Science.gov

Sample records for 1978 79 heating season

  1. Annual Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Fannie

    This six-part report summarizes the 1978-1979 activities of the Division of Continuing Education and Extension Services at the New York City Community College. Part I discusses tuition courses and programs, including a program for Head Start staff and parents on the mainstreaming of handicapped children, a symposium on hearing aid technology in…

  2. Procedural Handbook: 1978-79 Writing Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The third (1978-79) of three writing assessments conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is reported. The writing achievement of American 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds was surveyed using a deeply stratified, multistage probability sample design. The specific procedures used in the assessment to develop objectives and…

  3. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  4. High Resolution Satellite Observations of Mesoscale Oceanography in the Tasman Sea 1978-79.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    AD-A128 225 HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF MESOSCALE /OCEANOGRAPHY IN THE TASMAN SEA 1978-79(U) ROYALAUSTRALIAN NAVY RESEARCH LAB...THE TASMAN SEA 1978-79 FINAL REPORT PROJECT HCM4I1 LA DTI unwa , 17 10 1 l CS. NILso8N, J.C. ADREWS, M. HORNIBROOK, A.R. LATHAM, G. SPERCHLEY A P...MESOSCALE OCEANOGRAPHY IN THE TASMAN SEA 1978-79 ---. ss___F_ Accesson Forr FINAL REPORT PROJECT HCM-051 NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB3 C.S. NILSSON, J.C. ANDREWS , M

  5. Medical College of Georgia Fact Book 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Medical Coll., Augusta.

    The third edition of the Medical College of Georgia (MCG) fact book provides a chronicle of the year 1978-1979, reflecting data and events important to the institution. Sections include: general information/Augusta; general information/MCG; administration; budget and physical plant; library/learning resources; faculty; continuing education;…

  6. Individualized Bilingual Instruction. Final Evaluation: 1978-79 Program Year. No. 15 in Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Beverly

    The 1978-79 evaluation report of an interstate bilingual early education program for migrant children from age 3 through third grade which operates year-round sites at Connell and Moses Lake, Washington and at La Grulla, Texas, presents a narrative program description and the progress made in each of five components: instruction, training,…

  7. Whole World Handbook. A Student Guide to Work, Study and Travel Abroad. 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marjorie Adoff

    This 1978-79 student guide to work, study, and travel abroad contains chapters on the following areas: Western Europe; the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe; the Middle East and North Africa; Africa south of the Sahara; South Asia (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan); East Asia; Southeast Asia; Australia and New Zealand; Latin America and…

  8. New Mexico Dropout Study, 1977-78 and 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William R., III

    Based on surveys tallying statewide enrollment and dropout figures by grade, sex, ethnicity, school and district, of 83,832 students enrolled in 1977-78 in 147 schools in 86 districts, 9,059 students (9.75%) were dropouts; of 86,117 enrolled in 150 schools in 88 disricts in 1978-79, 8,069 students (8.56%) dropped out of school. For both years,…

  9. Mean Annual Snowfall at Air National Guard Bases 1950-51 to 1978-79.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    T EQUALS TRACE(LESS TH 0.I") 30 - ORANGE ( NEW HAVEN ), CONNECTICUT LRnOu j. 1950/51-1978/79 -MA SNOWFALL (INCHES) J .. 1L U.. . Sir OCT . .NOV DEC JAN...CONNECTICUT Orange ( New Haven ) 32.1 Windsor Locks (Bradley Field) 50.0 DELAWARE Wilmington 21.8 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Camp Simms (Andrews AF3) 22.2...Newark) 28.0 McGuire AFB 23.5 NEW MEXICO Kirtland AFB 10.6 3_ 1 . . . .. .. . . .. I - -- - - MEAN SNOWFAL L E A JN NEW YORK Albany-Schenectady 66.8

  10. Evaluation of the Leadership Development Program 1978-79. A Report to the Coordinating Committee for the Leadership Development Program. Research Report 79-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Susanne M.

    The Leadership Development Program (L.D.P.) was begun in 1978-79 by the Vancouver (British Columbia) School Board to provide leadership development opportunities for educators who aspire to or show potential for leadership. This evaluation was undertaken through questionnaires assessing participant opinions of the general value of the program and…

  11. Colorado Migrant Education Program, 1978-79. Annual Evaluation Report Fiscal Year 1979. CDE Evaluation Series No. 80-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetzer, Ann V.

    The 1978-79 evaluation report describes projects, participants, personnel, and services involved in the state's efforts to provide comprehensive educational services to migrant children throughout the state. The program, operated by 10 school districts and 10 boards of cooperative services, highlights 3 projects on the basis of their innovative…

  12. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  13. Ten Year Comparison of Enrollment. Institutional Research Report No. 78/79-1. Sex Analysis of Fall 1978 Students as Compared to 1973, 1974, 1975, and 1977. Institutional Research Report No. 78/79-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior Coll., Perkinston.

    In response to a legislative request, Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior College gathered and analyzed opening fall enrollment figures for 1968 through 1978, three-year average percentages of enrollment by county of residence and by campus attended, and end-of-year headcounts from the 1968-69 academic year to the end of 1978-79. Fall enrollment figures…

  14. Little Caney River, Prehistory (Copan Lake): 1978 Field Season,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    estigations. The patches of’ forest act to decrease flow under normal 1978 studies of geologic relationships in the valley flood conditions. This...attributable to local flow condi- the contemporary ,egetation is more wooded along tions influencing the deposition of regionally and the margins of...the locations of the " Big I 860"s. one group going to the Anadarko area in the House" religious observances ( see Miller and Dean. southwest part of

  15. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  16. Profile of USC Entering Freshmen. Fall 1978. Research Notes No. 36-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Paul P.; Kossler, Gretchen

    Demographic data, opinions, and projections reported by freshmen entering the University of South Carolina (USC) during fall 1978 are reported. A questionnaire developed by the American Council on Education was administered to 80 percent of the entering class as part of a continuing national study. The data are divided into the categories of…

  17. A Report for the Entry-Level Competency Project for Selected Vocational Programs, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Noojin, Ed.

    This project report outlines the entry-level competencies required for student success in 13 vocational programs at Pensacola Junior College: Accounting Technician; Computer Programming/Operations; Core Program--Major Appliances, Air Conditioning and Heating, Maintenance Technology, and Industrial Electricity; Cosmetology; Dental Hygiene;…

  18. Graduate Theses and Dissertations in English as a Second Language: 1978-79. Language in Education: Theory and Practice. No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stephen

    This is the fourth annual listing of graduate theses and dissertations in English as a second language (ESL). The studies cited here were completed during the academic year 1978-79. The listing is intended to provide graduate students and others doing research in ESL and related fields with specific, comprehensive data on current graduate-level…

  19. Undergraduate Student Aid Recipients at Independent Colleges and Universities, 1978-79. Public Policy Monograph Series, Vol. 2, Issue 1, January 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadil, Virginia Ann; Minter, W. John

    A national study of student aid recipients during the 1978-79 academic year was undertaken to prepare for policy discussions on federal aid programs for reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. The report focuses on the characteristics of students receiving aid and the typical patterns of packaging financial aid for students in independent…

  20. Base flow of streams in Nassau County sewer districts 2 and 3, Long Island, New York, 1978-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ku, Henry F.; Simmons, Dale L.

    1981-01-01

    South-shore streams on Long Island, N.Y., are small, widely spaced and have few or no tributaries. Their gradients are gentle, averaging 10 feet per mile. All streams in the area studied have a mean annual discharge of less than 20 cubic feet per second, and most are from 3 to 10 miles long. Under natural conditions, about 95 percent of total streamflow originates as ground-water seepage from the upper glacial aquifer; the remaining 5 percent consists of direct runoff. Thus, the streams of Long Island function as ground-water drains, the flow of which in dry weather is controlled directly by ground-water levels adjacent to the stream channels. Monthly low-flow discharge measurements of 18 south-shore streams in Nassau County from 1978-79 are tabulated in this report. Measurement sites were established at 1,000-foot intervals between the southern tide-affected reach and the northern headwaters of each stream. The measurements provide a data base for the ' Flow Augmentation Needs Study, ' supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which will evaluate the need to replace streamflow lost through lowering of the water table as a result of sewage in Nassau County Sewer Districts 2 and 3. (USGS)

  1. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  2. Seasonal constraints on inferred planetary heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Karen A.; Huybers, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Planetary heating can be quantified using top of the atmosphere energy fluxes or through monitoring the heat content of the Earth system. It has been difficult, however, to compare the two methods with each other because of biases in satellite measurements and incomplete spatial coverage of ocean observations. Here we focus on the the seasonal cycle whose amplitude is large relative to satellite biases and observational errors. The seasonal budget can be closed through inferring contributions from high-latitude oceans and marginal seas using the covariance structure of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM1). In contrast, if these regions are approximated as the average across well-observed regions, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle is overestimated relative to satellite constraints. Analysis of the same CESM1 simulation indicates that complete measurement of the upper ocean would increase the magnitude and precision of interannual trend estimates in ocean heating more than fully measuring the deep ocean.

  3. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  4. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  5. Community School District 20K, Math Success, Title I - 5071-91625. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodato, Francis J.

    Throughout the 1978-1979 school year, four teachers in District 20 in New York City were utilized for the purpose of developing math skills in selected students in four elementary schools. The target students were removed from class for the additional instruction that their needs required. Each teacher met with five groups of students per school…

  6. Summary of the Education Amendments of 1978, Public Law 95-561. Report Number 79-13-EPW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Wayne; And Others

    This report summarizes the provisions of the Education Amendments of 1978, Public Law 95-561. This legislation extends generally through fiscal year 1983 and amends the major federal programs of aid to elementary and secondary schools including those under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the Impact Aid acts, the Emergency School Aid…

  7. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  8. PRISE Reporters 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PRISE Reporter, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presented are six issues of the PRISE Reporter, a monthly newsletter providing information on special education in Pennsylvania. Key articles include the following titles and authors: "Human Sexuality and Mental Retardation" by B. Menhusen; "A Training Program for Teachers of Children with Behavior Disorders: An Interdisability…

  9. Rankine/Rankine cycle gas-fired heat pump. Final report Mar 79-Mar 82

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, E.; Moriarty, R.

    1982-06-30

    A Rankine/Rankine cycle gas-fired heat pump was developed for residential application. The system consists of two rotating elements: a high-speed turbomachine core and a low-speed assembly, which includes a rotating vapor generator and heat exchangers. Inherent in the rotation of these components is the elimination of separate pumps, fans, reversing valves, and expansion valves. One Rankine cycle, the power cycle, drives the turbine and gives up its excess heat to the service air. The second Rankine cycle, the refrigerant cycle, is pressurized by a turbine-powered centrifugal compressor. The dual-cycle system uses two organic heat transfer fluids. The power cycle uses a developmental, moderate-temperature fluid (designated Fluid B), and the refrigeration cycle uses Freon R-113. These two fluids are compatible and missible in each other. Therefore, positive seals are not required. A laboratory prototype model was developed to the point of initiating proof-of-concept demonstration. A conceptual design study of an end-product model was conducted, and a product specification for a family of heat pump systems with various performance enhancement options was generated. The maximum realizable performance end-product heat pump system has a projected overall coefficient of performance (OCOP) of 0.79 at 37,500 Btu/hr cooling and an OCOP of 1.49 at 60,000 Btu/hr heating load. This end-product model has an estimated manufacturing cost of $1460 (in 1982 dollars) and could be available as a commercial product in the early 1990s.

  10. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  11. Seasonal Cycle of Ocean Heat Transport and its Projected Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Saenko, O.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal cycle of ocean heat transport (OHT) and its projected changes are analyzed using the second-generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The future anthropogenic forcing is assessed using two newly-developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gases and aerosols (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Consistent with some previous results based on eddy-permitting models, it is found that much of the seasonal variability of meridional circulation in the CanESM2 ocean is captured by the seasonal cycle of meridional Ekman fluxes, compensated by deep-reaching barotropic return flows. Since the seasonal cycle of zonal wind stress is projected to change at some latitudes, both in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, the projected seasonal variability of OHT essentially follows these changes in the wind.

  12. ERIC First Analysis: 1978-79 National High School Debate Resolutions (What Should Be the Energy Policy of the United States?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bill

    Intended for use by high school debaters and their teachers, this book provides guidelines for research on the debate topic for the 1978-1979 school year: "What should be the energy policy of the United States?" The first section is designed to broaden the student's comprehension of the debating process by focusing on the meaning of the…

  13. Organochlorine insecticide residues and PCBs in tissues of woodcock, mourning doves, and robins from east-central, Illinois, 1978-79

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.R.; Duzan, R.E.; Siemers, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    Reported here are levels in ppm of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE (DDE), and PCB residues assayed in muscle, heart, liver, brain, and fatty tissues of woodcock (Philohelo minor), mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura), and robins (Turdus migratorium) from east-central Illinois in 1978 and 1979.

  14. Monitoring seasonal snow dynamics using ground based high resolution photography (Austre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, 79°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, É.; Friedt, J. M.; Tolle, F.; Griselin, M.; Martin, G.; Laffly, D.; Marlin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic glaciers are reliable indicators of global climate changes. However, monitoring snow and ice dynamics in Arctic regions is challenging: some fast but key events can be missed since they are short in time but significant in the hydrological budget. In the context of long term monitoring with high temporal and spatial resolutions of the snow cover dynamics, automated digital cameras were installed around the Austre Lovénbreen glacier basin (Spitsbergen, Norway, 79°N). Despite data losses due to rough weather conditions and control electronics failure, a dataset of 2411 pictures (out of an expected 3294) was gathered over a 1 year hydrological period to assess the snow coverage of the glacier as a function of time with daily resolution. 73% of the total number of expected images was thus recorded, with gaps associated with temporary electronics or data storage failure. The six camera stations oriented so as to observe the glacier itself provide a surface coverage of 96%. Furthermore, geometric corrections of the pictures, using reference ground control points located on the glacier through GPS receivers, yield a quantitative information from initially qualitative images. Projecting the resulting mosaic of the images gathered from six cameras on a GIS allows for the precise monitoring of ice-related processes, and especially the snow coverage evolution over time. This paper summarizes our current understanding of such dynamics, based on the analysis of daily mosaics of images allowing for the observation of both long term evolution on the seasonal scale and the short term events on a weekly scale. Such results demonstrated over one typical full hydrological season (April-October 2009) that snow coverage evolves following discrete steps, either due to water precipitation or warm events, with a snow coverage ranging from 100% (april) to 37% (September).

  15. Geographical differences in seasonality of CZCS-derived phytoplankton pigment in the Arabian Sea for 1978 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.; English, D. C.

    In situ measurements of phytoplankton chlorophyll in the Arabian Sea were taken largely along temporally and spatially unevenly distributed sections, scarce especially prior to the operation of NASA's Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Herein, the CZCS pigment observations between late 1978 and mid-1986 north of 10°N, including the outer Gulf of Oman, are depicted for 14 subregions beyond the continental shelves as daily means, often only five days apart. To eliminate bias from electronic overshoot, the data were reprocessed with a more conservative cloud screen than used for NASA's Global Data Set. The pattern, derived from the older in situ observations, of one period with elevated chlorophyll almost everywhere during the Southwest Monsoon (SWM) and one additional late-winter bloom in the north, is confirmed. The differing nitrate silicate ratios in freshly entrained water in the central and northern Arabian Sea seem to lead to different succession and perhaps to differing vertical fluxes, and during winter favor blooms only in the north. The spatial pigment pattern in the outer Gulf of Oman is not an extension of that of the northwestern Arabian Sea. The seasonal physical forcing explains much of the timing of pigment concentration changes, but not the levels maintained over long periods. From the CZCS observations it is unclear whether the period of high phytoplankton productivity expected during the SWM in the open Arabian Sea lasts for about two or four months. During this entire season, chlorophyll values in the upper layers rarely exceed 1-2 mg m -3 outside the zone influenced by the Arabian upwelling. Near 15°N, however, fluxes into sediment traps at 3 km depth indicate an onset of high primary production very soon after the arrival of the SWM and suggest a long period of high production in the open sea. The partial temporal disconnect during the SWM between pigment changes in the upper part of the euphotic zone and of fluxes into the traps is

  16. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  17. Seasonality of the urban heat island effect: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a rigorous analysis of the drivers of seasonality in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Many studies report annual cycles in UHI intensity and have attributed those patterns to various hypotheses, including seasonal trends in wind and clouds, prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions, soil moisture, and day length. But to our knowledge, those hypotheses have never been tested, leaving a substantial gap in our basic understanding of the urban climate. We tested these and other hypotheses using two years of continuous temperature measurements from an array of 150 sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin USA, an urban area of 407,000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. This is one of the best replicated urban climate arrays ever deployed, which allowed us to characterize the UHI in rich spatial and temporal detail and rigorously assess the biophysical and synoptic drivers of its seasonal variation. UHI intensities were typically highest in summer and lowest in winter. Seasonal trends in wind speed and cloud cover generally tracked annual trends in UHI intensity, with the clearer, calmer conditions conducive to stronger UHIs more common in summer. This is consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal trends in wind, clouds, and anti-cyclonic conditions drive UHI seasonality. However, clear, calm summer nights still had higher UHI intensities than clear, calm winter nights, indicating that some background factor shifted baseline UHI intensities throughout the year. We found that regional vegetation and snow cover conditions set distinct seasonal baselines for UHI intensity, with nighttime intensities averaging 4°C in summer and 1°C in winter. Synoptic and biophysical factors that vary on shorter time scales (e.g. wind, clouds, soil moisture, relative humidity) modified daily UHI intensity around those baselines by 1-3°C but were not the primary drivers of UHI seasonality, contrary to the most common

  18. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-09-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China’s central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960–2011, resulting in a decline of HL (‑2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China’s central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future.

  19. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China’s central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960–2011, resulting in a decline of HL (−2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China’s central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  20. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-09-21

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future.

  1. A mathematical model for the behaviour of Se-79 in soils and plants that takes account of seasonal variations in soil hydrology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M C; Limer, L M C

    2012-03-01

    Se-79 is a long-lived radionuclide of potential radiological significance in relation to the deep geological disposal of solid radioactive wastes. In the context of release to the terrestrial environment, its main radiological impact is delivered through food chain pathways. Therefore, its accumulation in soils and uptake by plants is an important consideration in post-closure safety assessment studies. However, representation of its behaviour in the soil-plant system requires consideration of the multiple valence states that it can exhibit under different redox conditions and its susceptibility to volatilisation. A simple model is described that includes seasonal variations in soil hydrology and their effects on the mobility and root uptake of Se-79. Illustrative calculations are undertaken with the model, to demonstrate its capabilities for interpreting experimental data on the behaviour of Se-79 in soils and plants, and for making projections on the long-term behaviour of Se-79 transported to soils.

  2. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  3. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  4. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  5. Analysis of six groups of zooplankton in samples taken in 1978/79 at the proposed OTEC site in the eastern Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.E.; Hopkins, T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Continued analysis has been made of the 33 zooplankton collections made at the proposed OTEC site in the Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay. Six groups of zooplankton - siphonophores (Calycophora), pteropods (Thecosomata), chaetognaths, thaliaceans, euphausiids and amphipods were quantitatively investigated. Numbers and biomass were determined for all taxa and diurnal, seasonal and depth trends were discussed. Considering the present study and the previous investigation of the copepod population, this proposed OTEC site is probably one of the faunistically better known locales in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean.

