supplies and scientific hardware can be seen proceeding smoothly. Apt and Walz once again worked with the Active Rack Isolation System experiment to replace a broken pushrod. With that complete, Apt monitors the ARIS experiment as Readdy and Korzun fire small maneuvering jets on their spacecraft to test the ability of ARIS to damp out any disturbances created by the firings. Walz also is continuing his work with the Mechanics of Granular Materials experiment in Atlantis' double Spacehab module. The astronauts used the large format IMAX camera to conduct a photographic survey of Mir from the Shuttle's flight deck windows while Akers shot IMAX movie scenes of Readdy, Wilcutt, and Korzun in the Spektr module.

  3. STS-79 Flight Day 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz having completed five days of joint operations between the American astronauts and the Russian cosmonauts are seen flying solo once again after undocking from the Mir Space Station. As Atlantis/Mir flew over the Ural Mountains of central Asia, the docking hooks and latches that joined the vehicles together were commanded open and Atlantis drifted slowly away from Mir. Wilcutt then initiated a tail-forward fly-around of the Russian space station. After one and one-half revolutions around Mir, Atlantis' jets were fired in a separation maneuver to enable Atlantis to break away from Mir. On board Atlantis, the six-member crew is settling back into its normal routine with a fairly light schedule for the remainder of the day. Early in the morning as Atlantis flew over the United States, the crew took time to talk with anchors for the CBS Up to the Minute' network news broadcast.

  4. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  6. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  7. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  8. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  9. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  10. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community... quality, child care, health care, education, crime prevention and control, prisoner...

  11. An HII associated with Supernova 1978K?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, M. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    1996-12-01

    A reanalysis of the radio data of SN1978K from Ryder et al (1993) implies both the presence of the standard time-dependent absorption due to an ionized wind (Chevalier 1982; Weiler et al. 1989), and the need for a time-independent free-free absorption along the line of sight. We interpret this time-independent absorption as an indication of the presence of an HII region near SN1978K. Derived properties of the HII region, and charateristics of the radio emission of SN1978K are presented. We emphasize that low frequency observations of radio supernovae at late times may aid in the detection of HII regions along the line of sight.

  12. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. A Validation Study of the Prediction Equation Used in Determining Freshman Admissions to the University of Washington During the 1978-1979 Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    The predictive validity of the equation used for determining entrance into the University of Washington's freshman class during the 1978-79 academic year is examined. The sample was comprised of all freshmen entering the university directly from high school in autumn quarter 1974 who had been tested through the Washington Pre-College Test Battery…

  14. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  15. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  16. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that can be achieved while maintaining a particle size distribution with a mass median aerodynamic... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... naturally occurring diseases or conditions, shall also be recorded; (ii) Counts and incidence of lesions,...

  17. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that can be achieved while maintaining a particle size distribution with a mass median aerodynamic... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... naturally occurring diseases or conditions, shall also be recorded; (ii) Counts and incidence of lesions,...

  18. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that can be achieved while maintaining a particle size distribution with a mass median aerodynamic... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... naturally occurring diseases or conditions, shall also be recorded; (ii) Counts and incidence of lesions,...

  19. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  20. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  1. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State POC for FMA planning, project and management cost subgrants, and for SRL project and management... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3 Section 79.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 44 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 79.2 Section 79.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Definitions. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, the definitions set forth in section 59.1 of...

  5. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT... the ethical standards of the profession; or (ii) The covered attorney concerned is...

  6. 48 CFR 552.236-79 - Samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samples. 552.236-79 Section 552.236-79 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND... writing by the Contracting Officer. (b) Each sample shall have a label indicating: (1) Name of...

  7. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  8. 44 CFR 11.79 - Attorney's fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attorney's fees. 11.79... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.79 Attorney's fees. No more than 10 per... shall be paid or delivered to or received by any agent or attorney on account of services rendered...

  9. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation. In addition to information meeting the requirements stated under 40 CFR 79.60 and 79.61, the... information on this test guideline, the following references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.6400..., as evidence of the ability of their histology procedures to detect neurotoxic endpoints....

  10. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  11. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  12. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  13. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  14. 45 CFR 79.42 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Judicial review. 79.42 Section 79.42 Public....42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an... assessments under this part and specifies the procedures for such review....

  15. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  16. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  17. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  18. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  19. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  20. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  1. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  2. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  3. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and...

  5. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and...

  6. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and...

  7. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and...

  8. 40 CFR 144.79 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 144.79 Section 144.79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program established under the Safe Drinking Water Act....

  9. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  10. Grade Distribution. Community Colleges, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    Data on the grade point ratios (GPR's) and the distribution of grades earned were gathered and analyzed for all students enrolled in credit courses at the seven Hawaii community colleges during Fall 1978. These data indicate that the average assigned grade was 2.7, and that the credits-earned rate was 71%. As in previous semesters, the…

  11. United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Review, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsfield, Mairuth, Ed.; Emes, John, Ed.

    The 1978 Annual State of the Environment Report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) focused on four selected environmental problems of international significance: (1) chemicals and the environment; (2) malaria; (3) the use of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to increase the base for food production; and (4) the conservation…

  12. 29 CFR 1978.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged in a business affecting commerce between States or between a State and a place outside thereof who... operate such a vehicle. (e) Commercial motor vehicle means a vehicle as defined by 49 U.S.C. 31101(1). (f...) Complaint, for purposes of § 1978.102(b)(1) and (e)(1), includes both written and oral complaints...

  13. A Bibliography on Euthanasia, 1958-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilker, Christine; And Others

    This collection of materials represents a 20-year span (1958-1978) of references on euthanasia found through select indexes and abstracting services. The contents are organized into two general reference sections, periodicals and books, with citations listed alphabetically by author. The last two sections focus on the locations of these materials…

  14. Australian Society of Educational Technology Yearbook, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Society of Educational Technology, Adelaide.

    This report of the 1978 activities of the Australian Society of Educational Technology includes reports, articles, a state of the art review, and a technical report. Section I lists the memberships of the national executive and state chapter council, and presents a national report and reports from four state chapters. Three articles are presented…

  15. Kansas Rural Villages Project, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Edward P.; Shelley, Scott

    Aurora, a village of 147 residents in north central Kansas, was the focus of a 1978 investigation of the community development potential for Kansas rural villages. Students and staff from the University of Kansas School of Social Welfare worked with community residents to identify three programs the village wanted (a recreation program, a…

  16. Persistence Rates in Day Classes: Fall, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    In order to investigate patterns of persistence in courses taken by day students at Los Angeles City College, class enrollment data were gathered at the end of the third week of the Fall 1978 semester, at the first and second census weeks, and on the last day of the semester. Additionally, the number of students receiving final grades other than W…

  17. Data Bases On-Line in 1978

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted; Williams, Martha

    1978-01-01

    The subject and scope, years covered, update frequency, record count, and connect and print charges are provided for the 108 data bases available online as of June 1978 through Lockheed Information Systems, System Development Corporation, Bibliographic Retrieval Services, National Library of Medicine, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, and the New…

  18. Trend analysis of weekly acid rain data, 1978-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Hirsch, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    There are 19 stations in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program which operated over the period 1978-83 and were subsequently incorporated into the National Trends Network in 1983. The precipitation chemistry data for these stations for this period were analyzed for trend, spatial correlation, seasonality, and relationship to precipitation volume. The intent of the analysis was to provide insights on the sources of variation in precipitation chemistry and to attempt to ascertain what statistical procedures may be most useful for ongoing analysis of the National Trends Network data. The Seasonal Kendall test was used for detection of trends in raw concentrations of dissolved constituents, pH and specific conductance, and residuals of these parameters from regression analysis. Forty-one percent of the trends detected in the raw concentrations were downtrends, 4 percent were uptrends, and 55 percent showed no trends at a = 0.2. At a more restrictive significance level of a = 0.05, 24 percent of the trends detected were downtrends, 2 percent were uptrends, and 74 percent showed no trends. The two constituents of greatest interest in terms of human generated emissions and environmental effects, sulfate and nitrate, showed only downtrends, and sulfate showed the largest decreases in concentration per year of all the ions tested.