  6. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  7. Proceedings of the NITINOL Heat Engine Conference, 26-27 September 1978, Silver Spring, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-27

    limited to NITINOL- related technicai material. INITINOL alloys are based on the compound TiNi. They exhibit a shape memory phenomenon due to an austenite...performance, endurance, and efficiency, all of which are related to the mechanism of the martensitic phase change in SM alloys. Clearly, materials...I AH* z AQ (F) (7) B etween A H and A H* there exists thus the important relation AH* = AH- F AL (8) 8See footnote 8 on page 6-1. 6-2 NSWC MP 79-441

  8. Human acclimation and acclimatization to heat: A compendium of research, 1968-1978. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciaraffa, D.; Fox, S. C.; Stockmann, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts and annotations of the majority of scientific works that elucidate the mechanisms of short-term acclimation to heat in men and women are presented. The compendium includes material from 1968 through 1977. Subject and author indexes are provided and additional references of preliminary research findings or work of a peripheral nature are included in a bibliography.

  9. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  10. Seasonal heat and freshwater cycles in the Arctic Ocean in CMIP5 coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Steele, Michael; Hakkinen, Sirpa

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the processes governing the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcings as they appear in historical simulations of 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled climate models. In both models and observations, the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most of these models, sea ice melt dominates. Seasonal horizontal heat flux divergence driven by the seasonal cycle of volume transport is only important locally. In models and observations, the dominant terms in the basin-average seasonal freshwater budget are the storages of freshwater between the ocean and sea ice, and the exchange between the two. The largest external source term is continental discharge in early summer, which is an order of magnitude smaller. The appearance of sea ice (extent and volume) and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and provides two mechanisms for feedback. One consequence of such an interaction is the fact that models with strong/weak seasonal surface heating also have strong/weak seasonal haline and temperature stratification.

  11. Peer Dynamics 1978-79 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winger, Joan

    This is an evaluation of the first year of a program designed to reduce the incidence of destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g., drug-alcohol abuse and juvenile delinquency) among school-age youth. Background research indicates that peer group pressure is the single most important factor in dictating the presence or absence of juvenile delinquency…

  12. A comparison of cell killing by heat and/or X rays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia mouse cells, and human thymocyte MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Raaphorst, G P; Szekely, J; Lobreau, A; Azzam, E I

    1983-05-01

    The radiation and/or heat sensitivity of Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia (FELC) mouse cells, and MOLT-4 human transformed thymocytes were compared. MOLT-4 cells were more radiosensitive (D0 = 0.50 Gy) than FELC (D0 = 0.65 Gy) and V79 cells (D0 = 1.43 Gy). Arrhenius analysis showed that MOLT-4 cells were more heat sensitive than FELC or V79 cells below 42.0 degrees C, but more heat resistant at higher temperatures. In addition, the MOLT-4 cells showed a single-heat inactivation energy between 41.0 and 45.0 degrees C, while FELC and V79 cells both showed a transition in the inactivation energy at about 43.0 and 43.5 degrees C, respectively. These differences may be related to the fact that the upper temperature limit for the development of thermal tolerance during continuous heating was lower for MOLT-4 cells than for FELC or V79 cells. Killing of FELC and V79 cells was dependent on the sequence in which heat and X rays were applied, but the greatest effect was obtained when both treatments were given simultaneously. Recovery occurred when treatments were separated by incubation at 37.0 degrees C. The MOLT-4 cells did not show a sequence dependence for heating and irradiation. Survival of MOLT-4 cells after heating and/or irradiation was compared using trypan blue dye exclusion or colony formation. Both assays showed similar qualitative responses, but survival levels measured by the trypan blue assay were much higher than those determined from the colony-forming assay.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of geothermal heat pump during the cold season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrașcu, G.; Dumencu, A.; Horbaniuc, B.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is analysing the performances (COP, power and, heating heat rate function of time) for a ground-coupled heat pump that is used to heat a space during winter, for a period of 180 days. The analysis purpose is to evaluate the time based changes in values of COP and, energy transfers of a geothermal heat pump, considering a scenario for the variation of the ambient temperature in time and an analytical solution for the time dependence of the soil one. The temperatures and the energy transfer rates were determined on the basis of the irreversible entropy balance equation.

  14. Surface flux and ocean heat transport convergence contributions to seasonal and interannual variations of ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C. D.; Palmer, M. D.; Allan, R. P.; Desbruyeres, D. G.; Hyder, P.; Liu, C.; Smith, D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an observation-based heat budget analysis for seasonal and interannual variations of ocean heat content (H) in the mixed layer (Hmld) and full-depth ocean (Htot). Surface heat flux and ocean heat content estimates are combined using a novel Kalman smoother-based method. Regional contributions from ocean heat transport convergences are inferred as a residual and the dominant drivers of Hmld and Htot are quantified for seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that non-Ekman ocean heat transport processes dominate Hmld variations in the equatorial oceans and regions of strong ocean currents and substantial eddy activity. In these locations, surface temperature anomalies generated by ocean dynamics result in turbulent flux anomalies that drive the overlying atmosphere. In addition, we find large regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans where heat transports combine with local air-sea fluxes to generate mixed layer temperature anomalies. In all locations, except regions of deep convection and water mass transformation, interannual variations in Htot are dominated by the internal rearrangement of heat by ocean dynamics rather than the loss or addition of heat at the surface. Our analysis suggests that, even in extratropical latitudes, initialization of ocean dynamical processes could be an important source of skill for interannual predictability of Hmld and Htot. Furthermore, we expect variations in Htot (and thus thermosteric sea level) to be more predictable than near surface temperature anomalies due to the increased importance of ocean heat transport processes for full-depth heat budgets.

  15. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part I, Results of the measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Showail, Abdullah

    1982-01-01

    Heat-flow measurements were made at five onland shot points of the 1978 Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction line, which sample major tectonic elements of the Arabian Shield along a profile from Ar Riyad to the Farasan Islands. Because of the pattern drilling at each shot point, several holes (60 m deep) could be logged for temperature at each site and thus allow a better estimate of the geothermal gradient. Each site was mapped and sampled in detail, and modal and. chemical analyses of representative specimens were made in the laboratory. Thermal conductivities were computed from the modal analyses and single-mineral conductivity data. The resulting heat-flow values, combined with published values for the Red Sea and coastal plain, indicate a three-level pattern, with a heat flow of about 4.5 heat-flow unit (HFU) over the Red Sea axial trough, about 3.0 HFU over the shelf and coastal plain, and an essentially constant 1.0 HFU over the Arabian Shield at points well away from the suture zone with the oceanic crust. At three sites where the rocks are granitic, gamma-ray spectrometry techniques were employed to estimate thorium, potassium, and uranium concentrations. The resulting plot of heat generation versus heat flow suggests that in the Arabian Shield the relationship between heat flow and heat production is not linear. More heat-flow data are essential to establish or reject this conclusion.

  16. Seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance off the west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Biastoch, Arne; BöNing, Claus; Caputi, Nick; Meyers, Gary

    2008-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current, a warm, poleward flowing eastern boundary current, dominates the surface circulation off the west coast of Australia and has profound influence on regional marine ecosystem and fisheries recruitment. In this study, the seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance in the Leeuwin Current region are analyzed by using an eddy-resolving numerical model simulation, as a first step to quantify the climate impacts on regional ocean thermodynamics and marine ecosystem. The volume transport and heat advection of the Leeuwin Current are stronger during the austral winter on the seasonal cycle and are stronger during a La Nina event on the interannual scale. On both seasonal and interannual timescales, the mixed layer heat budget off the west coast of Australia is predominantly balanced between the variations of the Leeuwin Current heat advection and heat flux across the air-sea interface. On the interannual timescale, the variation of the Leeuwin Current heat advection tends to lead that of the air-sea (latent) heat flux by two months, which is likely a reflection of advection timescales of the Leeuwin Current and its eddy field. The interannual variation of the average February-April sea surface temperature off the west coast of Australia, which is crucial for the larval settlement of western rock lobster, is mostly influenced by the Leeuwin Current heat advection as well as the ocean memory from the previous austral winter, with the air-sea heat exchange playing a buffering role.

  17. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  18. Heat loss from deer mice (Peromyscus): evaluation of seasonal limits to thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Conley, K E; Porter, W P

    1986-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of seasonal adaptations to thermoregulatory heat loss for deer mice (Peromyscus) during summer and winter. A general, mechanistic model of heat transfer through fur was evaluated for the structural properties of the fur of deer mice. The model was validated against heat production determined from mice exposed to a range of radiative (wall) temperatures (tr) at air temperatures (ta) of 15, 27 and 34 degrees C. Calculated heat loss from the appendages was subtracted from the measured heat production to yield heat loss from the furred torso. This calculated torso heat loss agreed closely with the predicted fur heat loss for all conditions, as shown by a regression slope near 1 (0.99). Simulations using models of fur and appendage heat loss reveal that the winter increase in thermogenic (heat production) capacity has a greater effect than changes in fur properties in expanding the limits to thermoregulation. Both wind and a clear night sky increase heat loss and can limit thermoregulation to air temperatures above those found in deer mice habitats during winter (-25 degrees C). Thus, despite seasonal adaptations, these simulations indicate that thermoregulation is not possible under certain winter conditions, thereby restricting deer mice to within the protected environment of the leaf litter or snow tunnels.

  19. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  20. Latent Heating Retrievals Using the TRMM Precipitation Radar: A Multi-Seasonal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Meneghini, B.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Convective-Stratiform Heating (CSH) algorithm is used to retrieve profiles of latent heating over the global tropics for a period of several months using TRMM precipitation radar data. The seasonal variation of heating over the tropics is then examined. The period of interest also coincides with several TRMM field campaigns that recently occurred over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and in the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed Q1 budgets from these experiments could provide a means of validating the retrieved profiles of latent heating from the CSH algorithm.

  1. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  2. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form, 1978-79 Comprehensive Validation Guide. Procedural Manual for: Validation of Cases Referred by Institutions; Validation of Cases Referred by the Office of Education; Recovery of Overpayments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen; And Others

    Procedures for validating data reported by students and parents on an application for Basic Educational Opportunity Grants were developed in 1978 for the U.S. Office of Education (OE). Validation activities include: validation of flagged Student Eligibility Reports (SERs) for students whose schools are part of the Alternate Disbursement System;…

  3. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined.

  4. Seasonal variation of heat balance components over a Japanese red pine forest in snowy northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Takeshi; Miya, Hiroshi; Yokota, Satoshi

    1999-10-01

    Continuous observations of the meteorological elements and heat fluxes were made for more than one and a half years above and in a red pine forest. We obtained the following results from these observations: 1) During the spring thaw, the albedo above the forest decreased as snow depth decreased and reached a minimum value after the snow disappeared. Due to seasonal variation in the canopy structure, the ratios of insolation and wind speed at the forest floor compared to those above the forest canopy also varied. 2) Under dry canopy conditions, the peaks of each heat balance component occurred at different times. The net radiation peaked in June; the latent heat flux peaked in July; the sensible heat flux peaked in May; the heat storage on the ground peaked in March. When the forest floor was snow-covered, the Bowen ratio was more than 1·0 and the maximum ratio of sensible heat flux to net radiation occurred. The forest canopy over the snow surface acted as a heat source because the direction of the sensible heat flux was upward above the forest canopy. 3) The seasonal change in evaporation efficiency was similar to that in the air temperature above the canopy. When the daily air temperature was below 10 °C, the transpiration was limited. 4) Snowcover on the forest floor also affected the relationships between evaporation efficiency and meteorological conditions. This was caused by properties of the snowcover.

  5. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  6. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  7. The role of atmospheric heat transport in the seasonal carbon dioxide cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, James R.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out numerical experiments with a general circulations model (GCM) and energy balance model of the martian atmosphere to define the importance of heat transported to the polar regions in determining the amount of CO2 condensed on the surface during the fall and winter seasons and the amount sublimated during the spring and summer seasons. In so doing, we performed both sensitivity experiments, in which the dust opacity was varied over the full range of its observed values, and annual simulations, in which the dust opacity varied continuously with seasonal data, in accord with measurements taken at the Viking landers. Dust opacity represents the key variable for determining the contribution of atmospheric heat advection to the energy budget in the polar regions. The amount of heat advected to the winter polar regions increases monotonically as the dust opacity at low and middle latitudes increases. However, the increase is sharpest between optical depths of 0 and 1 tends to level off at still higher optical depths. Heat advection is more important at times of CO2 condensation than CO2 sublimation, since the temperature gradients are much steeper in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Because dust opacity is much higher during northern winter than during southern winter, atmospheric heat advection reduces the amount of CO2 that condenses in the north by a much larger factor than it does in the south.

  8. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  9. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  10. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  11. [Dynamics of heat balance during growing season of broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Guan, Dexin; Wu, Jiabing; Wang, Anzhi; Zhao, Xiaosong; Jin, Mingshu; Xu, Hao; Dai, Guanhua; He, Xiu

    2004-10-01

    Based on the gradient measurement of microclimate factors, radiation and soil heat flux from late May to early October, 2001 and by the method of Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB), this paper estimated the latent heat and sensible heat above the broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains. The energy storage of forest air and vegetative was calculated, and the seasonal variations of heat balance components of the forest were analyzed. The results showed that the net radiation of the forest and the solar radiation were linearly correlated. All the heat balance components had the similar characteristics of diurnal variation to the net radiation, showing curves positive at daytime and negative at night, and the terms ranged as net radiation > latent heat > sensible heat > storage. The time of keeping positive terms in a day became shorter from June to October as influenced by shinning time. The highest net radiation was in June and the lowest in October. The monthly averaged net radiation was 0-527 and 0-(-)121 W x m(-2), and the latent heat was 0-441 and 0-(-)81 W x m(-2) for day and night, respectively. Sensible heat was 0-80 and 0-(-)26 W x m(-2), and energy storage was 0-44 and 0-(-)26 W x m(-2) for day and night, respectively. The ratio of latent heat to net radiation at daytime decreased gradually from August to October, and the ratio of sensible heat and energy storage increased correspondingly. Especially 2-3 days after the first severe frost, a sudden drop of latent heat and a sudden bounce of sensible heat appeared. The instruments and measurement methods of heat flux were also concisely discussed in this paper.

  12. Preliminary Heat-Transfer Measurements on a Hypersonic Glide Configuration Having 79.5 degree Sweepback and 45 degree Dihedral at a Mach Number of 4.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stainback, Calvin

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the heat-transfer characteristics of a hypersonic glide configuration having 79.5 deg of sweepback (measured in the plane of the leading edges) and 45 of dihedral. The tests were conducted at a nominal Mach number of 4.95 and a stagnation temperature of 400 F. The test-section unit Reynolds number was varied from 1.95 x 10(exp 6) to 12.24 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The results indicated that the laminar-flow heat-transfer rate to the lower surface of the model decreased as the distance from the ridge line increased except for thermocouples located near the semispan at an angle of attack of 00 with respect to the plane of the leading edges. The heat-transfer distribution (local heating rate relative to the ridge-line heating rate) was similar to the theoretical heat-transfer distribution for a two-dimensional blunt body, if the ridge line was assumed to be the stagnation line, and could be predicted by this theory provided a modified Newtonian pressure distribution was used. Except in the vicinity of the apex, the ridge-line heat-transfer rate could also be predicted from two-dimensional blunt-body heat-transfer theory provided it was assumed that the stagnation-line heat-transfer rate varied as the cosine of the effective sweep (sine of the angle of attack of the ridge line). The heat-transfer level on the lower surface and the nondimensional heat-transfer distribution around the body on the lower surface were in qualitative agreement with the results of a geometric study of highly swept delta wings with large positive dihedrals made in reference 1.

  13. Jet streak modification via diabatic heating during periods of intense cool-season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick Shawn

    The propagation of a jet streak in the presence of predominately stable latent heat release is examined. Unlike many prior studies which emphasized latent heat release due to mesoscale convective system activity this work addresses cool season mid-latitude weather systems in which stable latent heat release played a significant role. In both cool and warm seasons, the result is the same: the amplification of a pre-existing jet streak, or the in situ development of a new jet streak. The former situation is more typical of the cool season when thermal gradients and the jet stream are both stronger and more conducive to the transient baroclinic waves which engender streaks in the jet stream flow, while the latter development tends to be the product of a warm season environment when the background thermal and flow patterns are weaker. In this work, the development of a pre-existing straight- line jet streak upstream of its prior location (``backbuilding'') presumably due to latent heat release is studied. Both dry and moist adiabatic simulations with a mesoscale numerical model indicate that backbuilding occurs in the absence of latent heat release (dry run) due to confluence but is enhanced when such heating is included (moist run). This is due to the latent heat release and consequent warming of the column in which it occurs, thus altering the height gradient. Such a process causes accelerations in the flow. Moreover, the mid-tropospheric nature of the stable latent heating causes the backbuilding to be maximized in the mid-troposphere (500 to 400 hPa). Isentropic coordinate analyses of the model output are employed in the estimation of latent heating and ageostrophic wind components. In terms of sensible weather, the propagating jet streak tends to initiate precipitation in its right entrance region because of the induced ascent. In the present case, the latent heat release associated with this precipitation acted to anchor the jet streak in place and even build

  14. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  15. Effect of season and exposure to heat stress on oocyte competence in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Paula-Lopes, F F; Hansen, P J

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate seasonal variation in oocyte competence in Holstein cows and to test whether oocyte quality in summer is affected by the magnitude of heat stress. In the first experiment, ovaries of Holstein cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and used to harvest oocytes over 1 yr (n = 18 replicates). After in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in the warm season compared with the cool season. In the second experiment, nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in one of the following three environments for 42 d before slaughter: heat stressed (housed with shade cloth in summer; n = 14); cooled (housed in a free-stall barn with foggers and fans in summer; n = 14); and winter (housed similar to the heat-stressed group; n = 12). Cows were slaughtered at d 18 to 19 of the estrous cycle. Oocytes from the two largest follicles per cow were aspirated and cultured individually. Ovaries were then dissected to collect additional oocytes that were processed in a group for in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Cleavage rates were similar among treatments, but none of the individually cultured oocytes developed to blastocysts. For other oocytes cultured in groups, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in summer than winter with no difference between the heat-stressed and the cooled treatment groups. Summer depression in oocyte quality in Holstein cows was evident, but cooling cows for 42 d did not alleviate that seasonal effect.

  16. Latent Heating Retrievals Using the TRMM Precipitation Radar: A Multi-Seasonal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, S.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle and is a primary heat source for the atmosphere. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied by rainfall, modulates the large-scale circulations of the tropics and in turn can impact midlatitude weather. This latent heat release is a consequence of phase changes between vapor, liquid, and solid water. Present largescale weather and climate models can simulate latent heat release only crudely, thus reducing their confidence in predictions on both global and regional scales. This paper represents the first attempt to use NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall information to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to October 2000. The Goddard Convective-Stratiform. Heating (CSH) algorithm and TRMM precipitation radar data are used for this study. We will examine and compare the latent heating structures between 1997-1998 (winter) ENSO and 1998-2000 (non-ENSO). We will also examine over the tropics. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental; Indian oceans vs west Pacific; Africa vs S. America) will be also examined and compared. In addition, we will examine the relationship between latent heating (max heating level) and SST. The period of interest also coincides with several TRMM field campaigns that recently occurred over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and in the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed Q1 budgets from these experiments could provide a means of validating the retrieved profiles of latent heating from the CSH algorithm.

  17. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd.

  18. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  19. Bovine oocytes show a higher tolerance to heat shock in the warm compared with the cold season of the year.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; López-Gatius, F; Andreu-Vázquez, C; López-Béjar, M

    2013-01-15

    Heat stress is especially harmful for bovine ovarian follicle development and oocyte competence. In this study, we assessed the effects of heat shock on oocyte maturation in oocytes collected during the cold (February-March; n = 114) or warm (May-June; n = 116) periods of the year. In both cases, cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured under control (38 °C) and heat shock conditions (41.5 °C, 18-21 h of maturation). For each oocyte, nuclear stage, cortical granule distribution and steroidogenic activity of cumulus cells were evaluated. Based on the odds ratio, heat-shocked oocytes were 26.83 times more likely to show an anomalous metaphase II morphology. When matured under heat shock conditions, oocytes obtained in both seasons were similarly affected in terms of nuclear maturation, whereas a seasonal effect was observed on cytoplasmic maturation. For oocytes collected during the cold season, the likelihood to show an anomalous maturation was 25.96 times higher when exposed to the heat treatment than when matured under control conditions. By contrast, oocytes collected during the warm season matured under control or heat shock did not show significant risk of showing an anomalous cytoplasmic maturation. Our findings indicate an increased rate of premature oocytes in response to heat shock as well as a higher tolerance to this stress of oocytes harvested in the warm season compared with those collected in the colder period.

  20. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 6, June 1978. Concentric-Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis and Data Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    Four computer programs written in FORTRAN and BASIC develop theoretical predictions and data reduction for a junior-senior level heat exchanger experiment. Programs may be used at the terminal in the laboratory to check progress of the experiment or may be used in the batch mode for interpretation of final information for a formal report. Several…

  1. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heating Season and Source Tracing in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenhui; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenji

    2013-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (IPM) is one of the principal pollutants in Beijing. Sand weather in spring and winter seasons partly because of regional airflow, in most cases it is results from autochthonic pollution, especially in heating season of winter. In this paper, the law of temporal spatial distribution of IPM and the relationship between IPM and influence factors were studied combing RS techniques with ground-based monitoring. The change of underlying surface which were obtained from high resolution Remote Sensing images in different periods was analyzed; the content of different diameter of particles were collected by ground observation instrument and chemical composition were analyzed; the relationship of distribution of IPM and underlying surface was studied using spatial analysis of GIS. The results indicate that the pollution distribution of IPM has a very close relation with underlying surface, man-made pollution sources, population density and meteorological factors.

  2. Post-burning regeneration of the Chaco seasonally dry forest: germination response of dominant species to experimental heat shock.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Díaz, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Plant species of the Chaco seasonally dry forest of central Argentina have presumably been under a low evolutionary pressure to develop specialized fire-response traits, such as heat-stimulated germination. Nevertheless, other historical factors such as seasonal drought and/or endozoochorus dispersal could have led some species to develop heat-tolerant seeds. Therefore, heat-tolerant germination should be more common than heat-stimulated or heat-sensitive germination. To test this, we exposed seeds of 26 dominant species from the Chaco region to a broad range of experimental heat treatments and incubated them for 30 days at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiod. We then scored the percent germination and classified them as heat-stimulated, heat-tolerant or heat-sensitive based on their germination following heat treatments relative to control. Seventeen species showed heat-tolerant germination, including all native graminoids. Seven species showed heat-stimulated germination, under the less-intense heat treatments. Only two species showed heat-sensitive germination. Endozoochory had no influence on germination responses. We suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, fire was not a major evolutionary force in the development of Chaco forests, and our results provide greater understanding of the potential response of Chaco plant communities in the face of increasingly frequent fires.

  3. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  4. Impact of climatic factors on energy consumption during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, A. S.; Reshetar, O. A.; Belova, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    Global and regional climate changes produce a significant effect on energy production and consumption, especially on heating and air conditioning in residential, industrial, commercial, and office rooms. In Russia, with its contracting climate conditions, energy consumption varies a lot in different regions. Thus, we have to review the dynamics of energy consumption during the cold season individually for each region of the country. We analyzed the dynamics of duration and temperature of the heating season in Moscow region and completed a comparative study of heat energy consumption, actual and calculated based on the 'degreedays' concept, in the municipal economy of Moscow during the last decade. Based on the actual data analysis, we proved that conservation of energy resources in a large city relies not so much on a shortening of the heating period as on the growth of atmospheric air temperature in winter. The projected climate warming in the Moscow region in the nearest decades, along with measures of energy conservation, will promote a significant reduction in energy consumption of the municipal economy in winter. The results shown in this article were obtained in the process of preparing and implementing project no. 16-17-00114 by the Russian Science Foundation "Analysis of an impact of the regional climate change on the residential and commercial energy consumption of Russian megacities," within the main area of focus of the Russian Science Foundation, which is "Fundamental Research and Exploration in Main Topical Areas of Focus." The project was implemented within the framework of the scientific area of focus, which is "Reduction of the Risk and Mitigation of Consequences of Natural and Man-made Disasters" ("Studying Economical, Political, and Social Consequences of Global Climate Changes" problem).

  5. An analysis of seasonal variability of satellite detected land surface temperatures and urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Q.

    This research intends to develop a diffusive UHI model and to compare it with UHIs based on impervious coverage as well as those based on population distribution using Indianapolis as a case study Land surface temperatures LSTs in the four seasons were extracted from thermal infrared data of Terra s ASTER imagery and calibrated with emissivity and other parameters Heat islands were modeled as a three-dimensional surface protruding from a planar surface of the surrounding non-urban land cover The complexity of urban heat islands were measured by fractal dimensions Spectral mixture analysis was applied to transform ASTER reflective bands into fraction images including high albedo low albedo green vegetation and soil with a constrained least-square solution Based on the result of the spectral unmixing impervious surface was calculated The spatial variability of texture in LST was found to be highly correlated with those in the fractions and in the population density surface It is suggested that these variables had a direct correspondence with the radiative thermal and moisture properties of the Earth s surface that determine LST and heat islands In order to develop a generalized model of urban heat islands that has a global application fractals and numerical modeling should be combined to develop a guiding framework

  6. Heat-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults: An Amplified Effect of the First Seasonal Heatwave

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Alexander; Wu, Ruiruo; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations. We compared the health risks of heatwaves using the proposed and four alternative definitions. 701 cases of HH in older residents of Boston area were examined using harmonic regression models, designed to capture the non-linear effects of ambient temperatures and heatwave episodes when the night-time temperature is above 65.5 °F for 3 consecutive nights. The overall relative risk of HH associated with a heatwave episode was 6.9 [95%CI:4.8–9.8]. The relative risk of HH associated with the first heatwave increases up to 13.3 [95%CI:7.4–24.0]. The risk declined to 3.7 [95%CI:2.4–5.8] for the subsequent heatwave. Four other commonly used heatwave definitions confirmed these findings. Public health actions have to target the first heatwave to maximize the impact of preventive measures. PMID:28074921

  7. Heat-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults: An Amplified Effect of the First Seasonal Heatwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Alexander; Wu, Ruiruo; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations. We compared the health risks of heatwaves using the proposed and four alternative definitions. 701 cases of HH in older residents of Boston area were examined using harmonic regression models, designed to capture the non-linear effects of ambient temperatures and heatwave episodes when the night-time temperature is above 65.5 °F for 3 consecutive nights. The overall relative risk of HH associated with a heatwave episode was 6.9 [95%CI:4.8–9.8]. The relative risk of HH associated with the first heatwave increases up to 13.3 [95%CI:7.4–24.0]. The risk declined to 3.7 [95%CI:2.4–5.8] for the subsequent heatwave. Four other commonly used heatwave definitions confirmed these findings. Public health actions have to target the first heatwave to maximize the impact of preventive measures.

  8. Seasonal cycle of the mixed layer, the seasonal thermocline and the upper-ocean heat storage rate in the Mediterranean Sea derived from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, L.; Testor, P.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Somot, S.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Estournel, C.; Lavigne, H.

    2015-03-01

    We present a Mediterranean climatology (1° × 1° × 12 months) of the mixed layer and of the seasonal thermocline, based on a comprehensive collection of temperature profiles spanning 44 years (1969-2012). The database includes more than 190,000 profiles, merging CTD, MBT/XBT, profiling floats, and gliders observations. This data set is first used to describe the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer depth and temperature, together with the seasonal thermocline depth and averaged temperature, on the whole Mediterranean on a monthly climatological basis. Our analysis discriminates several regions with coherent behaviors, in particular the deep water formation sites, characterized by significant differences in the winter mixing intensity. Heat Storage Rate (HSR) is calculated as the time rate of change of the heat content due to variations in the temperature integrated from the surface down to the base of the seasonal thermocline. For the first time the quantification of heat storage rate in the upper-ocean, based only on in situ oceanographic data, is made for the whole Mediterranean. The spatial and temporal variability of the HSR in the Mediterranean Sea and its link with dynamic structures like oceanic gyres are also discussed.

  9. Eddy heat and salt transports in the South China Sea and their seasonal modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Gan, Jianping; Xie, Qiang; Chu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dongxiao; Hou, Yijun

    2012-05-01

    This study describes characteristics of eddy (turbulent) heat and salt transports, in the basin-scale circulation as well as in the embedded mesoscale eddy found in the South China Sea (SCS). We first showed the features of turbulent heat and salt transports in mesoscale eddies using sea level anomaly (SLA) data, in situ hydrographic data, and 375 Argo profiles. We found that the transports were horizontally variable due to asymmetric distributions of temperature and salinity anomalies and that they were vertically correlated with the thermocline and halocline depths in the eddies. An existing barrier layer caused the halocline and eddy salt transport to be relatively shallow. We then analyzed the transports in the basin-scale circulation using an eddy diffusivity method and the sea surface height data, the Argo profiles, and the climatological hydrographic data. We found that relatively large poleward eddy heat transports occurred to the east of Vietnam (EOV) in summer and to the west of the Luzon Islands (WOL) in winter, while a large equatorward heat transport was located to the west of the Luzon Strait (WLS) in winter. The eddy salt transports were mostly similar to the heat transports but in the equatorward direction due to the fact that the mean salinity in the upper layer in the SCS tended to decrease toward the equator. Using a 21/2-layer reduced-gravity model, we conducted a baroclinic instability study and showed that the baroclinic instability was critical to the seasonal variation of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and thus the eddy transports. EOV, WLS, and WOL were regions with strong baroclinic instability, and, thus, with intensified eddy transports in the SCS. The combined effects of vertical velocity shear, latitude, and stratification determined the intensity of the baroclinic instability, which intensified the eddy transports EOV during summer and WLS and WOL during winter.

  10. Liquid temperature determination in a seasonal heat storage at joint operation with a solar collector and thermal energy consumer

    SciTech Connect

    Sivoraksha, V.E.; Zolotko, K.E.; Markov, V.L.; Petrov, B.E.; Lyagushyn, S.F.

    1998-07-01

    Usual solar thermal systems include a solar collector providing solar power conversion into the thermal form and a heat storage accumulating thermal energy, the great capacity of storage systems allows heating and hot water supply during the cold season. The joint operation of the solar collector and a seasonal heat storage has a cyclic mode day by day. The following operation scheme is analyzed in the paper: in night liquid (water) does not circulate; after sunrise the solar collector is warmed up and after its temperature reaching the temperature of water in the thermal energy storage TTS circulation is switched on and thermal power is transferred to the heat storage; after midday water temperature in the solar collector decreases and circulation stops when it becomes equal to the heat storage temperature. TTS increase results in the reduction of the duration of the joint operation of the solar collector and the energy storage and in the decrease of the heat power input. A functional connection between the daily input of power from the solar collector and an average temperature in the heat storage is of importance for technological calculations. The moments of the beginning and end of circulation and daily heat input from the solar collector are determined under the assumption of the sinusoidal law of solar radiation coming in the day-time. Then the heat balance equation is solved for the whole power system with taking into account power consumption and heat losses. The polynomial approximation for the dependence of heat input upon heat carrier temperature permits obtaining an analytical solution for the seasonal behavior of the liquid temperature in the thermal energy storage. The obtained dependence of TTS upon time allows calculation of this parameter with admissible accuracy at the stage of the project development proceeding from the performance of the solar collector and heat storage and from the averaged meteorological data.

  11. Measuring the heat loss in horses in different seasons by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Autio, Elena; Neste, Riitta; Airaksinen, Sanna; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to consider breed and cold tolerance in the housing and caring of horses. This study demonstrates differences in heat loss between horse types at low temperatures and examines rate of loss in different types during different seasons. Eighteen horses participated. Groups by type were light (L), warmblood (W), coldblood (C), and pony (P). A camera filmed thermographic images at 15 degrees C, 2 degrees C (all types), -8 degrees C (L, W, C), and -12 degrees C (P). The study calculated loss from the neck, trunk, and inner surfaces of front and hind legs. Loss was similar in all types at 15 degrees C. L, W, and C dissipated more heat at 2 degrees C than at 15 degrees C (p < .001) and from neck and trunk at -8 degrees C than at 2 degrees C (p < .05). P dissipated heat similarly at 2 degrees C and -12 degrees C. At 2 degrees C, loss was less from neck and trunk in C and P compared with L (p < .05). At -8 degrees C, loss in L and W was greater than in C (p < .05).

  12. Summary of environmental geologic studies in the Mid-Atlantic outer continental shelf area; results of 1978-1979 field seasons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the need for knowledge of an offshore area that is undergoing exploration for oil and gas resources, since 1975 the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has funded studies of the environmental characteristics of the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. This volume briefly summarizes a final report to the BLM on the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations stemming from data acquired during 1978 and 1979. The parent final report contains complete accounts of those investigations. The subjects of the studies range from the geologic effects of water currents and their capabilities of erosion and transportation, to delineation of potentially hazardous geologic characteristics of the area. Nine specific studies address the complexities of water currents, the nature of materials suspended in the sea waters, rates of mixing-in of material deposited on the bottom, and the sites of probable deposition of such materials, as well as sites and mechanisms of possible submarine landsliding or unstable bottom (engineering characteristics) of the Continental Slope and shelf.

  13. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  14. Ocean Net Heat Flux Influences Seasonal to Interannual Patterns of Plankton Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tim J.; Allen, Icarus; Atkinson, Angus; Bruun, John T.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Pingree, Robin D.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the net heat flux (NHF) into the ocean have profound impacts on global climate. We analyse a long-term plankton time-series and show that the NHF is a critical indicator of ecosystem dynamics. We show that phytoplankton abundance and diversity patterns are tightly bounded by the switches between negative and positive NHF over an annual cycle. Zooplankton increase before the transition to positive NHF in the spring but are constrained by the negative NHF switch in autumn. By contrast bacterial diversity is decoupled from either NHF switch, but is inversely correlated (r = −0.920) with the magnitude of the NHF. We show that the NHF is a robust mechanistic tool for predicting climate change indicators such as spring phytoplankton bloom timing and length of the growing season. PMID:24918906

  15. Effect of storage thermal behavior in seasonal storage solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.

    1986-12-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed to investigate the effects of storage operational strategies (or, equivalently, stratification) on the performance of a seasonal storage solar heating system with a constructed water volume. The method is based on a relative comparison between a thermally stratified and well-mixed storage system representing probable extreme outcomes of the subsystem-to-storage loop control strategies. The effects are described in the form of performance reduction factors that describe maximum changes in the solar collector yield, storage losses, and solar fraction due to storage operational mode. The study indicates that the storage thermal behavior could in the worst case affect the yearly solar fraction by a factor of 1.8, but most likely a maximum value from 1.1 to 1.5 could be expected.

  16. Seasonal influence on heat-resistant proteolytic capacity of Pseudomonas lundensis and Pseudomonas fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Heylen, Kim; Messens, Winy; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Vos, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Herman, Lieve; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Psychrotolerant bacteria and their heat-resistant proteases play a major role in the spoilage of UHT-processed dairy products. Summer and winter raw milk samples were screened for the presence of such bacteria. One hundred and three proteolytic psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated, characterized by API tests, rep-PCR fingerprint analysis and evaluated for heat-resistant protease production. Twenty-nine strains (representing 79% of the complete collection) were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. A seasonal inter- and intra-species influence on milk spoilage capacity (e.g. growth rate and/or protease production) was demonstrated. Moreover, this polyphasic approach led to the identification of Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas lundensis (representing 53% of all isolates) as predominant producers of heat-resistant proteases in raw milk. The role of Pseudomonas fluorescens, historically reported as important milk spoiler, could not unequivocally be established. The use of more reliable identification techniques and further revision of the taxonomy of P. fluorescens will probably result in a different perspective on its role in the milk spoilage issue.

  17. Evaluation of EUREKA Project, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Paul J., Ed.

    An evaluation for 1978-79 was conducted of EUREKA, a career information system in California. Personal visits were made to sixteen EUREKA sites throughout the state, accounting for over 75% of the high schools and agencies with active programs. Both the directors of the programs and counselors were interviewed for their reactions. It was found…

  18. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-02

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability.

  19. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  20. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Kasurak, A.; Kelly, R. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Derksen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  1. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-06

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  2. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  3. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  4. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  5. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  6. Comparing the diurnal and seasonal variabilities of atmospheric and surface urban heat islands based on the Beijing urban meteorological network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Jiang, Shaojing; Wang, Jiankai; Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lee, Xuhui

    2017-02-01

    This study compared the diurnal and seasonal cycles of atmospheric and surface urban heat islands (UHIs) based on hourly air temperatures (Ta) collected at 65 out of 262 stations in Beijing and land surface temperature (Ts) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer in the years 2013-2014. We found that the nighttime atmospheric and surface UHIs referenced to rural cropland stations exhibited significant seasonal cycles, with the highest in winter. However, the seasonal variations in the nighttime UHIs referenced to mountainous forest stations were negligible, because mountainous forests have a higher nighttime Ts in winter and a lower nighttime Ta in summer than rural croplands. Daytime surface UHIs showed strong seasonal cycles, with the highest in summer. The daytime atmospheric UHIs exhibited a similar but less seasonal cycle under clear-sky conditions, which was not apparent under cloudy-sky conditions. Atmospheric UHIs in urban parks were higher in daytime. Nighttime atmospheric UHIs are influenced by energy stored in urban materials during daytime and released during nighttime. The stronger anthropogenic heat release in winter causes atmospheric UHIs to increase with time during winter nights, but decrease with time during summer nights. The percentage of impervious surfaces is responsible for 49%-54% of the nighttime atmospheric UHI variability and 31%-38% of the daytime surface UHI variability. However, the nighttime surface UHI was nearly uncorrelated with the percentage of impervious surfaces around the urban stations.

  7. 1978-79 Michigan Social Studies Textbook Study, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John, M., Ed.

    This document represents Volume I of a two volume study to determine the extent to which four elementary level social studies programs reflect the multi-racial, multi-cultural nature of American society. The document is presented in three parts. Part I covers the Michigan Social Studies Textbook Act, an historical overview of previous Michigan…

  8. Occupational Outlook Book, 1978-79 Edition. Bulletin No. 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is divided into four major sections with the first section serving as a guide to the handbook. This introductory section tells how to use the handbook, where to go for more career information, how employment projections are made, and where tommorrow's jobs will be. The outlook for occupations in section 2 contains 300 occupational…

  9. Special Needs TESL Program, 1978-79, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, Robert L.

    The Teaching English as a Second Language Program was developed as a response to the needs of a multicultural population. It provides services geared to the individual needs of non-English speaking children in elementary and junior high schools. Children were seen for five 40 to 45 minute periods weekly in groups of 10 to 12. An audio-lingual…

  10. I.D.G. Bulletin 1978/79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    The document focuses on the relationship of land and water in the Netherlands. Information, presented in expository, tabular, photographic, and cartographic form, is arranged in four major sections. Section I, which contains the bulk of the document, discusses water and landscape in geography; water in the Netherlands as a source of food,…

  11. Guidance Exploration Model (GEM) 1978-79. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, M. Candice, Comp.

    The original program goal for development was to provide implementation of a Guidance Exploratory Model (GEM) at the elementary level which combines career education, guidance, exploration and academics. During the planning stages of GEM, monies were received from Title IV-B to purchase books and audio-visual materials to initiate the concept…

  12. Report of Committee R on Government Relations, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Henry T.

    1979-01-01

    Higher Education must have a higher priority on the agenda of government. This priority should be expressed in funds for student financial assistance, faculty scholarly grants, faculty salaries, program support, and improved facilities. Tenured professors exemption, reauthorization of Higher Education Act of 1965, AAUP's legislative agenda, etc.…

  13. Understanding Diurnality and Inter-Seasonality of a Sub-tropical Urban Heat Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Sarangi, Chandan; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand

    2016-12-01

    We quantify the spatial and temporal aspects of the urban heat-island (UHI) effect for Kanpur, a major city in the humid sub-tropical monsoon climate of the Gangetic basin. Fixed station measurements are used to investigate the diurnality and inter-seasonality in the urban-rural differences in surface temperature ({Δ } T_s ) and air temperature ({Δ } T_c ) separately. The extent of the spatial variations of the nighttime {Δ } T_c and {Δ } T_s is investigated through mobile campaigns and satellite remote sensing respectively. Nighttime {Δ } T_c values dominate during both the pre-monsoon (maximum of 3.6°C) and the monsoon (maximum of 2.0°C). However, the diurnality in {Δ } T_s is different, with higher daytime values during the pre-monsoon, but very little diurnality during the monsoon. The nighttime {Δ } T_s value is mainly associated with differences in the urban-rural incoming longwave radiative flux (r2=0.33 during the pre-monsoon; 0.65 during the monsoon), which, in turn, causes a difference in the outgoing longwave radiative flux. This difference may modulate the nighttime {Δ } T_c value as suggested by significant correlations (r2=0.68 for the pre-monsoon; 0.50 for the monsoon). The magnitude of {Δ } T_c may also be modulated by advection, as it is inversely related with the urban wind speed. A combination of in situ, remotely sensed, and model simulation data were used to show that the inter-seasonality in {Δ } T_s , and, to a lesser extent, in {Δ } T_c , may be related to the change in the land use of the rural site between the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. Results suggest that the degree of coupling of {Δ } T_s and {Δ } T_c may be a strong function of land use and land cover.