  19. 29 CFR 1978.102 - Filing of discrimination complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of discrimination complaint. 1978.102 Section 1978.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... of his or her rights under 29 CFR 1978.103 (b) and (c)....

  20. 29 CFR 1978.112 - Arbitration or other proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration or other proceedings. 1978.112 Section 1978.112... ACT OF 1982 (STAA) Rules of Procedure Miscellaneous Provisions § 1978.112 Arbitration or other... remedies under grievance arbitration proceedings in collective bargaining agreements. In addition,...

  1. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balraj

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 79 (Ni,Cu,Zn,Ga,Ge,As,Se,Br,Kr,Rb, Sr,Y,Zr) has been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies, Jπ, and decay modes of levels in these nuclei. No data are yet available for excited states in 79Ni, 79Cu and 79Zr. The half-life of 79Se, a nuclide of importance in reactor-irradiated fuel composition has been measured by several independent groups and reported in a number of publications after 1995, and seems to be converging to a narrow margin of experimental values. These measurements were likely prompted by a recommendation made in the 1993 update of A = 79 nuclides (1993Si28), that since a 1949PaZZ report, there had been no measurement until 1993, and that based on simulation studies by 1993HeZW, the value listed in 1949PaZZ, and cited in all data tables and charts for 44 years, was quite likely in error, being too low by a factor of 10. According to conclusions in recent papers such as 2014Do20, there is still room for improvement in the measurement of this half-life, and further experiments are expected. This evaluation supersedes earlier Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 79 (2002Si13,1993Si28, 1982Si21,1975Ur03).

  2. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  3. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  4. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  5. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  6. MAP3S precipitation chemistry network. Third periodic summary report, July 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network consists of eight collection sites in the northeastern United States. Precipitation event samples are collected by cooperating site operators, using specially developed sampling equipment. In this, the third periodic summary report, are listed field and concentration data for the period July 1, 1978 to December 31, 1979. Over three years' samples have been collected at most of the sites, which went into operation between September 1976 and October 1978. Samples are chemically analyzed at a central laboratory for 13 pollutant species. Weekly samples in addition to event samples were collected over a 1 1/2 year period at three sites. Analysis of one year's results indicates that there is little difference between the concentrations collected by the two methods in terms of seasonal precipitation-weighted means for all species except dissolved SO/sub 2/. Event samples tend to average about 25% higher in SO/sub 2/ than weekly samples.

  7. Epidemiological features of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden, 1978-93.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, G X; Cheng, Q; Link, H; de Pedro-Cuesta, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden during the period 1978-93 and its temporal and geographical variations. METHODS: Stratified and Poisson regression analyses and tests for detection of small epidemics were applied to population based hospital discharge data from 2257 incident cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden during the study period. RESULTS: The incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome was (1) 1.77 per 100000 person-years when age adjusted to the European population; (2) higher in males; and (3) stable across time, although occasional increases of annual incidence rates were found-namely, in 1978 (relative risk (RR) 1.30 (95% CI 1.10-1.54)), and in 1983 (RR 1.24 (95% CI 1.06-1.40)). The incidence increased with age and was bimodal, with peaks at 20-24 and 70-74 years. There was a moderate but significant seasonality with a peak in August, particularly among the young age groups. The age adjusted incidence by county varied from 1.11 to 2.57 per 100000 person-years. Neither temporal nor spatial clustering was significant, except during the period July-September in 1983 at ages below 40 years. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden during the period 1978-93 had a magnitude similar to those described in other surveys, a bimodal distribution by age, and modest geographical and temporal variations with significantly high rates in 1978 and 1983 and in autumn. Minor outbreaks might have passed unnoticed up to the present. Whereas reported drug induced cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome may in part explain the high incidence in 1983, the cause of the aberrant incidence in 1978 remains unknown. Epidemiological surveillance of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Sweden might have been useful. Images PMID:9153599

  8. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  9. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  10. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  11. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  12. In-beam spectroscopy of 79Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leddy, M. J.; Durell, J. L.; Freeman, S. J.; Varley, B. J.; Bark, R. A.; O'leary, C. D.; Törmänen, S.

    1998-09-01

    The gamma-decay of excited states in the Tz=12 nucleus 79Y has been observed in the 54Fe(28Si,1p2n)79Y reaction using the PEX array at the NBI Tandem Accelerator Laboratory. Four seven-element encapsulated cluster germanium detectors were operated in coincidence with a charged-particle ball and neutron wall. The transitions assigned to 79Y are proposed to form a K=5/2+ band analogous to that in 77Sr, and the J(1) moments of inertia are found to be extremely similar. Comparison is drawn between the rotational character of 79Y and neighboring Rb and Sr isotopes, in which identical bands have been observed.

  13. STS-79 Flight deck camera during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A camera inside the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis previews crew seating assignments come launch day. Seated in front are STS-79 Commander William F. Readdy (left) and Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt. Seated elsewhere are Mission Specialists Carl E. Walz, Tom Akers, John E. Blaha and Jay Apt. This photo was taken during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff on STS-79 no earlier than Sept. 12.

  14. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale.

  15. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  16. Effect of seasonal variation on some physical properties and heat stability of milk subjected to ultra-high temperature and in-container sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biye; Grandison, Alistair S; Lewis, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Heat stability was evaluated in bulk raw milk, collected throughout the year and subjected to ultra-high temperature (UHT) or in-container sterilisation, with and without added calcium chloride (2mM), disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP, 10mM) and trisodium citrate (TSC, 10mM). More sediment was observed following in-container sterilisation (0.24%) compared with UHT (0.19%). Adding CaCl2 made the milk more unstable to UHT than to in-container sterilisation, while adding DSHP and TSC made the milk more unstable during in-container sterilisation than to UHT processing, although TSC addition increased the sediment formed by UHT processing. Better heat stability was observed in autumn and winter than in spring and summer following UHT. However, following in-container sterilisation, samples with added stabilising salts showed significantly improved heat stability in autumn, whereas with added CaCl2, the best heat stability was observed in spring. No correlation was found between urea and heat stability.