  14. Energy conservation in grain (corn) drying with combination high-temperature, low-temperature methods. Final report, July 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, R.V.; Gustafson, R.J.; Cloud, H.A.; Walter, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Field drying experiments were carried out during the 1975 through 1978 harvest seasons at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station. Several combination drying experiments were conducted each season along with a control (conventional drying) experiment. Based on the results of the field experiments, comparisons of energy requirements for combination and conventional drying were made. Performance of the low-temperature, in-storage phase of combination drying was evaluated using computer simulation. Drying performance using ambient air was compared to performance when small amounts of supplemental heat were added, either solar or constant source heat. Long term weather records were used to evaluate variations in performance from year to year.

  15. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  16. Seasonal effects of heat shock on bacterial populations, including artificial Vibrio parahaemolyticus exposure, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Aagesen, Alisha M; Häse, Claudia C

    2014-04-01

    During the warmer summer months, oysters are conditioned to spawn, resulting in massive physiological efforts for gamete production. Moreover, the higher temperatures during the summer typically result in increased bacteria populations in oysters. We hypothesized that these animals are under multiple stresses that lead to possible immune system impairments during the summer months that can possibly lead to death. Here we show that in the summer and the fall animals exposed to a short heat stress respond similarly, resulting in a general trend of more bacteria being found in heat shocked animals than their non-heat shocked counterparts. We also show that naturally occurring bacterial populations are effected by a heat shock. In addition, oysters artificially contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were also affected by a heat shock. Heat shocked animals contained higher concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus in their tissues and hemolymph than control animals and this was consistent for animals examined during summer and fall. Finally, oyster hemocyte interactions with V. parahaemolyticus differed based on the time of the year. Overall, these findings demonstrate that seasonal changes and/or a short heat shock is sufficient to impact bacterial retention, particularly V. parahaemolyticus, in oysters and this line of research might lead to important considerations for animal harvesting procedures.

  17. Seasonal infertility in sows: a five year field study to analyze the relative roles of heat stress and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Auvigne, Vincent; Leneveu, Philippe; Jehannin, Christophe; Peltoniemi, Olli; Sallé, Elisabeth

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relative roles of high temperature and photoperiod as environmental factors of seasonal infertility in swine. The results of five years (2003-2007) of ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis carried out in 266 indoor farms were analyzed. For all farms, the data covered the entire study period. The farms were situated in four French regions. The data of 22,773 batches and 610,117 sows were included. Seasonal infertility was defined as the relative difference between the fertility rate in 'summer' (inseminations in weeks 25-42) and 'winter' (inseminations in weeks 1-18 of the same year). In each region, two meteorological variables were defined, based on the data of a reference weather station: the number of hot days (maximum temperature >or= 25 degrees C) and tropical days (maximum temperature >or= 32 degrees C and minimum temperature >or= 18 degrees C). The mean fertility was 85%. The median seasonal infertility was 2.8% and more than 7.1% for a quarter of farms. Seasonal infertility did not vary with areas or baseline fertility (defined for each studied farm as the average winter fertility over five years). Seasonal infertility differed with the year (p<0.001). Seasonal infertility was significantly higher during 2003 than in the other four years, which did not differ among each other. In the four regions, 2003 was the year with the highest number of hot days and 2007 with the least. Our study strengthens the hypothesis of a prominent role of photoperiod in seasonal infertility and of an additional role of heat stress the hottest years.

  18. Body temperature null distributions in reptiles with nonzero heat capacity: seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Elsey, Ruth M; Trosclair, Phillip L

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of body temperature may increase fitness of animals by ensuring that biochemical and physiological processes proceed at an optimal rate. The validity of current methods of testing whether or not thermoregulation in reptiles occurs is often limited to very small species that have near zero heat capacity. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows estimation of body temperature null distributions of large reptiles and to investigate seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Continuous body temperature records of wild alligators were obtained from implanted dataloggers in winter (n=7, mass range: 1.6-53.6 kg) and summer (n=7, mass range: 1.9-54.5 kg). Body temperature null distributions were calculated by randomising behavioural postures, thereby randomly altering relative animal surface areas exposed to different avenues of heat transfer. Core body temperatures were predicted by calculations of transient heat transfer by conduction and blood flow. Alligator body temperatures follow regular oscillations during the day. Occasionally, body temperature steadied during the day to fall within a relatively narrow range. Rather than indicating shuttling thermoregulation, however, this pattern could be predicted from random movements. Average daily body temperature increases with body mass in winter but not in summer. Daily amplitudes of body temperature decrease with increasing body mass in summer but not in winter. These patterns result from differential exposure to heat transfer mechanisms at different seasons. In summer, alligators are significantly cooler than predictions for a randomly moving animal, and the reverse is the case in winter. Theoretical predictions show, however, that alligators can be warmer in winter if they maximised their sun exposure. We concluded that alligators may not rely exclusively on regulation of body temperature but that they may also acclimatise biochemically to seasonally

  19. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates.

    PubMed

    Real, António C; Borges, José; Cabral, J Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  20. Impact of the seasonal cycle on the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic volume and heat transport under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic ocean circulation is projected to change considerably with future climate change. Here, we investigate whether changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the meridional heat transport (OHT) result in changes in their decadal predictability. In MPI-ESM-LR, we generate two hindcast ensembles with 20 start dates and 10 ensemble members per start date for (i) the present climate state in the CMIP5 historical simulation extended with RCP4.5 starting in 1995 and (ii) a future climate state in RCP4.5 starting in 2045. These two hindcast ensembles are compared against the historical simulation and RCP4.5 as control simulation, respectively, using the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and the Brier skill score (BSS) decomposition in combination with reliability diagrams. The analysis is performed for yearly means and multiyear seasonal means of the AMOC and the OHT. Our results show a decrease in predictability of the AMOC and the OHT from the present climate state to the future climate state in RCP4.5. Both, changes in the AMOC and the OHT decadal predictability are largest at latitudes where the mean seasonal cycle of both AMOC and OHT is projected to change. For example around 25°N, the AMOC shows a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.5 Sv and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead times from up to 10 years to 2 years in the ACC. For the OHT, we find a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.1 PW and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead time from up to 4 years to 2 years in the ACC around 25°N. Similarly, the BSS and reliability diagrams show a reduction in skill from the present climate state to the future climate state. For multiyear seasonal means, summer months dominate the predictability in the present and future climate. Even though the changes in the decadal predictability of AMOC and OHT are small in general, their

  1. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  2. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  3. A heat wave during leaf expansion severely reduces productivity and modifies seasonal growth patterns in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Stangler, Dominik Florian; Hamann, Andreas; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-10-13

    A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period. We evaluated both growth phenology (onset, cessation, duration of radial growth, time of maximum daily growth rate) and productivity (monthly and seasonal average growth rates, maximum daily growth rate, tree-ring width) and tested for differences and interactions among species and years. Productivity of sugar maple was drastically compromised by a 3-day spring heat wave in 2010 as indicated by low growth rates, very early growth cessation and a lagged growth onset in the following year. Sugar maple also responded more sensitively than yellow birch to a prolonged drought period in July 2012, but final tree-ring width was not significantly reduced due to positive responses to above-average temperatures in the preceding spring. We conclude that sugar maple, a species that currently dominates northern hardwood forests, is vulnerable to heat wave disturbances during leaf expansion, which might occur more frequently under anticipated climate change.

  4. Encyclopedia Reviews 1978

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minemier, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)

  5. Climate-vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  6. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  7. All Season-DX Cooling and Gas Heating. GCS3 Series - Horizontal and Down-Flo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    The Lennox single package all-season rooftop unit and mounting frame is described in detail. This piece of equipment is designed primarily for rooftop installation with bottom handling of conditioned air. In addition, an installation with end handling of conditioned air makes possible three air distribution patterns. Areas discussed are--(1) unit…

  8. Field evaluation of green and red leaf lettuce genotypes in the Imperial, San Joaquin, and Salinas Valleys of California for heat tolerance and extension of the growing seasons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming poses serious threats and challenges to the production of leafy vegetables. Being a cool-season crop, lettuce is vulnerable to heat-stress. To adapt to climate change, this study was conducted to evaluate the performance of leaf lettuce genotypes for heat tolerance by growing them in ...

  9. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  10. Accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets using SESAME-79 field data as revealed by observing system simulation experiments. [Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Y.-H.; Anthes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments are used to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets which employ the AVE-SESAME 1979 data. The time-including, four-dimensional data set of a mesoscale model is used to simulate rawinsonde observations from AVE-SESAME 1979. The 5 C/day (heat budget) and 2 g/kg per day (moisture budget) magnitudes of error obtained indicate difficulties in the diagnosis of the heating rate in weak convective systems. The influences exerted by observational frequency, objective analysis, observational density, vertical interpolation, and observational errors on the budget are also studied, and it is found that the temporal and spatial resolution of the SESAME regional network is marginal for diagnosing convective effects on a horizontal time scale of 550 x 550 km.

  11. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E).

  12. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part II, Discussion and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    The heat-flow profile across the Arabian Shield from Ar Riyad to Ad Darb and across the Red Sea is examined for compatibility with the lithospheric structure of the area as deduced from geologic and other geophysical data. Broad continental uplift associated with Red Sea rifting is symmetric about the Red Sea axis, and geologic and geochronologic evidence indicate that uplift has occurred mainly in the interval 25-13 Ma (mega-annum) ago. Thermal-profile changes in the upper mantle resulting from an influx of hot material associated with rifting yield the correct order of magnitude of uplift, and this mechanism is suggested as the explanation for the regional doming. A lithospheric section, constructed from seismic refraction, gravity, and regional geologic data, provides the framework for construction of thermal models. Thermal gradient measurements were made in drill holes at five shot points. Geotherms for the Shield, which assume a radiogenic heat-source distribution that decreases exponentially with depth, yield temperatures of about 450?C at a depth of 40 km (base of the crust) for shot points 2 (Sabhah) and 3. The geotherm for shot point 4 (near Bishah) yields a distinctly higher temperature (about 580?C) for the same depth. Static models used to model the heat flow in the oceanic crust of the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain either yield too small a heat flow to match the observed heat flow or give lithosphere thicknesses that are so thin as to be improbable. Dynamic (solid-state accretion) models, which account for mantle flow at the base of the lithosphere, adequately match the observed heat-flow values. In the deep-water trough of the Red Sea, which is presently undergoing active sea-floor spreading, classical models of heat flow for a moving slab with accretion at the spreading center are adequate to explain the average heat-flow level. At shot point 5 (Ad Darb), the anomalous heat flow of 2 HFU (heat-flow units) can be explained in terms of a Shield

  13. Robeson County Indian Education Needs Assessment, FY-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth Dial; And Others

    Robeson County, North Carolina, has the largest Indian population in the state. There are 25,684 Lumbee Indians in the county; Indian students comprise 61 percent of the school population. In compliance with Title IV-A regulations, a 1978-79 needs assessment was conducted to allow the Indian community participation in the development of cultural…

  14. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Liu, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation, which constitutes ˜ 70 % of the total amount of freshwater consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) with an active crop model, two high-resolution (˜ 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat (LH), sensible heat (SH), and carbon fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed that the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer, with a LH increase of ˜ 100 W m-2 and a SH decrease of ˜ 60 W m-2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate is below 5 mm day-1, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm day-1, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC m-2 day-1, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by ˜ 0.8 gC m-2 day-1. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH, and NEE.

  15. Annual and seasonal trends of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days in coastal regions of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Khan, Shamsuddin

    2011-06-01

    The present study utilizes daily maximum and minimum values of temperature for a period of 37 years from 1970-2006 in five coastal cities for the estimation of monthly and annual totals of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days at base temperatures of 18°C and 24°C, 18°C and 20°C, 7°C, and 13°C, respectively. Increasing trends were observed in case of annual total cooling degree-days (CDD) and industrial degree-days over the period of study at all base temperatures. Furthermore, well-defined seasonal trends were seen with increasing values from January to July and then decreasing towards the end of the year. The heating degree-days (HDD) analysis indicated slight heating during January to March and in December. The annual total HDD showed decreasing trends at both base temperatures. It is worth mentioning that the rate of increase of annual CDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan with an exception at Yanbo, where it was higher than at Al-Wejh. On the other hand, the rate of decrease of annual HDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan. The seasonal and annual values of cooling degree-days were found to be comparable with corresponding values for stations like international airports in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Musqat, and Cairo with similar types of climatic conditions.

  16. Scaffolding Classroom Discourse in an Election Year: Keeping a Cool Mood in a Heated Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; May, Laura A.; Stenhouse, Vera L.; Meyers, Laura E.; Holbrook, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Certainly, teaching about politics can be daunting, especially as the political climate in the United States becomes increasingly partisan as a result of heated political rhetoric amplified through a variety of media outlets. However, elementary teachers can help students develop the respectful dispositions they will need as young adults living in…

  17. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates.

  18. Remedial Education at College of the Sequoias (1978-1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Marietta

    In 1982, the California Postsecondary Education Commission conducted a statewide survey of remedial education in California's community colleges for the 3-year period, 1978-79, 1979-80, and 1980-81. College of the Sequoias's (COS's) response to this survey included the following information: (1) COS offered 6 remedial reading courses, 4 remedial…

  19. Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

  20. Education in Egypt, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  1. Seasonal variation in the solar spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.W.; Healey, J.

    1980-01-01

    One minute data from 423 consecutive days is used to measure the seasonal solar spectrum variations. The parameters measured are horizontal global irradiation with WG7, OG1, RG2, RG8 and uv filters and direct normal radiation. An average ratio of each filtered horizontal global to the clear filter is computed for each day using a least square correlation. The correlation coefficient adds information about the variability of the ratio during the day. The variability of these ratios is much higher in winter than summer, for cloudy vs. sunny days, and humid days vs. dry days. The effects of optical air mass is inferred by the study of two very clear days. The effect of water vapor is inferred from the summer relative increase in the OG1-RG2 band. The uv radiation is much lower for the 1979-80 winter than the 1978-79 winter.

  2. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  3. Warm-season diurnal circulations and heat extremes over the northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew C.

    Summer synoptic circulations over the northwest U.S., and their interactions with regional terrain, land/water contrasts, and surface heating, give rise to a variety of fascinating meteorological phenomena, many of which have yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how projected future warming associated with increased greenhouse gases will modify these important features. The work herein seeks to ameliorate this with a comprehensive examination of two important aspects of northwest U.S. summer weather and climate: diurnal circulations and changes to the conditions associated with extreme temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. To simulate regional diurnal circulations, GFS model output was obtained for July and August 2009-2011. These data were categorized into hour of the day, composited, and the resulting files were used to initialize and provide boundary conditions to a WRF (version 3.5) model run. It was shown that, when compared to observations, this WRF run sufficiently simulates average diurnal variability. Using this simulation, the diurnal circulations of the region were described, including several important wind features within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Snoqualmie Pass, and the Columbia River Gorge. Also, regional nocturnal low-level wind maxima are described, including one over the northern Willamette valley and another over the high plateau of eastern Oregon. Recent work by the authors has elucidated the physical mechanisms that drive heat extremes over the northwest U.S., including the necessity of a ridge aloft, with associated subsidence and advection warming. Also, easterly flow is crucial for keeping the marine air at bay, and producing downslope flow and adiabatic warming on the western slopes of regional north-south terrain barriers. Given the rising temperatures projected under anthropogenic global warming, how are these conditions, and associated low-level temperature distributions, projected to change? As a

  4. Research into lightning protection of distribution systems II - results from Florida Field work 1978 and 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Darveniza, M.; Uman, M.A.

    1984-04-01

    Experience in the Tampa Bay area during August 1978 thunderstorms resulted in significant improvements in the field work carried out during 1979. This paper describes the changes to equipment and data sources, and presents overall results for the 1979 thunderstorm season. Where appropriate, these are linked to 1978 data and to data obtained from equipment which operated on a year-long basis.

  5. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  6. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  7. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods.

  8. Corrosion protection of solar-collctor heat exchangers with electrochemically deposited films. Final report, 15 May 1978-15 November 1979. [Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.R.; Schnaper, G.H.; Brummer, S.B.

    1980-05-01

    The goal of this program was the demonstration of a novel corrosion protection technique for the common solar collector metals: Al, Cu, and Fe as mild steel. This involves the electrochemical deposition of thin, adherent polymer films on the interior of heat-exchanger tubes by application of a current in the presence of a suitable organic monomer. Polyphenylene oxide (PPO) films were anodically deposited onto Cu and Fe coupons from methanolic media. However, defects in these films afforded poor corrosion protection. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, suitably functionalized PPO films were cross-linked via Schiff base formation in a subsequent chemical step. While these chemically modified PPO films were demonstrably more resistant to ethylene glycol H/sub 2/O media at elevated temperatures, they were eventually undetermined by the thermal transfer fluid. Cinnamaldehyde, a styrene-type monomre, has been successfully electrodeposited onto Al coupons. This process involved a constant, albeit unreferenced potential technique in which the Al is made the negative electrode. Cathodic deposition onto Al avoids passivating Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ barrier coating formation, and is amenable to the cross-linking technique. Filmed and cross-linked Al samples stored at elevated temperatures resisted corrosive processes compared to unfilmed control samples. Pitting, however, was the ultimate fate of all filmed samples.

  9. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  10. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  12. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  13. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA.