  17. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  18. Diagnostic model study of the seasonal variation of global ozone and the Antarctic ozone hole

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyoshi, H. ); Uryu, M. )

    1992-12-20

    A simple two-dimensional model is constructed to simulate and gain an understanding of the global distribution of ozone and its seasonal variation. In the model the Chapman cycle parameterized by Hartmann (1978) is used. The time dependence of the diffusion coefficients is neglected, except in the polar regions. The effects of the meridional circulation, consisting of the following three components, are taken into account: (1) an annually varying component due to the annual variation in the heating of ozone, oxygen, and water vapor, which is assumed to be anti-symmetric (symmetric with a 6 month shift) about the equator; (2) a nonseasonal, steady component of the transport circulation with ascending air in the tropics and descending air in the middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres; and (3) an annually varying component of the transport circulation which represents planetary wave activity, strong convection in the tropics, and other seasonally variable factors. Although the employed circulations and diffusion coefficients are ad hoc, the simple model simulates the main features of the global distribution of ozone and its seasonal variation. The Antarctic ozone hole is discussed from a global point of view. The possibility of a weak October minimum in the Antarctic total ozone amount, without introducing chlorine chemistry is suggested. 46 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Coal: Pennsylvania anthracite 1978. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.

    1980-10-01

    Production of Pennsylvania Anthracite in 1978 decreased 14.1 percent or 824 thousand short tons from the 1977 figure of 5861 thousand short tons to 5037 thousand short tons. Buckwheat No. 1 and smaller sizes accounted for 3768 thousand short tons or 75 percent of production. Pea and larger sizes accounted for 1259 thousand short tons or 25 percent of production. Average price per ton (f.o.b. preparation plant) increased 1.1 percent from the 1977 figure of $34.86 to $35.25. Productivity declined 6.6 percent from 6.97 to 6.51 short tons per miner per day. Domestic distribution of anthracite in 1978 totaled 3895 thousand short tons or 77.3 percent of production. Of this amount, 1597 thousand short tons or 41 percent went to residential and commercial consumers, 1064 thousand short tons or 27.3 percent went to electric utilities, 748 thousand short tons or 19.2 percent went to other industrial users, 476 thousand short tons or 12.2 percent went to the iron and steel industry, and 10 thousand short tons or 0.3 percent was consumed at mining operations. US exports of anthracite in 1978 totaled 1142 thousand short tons or 22.7 percent of production. Exports to Canada were 405 thousand short tons, to South Korea - 331 thousand short tons, and to US military forces in West Germany - 276 thousand short tons. The Canadian, Korean, and German exports accounted for 1012 thousand short tons or 88.6 percent of all exports in 1978.

  20. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography cites 958 externally distributed technical papers released during calendar year 1978, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The publications are indexed by author, subject, publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author.

  1. Farm Population of the United States: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Vera J.; DeAre, Diana

    1979-01-01

    Based on the new farm definition (places of 10 or more acres if at least $50 worth of agricultural products were sold in the reporting year, and places of under 10 acres if at least $250 worth of agricultural products were sold), 6,501,000 persons, or 3% of the nation's population, lived on farms for the 12-month period centered on April 1978.…

  2. STS-79 astronauts arrive at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-79 astronauts arrive at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at about the same time the three-day launch countdown gets under way. From left are Mission Specialists Carl E. Walz and John E. Blaha; Mission Commander William F. Readdy; Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Thomas D. Akers and Jay Apt. Not too far away, final preparations are in work at Launch Pad 39A to prepare the Space Shuttle Atlantis for liftoff on the 79th Shuttle mission. During the approximately 10-day flight, Atlantis will dock with the Russian Space Station Mir and Blaha will transfer to the station. Returning with the STS-79 astronauts aboard Atlantis will be American astronaut Shannon Lucid, who is wrapping up a record-setting stay aboard Mir. Liftoff currently is set for Sept. 16 at about 4:54 a.m. EDT during an approximately seven-minute launch window.

  3. STS-79 ATLANTIS LANDS AT KSC'S SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-79 mission comes to a successful conclusion as the orbiter Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT, September 26. On board is U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, who has been living and working on the Russian Space Station Mir for about six months. Lucid has spent 188 days in space from launch aboard Atlantis in March to her return today, establishing a U.S. record for long-duration spaceflight as well as representing the longest spaceflight for a woman. Succeeding Lucid on Mir is U.S. astronaut John E. Blaha, who embarked to Mir with the STS-79 crew. The commander of Mission STS-79 is William F. Readdy; Terrence W. Wilcutt is the pilot, and the three mission specialists are Jay Apt, Thomas D. Akers and Carl E. Walz.

  4. STS-79 John Blaha address news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Mission Specialist John E. Blaha addresses news media gathered for the flight crew's late night arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. A veteran space traveler who served as either commander or pilot on his four previous Shuttle flights, Blaha is taking a mission specialist's slot on STS-79 because he will be transferring to the Russian Space Station Mir for an extended stay. American astronaut Shannon Lucid will take his place aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis for the return trip home. Final preparations are under way for launch of Atlantis on Mission STS-79, with liftoff scheduled to occur during an approximately seven-minute window opening at 4:54 a.m. EDT, Sept.16.

  5. STS-79 ATLANTIS LANDS AT KSC'S SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A KSC fire truck stands on alert as the STS-79 Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles down Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, its drag chute billowing behind it. Atlantis touched down at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT, September 26. On board is U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, who has been living and working on the Russian Space Station Mir for about six months. Lucid has spent 188 days in space from launch aboard Atlantis in March to her return today, establishing a U.S. record for long-duration spaceflight as well as representing the longest spaceflight for a woman. Succeeding Lucid on Mir is U.S. astronaut John E. Blaha, who embarked to Mir with the STS-79 crew. The commander of Mission STS-79 is William F. Readdy; Terrence W. Wilcutt is the pilot, and the three mission specialists are Jay Apt, Thomas D. Akers and Carl E. Walz.

  6. STS-79 Atlantis Landing (main gear touchdown)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-79 mission comes to a successful conclusion as the orbiter Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT, September 26. On board is U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, who has been living and working on the Russian Space Station Mir for about six months. Lucid has spent 188 days in space from launch aboard Atlantis in March to her return today, establishing a U.S. record for long-duration spaceflight as well as representing the longest spaceflight for a woman. Succeeding Lucid on Mir is U.S. astronaut John E. Blaha, who embarked to Mir with the STS-79 crew. The commander of Mission STS-79 is William F. Readdy, Terrence W. Wilcutt is the pilot, and the three mission specialists are Jay Apt, Thomas D. Akers and Carl E. Walz.

  7. Influence of a local source of DDT pollution on statewide DDT residues in waterfowl wings, northern Alabama, 1978-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy DDT contamination resulting from a former DDT manufacturing plant in northern Alabama has influenced statewide averages of DDT, DDE, and TDE residues in duck wings tested in the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. In states where contaminant levels in duck wings are high, residue analyses of wings categorized by finer geographic subdivision may be useful in defining the areas of heaviest contamination.

  8. Influence of a local source of DDT pollution on statewide DDT residues in waterfowl wings, northern Alabama, 1978-79.

    PubMed

    Fleming, W J; O'Shea, T J

    1980-12-01

    Heavy DDT contamination resulting from a former DDT manufacturing plant in northern Alabama has influenced statewide averages of DDT, DDE, and TDE residues in duck wings tested in the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. In states where contaminant levels in duck wings are high, residue analyses of wings categorized by finer geographic subdivision may be useful in defining the areas of heaviest contamination.

  9. A Plan and a Process for Postsecondary Education in Colorado: Quality and Access, 1978-79 through 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This statewide plan for higher education is based on the concepts of a rolling five-year plan, wherein planning occurs constantly five years into the future, concurrent with more immediate ongoing programs and budgeting. It is a formal, statewide planning process. The broad aim of postsecondary education in Colorado is stated: to promote and…

  10. Lawyers, City Managers, and Social Science Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on lawyers, city managers, and social science occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include city managers,…

  11. Industrial Arts Metalworking for Intermediate and Junior High Schools. Curriculum Bulletin. 1978-79 Series. No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Educational Planning and Support.

    This curriculum bulletin is designed to present seventh and eighth graders with an overview of the metalworking industry from the acquisition of raw materials to the fabrication of the completed product. The manual is organized into five major instructional units: sheet metal, wrought metal, jewelry and art metal, bench and machine metal, and cast…

  12. Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the various metal industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the aluminum…

  13. Compilation of Statistical Data concerning the Community Colleges of the State of New Jersey [for 1978/79].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Higher Education, Trenton. Office of Community Coll. Programs.

    This report provides selected statistical data about the community colleges of New Jersey in the areas of enrollments, degrees conferred, skills data, finances, and faculty. Introductory material includes a fact sheet on the state's community colleges, a listing of State Board of Higher Education members, a list of colleges and their dates of…

  14. Agriculture and Logging and Lumber Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in agriculture and logging and lumber mill products industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document…

  15. Comparative Financial Statistics for Community and Junior Colleges, 1978-79: An Experimental Study of 184 Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    Based on an examination of financial data collected from a nationwide sample of 184 two-year colleges, this five-part report facilitates the comparison of an individual institution's financial status with national averages and with averages for other colleges of the same size. Part I discusses the use of the report as an aid in comparative…

  16. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  17. A Saturnian stratospheric seasonal climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Caldwell, J.

    1979-01-01

    Motivated by recent observational evidence that seasonal processes occur within Saturn's stratosphere, a seasonal stratospheric climate model has been constructed. This model predicts stratospheric temperatures above the P = 0.1-atm level as a function of time throughout the Saturnian year. Specific results are presented for south-polar and equatorial temperatures. The model predicts that substantial seasonal phase lags exist; maximum stratospheric temperatures at the south pole occur at the southern hemisphere's autumnal equinox. Brightness temperature observations at 17.8 microns, taken during 1977/1978, indicate that stratospheric temperatures are greater at the south pole than at the equator. The model is consistent with these observations, predicting enhanced south polar temperatures, relative to the equator, from 1975 to 1983.

  18. 40 CFR 86.337-79 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information. 86.337-79 Section 86.337... Information. The following information, as applicable, shall be recorded for each test: (a) Engine description and specification. A copy of the information specified in this paragraph must accompany each...

  19. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comparable to that provided by such testing. (3) The test animals shall be rodents, preferably a strain of... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.53 Tier 2. (a) Generally. Subject to... subject to testing under this subpart must be tested in accordance with each of the testing guidelines...

  20. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  1. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  2. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  3. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  4. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community... entities. (b) Work experience. (1) Work experience is a short-term or part-time work assignment with an... private-for-profit sector. (2) Participation in work experience shall be for a reasonable length of...

  5. 40 CFR 86.337-79 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information. 86.337-79 Section 86.337... Information. The following information, as applicable, shall be recorded for each test: (a) Engine description and specification. A copy of the information specified in this paragraph must accompany each...

  6. 40 CFR 86.337-79 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information. 86.337-79 Section 86.337... Information. The following information, as applicable, shall be recorded for each test: (a) Engine description and specification. A copy of the information specified in this paragraph must accompany each...

  7. 40 CFR 86.337-79 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information. 86.337-79 Section 86.337... Information. The following information, as applicable, shall be recorded for each test: (a) Engine description and specification. A copy of the information specified in this paragraph must accompany each...

  8. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Responsibilities. 79.3 Section... Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide oversight to all FEMA... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  9. 40 CFR 79.59 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governed by the provisions of 40 CFR part 2. ... Tier 1. (i) Literature Search. Pursuant to § 79.52(d), the literature search shall include a text summary of the methods and results of the literature search, including the following: (A)...

  10. 40 CFR 79.59 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governed by the provisions of 40 CFR part 2. ... Tier 1. (i) Literature Search. Pursuant to § 79.52(d), the literature search shall include a text summary of the methods and results of the literature search, including the following: (A)...

  11. 36 CFR 79.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations in this part apply to collections, as defined in § 79.4 of this part, that are excavated or... Archaeological Resources Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm). Such collections generally include those that are... property of the landowner. (2) Data that are generated as a result of a prehistoric or historic...

  12. 36 CFR 79.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations in this part apply to collections, as defined in § 79.4 of this part, that are excavated or... Archaeological Resources Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm). Such collections generally include those that are... property of the landowner. (2) Data that are generated as a result of a prehistoric or historic...

  13. 36 CFR 79.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations in this part apply to collections, as defined in § 79.4 of this part, that are excavated or... Archaeological Resources Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm). Such collections generally include those that are... property of the landowner. (2) Data that are generated as a result of a prehistoric or historic...

  14. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose sanctions against a sponsor that has: (1) Willfully or negligently failed to comply with the reporting requirements... or a United States territory; or, (3) Whose authorized representatives fail to secure their...

  15. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.6... part 60 of this subchapter of the NFIP are not eligible for either the FMA or SRL programs. (b) Plan... 201.5 of this chapter in order to apply for grants through the FMA or SRL programs. Indian...

  16. 45 CFR 79.9 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.9 Answer. (a...'s representative, if any. (c) If the defendant is unable to file an answer meeting the requirements..., may file with the reviewing official a general answer denying liability and requesting a hearing,...

  17. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including... or uranium mine worker means a person who operated or otherwise worked in a uranium mine. (f... in a uranium mine. (i) Primary lung cancer means any physiological condition of the lung, trachea,...

  18. 28 CFR 79.51 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.51 Definitions. (a) Chronic renal disease means the chronic... or uranium mill worker means a person who operated or otherwise worked in a uranium mill. (h... in a uranium mill. (l) Primary lung cancer means any physiological condition of the lung, trachea,...

  19. 28 CFR 79.51 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.51 Definitions. (a) Chronic renal disease means the chronic... or uranium mill worker means a person who operated or otherwise worked in a uranium mill. (h... in a uranium mill. (l) Primary lung cancer means any physiological condition of the lung, trachea,...

  20. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including... or uranium mine worker means a person who operated or otherwise worked in a uranium mine. (f... in a uranium mine. (i) Primary lung cancer means any physiological condition of the lung, trachea,...

  1. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including... or uranium mine worker means a person who operated or otherwise worked in a uranium mine. (f... in a uranium mine. (i) Primary lung cancer means any physiological condition of the lung, trachea,...

  2. 28 CFR 79.51 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.51 Definitions. (a) Chronic renal disease means the chronic... or uranium mill worker means a person who operated or otherwise worked in a uranium mill. (h... in a uranium mill. (l) Primary lung cancer means any physiological condition of the lung, trachea,...

  3. Industrial Arts 7-9. Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide for industrial arts grades 7-9 provides teachers with a curriculum for the subject cluster of construction. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, discusses how the content of the proqram is related to the developmental stages of the adolescent, describes the structure of the industrial arts program, and lists program goals and…

  4. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a chemical substance. (c) Principle of the test method. (1) Laboratory rodents are exposed to one..., pursuant to provisions in § 79.62. (d) Limit test. If a test at one dose level of the highest concentration... test substance, as evidenced by the results of other studies, the potential for combined studies,...