  14. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  15. Neck abscess: 79 cases

    PubMed Central

    Bulgurcu, Suphi; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Demirhan, Erhan; Kozcu, Sureyya Hikmet; Cukurova, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neck abscess is a disease that might cause mortality and severe morbidity, if it is not treated urgently. In our study, patients with diagnosis of neck abscess in our clinic were analyzed retrospectively and presented in the light of the literature. METHODS: In our clinic, age distribution, source of infection, systemic disease, imaging methods that were used in diagnosis, preferred anaesthesia during drainage, abscess sites, culture results of abscess material, complications during treatment procedure, any antibiotherapy before admission and duration of hospitalization of 79 cases with neck abscess who were treated in the hospital between January 2008 and January 2015 were assessed. RESULTS: Cases in our study were aged between 1–79 (mean 28.3) years and 43 of them were female and 36 were male patients. Systemic diseases were determined in 19 of the cases. The most common systemic disease was diabetes mellitus. Abscesses were localized mostly at peritonsillar region and 13 of the cases were operated when abscess were in multipl localizations. In 74 of the cases, drainage was performed under local anaesthesia and in 5 cases under general anaesthesia. Four of these 5 cases, abscesses were localized within retropharyngeal region and 1 of them had multiple abscesses at various regions. Staphylococcus aereus was the most detected microorganism based on culture results. Three adult cases were followed up in the intensive care unit because of development of mediastinitis. One of these 3 cases exited because of sepsis. Hospitalization periods of 79 cases ranged between 2–21 days (mean 7.64 days). Hospitalization period of 19 cases with systemic diseases were 9.47 days (p<0.05) and statistically which were statistically significantly longer when compared with those without any systemic disease. CONCLUSION: Neck abscess must be diagnosed early and treated with surgical drainage and parenteral therapy because it might cause severe complications. PMID:28058371

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum-localized small heat shock protein that accumulates in mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.) during seasonal cold acclimation is responsive to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Kanno, Yuri; Seo, Mitsunori; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2010-04-01

    With seasonal changes, several proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fraction in the bark of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.). Results of partial amino acid sequence analysis in our previous study suggested that one of these proteins is the ER-localized small heat shock protein (sHSP), designated 20-kD winter-accumulating protein (WAP20). In the present study, molecular and biochemical properties of WAP20 were investigated in detail. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA has the predicted signal sequence to the ER, retention signal to the ER and two consensus regions conserved in sHSPs. Recombinant WAP20 expressed in Escherichia coli also showed typical biochemical features of sHSPs, including the formation of a high-molecular-mass complex between 200 and 300 kD under native conditions, promotion of the renaturation of chemically denaturated citrate synthase and prevention of heat stress-induced aggregation of the enzyme. Transcript levels of WAP20 in the bark tissue were seasonally changed, showing high expression levels from mid-October to mid-December, and the transcript levels were additionally increased and decreased by cold treatment and warm treatment, respectively. WAP20 transcripts were detected abundantly in bark tissue rather than xylem and winter bud tissues during seasonal cold acclimation. The bark tissue specificity of WAP20 accumulation was also observed by exogenous application of phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in de-acclimated twigs, whereas WAP20 transcripts were increased in all of these tissues by heat shock treatment at 37 degrees C in summer twigs. The results suggest that ABA may be involved in the expression of the WAP20 gene in bark tissue of the mulberry tree during seasonal cold acclimation.

  17. Changes in the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic meridional heat transport in a RCP 8.5 climate projection in MPI-ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna

    2017-02-01

    We investigate changes in the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Ocean meridional heat transport (OHT) in a climate projection experiment with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Specifically, we compare a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) RCP 8.5 climate change scenario, covering the simulation period from 2005 to 2300, to a historical simulation, covering the simulation period from 1850 to 2005. In RCP 8.5, the OHT declines by 30-50 % in comparison to the historical simulation in the North Atlantic by the end of the 23rd century. The decline in the OHT is accompanied by a change in the seasonal cycle of the total OHT and its components. We decompose the OHT into overturning and gyre component. For the OHT seasonal cycle, we find a northward shift of 5° and latitude-dependent shifts between 1 and 6 months that are mainly associated with changes in the meridional velocity field. We find that the changes in the OHT seasonal cycle predominantly result from changes in the wind-driven surface circulation, which projects onto the overturning component of the OHT in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic. This leads in turn to latitude-dependent shifts between 1 and 6 months in the overturning component. In comparison to the historical simulation, in the subpolar North Atlantic, in RCP 8.5 we find a reduction of the North Atlantic Deep Water formation and changes in the gyre heat transport result in a strongly weakened seasonal cycle with a weakened amplitude by the end of the 23rd century.

  18. Aerosol and Trace Gas Sources in Northern China: Changes in Concentrations Before and After the Official "Heating Season" Help Characterize Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Marufu, L. T.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, Z.; Stehr, J. W.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.

    2006-05-01

    In March 2005, as a part of the project EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment), in-situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties were made at Xianghe, a rural surface site about 70 km east-southeast, generally downwind, of Beijing metropolitan area. CO, SO2, NO/NOy, O3, aerosol absorption coefficient, and aerosol scattering coefficients were determined simultaneously using the University of Maryland light aircraft instrument package. Pollutant ratios have been calculated to characterize the emission sources around the site. A dramatic drop in the NOy/CO ratio found around March 13/14 suggesting a sudden shutoff of a large fraction of the high- temperature combustion sources in the region. This observed change in concentrations occurred simultaneously with the transition from "heating season" to "non-heating season" in Northern China. Over the course of just a few days (around March 15), all boilers used to provide heat for cities and towns in this region are shut down in accordance with a governmental guideline. Most of these boilers operate with coal, and by using ratios of NOy/CO, SO2/CO, aerosol scattering/CO, and aerosol absorption/CO during and after the "heating season", emissions from these small to medium sized coal-fired boilers can be characterized. Results indicate that these residential and small-scale industrial heaters are a major source of NOy and SO2. Besides elevating the regional atmospheric pollutant level, the trace gases and aerosols emitted also have potential effects in other aspects such as the biogeochemical cycle of N and the agricultural production in this region.

  19. Seasonal variation in expression pattern of genes under HSP70 : Seasonal variation in expression pattern of genes under HSP70 family in heat- and cold-adapted goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dipak; Upadhyay, Ramesh C; Chaudhary, Umesh B; Kumar, Ravindra; Singh, Sohanvir; Ashutosh; G, Jagan Mohanarao; Polley, Shamik; Mukherjee, Ayan; Das, Tapan K; De, Sachinandan

    2014-05-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of the most abundant and best characterized heat shock protein family that consists of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress, and plays crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and to quantify their expression pattern in heat- and cold-adapted Indian goats (Capra hircus) with respect to different seasons. Five HSP70 gene homologues to HSPA8, HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPA1L, and HSPA2 were identified by gene-specific primers. The cDNA sequences showed high similarity to other mammals, and proteins have an estimated molecular weight of around 70 kDa. The expression of HSP70 genes was observed during summer and winter. During summer, the higher expression of HSPA8, HSPA6, and HSPA1A was observed, whereas the expression levels of HSPA1L and HSPA2 were found to be lower. It was also observed that the expression of HSPA1A and HSPA8 was higher during winter in both heat- and cold-adapted goats but downregulates in case of other HSPs. Therefore, both heat and cold stress induced the overexpression of HSP70 genes. An interesting finding that emerged from the study is the higher expression of HSP70 genes in cold-adapted goats during summer and in heat-adapted goats during winter. Altogether, the results indicate that the expression pattern of HSP70 genes is species- and breed-specific, most likely due to variations in thermal tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  20. Climate change-related temperature impacts on warm season heat mortality: a proof-of-concept methodology using BenMAP.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, A Scott; Fann, Neal; Fulcher, Charles; Dolwick, Patrick; Hubbell, Bryan; Bierwagen, Britta; Morefield, Philip

    2011-02-15

    Climate change is anticipated to raise overall temperatures and is likely to increase heat-related human health morbidity and mortality risks. The objective of this work was to develop a proof-of-concept approach for estimating excess heat-related premature deaths in the continental United States resulting from potential changes in future temperature using the BenMAP model. In this approach we adapt the methods and tools that the US Environmental Protection Agency uses to assess air pollution health impacts by incorporating temperature modeling and heat mortality health impact functions. This new method demonstrates the ability to apply the existing temperature-health literature to quantify prospective changes in climate-sensitive heat-related mortality. We compared estimates of future temperature with and without climate change and applied heat-mortality health functions to estimate relative changes in heat-related premature mortality. Using the A1B emissions scenario, we applied the GISS-II global circulation model downscaled to 36-km using MM5 and formatted using the Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor. For averaged temperatures derived from the 5 years 2048-2052 relative to 1999-2003 we estimated for the warm season May-September a national U.S. estimate of annual incidence of heat-related mortality to be 3700-3800 from all causes, 3500 from cardiovascular disease, and 21 000-27 000 from nonaccidental death, applying various health impact functions. Our estimates of mortality, produced to validate the application of a new methodology, suggest the importance of quantifying heat impacts in economic assessments of climate change.

  1. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  2. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  3. Bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system in the ice melt season derived from concentration-temperature relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2008-06-01

    The bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system (Kb) in the ice melt season is estimated by a new method at 18 areas that cover much of the Antarctic seasonal ice zone. The method is based on a model in which ice melting is caused only by heat input through open water and is treated in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system. Kb is estimated by fitting a convergent curve derived from the model to an observed ice concentration-temperature plot (CT-plot). Estimated Kb is 1.15 ± 0.72 × 10-4 m s-1 on average. If Kb can be expressed by the product of the heat transfer coefficient (ch) and the friction velocity (uτ), ch is 0.0113 ± 0.0055. This value is about two times larger than that estimated at the ice bottom. The relationship between Kb and the geostrophic wind speed (Uw), which is roughly proportional to uτ, shows a significant positive correlation, as expected. Further, Kb seems more likely to be proportional to the square or cube of Uw rather than a linear relationship. Since Kb estimated from our method is associated with ice melting in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system, this relationship likely indicates both the mixing process of heat in the upper ocean (proportional to uτ3) and the local heat transfer process at the ice-ocean interface (proportional to uτ).

  4. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  5. STS-79 Flight Day 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, start another busy day on orbit activating experiments in the Spacehab module. Readdy and Wilcutt are seen conducting two rendezvous burns while other crew members are seen working in the Spacehab module. The Active Rack Isolation System, or ARIS, is tended to by Walz, who performs a minor maintenance procedure on one of ARIS' vibration-damping pushrods while Akers works with an inventory management system using a bar code reader to more effectively keep track of items that will be transferred back and forth between the Shuttle and the Mir. Apt continues work with a furnace which heats to nearly 1,600 degrees centigrade to melt metal samples for study after the flight. Apt also provides a television tour of the Spacehab, which is twice its normal size for this flight to allow extra room for science experiments and logistical items slated for transfer to Mir.

  6. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  7. Mars at Ls 79o: Tharsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    4 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Tharsis face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 79o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  9. Potential seasonal ecological challenge of heat strain among Australian Aboriginal people practicing traditional subsistence methods: a computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-11-01

    It has been largely accepted that Australian Aboriginal people practicing hunting and gathering traditionally underused their objective economic possibilities by working short hours relative to nonhunter-gatherer populations. However, the possibility that their subsistence quest might have been limited by potential heat strain has not been considered for Australian hunter-gatherers. In this article the influence of work and heat load on the potential for heat strain among adult male Australian Aboriginal people is modelled. The possibility that the short working day of Arnhem Land adults reported in the literature might reflect ecologically limited work scheduling by way of potential heat strain is examined. Three climatic regions of the North of Western Australia and the Northern Territory were identified, using data available from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Data from the months of January, April, July, and October were used with the United States Army Heat Strain Model, along with assumptions with respect to work load and time scheduling. Predictive modelling indicates that a late start to the working day could carry considerable risks of potential heat strain during the summer, when humidity and maximum daily temperature are highest for all three climatic regions, but especially in the tropical coastal region. While extended work times may have been needed to acquire adequate food under traditional conditions, work output could have been limited by potential heat strain under some conditions likely to have prevailed.

  10. Expression profiling of major heat shock protein genes during different seasons in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  11. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; Zhang, Minghua; Schumacher, Courtney; Upton, Hannah; Jensen, Michael P.; Johnson, Karen L.; Wang, Meng; Ahlgrimm, Maike; Feng, Zhe; Minnis, Patrick; Thieman, Mandana

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wet season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia - i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems - is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.

  12. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; ...

    2016-11-16

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wetmore » season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia – i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems – is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.« less

  13. 40 CFR 86.309-79 - Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heated as is indicated in Figure D79-1. (iii) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements must be... components shown in Fig. D79-1 by numeric identifier. (1) Filters. Glass fiber filter paper is permitted...

  14. 40 CFR 86.309-79 - Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... heated as is indicated in Figure D79-1. (iii) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements must be... components shown in Fig. D79-1 by numeric identifier. (1) Filters. Glass fiber filter paper is permitted...

  15. 40 CFR 86.309-79 - Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... heated as is indicated in Figure D79-1. (iii) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements must be... components shown in Fig. D79-1 by numeric identifier. (1) Filters. Glass fiber filter paper is permitted...

  16. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  17. Army Occupational Health Program, 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    AD A072 913 ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY ABERDEEN PROVING SR—ETC Fit 6/5 ARMY OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM, 1978.CU) UNCLASSIFIED 1978 C A CROC...irC ~ ~~5 ~ ¶5 “u UNITE D STATES ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY U ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MO 21010 ARMY OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM...M.D. COL , MC Di rector, Occupati onal and Environmental Health _ _ _/ Acccs3ion For NTL, ~~ i&1 Un~~~~~~ ced J~~.t~.C1 c~ t io n___________ — J A

  18. Seasonal gonadal development and age-related maturity patterns of introduced pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758) in a heated thermal reservoir and an adjacent river reach.

    PubMed

    Valente, E; Masson, G; Maul, A; Fox, M G; Meyer, A; Pihan, J C

    2016-05-01

    Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0.73, P<0.001). GSI of females in the reservoir increased with the stage at maturity, but GSI was not significantly correlated with total length, age or growth rate of the individual. All sampled individuals of both sexes were mature at age 1 in the heated reservoir, whereas 48% of age 1 males and 57% of age 1 females were not mature in the river. GSI patterns suggest that males in the reservoir adopted one of two reproductive strategies (nesters or cuckolders), whereas no small males with large enough testes to be considered cuckolders were apparent in the river. The warm thermal regime of Mirgenbach Reservoir led to precocial maturity, early season reproduction, and the greater prevalence of apparent cuckolder males than would normally occur in this climatic zone.

  19. 1978-1979 Comparative Costs and Staffing Report for Physical Plants of College and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Comparative data on physical plant costs and staffing in higher education for 1978-79 are presented. Questionnaires were sent to member institutions of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges (APPA) and the National Association of College and University Business Officers. Unit cost summaries and wage and…

  20. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  1. Wet-season Dormancy Release in Seed Banks of a Tropical Leguminous Shrub is Determined by Wet Heat

    PubMed Central

    VAN KLINKEN, RIEKS D.; FLACK, LLOYD K.; PETTIT, WILLIAM

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hard-seeded (physical) dormancy is common among plants, yet mechanisms for dormancy release are poorly understood, especially in the tropics. The following questions are asked: (a) whether dormancy release in seed banks of the tropical shrub Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpiniaceae) is determined by wet heat (incubation under wet, warm to hot, conditions); and (b) whether its effect is modified by microclimate. • Methods A seed burial trial was conducted in the wet–dry tropics (northern Australia) to compare dormancy release across different habitats (open, artificial cover, ground cover and canopy cover), burial depths (0, 3 and 20 cm) and burial durations (2, 6 and 14 weeks). Results were compared with predictions using a laboratory-derived relationship between wet heat and dormancy release, and microclimate data collected during the trial. • Key Results Wet heat (defined as the soil temperature above which seeds were exposed to field capacity or higher for a cumulative total of 24 h) was 43·6 °C in the 0 cm open treatment, and decreased with increasing shade and depth to 29·5 °C at 20 cm under canopy cover. The dormancy release model showed that wet heat was a good predictor of the proportion of seeds remaining dormant. Furthermore, dormancy release was particularly sensitive to wet heat across the temperature range encountered across treatments. This resulted in a 16-fold difference in dormancy levels between open (<5 % of seeds still dormant) and covered (82 %) microhabitats. • Conclusions These results demonstrate that wet heat is the principal dormancy release mechanism for P. aculeata when conditions are hot and wet. They also highlight the potential importance of microclimate in driving the population dynamics of such species. PMID:16891334

  2. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; López-Baca, M A; Vicente, R; Mejía, A; Álvarez, F D; Correa-Calderón, A; Meza-Herrera, C A; Mellado, M; Guerra-Liera, J E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  3. 29 CFR 1978.103 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation. 1978.103 Section 1978.103 Labor Regulations... Procedure Complaints, Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1978.103 Investigation. (a) OSHA... been discovered in the course of its investigation. (c) If, on the basis of information gathered...

  4. 29 CFR 1978.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investigation. 1978.104 Section 1978.104 Labor Regulations... TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1978.104 Investigation. (a) Upon receipt of a complaint in the investigating office, the Assistant Secretary will...

  5. 29 CFR 1978.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investigation. 1978.104 Section 1978.104 Labor Regulations... TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 (STAA), AS AMENDED Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1978.104 Investigation. (a) Upon receipt of a complaint in the investigating office,...

  6. 29 CFR 1978.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investigation. 1978.104 Section 1978.104 Labor Regulations... TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1978.104 Investigation. (a) Upon receipt of a complaint in the investigating office, the Assistant Secretary will...

  7. 29 CFR 1978.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Investigation. 1978.104 Section 1978.104 Labor Regulations... TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 (STAA), AS AMENDED Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1978.104 Investigation. (a) Upon receipt of a complaint in the investigating office,...

  8. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  9. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  10. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  11. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

  12. Estimation of water velocity and heat flux in horizontal bypaths of the alluvial fan, using waveforms of seasonal variations in spring water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Onodera, S.; Kitaoka, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the alluvial fan, there are many palaeochannels which are composed of more permeabile media like gravel and sand, and many springs and wells on those have been useful for human life as well as ecosystem. These type of the springs have the different waveforms of the seasonal thermal variation from those of the river or air which is the thermal source. In detail, the phase shifting and amplitude declining are confirmed in springs. In this research, we examine to confirm the thermal waveforms in the river and springs and to estimate the horizontal bypass flow velocities in palaeochannels around the river in the alluvial fan. The study areas are Egawa springs in Tokushima Prefecture and Asahi river springs in Okayama prefecture of western Japan. On the Egawa springs, Koenuma(1939) and Arai and Yokohata(1990) had reported that the seasonal variation phase of the spring temperature was delayed about 2 months and the amplitude range was declined 10-15 degrees Celsius as compared with the Yoshino River. At the springs of Asahi River, the temperature data was collected 1 week interval. The temperature data of Egawa springs (Arai and Yokohata, 1990) and Asahi River springs was analyzed, assuming the subsurface water flow only through the bypath as the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation and heat flux from the ground surface depends on the temperature gradient between the aquifer and the upper layer. The analytical solution of this equation was verified by parameter fittings with the data. The Darcy velocity of subsurface flow was estimated about 1.7 m/day in Egawa springs and about 1.3 m/day in Asahi River springs. If the hydraulic gradient is 0.001, the hydraulic conductivity was estimated about 1.8 cm/s in the Egawa Spring. The value was similar to 1.5-3.3 cm/s by Murashimo et al. (1963). In the Asahi River springs, the hydraulic conductivity was also estimated to be about 1.5 cm/s, which was similar to Egawa Spring. The distribution of one

  13. Publications of LASL research, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.K.; Salazar, C.A.

    1980-04-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for 1978. Papers published in 1978 are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations are also listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory reports, papers released as non-LASL reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers (whether published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports), papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by LASL authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are also included.

  14. An Analysis of Teacher Aide Administrative Practices in Kansas Public Schools, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Robert C.