  5. Home Economics: Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 74 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics instruction in grades 7-9. It is organized into the following categories: child development--including toys, babysitting, and home discipline; clothing and textiles; consumer practices; foods and nutrition; and home management and family economics. Each…

  6. Flow Systems Newsletters, 1978-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the Newsletter is to provide a means of rapid communication among interested investigators in the fields of biology, medicine and instrumental development who use the powerful techniques of flow cytometry and cell sorting. The Newsletter is entirely dependent upon contributions from readers for its content. Those contributions fall into the categories of abstracts of papers accepted for publication, research notes, research questions, positions desired, positions available, and announcements of general interest to the flow community. In this report, the eight Newsletters issued during 1978-1979 are compiled.

  7. Dedication: John W. Wright, 1929-1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John W.

    1980-09-01

    The death of John W. Wright in an automobile accident on November 20, 1978, came as a great shock to all who knew him. His family and friends lost a stimulating, compassionate human being whose many-faceted personality they greatly admired. The scientific community working on remote sensing of the air-water interface lost one of its pioneers and leaders. To dedicate this issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research to Dr. Wright seems a fitting tribute to his many scientific achievements.

  8. Influence of a heated effluent, season, and fish size of the prevalence and mean intensity of monogenean gill infestation in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) in Lake Monona, Dane County, Wisconsin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of a heated effluent on the prevalence and mean intensity of gill infestation by monogeneans was negligible, while that of season and fish size was significant. Gills were examined from 822 bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, taken during a 15-month period in three areas, the outfall area (OA) and two reference areas (RA I and RA II), of Lake Monona, Dane County, Wisconsin, USA. The OA, in a heated water effluent from the Madison Gas and Electric Company, was warmest. The RA II, farthest from the discharge, was coolest. Prevalence of monogenean gill infestation was 100% among bluegills taken from all three sampling areas during the entire sampling period. Mean intensity of monogenean gill infestation varied significantly with the time of year and size of fish, but not significantly among the OA, RA I and RA II for the same time of year and size class of fish. In all sampling areas the largest mean worm burdens occurred in June and July, and on bluegills 131-160 mm in total length, while the fewest appeared in January and on 39-70 mm fish.

  9. Should the Federal Government Implement a Program Which Guarantees Employment Opportunities for All U.S. Citizens in the Labor Force? Inter-Collegiate Debate Topic, 1978-1979, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dennis M.

    This is a compilation of selected articles and a bibliography on the 1978-79 intercollegiate debate proposition: Resolved, that the Federal Government should implement a program which guarantees employment opportunities for all U.S. citizens in the labor force. The introduction briefly reviews the United States post-World War II history of…

  10. STS-79 Atlantis approaches the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis begins its move into the Vehicle Assembly Building for shelter from the effects of Hurricane Fran. Atlantis is completing its rollback from Launch Pad 39A, where it was undergoing preparations for Mission STS-79. This marks the second rollback for Atlantis since July because of hurricane threats. The threat of Hurricane Bertha forced the rollback of Atlantis in July. Atlantis currently is scheduled for launch on the fourth Shuttle-Mir docking mission around mid-September.

  11. Philip, South Dakota geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal heating project in Philip, South Dakota which uses the waste water from the Haakon School has now been in operation for 15 years. This project was one of the 23 cost shared by the U.S. DOE starting in 1978, of which 15 became operational. This article describes the geothermal heating system for eight buildings in downtown Philip.

  12. STS-79 ATLANTIS LANDS AT KSC'S SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The drag chute is deployed as the orbiter Atlantis swoops down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT, September 26, bringing to a successful conclusion U.S. astronaut Shannon Lucid''';s record- setting, 188-day stay in space. Lucid''';s approximately six-month stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir establishes a new U.S. record for long-duration spaceflight and also is the longest for a woman, surpassing Russian cosmonaut Elena Kondakova''';s 169-day stay on Mir. Lucid returns to Earth with the flight crew of Mission STS-79: Commander William F. Readdy; Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Thomas D. Akers, Jay Apt and Carl E. Walz. Succeeding her aboard Mir for an approximately four-month stay is fellow veteran astronaut John E. Blaha, who traveled to the station with the STS-79 flight crew. The STS-79 mission is part of the NASA/Mir program which is now into the Phase 1B portion, consisting of nine Shuttle-Mir dockings and seven long-duration flights of U.S. astronauts aboard the Russian space station between early 1996 and late 1998.

  13. Kepler-79's low density planets

    SciTech Connect

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-04-10

    Kepler-79 (KOI-152) has four planetary candidates ranging in size from 3.5 to 7 times the size of the Earth, in a compact configuration with orbital periods near a 1:2:4:6 chain of commensurability, from 13.5 to 81.1 days. All four planets exhibit transit timing variations with periods that are consistent with the distance of each planet to resonance with its neighbors. We perform a dynamical analysis of the system based on transit timing measurements over 1282 days of Kepler photometry. Stellar parameters are obtained using a combination of spectral classification and the stellar density constraints provided by light curve analysis and orbital eccentricity solutions from our dynamical study. Our models provide tight bounds on the masses of all four transiting bodies, demonstrating that they are planets and that they orbit the same star. All four of Kepler-79's transiting planets have low densities given their sizes, which is consistent with other studies of compact multiplanet transiting systems. The largest of the four, Kepler-79 d (KOI-152.01), has the lowest bulk density yet determined among sub-Saturn mass planets.

  14. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  15. Observations from moored current meters in San Francisco Bay, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1981-01-01

    Current-meter data collected at eight stations in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system between August 1978 and December 1978 are compiled in this report. The measurements include current speed and direction, and water temperature and salinity (computed from conductivity and temperature). Data are presented in graphical format with each parameter plotted separately.

  16. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  17. A gap-filling model for eddy covariance latent heat flux: Estimating evapotranspiration of a subtropical seasonal evergreen broad-leaved forest as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Chu, Chia-Ren; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2012-10-01

    SummaryIn this paper we present a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model for tower-based measurement of latent heat flux (LE). Two statistical techniques, the principal component analysis (PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation approach were integrated into this LE gap-filling model. The PCA was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various environmental variables, including radiation, soil moisture deficit, leaf area index, wind speed, etc. Two nonlinear interpolation methods, multiple regressions (MRS) and the K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) were examined with random selected flux gaps for both clear sky and nighttime/cloudy data to incorporate into this LE gap-filling model. Experimental results indicated that the KNN interpolation approach is able to provide consistent LE estimations while MRS presents over estimations during nighttime/cloudy. Rather than using empirical regression parameters, the KNN approach resolves the nonlinear relationship between the gap-filled LE flux and principal components with adaptive K values under different atmospheric states. The developed LE gap-filling model (PCA with KNN) works with a RMSE of 2.4 W m-2 (˜0.09 mm day-1) at a weekly time scale by adding 40% artificial flux gaps into original dataset. Annual evapotranspiration at this study site were estimated at 736 mm (1803 MJ) and 728 mm (1785 MJ) for year 2008 and 2009, respectively.

  18. Seasonality of suicides: environmental, sociological and biological covariations.

    PubMed

    Souêtre, E; Salvati, E; Belugou, J L; Douillet, P; Braccini, T; Darcourt, G

    1987-01-01

    The monthly rates of completed suicides in France from 1978 until 1982 were analyzed. The seasonal variations of environmental (daylight and sunlight durations, mean temperature, geomagnetism), sociological (unemployment, deaths of all causes, birth and conception rates), and biological (melatonin, cortisol and serotonin circannual rhythms) factors were compared to the seasonal patterns of suicides. A clear seasonal variation (with peaks in May and September) in suicidal behavior was detected. These patterns tended to differ as a function of age (bimodal in young, unimodal in old people). The component analysis clearly pointed out that seasonal patterns of suicides may be considered as the sum of two components, unimodal and bimodal. Almost similar covariations were found between the main seasonal (unimodal) component of suicides and environmental (daylight duration and mean monthly temperature) or sociological factors whereas the secondary component was more correlated to variations in environmental factors and, to some extent, to biological parameters. PMID:2960714

  19. Mexico's giant fields, 1978-1988 decade

    SciTech Connect

    Acevedo, J.S.; Pemex, A.B.S.

    1990-09-01

    Twenty giant oil and gas fields were discovered in Mexico during the period of 1978-1988. The fields, located in adjacent areas, are described in terms of stratigraphy, tectonics, and general characteristics of the reservoirs. Production and reserves figures are also included. The two main oil productive areas in Mexico, Chiapas-Tabasco and offshore Campeche Sound, contribute 92% of Mexico's Mesozoic production. Production comes from Upper Jurassic carbonates; Cretaceous calcareous breccias, limestones, and dolomites; and from lower Paleocene calcareous breccias. The fields represented include 11 from the Chiapas-Tabasco area (Agave, Paredon, Iris, Giraldas, Cardenas, Jujo, Bellota, Tecominoacan, Muspac, Sen, and Luna) and nine from the the Campeche Sound area (Abkatun, Ku, Chuc, Ek, Pol, Malob, Caan, Uech, and Batab).

  20. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  1. Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N.

    1995-08-01

    The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.

  2. Seasonal Prediction with the GEOS GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Max; Schubert, S.; Chang, Y.

    1999-01-01

    A number of ensembles of seasonal forecasts have recently been completed as part of NASA's Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP). The focus is on the extratropical response of the atmosphere to observed SST anomalies during boreal winter. Each prediction consists of nine forecasts starting from slightly different initial conditions. Forecasts are done for every winter from 1981 to 1995 using Version 2 of the GEOS GCM. Comparisons with six long-term integrations (1978-1995) using the same model are used to separate the contributions of initial and boundary conditions to forecast skill. The forecasts also allow us to isolate the SSt forced response (the signal) from the atmosphere's natural variability (the noise).

  3. Botanical studies in the vicinity of Cumberland Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted in previous years. [Trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    No foliar effects attributable to SO/sub 2/ emissions from Cumberland Steam Plant were observed in 1978. Foliar injury was observed on vegetation during only one of the five growing seasons that surveys have been conducted in the Cumberland area. In 1974, effects were observed on one weed species, giant ragweed, in one 50-acre area. During the 1978 growing season, the sulfur content of coal fired was the lowest since the plant became operational (3.5 vs 3.7 to 3.8 percent); however, average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions were the highest since the plant became operational (due to the steam plant's operational level). After the steam plant is in compliance, December 1982, the SO/sub 2/ emission rate will be almost one-third less than during the 1978 growing season. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 ppM) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the Cumberland area during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Previous operational and SO/sub 2/ monitoring data, botanical survey results, and projected SO/sub 2/ emission rates indicate that it is unlikely that emissions from the steam plant will injure vegetation as long as the emission rate does not exceed the interim or final compliance level.

  4. Energy density and size of pelagic prey fishes in Lake Ontario, 1978-1990: Implications for salmonine energetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rand, Peter S.; Lantry, Brian F.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, Randall W.; Stewart, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    We describe dynamics of energy density and size of Lake Ontario alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and we use a bioenergetics model of a common pelagic piscivore, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, to demonstrate the effect of these factors on piscivore daily ration during 1978–1990. The energy density of alewives varied more than twofold between peaks in September (age 1) or October–November (age ≥2) and the lows in May (age 1) or July–September (age≥2). The previously described seasonal pattern of energy density of Lake Michigan alewives was similar except that energy density of older alewives (age≥3) was markedly higher in Lake Michigan. During 1978–1990, the spring energy density of Lake Ontario alewives peaked in 1979 (6,259 J/g wet weight), declined irregularly until 1985, and then remained stable through 1990 (at approximately 4,600 J/g). The initial decline may have been a density-dependent response to a burgeoning alewife population, but the lack of an increase in alewife condition in the late 1980s, when alewife biomass fell, suggests a decline in lake productivity. Energy density of rainbow smelt increased with age in Lake Ontario and condition was invariant during 1978–1990 despite a threefold change in rainbow smelt biomass. Rainbow smelt energy density was lower and fluctuated less seasonally in Lake Ontario than in Lake Michigan. Mean weight of alewives aged 2 and older dropped from 41 g in 1978 to 19 g in 1989 in Lake Ontario. Rainbow smelt aged 2 and older showed a drop in mean weight from 13–17 g in 1978–1982 to 8 g in 1990. This downward trend in mean size of alewives was correlated with the sizes of alewives consumed by Lake Ontario chinook salmon during 1983–1987. For adult chinook salmon to maintain a constant growth rate during 1978–1990, mean individual daily ration during June–October had to increase from a low of 2.2% body weight/d (or 1.5 prey fish/d) in 1979 to 3.1% body

  5. Rural Itinerant Manpower Services, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Charles

    The Rural Itinerant Manpower Services Project, a joint venture of Portable Practical Education Preparation, Inc. (PPED) and Arizona's Department of Economic Security (DES), is a modified mobile service delivery model. It seeks unsubsidized employment for and provides social services to Southern Arizona's migrant/seasonal farmworkers and rural poor…

  6. Landscape response to the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. L.; Turowski, J. M.; Andermann, C.; Behling, R.; Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Marc, O.; Motagh, M.; Roessner, S.; Sens-Schoenfelder, C.; Gallen, S. F.; Lupker, M.

    2015-12-01

    Strong earthquakes cause transient perturbations of the near Earth's surface system. These include the widespread landsliding and subsequent mass movement and the loading of rivers with sediments. In addition, rock mass is shattered during the event, forming cracks that affect rock strength and hydrological conductivity. Often overlooked in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, these perturbations can represent a major part of the overall disaster with an impact that can last for years before restoring to background conditions. Thus, the relaxation phase is part of the seismically induced change by an earthquake and need to be monitored in order to understand the full impact of earthquakes on the Earth system. Here, we present first results from the rapid respond earth surface processes monitoring program put in place by several European groups after the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake. To monitor the transient effects of the earthquake on the Earth surface system, we have installed a comprehensive network of 13 river sampling locations for daily water and sediment sampling, covering all major rivers draining the earthquake-affected areas immediately after the event. Nested within this regional network, we have installed an array of 16 seismometers and geophones and 6 weather stations in the upper Bhotekoshi catchment, covering an area of ~50 km2. The field measurements are accompanied by repeated mapping of landslide activities and volumes over subsequent seasons using high resolution optical (RapidEye) and radar imagery (TanDEM TerraSAR-X). The combination of all of these data will help when interpreting our field observation in the regional context of catastrophic failure of hillslopes and their link with sediment transport in the rivers. First river gauging observation show a pronounced increase in river discharge in the order of >20% for the respective pre-monsoon season. We interpreted this as a direct impact of the shaking on the valley-ridge scale sub