    Responses to a questionnaire sent to all Kansas public school districts with enrollments of 500 and over revealed several characteristics of teacher aide utilization in the state. Such utilization is increasing, especially among larger districts where paid aides predominated over volunteers. In most districts all aides were paid, usually by the…

  15. Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

  16. Mathematics and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on mathematics and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, actuaries,…

  17. Emergency School Aid Act Pilot Project, Final Project Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Lowrie A.

    Two Emergency School Aid Act pilot programs were conducted by the Atlanta Public Schools: Cultural Adjustment and Special Mathematics. The purpose of the Cultural Adjustment program was to reduce isolation and educational problems related to non-English speaking pupils and pupils who have first language interference. Program evaluation conclusions…

  18. A Study of Public Radio Stations' Educational Services, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This second national survey of public radio stations' involvement in educational services to schools, colleges, and universities was conducted by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for use by individual public radio stations, educational agencies, and other organizations interested and involved in planning public radio's services to…

  19. Factory Production Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on factory production occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include assemblers, blue collar worker…

  20. Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

  1. Printing and Publishing Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on printing and publishing occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include newspaper reporters, photographers,…

  2. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  3. Sales Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on sales occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile sales workers, buyers, insurance…

  4. Immunization: A Handbook for Schools, 1978-79. Vaccine-Preventable Communicable Disease Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This handbook is intended to provide school authorities with a guide to the development of an effective school immunization program. The handbook is divided into three sections and seven appendices. Section One explains the legal definitions of various terms related to mandatory immunization practices. Section Two outlines the elements necessary…

  5. Bilingual/Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Proceedings of Head Start Regional Conferences, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Kenneth A.; Arenas, Soledad

    This summary of the presentation given at four Head Start Regional Bilingual/Multicultural Conferences consists of materials related to the Head Start Strategy for Spanish-speaking Children. Keynote addresses focus on Head Start policy implications, the future of Head Start in the 1980s, and the relation of bilingual/bicultural programs to the…

  6. A Glossary of Standard Terminology for Postsecondary Education, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Sherrill, Comp.

    This update of an earlier glossary has been compiled to help promote awareness and use of a common language of terms, definitions, and procedures at the institutional, state, and national levels in postsecondary education. It is intended for use as a reference for those who exchange or collect information throughout postsecondary education,…

  7. Construction Occupations--Finishing. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on finishing construction occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include air…

  8. Physical and Life Scientists. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on physical and life scientists, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include biochemists, life scientists, soil…

  9. Health Practitioners. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health practitioners, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include physicians, podiatrists, veterinarians,…

  10. Potential vorticity index vacillation in the 1978/79 winter - Its relation to teleconnnection patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weng, Heng-Yi

    1992-01-01

    The time series of the potential vorticity (PV) index, defined as a measure of the zonally averaged midlatitude PV gradient on the 30 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere, is studied. The time series and other indices, their variations, and their correlations in the frequency domain are investigated. Teleconnection patterns based on the spatial representation of cross-correlation functions between the PV index and 500 mb geopotential-height anomaly are presented. The rhythm of atmospheric motion organized by the PV dynamics is shown.

  11. Public Utilities Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on public utilities occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the electric power…

  12. Railroad Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on railroad occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include brake operators, conductors, locomotive engineers,…

  13. Achievement in Mathematics, 1977-1978, Grades One-Six. Mini-Report 79-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    Using data collected in 1977-78, the Evaluation System has computed fall and spring mathematics scores on the Prescriptive Mathematics Test (PMT) for classes of students in grades one through six. In addition, relationships of performance on the PMT to class size, attendance, percent of males in the class, number of different test levels used in a…

  14. Banking and Insurance Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on banking and insurance occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include bank clerks, bank officers/managers,…

  15. Children's Interpretive Programs. National Park Service. National Capital Region. 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeple, Berne, Ed.

    Children's park programs in and near the District of Columbia are listed in this directory which is designed for people who plan field trips for children and people interested in developing similar programs. The directory describes more than 80 programs conducted in 30 parks and gives age ranges, schedules, and phone numbers for obtaining further…

  16. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  17. Identifying Variables Associated with First Grade Reading Gain. PREPS Research Project, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Marie J.; Cobb, Robert A.

    A study investigated whether various home and school factors were related to first grade reading gain. Parents of all second grade students in a school district were asked to complete questionnaires eliciting the number of persons living in the household, the strictness of parental discipline, number of hours spent reading to the child each week,…

  18. Machine Repairers and Operators. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on machine repairers and operators, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include appliance repairers,…

  19. Riding Standards. The Policies and Operating Procedures of the National Riding Committee 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Paul D., Ed.; Lee, Marion H., Ed.

    This guide provides standards relating to the following: forward riding and western riding examination requirements; appointment, apprenticeship, and renewal of national and local judges; and programs for teaching riding. Procedures for setting up rating centers are also provided. Appendices provide a list of the members of the National Riding…

  20. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  1. Final Report of Development of a Clinical Performance Evaluation Tool, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloucester County Coll., Sewell, NJ.

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a criterion-referenced test of clinical performance capable of evaluating skill mastery, (2) establish congruent validity, (3) establish degree of inter-rater agreement, (4) determine whether performance expectations were the same for challenge exam applicants as for course-enrolled students, (5)…

  2. Small Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on small business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include barbers, cosmetologists, funeral…

  3. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  4. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  5. Trends in surface ozone over Europe, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Pak Sum; Kelly, P. Michael; Davies, Trevor D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that surface ozone concentrations in rural areas of Europe have been increasing at a rate of 1 to 3 percent per year over the past two to three decades, presumably due to human influences (Feister and Warmbt, 1987; Bojkov, 1988; Penkett, 1989). Recently, we have analyzed surface ozone data from 20 European stations of differing character (remote, rural, suburban and urban) for a common period of 1978-1988 (Low et al., 1992). It was found that there were pronounced annual and seasonal variations in the linear trends in different areas, and there was no dominant region-wide trend. In spring and, most notably, summer, stations on the maritime fringe of the network generally exhibited negative trends whilst those located further into the continental interior exhibited positive trends. In winter, most of the stations in the network exhibited positive trends. Relatively few of these trends were statistically significant. This paper updates our earlier analysis by extending the data sets of the network up to the year 1990. The spatial variations in surface ozone trends over the extended period 1978-1990 are examined and discussed in comparison to the 1978-1988 patterns. The update confirms the overall conclusions of the earlier analysis, specifically that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results of trend analyses based on station data representative of a limited period of time and/or geographical area.

  6. 34 CFR 79.13 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 79.13 Section 79.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 79.13...

  7. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1978 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Total ground-water pumpage in 1978 was 692,045,700 gallons or 7,248,300 less than in 1977. Wells at the Post Headquarters produced 98 percent of the total volume. Water levels in test wells around the Post Headquarters well field show seasonal declines ranging from 14.78 feet to 0.71 feet. The water samples collected from the supply wells show that the chemical quality of the water is slightly better during the period of greatest declines. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)

  9. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  10. Substance Use Among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Central Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Beth

    A study of alcohol and drug use among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Orange and Lake counties (Central Florida) was conducted in 1978 to determine substance abuse among migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the subgroups with substance abuse problems, the farmworkers' knowledge of and attitudes toward alcohol and drug treatment programs, and the…

  11. 9 CFR 3.79 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mobile or traveling housing facilities... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must...

  12. 9 CFR 3.79 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mobile or traveling housing facilities... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must...

  13. 9 CFR 3.79 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mobile or traveling housing facilities... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must...

  14. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  15. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  16. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  17. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  18. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    water and heat balance components as well as land surface temperature and moisture area-distributed over the territory of interest have been resulted from the model calculations for the years 2009-2013 vegetation seasons. These calculations have been carried out utilizing satellite-derived estimates of the vegetation characteristics, LST and precipitation. E and W calculation errors have not exceeded the standard values.

  19. Time and space variability of freshwater content, heat content and seasonal ice melt in the Arctic Ocean from 1991 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, M.; Rudels, B.; Marnela, M.; Wisotzki, A.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean have recently been reported. The upper ocean has been freshening and pulses of warm Atlantic Water have been observed to spread into the Arctic Ocean. Although these changes have been intensively studied, salinity and temperature variations have less frequently been considered together. Here hydrographic observations, obtained by icebreaker expeditions conducted between 1991 and 2011, are analyzed and discussed. Five different water masses in the upper 1000 m of the water column are examined in five sub-basins of the Arctic Ocean. This allows for studying the variations of the distributions of the freshwater and heat contents in the Arctic Ocean not only in time but also laterally and vertically. In addition, the seasonal ice melt contribution is separated from the permanent, winter, freshwater content of the Polar Mixed Layer. Because the positions of the icebreaker stations vary between the years, the icebreaker observations are at each specific point in space and time compared with the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology to separate the effects of space and time variability on the observations. The hydrographic melt water estimate is discussed and compared with the potential ice melt induced by atmospheric heat input estimated from the ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. After a period of increased salinity in the upper ocean during the 1990s, both the Polar Mixed Layer and the upper halocline have been freshening. The increase in freshwater content in the Polar Mixed Layer is primarily driven by a decrease in salinity, not by changes in Polar Mixed Layer depth, whereas the freshwater is accumulating in the upper halocline mainly through the increasing thickness of the halocline. This is especially evident in the Northern Canada Basin, where the most substantial freshening is observed. The warming, and to some extent also the increase in salinity, of the Atlantic Water during the early 1990s extended

  20. STS-79 Mission Highlight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-79, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. STS-79 is the second Shuttle-Mir mission to carry a SPACEHAB module on board, and the first to carry a double module. The forward portion of the double module will house experiments conducted by the crew before, during and after Atlantis is docked to the Russian space station. The aft portion of the double module primarily houses the logistics equipment to be transferred to the Russian space station. Logistics include food, clothing, experiment supplies, and spare equipment for Mir.

  1. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978–1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton.

  2. STS-79 Flight Day 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen bidding the crew of Mir farewell and then closing the hatches between their two spacecraft in preparation for undocking. The nine astronauts and cosmonauts gathered in the Core Module of the Russian space station for a formal goodbye. With the official ceremony complete, the crewmembers shared a final meal together and exchanged private farewells as Shannon Lucid prepared to return home in Atlantis and her replacement on Mir, John Blaha, began a four month stay on the station. Walz and Apt and Mir 22 Commander Valery Korzun with assistance from Flight Engineer 2 John Blaha, swung the hatches between their spacecraft closed concluding five days of joint operations. The vestibule between Atlantis and Mir was depressurized and leak checks were performed in readiness for undocking.

  3. STS-79 Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, in the first full day of joint Shuttle/Mir operations begin in with the transfer of a biotechnology investigation and logistical supplies from Atlantis to Mir. The Biotechnology System, an investigation that will study the long-term development of cartilage cells in microgravity, was transported to Mir early this morning. During his planned four-month stay on Mir, John Blaha will take weekly samples of the culture which may provide researchers with information on engineering cartilage cells for possible use in transplantation. They also took time out of their schedules to talk with Good Morning America's Elizabeth Vargas in a brief interview. Prior to beginning the day's transfer activities, all nine astronauts and cosmonauts participated in a joint planning session to outline the day's schedule.

  4. STS-79 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-79 mission, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, and Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include: pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. Following an on-time launch, the crew of Endeavor are shown setting up a variety of experiments that will operate for much of the mission.

  5. Considering Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the traditional way that the four seasons are taught is culturally biased and does not reflect the actual seasons in many parts of the United States and other nations. Suggests that early childhood programs should take into account the diversity of seasonal transitions. (MDM)

  6. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  7. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  8. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  9. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  10. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  11. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  12. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  13. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  14. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  15. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional...

  16. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  17. 40 CFR 282.79 - New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Hampshire. 282.79 Section 282.79... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.79 New Hampshire. (a) The State of New....C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the New Hampshire Department...

  18. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a)...

  19. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a)...

  20. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 79.23 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Registration. 79.23 Section 79.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.23 Registration. (a) If...

  2. 40 CFR 79.13 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Registration. 79.13 Section 79.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel Registration Procedures § 79.13 Registration. (a) If...

  3. 40 CFR 79.23 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Registration. 79.23 Section 79.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.23 Registration. (a) If...

  4. 40 CFR 79.13 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Registration. 79.13 Section 79.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel Registration Procedures § 79.13 Registration. (a) If...

  5. 40 CFR 79.13 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Registration. 79.13 Section 79.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel Registration Procedures § 79.13 Registration. (a) If...

  6. 40 CFR 79.23 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Registration. 79.23 Section 79.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.23 Registration. (a) If...

  7. 40 CFR 79.13 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Registration. 79.13 Section 79.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel Registration Procedures § 79.13 Registration. (a) If...

  8. 40 CFR 79.23 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registration. 79.23 Section 79.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.23 Registration. (a) If...

  9. 40 CFR 79.13 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registration. 79.13 Section 79.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel Registration Procedures § 79.13 Registration. (a) If...

  10. 40 CFR 79.23 - Registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Registration. 79.23 Section 79.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.23 Registration. (a) If...

  11. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  12. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  13. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  14. 45 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.2... person alleged in a complaint under § 79.7 to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment under § 79.3... who is— (a) Not subject to supervision by, or required to report to, the investigating official;...

  15. 45 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.2... person alleged in a complaint under § 79.7 to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment under § 79.3... who is— (a) Not subject to supervision by, or required to report to, the investigating official;...

  16. 40 CFR 282.79 - New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Hampshire. 282.79 Section 282.79... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.79 New Hampshire. (a) The State of New....C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the New Hampshire Department...

  17. 45 CFR 79.42 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Judicial review. 79.42 Section 79.42 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by...

  18. 45 CFR 79.42 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Judicial review. 79.42 Section 79.42 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by...

  19. 45 CFR 79.42 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 79.42 Section 79.42 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by...

  20. 40 CFR 68.79 - Compliance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance audits. 68.79 Section 68.79... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.79 Compliance audits. (a) The owner or... are being followed. (b) The compliance audit shall be conducted by at least one person...

  1. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  2. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  3. 49 CFR 79.5 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigation. 79.5 Section 79.5 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.5 Investigation. The Department of Transportation may make any investigation of an application that it deems appropriate, including the taking...

  4. 49 CFR 79.5 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Investigation. 79.5 Section 79.5 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.5 Investigation. The Department of Transportation may make any investigation of an application that it deems appropriate, including the taking...

  5. 49 CFR 79.5 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Investigation. 79.5 Section 79.5 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.5 Investigation. The Department of Transportation may make any investigation of an application that it deems appropriate, including the taking...

  6. 49 CFR 79.5 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation. 79.5 Section 79.5 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.5 Investigation. The Department of Transportation may make any investigation of an application that it deems appropriate, including the taking...

  7. 49 CFR 79.5 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation. 79.5 Section 79.5 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.5 Investigation. The Department of Transportation may make any investigation of an application that it deems appropriate, including the taking...

  8. 32 CFR 79.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 79.2 Section 79.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS (CDPs) § 79.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of the Secretary of...

  9. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  10. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  11. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  12. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  13. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  14. 30 CFR 7.9 - Revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation. 7.9 Section 7.9 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY General § 7.9 Revocation. (a) MSHA may revoke for cause an... specific reasons for the proposed revocation; and (2) Provide the approval-holder an opportunity...

  15. 40 CFR 68.79 - Compliance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance audits. 68.79 Section 68.79... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.79 Compliance audits. (a) The owner or... are being followed. (b) The compliance audit shall be conducted by at least one person...

  16. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  17. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  18. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  19. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  20. 7 CFR 1.79 - Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credits. 1.79 Section 1.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.79 Credits. On films on which the Department or one of its agencies provides special assistance it shall...

  1. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comparable to that supplied by the health tests described in §§ 79.62 through 79.68 regarding the... determination, they need submit only the information gathered pursuant to § 79.52(d) for such tests. EPA... conducting the associated tests. EPA's determination of the adequacy of existing information shall be...

  2. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (pursuant to § 79.56(e)(1)(v) and (vi)) need not undergo the Salmonella mutagenicity assay in § 79.68..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  3. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  4. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  5. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  6. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  7. 49 CFR 79.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 79.1 Section 79.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.1 Scope. (a) This part implements 49 U.S.C. 80504, which authorizes the President of the United States to award a bronze medal for bravery to any...

  8. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  9. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  10. 45 CFR 79.35 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The record. 79.35 Section 79.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.35 The record. (a) The hearing will be recorded and transcribed. Transcripts may be obtained following...

  11. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  12. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  13. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  14. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  15. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose...

  16. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  17. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  18. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  19. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  20. 49 CFR 79.9 - Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design. 79.9 Section 79.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MEDALS OF HONOR § 79.9 Design. The Department is authorized to adopt and revise the existing designs for the award, rosette, and ribbon provided for by statute....

  1. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  2. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  3. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight training. 141.79 Section 141.79... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.79 Flight training. (a) No person other... ratings and the minimum qualifications specified in the approved training course outline may give...

  4. STS-79 Flight Day 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz having completed five days of joint operations between the American astronauts and the Russian cosmonauts are seen flying solo once again after undocking from the Mir Space Station. As Atlantis/Mir flew over the Ural Mountains of central Asia, the docking hooks and latches that joined the vehicles together were commanded open and Atlantis drifted slowly away from Mir. Wilcutt then initiated a tail-forward fly-around of the Russian space station. After one and one-half revolutions around Mir, Atlantis' jets were fired in a separation maneuver to enable Atlantis to break away from Mir. On board Atlantis, the six-member crew is settling back into its normal routine with a fairly light schedule for the remainder of the day. Early in the morning as Atlantis flew over the United States, the crew took time to talk with anchors for the CBS Up to the Minute' network news broadcast.

  5. Stratospheric temperature-ozone relationships 1978-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.; Miller, A. J.; Johnson, K. W.

    1989-01-01

    Global stratospheric temperature and geopotential height at eight pressure levels (70, 50, 30, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.4 hPa) were derived at NMC daily since October 1978. These fields are based on NOAA operational satellite sounder information. Comparable daily global fields of stratospheric ozone (30 to 0.4 hPa and total ozone) were derived from the SBUV instrument on Nimbus 7 and are now derived from the operational NOAA SBUV/2 instrument. The ozone and meteorological fields are verified against ground based measurements (Umkehr, balloon, rocket, lidar) to determine fields of temperature and ozone was assembled. Some of the interesting features of correlation between the synoptic patterns of the two data sets as well as their change with time are discussed. Seasonal as well as interannual variations in the patterns of correlation are compared in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere polar regions. Other outstanding features in both the temperature and ozone fields are highlighted.

  6. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  7. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  9. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  10. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  12. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay). (b) Manufacturer Determination. Manufacturers shall determine... Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay, and § 79.68 Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation Assay....

  13. A Validation Study of the Prediction Equation Used in Determining Freshman Admissions to the University of Washington During the 1978-1979 Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    The predictive validity of the equation used for determining entrance into the University of Washington's freshman class during the 1978-79 academic year is examined. The sample was comprised of all freshmen entering the university directly from high school in autumn quarter 1974 who had been tested through the Washington Pre-College Test Battery…

  14. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  15. Early season spring small grains proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D. E.; Trichel, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    An accurate, automated method for estimating early season spring small grains from Landsat MSS data is discussed. The method is summarized and the results of its application to 100 sample segment-years of data from the US Northern Great Plains in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1979 are summarized. The results show that this estimator provides accurate estimates earlier in the growing season than previous methods. Ground truth is required only in the estimator development, and data storage, transmission, preprocessing, and processing requirements are minimal.

  16. Polar stratospheric optical depth observed between 1978 and 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Trepte, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of the stratospheric optical depth at 1.0 micron obtained for high latitudes are presented for a 7-year period. Weekly averaged data determined from measurements made by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement experiment from October 1978-1985 show that the overall yearly values in both polar regions are controlled by volcanic perturbations, with most volcanic effects being experienced in Arctic latitudes. Conservatively, peak values found in the Antarctic region were approximately 0.02 and in the Arctic region about 0.55. Probable values for these regions are estimated to be 0.26 and 0.11, respectively. The weekly averaged data also show the seasonal fluctuations due to microphysical and dynamical processes. Comparison of the optical depth record with a weekly averaged 50-mbar temperature record indicates that polar stratospheric clouds are present in the southern high latitudes each year near this level from early June to early September. A depression observed in the optical depth record each austral spring season is believed to be the result of the downward displacement of particles caused by subsidence and sedimentation during the course of winter. Following the breakup of the vortex, optical depth values increase as aerosol is transported poleward. These features are noted to be present in the Arctic region as well, but on a smaller scale because of the satellite sampling methodology and the averaging scheme employed.

  17. United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Review, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsfield, Mairuth, Ed.; Emes, John, Ed.

    The 1978 Annual State of the Environment Report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) focused on four selected environmental problems of international significance: (1) chemicals and the environment; (2) malaria; (3) the use of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to increase the base for food production; and (4) the conservation…

  18. 29 CFR 1978.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged in a business affecting commerce between States or between a State and a place outside thereof who... operate such a vehicle. (e) Commercial motor vehicle means a vehicle as defined by 49 U.S.C. 31101(1). (f...) Complaint, for purposes of § 1978.102(b)(1) and (e)(1), includes both written and oral complaints...

  19. Virginia Woolf: A Bibliography, 1975-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santora, Joseph C.; Greenstein, Jane L.

    The entries in this bibliography reflect the prolific amount of material by and about Virginia Woolf that was published between 1975 and 1978, including reprints and revised editions of original works, previously unpublished writings, and scholarly criticism. The selections are listed as primary sources and secondary sources. The secondary sources…

  20. A Bibliography on Euthanasia, 1958-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilker, Christine; And Others

    This collection of materials represents a 20-year span (1958-1978) of references on euthanasia found through select indexes and abstracting services. The contents are organized into two general reference sections, periodicals and books, with citations listed alphabetically by author. The last two sections focus on the locations of these materials…

  1. Kansas Rural Villages Project, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Edward P.; Shelley, Scott

    Aurora, a village of 147 residents in north central Kansas, was the focus of a 1978 investigation of the community development potential for Kansas rural villages. Students and staff from the University of Kansas School of Social Welfare worked with community residents to identify three programs the village wanted (a recreation program, a…

  2. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  3. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  4. 44 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 79.2 Section 79.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS §...

  5. 44 CFR 11.79 - Attorney's fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attorney's fees. 11.79... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.79 Attorney's fees. No more than 10 per... shall be paid or delivered to or received by any agent or attorney on account of services rendered...

  6. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare... Investigation. (a) If an investigating official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the authority conferred by... conclusions of such investigation to the reviewing official. (c) Nothing in this section shall preclude...

  7. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare... Investigation. (a) If an investigating official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the authority conferred by... conclusions of such investigation to the reviewing official. (c) Nothing in this section shall preclude...

  8. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare... Investigation. (a) If an investigating official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the authority conferred by... conclusions of such investigation to the reviewing official. (c) Nothing in this section shall preclude...

  9. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare... Investigation. (a) If an investigating official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the authority conferred by... conclusions of such investigation to the reviewing official. (c) Nothing in this section shall preclude...

  10. 45 CFR 79.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation. 79.4 Section 79.4 Public Welfare... Investigation. (a) If an investigating official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the authority conferred by... conclusions of such investigation to the reviewing official. (c) Nothing in this section shall preclude...

  11. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  12. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  13. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  14. 44 CFR 79.9 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Grant administration. 79.9... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.9 Grant administration. (a) The Grantee must follow FEMA grant requirements, including...

  15. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  16. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  17. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  18. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  19. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  20. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  1. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in...

  2. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer. 86.108-79 Section 86.108...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.108-79 Dynamometer. (a) The dynamometer shall have a power... weight as specified in § 86.129. (b)(1) The dynamometer shall have a roll or shaft revolution counter...

  8. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  9. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  10. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  11. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  12. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  13. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  14. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  15. 32 CFR 776.79 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The complaint. 776.79 Section 776.79 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL...

  16. 14 CFR 13.79 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hearing. 13.79 Section 13.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Orders of Compliance Under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act §...

  17. 14 CFR 13.79 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hearing. 13.79 Section 13.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Orders of Compliance Under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act §...

  18. 14 CFR 13.79 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing. 13.79 Section 13.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Orders of Compliance Under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act §...

  19. 14 CFR 13.79 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hearing. 13.79 Section 13.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Orders of Compliance Under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act §...

  20. 14 CFR 13.79 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing. 13.79 Section 13.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Orders of Compliance Under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act §...

  1. 40 CFR 79.59 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20460. (i) For existing products (pursuant to § 79.51(c)(1)), manufacturers shall submit the basic registration data as specified in § 79.59(b) to EPA by November 28, 1994. (ii) For registrable products...(b) to apply for registration for such product. (iii) For new products (pursuant to §...

  2. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fuels and additives may be required to undergo Tier 3 testing, pursuant to § 79.54. (c) Alternative Tier...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.58 Special provisions. (a....59(b). (b) Low Vapor Pressure Fuels and Additives. Fuels which are not designated as...

  3. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fuels and additives may be required to undergo Tier 3 testing, pursuant to § 79.54. (c) Alternative Tier...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.58 Special provisions. (a....59(b). (b) Low Vapor Pressure Fuels and Additives. Fuels which are not designated as...

  4. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fuels and additives may be required to undergo Tier 3 testing, pursuant to § 79.54. (c) Alternative Tier...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.58 Special provisions. (a....59(b). (b) Low Vapor Pressure Fuels and Additives. Fuels which are not designated as...

  5. 29 CFR 1978.102 - Filing of discrimination complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or other adverse action; or where the discrimination is in the nature of a continuing violation. The... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of discrimination complaint. 1978.102 Section 1978... § 1978.102 Filing of discrimination complaint. (a) Who may file. An employee may file, or have filed...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1978-52.1981 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 52.1978-52.1981 Section 52.1978-52.1981 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon §§ 52.1978-52.1981...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1978-52.1981 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 52.1978-52.1981 Section 52.1978-52.1981 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon §§ 52.1978-52.1981...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1978-52.1981 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 52.1978-52.1981 Section 52.1978-52.1981 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon §§ 52.1978-52.1981...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1978-52.1981 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 52.1978-52.1981 Section 52.1978-52.1981 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon §§ 52.1978-52.1981...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1978-52.1981 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 52.1978-52.1981 Section 52.1978-52.1981 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon §§ 52.1978-52.1981...

  11. Effect of seasonal variation on some physical properties and heat stability of milk subjected to ultra-high temperature and in-container sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biye; Grandison, Alistair S; Lewis, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Heat stability was evaluated in bulk raw milk, collected throughout the year and subjected to ultra-high temperature (UHT) or in-container sterilisation, with and without added calcium chloride (2mM), disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP, 10mM) and trisodium citrate (TSC, 10mM). More sediment was observed following in-container sterilisation (0.24%) compared with UHT (0.19%). Adding CaCl2 made the milk more unstable to UHT than to in-container sterilisation, while adding DSHP and TSC made the milk more unstable during in-container sterilisation than to UHT processing, although TSC addition increased the sediment formed by UHT processing. Better heat stability was observed in autumn and winter than in spring and summer following UHT. However, following in-container sterilisation, samples with added stabilising salts showed significantly improved heat stability in autumn, whereas with added CaCl2, the best heat stability was observed in spring. No correlation was found between urea and heat stability.

  12. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale.

  13. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  14. MAP3S precipitation chemistry network. Third periodic summary report, July 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network consists of eight collection sites in the northeastern United States. Precipitation event samples are collected by cooperating site operators, using specially developed sampling equipment. In this, the third periodic summary report, are listed field and concentration data for the period July 1, 1978 to December 31, 1979. Over three years' samples have been collected at most of the sites, which went into operation between September 1976 and October 1978. Samples are chemically analyzed at a central laboratory for 13 pollutant species. Weekly samples in addition to event samples were collected over a 1 1/2 year period at three sites. Analysis of one year's results indicates that there is little difference between the concentrations collected by the two methods in terms of seasonal precipitation-weighted means for all species except dissolved SO/sub 2/. Event samples tend to average about 25% higher in SO/sub 2/ than weekly samples.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 79

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj

    2016-07-15

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 79 (Ni,Cu,Zn,Ga,Ge,As,Se,Br,Kr,Rb, Sr,Y,Zr) has been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies, Jπ, and decay modes of levels in these nuclei. No data are yet available for excited states in {sup 79}Ni, {sup 79}Cu and {sup 79}Zr. The half–life of {sup 79}Se, a nuclide of importance in reactor–irradiated fuel composition has been measured by several independent groups and reported in a number of publications after 1995, and seems to be converging to a narrow margin of experimental values. These measurements were likely prompted by a recommendation made in the 1993 update of A = 79 nuclides (1993Si28), that since a 1949PaZZ report, there had been no measurement until 1993, and that based on simulation studies by 1993HeZW, the value listed in 1949PaZZ, and cited in all data tables and charts for 44 years, was quite likely in error, being too low by a factor of 10. According to conclusions in recent papers such as 2014Do20, there is still room for improvement in the measurement of this half–life, and further experiments are expected. This evaluation supersedes earlier Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 79 (2002Si13,1993Si28, 1982Si21,1975Ur03).

  16. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  17. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  18. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  19. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  20. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  1. Final Report: Cooling Seasonal Energy and Peak Demand Impacts of Improved Duct Insulation on Fixed-Capacity (SEER 13) and Variable-Capacity (SEER 22) Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Withers, C.; Cummings, J.; Nigusse, B.

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of full variable-capacity, central, ducted air-conditioning (AC) and heat pump units has come on the market, and they promise to deliver increased cooling (and heating) efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40% to 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying “on” for up to twice as many hours per day compared to fixed-capacity systems of the same nominal capacity. The heating and cooling capacity is varied by adjusting the indoor fan air flow rate, compressor, and refrigerant flow rate as well as the outdoor unit fan air flow rate. Note that two-stage AC or heat pump systems were not evaluated in this research effort. The term dwell is used to refer to the amount of time distributed air spends inside ductwork during space-conditioning cycles. Longer run times mean greater dwell time and therefore greater exposure to conductive gains and losses.

  2. Final Report: Cooling Seasonal Energy and Peak Demand Impacts of Improved Duct Insulation on Fixed-Capacity (SEER 13) and Variable-Capacity (SEER 22) Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    C. Withers; Cummings, J.; Nigusse, B.

    2016-09-08

    A new generation of full variable-capacity, central, ducted air-conditioning (AC) and heat pump units has come on the market, and they promise to deliver increased cooling (and heating) efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40% to 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying “on” for up to twice as many hours per day compared to fixed-capacity systems of the same nominal capacity. The heating and cooling capacity is varied by adjusting the indoor fan air flow rate, compressor, and refrigerant flow rate as well as the outdoor unit fan air flow rate. Note that two-stage AC or heat pump systems were not evaluated in this research effort. The term dwell is used to refer to the amount of time distributed air spends inside ductwork during space-conditioning cycles. Longer run times mean greater dwell time and therefore greater exposure to conductive gains and losses.

  3. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  4. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  5. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  6. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  7. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The...

  8. 45 CFR 79.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exchanged as provided in § 79.22(a). (c) The ALJ shall exercise reasonable control over the mode and order... presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) avoid needless consumption of time, and...

  9. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

  10. Temporal Trend and Spatial Distribution of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury Emissions in China During 1978-2014.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Li, Guoliang; Liang, Sai; Lin, Che-Jen; Wang, Yafei; Cai, Siyi; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming

    2016-12-20

    Mercury pollution control has become a global goal. The accurate estimate of long-term mercury emissions in China is critical to evaluate the global mercury budget and the emission reduction potentials. In this study, we used a technology-based approach to compile a consistent series of China's atmospheric mercury emissions at provincial level from 1978 to 2014. China totally emitted 13 294 t of anthropogenic mercury to air during 1978-2014, in which gaseous elemental mercury, gaseous oxidized mercury, and particulate-bound mercury accounted for 58.2%, 37.1%, and 4.7%, respectively. The mercury removed during this period were 2085 t in coal-fired power plants (counting 49% of mercury input), 7259 t in Zn smelting (79%), 771 t in coal-fired industrial boilers (25%), and 658 t in cement production plants (27%), respectively. Annual mercury emissions increased from 147 t in 1978 to 530 t in 2014. Both sectoral and spatial emissions of atmospheric mercury experienced significant changes. The largest mercury emission source evolved from coal-fired industrial boilers before 1998, to zinc smelting during 1999-2004, coal-fired power plants during 2005-2008, finally to cement production after 2009. Coal-fired industrial boilers and cement production have become critical hotpots for China's mercury pollution control.

  11. Coal: Pennsylvania anthracite 1978. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.

    1980-10-01

    Production of Pennsylvania Anthracite in 1978 decreased 14.1 percent or 824 thousand short tons from the 1977 figure of 5861 thousand short tons to 5037 thousand short tons. Buckwheat No. 1 and smaller sizes accounted for 3768 thousand short tons or 75 percent of production. Pea and larger sizes accounted for 1259 thousand short tons or 25 percent of production. Average price per ton (f.o.b. preparation plant) increased 1.1 percent from the 1977 figure of $34.86 to $35.25. Productivity declined 6.6 percent from 6.97 to 6.51 short tons per miner per day. Domestic distribution of anthracite in 1978 totaled 3895 thousand short tons or 77.3 percent of production. Of this amount, 1597 thousand short tons or 41 percent went to residential and commercial consumers, 1064 thousand short tons or 27.3 percent went to electric utilities, 748 thousand short tons or 19.2 percent went to other industrial users, 476 thousand short tons or 12.2 percent went to the iron and steel industry, and 10 thousand short tons or 0.3 percent was consumed at mining operations. US exports of anthracite in 1978 totaled 1142 thousand short tons or 22.7 percent of production. Exports to Canada were 405 thousand short tons, to South Korea - 331 thousand short tons, and to US military forces in West Germany - 276 thousand short tons. The Canadian, Korean, and German exports accounted for 1012 thousand short tons or 88.6 percent of all exports in 1978.

  12. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography cites 958 externally distributed technical papers released during calendar year 1978, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The publications are indexed by author, subject, publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author.

  13. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  14. Remotely sensed seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in the Ligurian Sea in 1997-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Lacroix, Genevieve; Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Djenidi, Salim

    2004-07-01

    Remotely sensed data and a one-dimensional hydrophysical model were used to study the seasonal dynamics of surface plant pigments concentration in the Ligurian-Provençal basin. The variations of phytoplankton biomass were estimated from the observations of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (1978-1986) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (September 1997 to October 1999) radiometers. The factors of physical environment analyzed included remotely sensed sea surface temperature (from advanced very high resolution radiometers), wind, air temperature, and atmospheric precipitation. The Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) model was used to explain the observed correlations between the physical forcing and the response of phytoplankton biomass. The general pattern of phytoplankton seasonal dynamics was typical to subtropical areas: maximum biomass during cold season from October to April and low biomass during summer months. The intensity of winter/spring bloom significantly varied during different years. The correlation was revealed between the summer/autumn air temperature contrast (expressed as the difference between the air temperatures in August and in November) and the maximum monthly averaged surface chlorophyll concentration during the subsequent winter/spring bloom. The features of seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton are regulated by the physical impacts influencing water stratification. The difference between two seasonal cycles (from September 1997 to October 1999) illustrates the response of phytoplankton growth to local meteorological conditions. In March-April 1999 the vernal bloom was much more pronounced; it resulted from deeper winter cooling and more intensive winter convection. Heating of surface water layer, wind mixing, and freshwater load with rains and river discharge either stimulate or depress the development of phytoplankton, depending on what limiting environmental factor (light or nutrient limitation) prevailed.

  15. [Seroepidemiological considerations on the influenza a in Umbria (1978) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stagni, G; De Rosa, F; Vacri, A

    1979-01-01

    The authors studied the seroepidemiology of influenza virus A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) and A/URSS/90/77 (H1N1) in Umbria, in 1978. The percentage of seroprotection against the subtype H3N2 results low and in such do not inhibit the diffusion of this subtype during the next winter season. The study of seroepidemiology of subtype H1N1 demonstrated that this subtype circulated in Umbria in the winter 1977-78 and that the conditions exist for its circulation.

  16. Georgia State University Spending Patterns and the Atlanta Economy, 1978. Institutional Research Report No. 79-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Charles D.

    The level of economic stimulus provided to the Atlanta area by Georgia State University was examined and found to be 5,432 full-time jobs and $140.2 million in income. It is shown that the figures are conservative since spending by part-time employees and most part-time students was omitted. A calculated multiplier of 1.48 was used, and the study…

  17. Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the various metal industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the aluminum…

  18. Community School District 20K, Strengthening Early Childhood Bilingual, Title I--5071-91622. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, Ethel V.

    The Strengthening Early Childhood (Bilingual) program was designed to develop English language skills for pupils in grades one and two who were below the twenty-first percentile when tested on the Language Assessment Battery (LAB) in English. One hundred thirty-eight students were seen by three teachers and three paraprofessionals in groups of ten…

  19. P.S. 332 Title VII Program, District Model for Bilingual Development. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Annette

    This is an evaluation of a Title VII bilingual education program carried out for Spanish and English dominant children in grades K-6 at Public School 332 in Brooklyn, New York. The aims of the program were to develop students' abilities to speak, read, and write English, to enable Spanish speaking children to interact with their English speaking…

  20. Lawyers, City Managers, and Social Science Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on lawyers, city managers, and social science occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include city managers,…

  1. STS-79 ATLANTIS LANDS AT KSC'S SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-79 mission comes to a successful conclusion as the orbiter Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT, September 26. On board is U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, who has been living and working on the Russian Space Station Mir for about six months. Lucid has spent 188 days in space from launch aboard Atlantis in March to her return today, establishing a U.S. record for long-duration spaceflight as well as representing the longest spaceflight for a woman. Succeeding Lucid on Mir is U.S. astronaut John E. Blaha, who embarked to Mir with the STS-79 crew. The commander of Mission STS-79 is William F. Readdy; Terrence W. Wilcutt is the pilot, and the three mission specialists are Jay Apt, Thomas D. Akers and Carl E. Walz.

  2. STS-79 ATLANTIS LANDS AT KSC'S SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A KSC fire truck stands on alert as the STS-79 Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles down Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, its drag chute billowing behind it. Atlantis touched down at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT, September 26. On board is U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, who has been living and working on the Russian Space Station Mir for about six months. Lucid has spent 188 days in space from launch aboard Atlantis in March to her return today, establishing a U.S. record for long-duration spaceflight as well as representing the longest spaceflight for a woman. Succeeding Lucid on Mir is U.S. astronaut John E. Blaha, who embarked to Mir with the STS-79 crew. The commander of Mission STS-79 is William F. Readdy; Terrence W. Wilcutt is the pilot, and the three mission specialists are Jay Apt, Thomas D. Akers and Carl E. Walz.

  3. Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; García-Mozo, H; Vázquez, L; Ruiz, L; de la Guardia, C Díaz; Trigo, M M

    2005-01-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Andalusia, in southern Spain. A thermal model has been developed for forecasting the start of the olive tree pollen season at five localities in Andalusia: Cordoba, Priego, Jaen, Granada and Malaga using airborne pollen and meteorological data from 1982 to 2001. Threshold temperatures varied between 5 degrees C and 12.5 degrees C depending on bio-geographical characteristics. The external validity of the results was tested using the data for the year 2002 as an independent variable and it confirmed the model's accuracy with only a few days difference from predicted values. All the localities had increasingly earlier start dates during the study period. This could confirm that olive flower phenology can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the effects of climate fluctuations in the Mediterranean area. The theoretical impact of the predicted climatic warming on the olive's flowering phenology at the end of the century is also proposed by applying Regional Climate Model data. A general advance, from 1 to 3 weeks could be expected, although this advance will be more pronounced in mid-altitude inland areas.