  7. Landscape response to the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andermann, Christoff; Turowski, Jens; Behling, Robert; Cook, Kristen; Hovius, Niels; Marc, Odin; Roessner, Sigrid; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph; Emberson, Robert; Burtin, Arnaud; Dietze, Michael; Adhikari, Basanta; Parajuli, Binod

    2016-04-01

    Strong earthquakes cause transient perturbations of the near Earth's surface system. These include the widespread landsliding and subsequent mass movement and the loading of rivers with sediments. In addition, rock mass is shattered during the event, forming cracks that affect rock strength and hydrological conductivity. Often overlooked in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, these perturbations can represent a major part of the overall disaster with an impact that can last for years before restoring to background conditions. Thus, the relaxation phase is part of the seismically induced change by an earthquake and need to be monitored in order to understand the full impact of earthquakes on the Earth system. Here, we present first results from the rapid respond earth surface processes monitoring program put in place by several European groups after the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake. To monitor the transient effects of the earthquake on the Earth surface system, we have installed a comprehensive network of 13 river sampling locations for daily water and sediment sampling, covering all major rivers draining the earthquake-affected areas immediately after the event. Nested within this regional network, we have installed an array of 16 seismometers and geophones and 6 weather stations in the upper Bhotekoshi catchment, covering an area of ~50 km2. The field measurements are accompanied by repeated mapping of landslide activities and volumes over subsequent seasons using high resolution optical (RapidEye) and radar imagery (TanDEM TerraSAR-X). The combination of all of these data will help when interpreting our field observation in the regional context of catastrophic failure of hillslopes and their link with sediment transport in the rivers. First river gauging observation show a pronounced increase in river discharge in the order of >20% for the respective pre-monsoon season. We interpreted this as a direct impact of the shaking on the valley-ridge scale sub

  8. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  9. 123. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) UNDERGROUND VIEW SHOWING MINERS CUTTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) UNDERGROUND VIEW SHOWING MINERS CUTTING MASS COPPER BY HAND. NOTE CANDLES USED FOR ILLUMINATION. MINING CAPTAIN IN WHITE. C. 1890. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  10. 112. Photocopied July 1978. (MTU, #01062) UNDERGROUND VIEW OF MEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopied July 1978. (MTU, #01062) UNDERGROUND VIEW OF MEN RIDING QMC MAN-ENGINE WITH MINING CAPTAIN (IN WHITE) STANDING ON THE RIGHT. C. 1890. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  11. 232. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'CLERK'S HOUSE, QUINCY MINE, 1890.' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    232. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'CLERK'S HOUSE, QUINCY MINE, 1890.' FRONT ELEVATION, FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS. LOCATED ON LOT SOUTH OF QMC MINING OFFICE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  12. 164. Photocopied July 1978. VIEW OF STEAMTURBINE BUILDING AT STAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    164. Photocopied July 1978. VIEW OF STEAM-TURBINE BUILDING AT STAMP MILL. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED IN 1921 TO USE EXHAUST STEAM TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY. C. 1925. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  13. 76. Photocopied August 1978. STANLEY ROTARY CONVERTER, PENSTOCK NO. 41, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Photocopied August 1978. STANLEY ROTARY CONVERTER, PENSTOCK NO. 41, WITH SOME OF THE STANLEY TRANSFORMERS IN THE BACKGROUND. (442) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. 209. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY SMELTING WORKS, HANCOCK, MICH., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    209. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY SMELTING WORKS, HANCOCK, MICH., SCALE BUILDING FOR TWO 6-TON SCALES. OCT. 22, 1907.' SECTIONS, ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  15. 75. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) NORTH'S STORE (1900); BLACKSMITH SHOP (C. 1860, WITH ADDITIONS); AND DRYHOUSE (C. 1860, WITH ADDITIONS). C. 1905. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  16. 13. Photocopied August 1978. ROCK DRILLING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 23, 1898. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopied August 1978. ROCK DRILLING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 23, 1898. THE HOLES DRILLED BY THESE MACHINES WERE PACKED WITH GUNPOWDER FOR BLASTING. (19) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  17. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  18. 42 CFR 423.1978 - Reopening determinations and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.1978 Reopening determinations and decisions. (a) A coverage... entity specified in § 423.600, or the decision of an ALJ or the MAC that is otherwise binding may...

  19. 9. Historic plan drawing of Building 205, July 1978. NASA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic plan drawing of Building 205, July 1978. NASA GRC Drawing no. CC-18263. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 205, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. 7. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY PROPERTY SECTIONS 13, 18, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY PROPERTY SECTIONS 13, 18, 23, 24,25, & 26,' C. 1910. SHOWS PROPERTY PURCHASES, SHAFT ROUTES, PLUS STOPED-OUT GROUND. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  1. 37. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of Fairmount Reservoir ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of Fairmount Reservoir (constructed 1880s; an open reservoir for the Baldwin filtration plant. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 4. JL photographer, summer 1978. View of pumping station and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. JL photographer, summer 1978. View of pumping station and filtration plant from East. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 2. JL photographer, summer 1978. View from south of Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. JL photographer, summer 1978. View from south of Division Avenue Punting and Filtration plant. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 35. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of chemical mixer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of chemical mixer Baldwin Filtration plant - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 38. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of main entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of main entrance facade of Baldwin Filtration plant. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 147. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) NO. 1 MILL, VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    147. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) NO. 1 MILL, VIEW FROM TORCH LAKE, SHOWING ADDITION TO PUMP AND BOILER HOUSE. (TAKEN SOMETIME AFTER PHOTO #146). C. 1890s. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  7. 148. Photocopied July 1978. (MTU, #00894) VIEW OF NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    148. Photocopied July 1978. (MTU, #00894) VIEW OF NO. 1 MILL AND NO. 1 PUMP AND BOILER HOUSE, BOTH BUILT IN 1890. C. 1890s. COPY OF ISLER PHOTOGRAPH. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  8. 1978 Pacemaker Newspaper Awards: What Makes a Pacemaker?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasler, Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Lists the nine high school and college newspapers, and the one newsmagazine, that won Pacemaker Awards in 1978; discusses characteristics that make each of them outstanding, and provides reproductions of a front page from each publication. (GT)

  9. 51. Photocopied August 1978. PREMOULDED TONGUE AND GROOVE CONCRETE BLOCKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopied August 1978. PRE-MOULDED TONGUE AND GROOVE CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR TAIL RACE AND FOREBAY WALLS AND THE CONCRETE MIXER IN MID-1900. (70) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. 11. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) GROUP SHOT OF WORKERS POSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) GROUP SHOT OF WORKERS POSED WITH NO. 2 SHAFT-ROCKHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE LONE WOMAN IN THE PHOTO. C. 1895-1905. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  11. 127. Photocopied July 1978. EMERGENCY CREW (FIREFIGHTERS) READY TO DESCEND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. Photocopied July 1978. EMERGENCY CREW (FIRE-FIGHTERS) READY TO DESCEND IN MAN-CAR AT NO. 6 SHAFT. NOTE ROCK-SKIP SUSPENDED OUT OF THE WAY. JULY 1927. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  12. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center Technical Publications announced in 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All the publications were announced in the 1978 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  13. 41. JL photographer, summer 1978, view of chemical mixer from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. JL photographer, summer 1978, view of chemical mixer from atop chemical spray nozzels. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 55. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. LEFT TO RIGHT: MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. LEFT TO RIGHT: MAIN DRIVE PULLEY, SKEIN DYER, CLOTH DYER AND WASHER, FULLING HAMMER; FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  15. 63. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. TENTER FRAME, ATTIC, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. TENTER FRAME, ATTIC, WITH A LAGGED SECTION OF CARD MAIN CYLINDER ON FLOOR BESIDE DISUSED JACK CARRIAGE; VIEW LOOKING FROM THE SOUTHWEST. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  16. 70. Jet Lowe, Photographer, Jude 1978. STEAM ENGINE AND BOILER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Jet Lowe, Photographer, Jude 1978. STEAM ENGINE AND BOILER, 'WASHINGTON FOUNDRY, ST. LOUIS, MO.', ON CONDENSER; IN SHED AT EAST END OF MILL. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  17. 47. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. STAFFORD LOOM, WITH R. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. STAFFORD LOOM, WITH R. W. ANDREWS PATENT PATTERN DEVICE, C. 1870, VIEW LOOKING FROM THE FRONT, SECOND FLOOR SOUTH. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  18. 89. Photocopied August 1978 by the Harry S. Truman Library, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Photocopied August 1978 by the Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri, from the original belonging to the Watkins Mill Historic Site. WALTHUS L. WATKINS. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  19. Hammerhead Crane (HH1) general view. Taken Jan 5, 1978. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hammerhead Crane (HH-1) - general view. Taken Jan 5, 1978. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 33. Photocopied August 1978. LAND SLIDE AND WRECK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopied August 1978. LAND SLIDE AND WRECK OF THE MAPLE STREET BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH, OCTOBER 16, 1900. (91) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. 36. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of experimental ammonia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of experimental ammonia chlorine process equipment from ca 1930's at Baldwin Filtration Plant. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 16. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. MCINTYRE IRON WORKS. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. MCINTYRE IRON WORKS. VIEW NORTH TOWARDS WHEEL PIT, CRANKSHAFTS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  3. 180. Jet Lowe, Photographer July 1978. VIEW FROM SLAG DUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Jet Lowe, Photographer July 1978. VIEW FROM SLAG DUMP OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) RAILROAD WAREHOUSE (1901); BRIQUETTING PLANT (1906); CUPOLA BUILDING (1898) AND MACHINE SHOP (1907). - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  4. 239. Photocopied July 1978, courtesy LGK and N. Eilertsen. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    239. Photocopied July 1978, courtesy LGK and N. Eilertsen. VIEW FROM SHAFT-ROCKHOUSE OVERLOOKING 'LOWER PEWABIC' WITH TELESCOPE HOUSES BUILT 1899-1900 AND SEARS-ROEBUCK HOUSES, BUILT 1917. C. 1920. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1978 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. 9 CFR 79.5 - Issuance of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GOATS § 79.5 Issuance of certificates. (a) Certificates are required as specified by § 79.3 for certain... than certificates. 4 Ownership brands may be used on certificates for sheep and goats moved...

  7. 9 CFR 79.5 - Issuance of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GOATS § 79.5 Issuance of certificates. (a) Certificates are required as specified by § 79.3 for certain... than certificates. 4 Ownership brands may be used on certificates for sheep and goats moved...

  8. 9 CFR 79.5 - Issuance of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GOATS § 79.5 Issuance of certificates. (a) Certificates are required as specified by § 79.3 for certain... than certificates. 4 Ownership brands may be used on certificates for sheep and goats moved...

  9. 9 CFR 79.5 - Issuance of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GOATS § 79.5 Issuance of certificates. (a) Certificates are required as specified by § 79.3 for certain... than certificates. 4 Ownership brands may be used on certificates for sheep and goats moved...

  10. 9 CFR 79.5 - Issuance of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GOATS § 79.5 Issuance of certificates. (a) Certificates are required as specified by § 79.3 for certain... than certificates. 4 Ownership brands may be used on certificates for sheep and goats moved...

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  12. 18. 1978 aerial view to east of west ends of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 1978 aerial view to east of west ends of Bergen Hill tunnels. Tunnel openings from right to left: Bergen Hill Open Cut (Erie Ry.), Old Bergen Hill Tunnel (Erie Ry.), two tunnels built by Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad (later Erie-Lackawanna Railroad). Photo by Jack E. Boucher, 1978. - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Chemical and biological quality of selected lakes in Ohio, 1978 and 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelo, C.G.; Youger, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-eight Ohio lakes were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency for water-quality characteristics during the spring and summer of 1978 and 1979. This report is the third in a series covering a lake-sampling program that began in 1975. Data include water-column profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance. Chemical, physical, and biological properties were measured at specific points in the water column, and selected physical and chemical properties also were measured in the principal inflows. The lakes were predominatly hard (120 180 milligrams per liter) to very hard water, although several soft-water lakes were found in southeastern Ohio. Calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate were the principal dissolved constituents. Specific conductance ranged from 103 micromhos per centimeter (at 25 degrees Celsius) at Tycoon Lake, 1978, to 2,550 micromhos per centimeter at West Fork Mill Creek Lake, 1978. Thirteen lakes had trace-element concentrations that were above the limits for exceptional warm-water habitat recammended by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. Seasonal thermal gradients developed in most lakes deeper than 17 feet. Oxygen concentrations were zero or near zero during the summer sampling of the bottom water of all lakes having definite thermal gradients. Most anaerobic zones contained hydrogen sulfide and high concentrations of ammonia. All lakes were evaluated and classified by Carlson's trophic state index. Most of the lakes were classified as eutrophic. Blue-green algae (CyanophytaJ) dominated the summer algal communities. Fecal colifrom counts were within Ohio standards, although high (more than 1,000 colonies per 100 milliliters) fecal colifrom and fecal streptococcus counts were observed in West Fork Mill Creek Lake after significant runoff.

  14. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-04-21

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1-100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air-sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1-10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below.

  15. Seasonal variability of the Gulf Stream from satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Vazquez, Jorge; Parke, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    The nearly continuous 3.5 years of altimeter data in the western North Atlantic Ocean from the GEOS 3 mission (April 1975 to November 1978) have been used to study the seasonal variability of the Gulf Stream. The differences between altimetric measurements of sea surface height made at satellite ground track intersections, called crossovers, are utilized to construct time series of sea level variations. The results indicate that the Gulf Stream in the region off Cape Hatteras has a pronounced seasonal variability. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle in terms of cross-stream sea level difference is about 15 cm, with a maximum in April and a minimum in December. The result is in good agreement with historic hydrographic observations and recent direct measurements of the Gulf Stream. The mechanisms responsible for the observed seasonal variability are discussed.

  16. 45 CFR 79.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of functions. 79.14 Section 79.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  17. 45 CFR 79.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 79.14 Section 79.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  18. 45 CFR 79.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation of functions. 79.14 Section 79.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  19. 45 CFR 79.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separation of functions. 79.14 Section 79.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  20. 45 CFR 79.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Separation of functions. 79.14 Section 79.14 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...