  4. Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, C.; García-Mozo, H.; Vázquez, L.; Ruiz, L.; Guardia, C. Díaz; Trigo, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Andalusia, in southern Spain. A thermal model has been developed for forecasting the start of the olive tree pollen season at five localities in Andalusia: Cordoba, Priego, Jaen, Granada and Malaga using airborne pollen and meteorological data from 1982 to 2001. Threshold temperatures varied between 5°C and 12.5°C depending on bio-geographical characteristics. The external validity of the results was tested using the data for the year 2002 as an independent variable and it confirmed the model’s accuracy with only a few days difference from predicted values. All the localities had increasingly earlier start dates during the study period. This could confirm that olive flower phenology can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the effects of climate fluctuations in the Mediterranean area. The theoretical impact of the predicted climatic warming on the olive’s flowering phenology at the end of the century is also proposed by applying Regional Climate Model data. A general advance, from 1 to 3 weeks could be expected, although this advance will be more pronounced in mid-altitude inland areas.

  5. Floods in central Texas, August 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, E.E.; Massey, B.C.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1979-01-01

    Peak discharges at several streamflow stations exceeded the historic peaks, and the flood magnitude and frequency data for the Guadalupe River above Canyon Lake, the Medina River near Pipe Creek, and Clear Fork Brazos River indicate that the August 1978 flood had a recurrence interval in excess of 100 years. The highest unit discharge observed during this flood was 3,010 cubic feet per second from a 14.1-square-mil.e drainage area of Spring Creek, which is tributary to the Pedernales River.

  6. 44 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.2 Definitions... special flood hazards, and is participating in the NFIP; or (2) A political subdivision of a State, or... multifamily residential properties that are covered under an NFIP flood insurance policy and: (1) That...

  7. 44 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.2... special flood hazards, and is participating in the NFIP; or (2) A political subdivision of a State, or... multifamily residential properties that are covered under an NFIP flood insurance policy and: (1) That...

  8. 44 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.2... special flood hazards, and is participating in the NFIP; or (2) A political subdivision of a State, or... multifamily residential properties that are covered under an NFIP flood insurance policy and: (1) That...

  9. 44 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.2... special flood hazards, and is participating in the NFIP; or (2) A political subdivision of a State, or... multifamily residential properties that are covered under an NFIP flood insurance policy and: (1) That...

  10. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  11. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  12. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participating in the NFIP may apply for FMA planning and project grants and associated management costs. (2... grants and associated management costs. (3) Communities withdrawn, suspended, or not participating under... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility. 79.6 Section...

  13. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  14. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participating in the NFIP may apply for FMA planning and project grants and associated management costs. (2... grants and associated management costs. (3) Communities withdrawn, suspended, or not participating under... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Eligibility. 79.6 Section...

  15. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  16. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participating in the NFIP may apply for FMA planning and project grants and associated management costs. (2... grants and associated management costs. (3) Communities withdrawn, suspended, or not participating under... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility. 79.6 Section...

  17. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... participating in the NFIP may apply for FMA planning and project grants and associated management costs. (2... grants and associated management costs. (3) Communities withdrawn, suspended, or not participating under... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility. 79.6 Section...

  18. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  19. 44 CFR 79.6 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participating in the NFIP may apply for FMA planning and project grants and associated management costs. (2... grants and associated management costs. (3) Communities withdrawn, suspended, or not participating under... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility. 79.6 Section...

  20. 36 CFR 79.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the result of a prehistoric or historic resource survey, excavation or other study conducted in... survey, excavation or other study are recorded in associated records, as defined in § 79.4 of this part... prehistoric or historic resource survey, excavation or other study are the property of the U.S....

  1. 36 CFR 79.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the result of a prehistoric or historic resource survey, excavation or other study conducted in... survey, excavation or other study are recorded in associated records, as defined in § 79.4 of this part... prehistoric or historic resource survey, excavation or other study are the property of the U.S....

  2. 36 CFR 79.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the result of a prehistoric or historic resource survey, excavation or other study conducted in... survey, excavation or other study are recorded in associated records, as defined in § 79.4 of this part... prehistoric or historic resource survey, excavation or other study are the property of the U.S....

  3. 40 CFR 86.337-79 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.337-79...). (13) Fuel consumption at maximum power and torque (Diesel engines only). (14) Maximum air flow (Diesel engines only). (15) Air inlet restriction (Diesel engines only). (16) Exhaust pipe diameter(s)...

  4. 40 CFR 86.337-79 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.337-79...). (13) Fuel consumption at maximum power and torque (Diesel engines only). (14) Maximum air flow (Diesel engines only). (15) Air inlet restriction (Diesel engines only). (16) Exhaust pipe diameter(s)...

  5. 40 CFR 144.79 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.79...

  6. 40 CFR 144.79 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.79...

  7. 40 CFR 144.79 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.79...

  8. 40 CFR 144.79 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.79...

  9. 40 CFR 144.79 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.79...

  10. 40 CFR 79.52 - Tier 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Effects”—SAE 902074 and “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Aromatic, Olefin, and Paraffinic Model Fuels... the applicable emission generation procedure. (ii) As provided in § 79.57(d), if the emission generation vehicle/engine is ordinarily equipped with an emission aftertreatment device, then...

  11. 40 CFR 79.52 - Tier 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Effects”—SAE 902074 and “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Aromatic, Olefin, and Paraffinic Model Fuels... the applicable emission generation procedure. (ii) As provided in § 79.57(d), if the emission generation vehicle/engine is ordinarily equipped with an emission aftertreatment device, then...

  12. 40 CFR 79.52 - Tier 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Effects”—SAE 902074 and “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Aromatic, Olefin, and Paraffinic Model Fuels... the applicable emission generation procedure. (ii) As provided in § 79.57(d), if the emission generation vehicle/engine is ordinarily equipped with an emission aftertreatment device, then...

  13. 40 CFR 79.52 - Tier 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Effects”—SAE 902074 and “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Aromatic, Olefin, and Paraffinic Model Fuels... the applicable emission generation procedure. (ii) As provided in § 79.57(d), if the emission generation vehicle/engine is ordinarily equipped with an emission aftertreatment device, then...

  14. 40 CFR 79.52 - Tier 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effects”—SAE 902074 and “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Aromatic, Olefin, and Paraffinic Model Fuels... the applicable emission generation procedure. (ii) As provided in § 79.57(d), if the emission generation vehicle/engine is ordinarily equipped with an emission aftertreatment device, then...

  15. 28 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT General § 79.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (“Act”), as amended by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000...

  16. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deletion of Tier 2 studies or study specifications, and/or changes in underlying engine or equipment... notification prior to November 27, 1995, or in the case of new fuels and additives (as defined in § 79.51(c)(3.... (6) In the case of an additive for which the manufacturer is not required to meet the requirements...

  17. English Literature Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection is composed of 16 objectives and evaluation items for Junior High School Literature, grades 7-9. It includes objectives on poetry and the novel. Each objective contains three elements: (1) the objective, (2) measurement items, and (3) means for judging the adequacy of the student response. Each objective is stated in operational…

  18. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management requirements identified under part 13 of this chapter, the grant agreement articles, and other..., grant management requirements identified under part 13 of this chapter, the grant agreement articles... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Responsibilities. 79.3...

  19. Solar energy storage program: FY79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, C. E.; Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Baylin, F.

    1980-05-01

    A ranking methodology was developed for selection of thermal energy storage technologies for solar thermal applications. The ranking is based on cost and performance data. Thermal storage value data based on costs of alternative energy systems were generated for electric power plants and will be used for cost goals as a preliminary thermal storage screening tool. A survey was completed of thermal energy storage technologies, projects, and economics. An analysis was made of latent heat storage for solar heating based on previous system simulations. The only major advantage shown for latent heat storage is a reduced storage volume and not the improved solar system performance frequently postulated. Therefore, latent heat storage must be competitively priced with sensible heat options. Direct contact latent heat storage offers satisfactory low cost potential and could be used for a wide range of temperatures.

  20. Seasonal, annual, and spatial variation in the development of hard bottom communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.; Anger, K.

    1983-06-01

    The development of hard bottom communities has been studied on test panels in Helgoland Harbour (German Bight) since 1977. Settlement and growth of epibenthic species was examined monthly. Natural variation in different seasons, years, and at three stations (the latter, only in 1981 and 1982) was investigated. At Station A (Binnenhafen), barnacles (Balanus crenatus) and polychaetes (Polydora ciliata) were always among the first settlers in spring. They were followed by other barnacles (Elminius modestus, Balanus improvisus) and by colonial ascidians (Botryllus schlosseri). The latter species often dominated from August to October, and tended to overgrow the barnacle populations. E. modestus showed strong annual variation, probably due to extremely low winter temperatures: after the cold winter of 1978/79, its populations were less dense than in previous years. In 1981 they recovered, and settlement increased again, but the cold winter 1981/82 damaged the population again. At Station B (Nordosthafen), mussels (Mytilus edulis) soon covered barnacles and empty space. By October they had monopolized the fouling community. At Station C (Südhafen), barnacle settlement in spring was followed by an overgrowth of hydrozoans ( Laomedea spec.). In summer, ascidians ( Ciona intestinalis and Ascidiella aspersa) settled and began to dominate. Barnacles were weaker in the competition for space as opposed to later colonizers at all three stations.

  1. Characterizations of structural, biochemical, and nutritive profiles in silage among cool-season corn cultivars in relation to heat units (aCHU, dCHU) with curvilinear response and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Saman; Christensen, David A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-12-18

    Molecular spectroscopy is able to reveal structural features of biomaterials. Corn grown in Canadian prairies is known as cool-season corn, which is different from warm-season corn varieties. To our knowledge, to date, there has been no study on the magnitude difference in structure on a molecular basis among cultivars, no study on biochemical and nutritive profiles associated with heat unit, and no study on how heat unit affects the molecular structure and biochemical and nutritive profiles. This study investigates how corn varieties grown in cooler climates are affected by crop heat units (CHU) in relation to molecular spectral profiles, nutrient storage, biochemical composition, and nutritive value of silage among different cool-season corn cultivars. Corn cultivars (Pioneer and Dekalb) were from seven farm locations, and samples were analyzed for major nutrients (digestible and metabolic energy and protein). The Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR) spectroscopic technique was applied to understand and differentiate molecular structural spectral profiles in silage. A correlation (P < 0.05) of CHU with some nutrients (mean ± SD, %DM) (CP, 8.1 ± 1.3, r = 0.56; NDF, 56.3 ± 3.5, r = -0.54; ADF, 33.6 ± 2.3, r = -0.71; NDICP, 1.6 ± 0.4, r = -0.66; SCP, 4.2 ± 1.3, r = 0.61), protein and carbohydrate fractions (mean ± SD, %DM) (PB1 (= fast degradable protein fraction), 1.3 ± 0.4, r = 0.54; PB3 (= slowly degradable protein fraction), 1.5 ± 0.4, r = -0.74; CB2 (= medium degradable carbohydrate fraction), 45.1 ± 2.8, r = -0.65; CB3 (= slowly degradable carbohydrate fraction), 13.9 ± 0.9, r = -0.54) and intestinal availability of ruminally degraded fractions (mean ± SD, %DM) (rdPB1, 1.1 ± 0.3, r = 0.54; rdPB3, 1.0 ± 0.3, r = -0.74; RDP, 6.6 ± 1.2, r = 0.59; rdCB2, 40.0 ± 2.5, r = -0.65; rdCB3, 8.9 ± 0.6, r = 0.54; RDCHO, 50.1 ± 2.9, r = -0.65) was found contentious. Molecular spectral data indicated many similarities and few differences among the cultivars

  2. 27 CFR 19.78 - Power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Power of attorney. 19.78... Obtaining a Permit Requirements for Registering A Plant § 19.78 Power of attorney. An applicant or... 5000.8, Power of Attorney, for each person authorized to sign or to act on behalf of the applicant...

  3. Observations from moored current meters in San Francisco Bay, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1981-01-01

    Current-meter data collected at eight stations in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system between August 1978 and December 1978 are compiled in this report. The measurements include current speed and direction, and water temperature and salinity (computed from conductivity and temperature). Data are presented in graphical format with each parameter plotted separately.

  4. 29 CFR 1978.108 - Captions, titles of cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Captions, titles of cases. 1978.108 Section 1978.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING SECTION 405 OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1982 (STAA) Rules of Procedure Litigation...

  5. Gender Trait Stereotypes: A Comparison of 1978 and 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Betsy Q.; Babbitt, Brian C.

    This study examined stability and change in gender role stereotypes by comparing responses to items on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) for the typical woman and man in 1978 and in 1986. Subjects were college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course in 1978 (N=85) and in 1986 (N=219). Subjects rated the typical man or typical woman…

  6. Coordinating Board, Texas College and University System, 1978 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Kenneth H.

    The 1978 annual report of the Coordinating Board of the Texas College and University System is presented. The Board's major accomplishments in 1978 included the development of enrollment projections for the next decade, adoption of faculty workload guidelines, and implementation of a family practice residency program. The contents of the report…

  7. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  8. 29 CFR 1978.115 - Special circumstances; waiver of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special circumstances; waiver of rules. 1978.115 Section 1978.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... days notice to all parties, waive any rule or issue such orders as justice or the administration...

  9. 14 CFR 121.342 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 121.342... heat indication systems. No person may operate a transport category airplane or, after December 20... heat indication system that complies § 25.1326 of this chapter in effect on April 12, 1978....

  10. 14 CFR 121.342 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 121.342... heat indication systems. No person may operate a transport category airplane or, after December 20... heat indication system that complies § 25.1326 of this chapter in effect on April 12, 1978....

  11. Kepler-79's low density planets

    SciTech Connect

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-04-10

    Kepler-79 (KOI-152) has four planetary candidates ranging in size from 3.5 to 7 times the size of the Earth, in a compact configuration with orbital periods near a 1:2:4:6 chain of commensurability, from 13.5 to 81.1 days. All four planets exhibit transit timing variations with periods that are consistent with the distance of each planet to resonance with its neighbors. We perform a dynamical analysis of the system based on transit timing measurements over 1282 days of Kepler photometry. Stellar parameters are obtained using a combination of spectral classification and the stellar density constraints provided by light curve analysis and orbital eccentricity solutions from our dynamical study. Our models provide tight bounds on the masses of all four transiting bodies, demonstrating that they are planets and that they orbit the same star. All four of Kepler-79's transiting planets have low densities given their sizes, which is consistent with other studies of compact multiplanet transiting systems. The largest of the four, Kepler-79 d (KOI-152.01), has the lowest bulk density yet determined among sub-Saturn mass planets.

  12. Seasonality of suicides: environmental, sociological and biological covariations.

    PubMed

    Souêtre, E; Salvati, E; Belugou, J L; Douillet, P; Braccini, T; Darcourt, G

    1987-01-01

    The monthly rates of completed suicides in France from 1978 until 1982 were analyzed. The seasonal variations of environmental (daylight and sunlight durations, mean temperature, geomagnetism), sociological (unemployment, deaths of all causes, birth and conception rates), and biological (melatonin, cortisol and serotonin circannual rhythms) factors were compared to the seasonal patterns of suicides. A clear seasonal variation (with peaks in May and September) in suicidal behavior was detected. These patterns tended to differ as a function of age (bimodal in young, unimodal in old people). The component analysis clearly pointed out that seasonal patterns of suicides may be considered as the sum of two components, unimodal and bimodal. Almost similar covariations were found between the main seasonal (unimodal) component of suicides and environmental (daylight duration and mean monthly temperature) or sociological factors whereas the secondary component was more correlated to variations in environmental factors and, to some extent, to biological parameters.

  13. 40 CFR 79.51 - General requirements and provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 79.51 Section 79.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.51..., subject to the provisions for group applications in § 79.51(b) and the special provisions in §...

  14. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  15. Public supply water use, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1978-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W.L.; Alvarez, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Public supply water-use data are listed for 32 utilities in Palm Beach County, Florida, for 1978 through 1982. The data are tabulated as monthly and yearly untreated water withdrawals from each public supply utility. Utilities using ground water as a source are listed separately from those using surface-water sources. In 1978, the total public supply water withdrawal in the county was 37,580.64 million gallons, of which 74.0 percent (27,823.22 million gallons) was ground water. By 1982, the total withdrawal had increased to 43,264.16 million gallons, of which 77.5 percent (33,544.52 million gallons) was ground water. Nearly 57 percent of the ground-water withdrawal was in southeast Palm Beach County (Zone 1) during 1982. The greatest surface-water withdrawal during this time was from Clear Lake and Lake Mangonia (Zone 2) and amounted to 79.3 percent of the county 's total surface-water withdrawal. (USGS)

  16. Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N.

    1995-08-01

    The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.

  17. Energy density and size of pelagic prey fishes in Lake Ontario, 1978-1990: Implications for salmonine energetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rand, Peter S.; Lantry, Brian F.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, Randall W.; Stewart, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    We describe dynamics of energy density and size of Lake Ontario alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and we use a bioenergetics model of a common pelagic piscivore, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, to demonstrate the effect of these factors on piscivore daily ration during 1978–1990. The energy density of alewives varied more than twofold between peaks in September (age 1) or October–November (age ≥2) and the lows in May (age 1) or July–September (age≥2). The previously described seasonal pattern of energy density of Lake Michigan alewives was similar except that energy density of older alewives (age≥3) was markedly higher in Lake Michigan. During 1978–1990, the spring energy density of Lake Ontario alewives peaked in 1979 (6,259 J/g wet weight), declined irregularly until 1985, and then remained stable through 1990 (at approximately 4,600 J/g). The initial decline may have been a density-dependent response to a burgeoning alewife population, but the lack of an increase in alewife condition in the late 1980s, when alewife biomass fell, suggests a decline in lake productivity. Energy density of rainbow smelt increased with age in Lake Ontario and condition was invariant during 1978–1990 despite a threefold change in rainbow smelt biomass. Rainbow smelt energy density was lower and fluctuated less seasonally in Lake Ontario than in Lake Michigan. Mean weight of alewives aged 2 and older dropped from 41 g in 1978 to 19 g in 1989 in Lake Ontario. Rainbow smelt aged 2 and older showed a drop in mean weight from 13–17 g in 1978–1982 to 8 g in 1990. This downward trend in mean size of alewives was correlated with the sizes of alewives consumed by Lake Ontario chinook salmon during 1983–1987. For adult chinook salmon to maintain a constant growth rate during 1978–1990, mean individual daily ration during June–October had to increase from a low of 2.2% body weight/d (or 1.5 prey fish/d) in 1979 to 3.1% body

  18. 9. JL photographer, summer 1978. General view of pumping room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. JL photographer, summer 1978. General view of pumping room in pumping station from second tier. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. 55. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. LEFT TO RIGHT: MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. LEFT TO RIGHT: MAIN DRIVE PULLEY, SKEIN DYER, CLOTH DYER AND WASHER, FULLING HAMMER; FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  20. 278. Photocopied July 1978. NOTICE TO MINE EMPLOYEES, CITIZENS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    278. Photocopied July 1978. NOTICE TO MINE EMPLOYEES, CITIZENS AND NON-CITIZENS, ADVISING THEM OF ACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOR AND PROPER SHOP PRACTICES DURING WARTIME. WRITTEN IN SIX LANGUAGES. C. 1918. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  1. 209. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY SMELTING WORKS, HANCOCK, MICH., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    209. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY SMELTING WORKS, HANCOCK, MICH., SCALE BUILDING FOR TWO 6-TON SCALES. OCT. 22, 1907.' SECTIONS, ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  2. 273. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'DISPENSARY, AUG. 29, 1921.' FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    273. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'DISPENSARY, AUG. 29, 1921.' FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS. DRAWN FROM THREE EARLIER DRAWINGS, 1917-21. LOCATED WEST OF ROUTE 41, BEHIND DOCTOR'S HOUSE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  3. 233. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'PLANS AND ELEVATIONS OF DOCTOR'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    233. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'PLANS AND ELEVATIONS OF DOCTOR'S HOUSE. QUINCY MINE. AUG. 1901.' ILLUSTRATES ALTERATIONS TO AN EXISTING BUILDING. LOCATED WEST SIDE OF ROUTE 41, SOUTH OF QMC OFFICE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  4. 13. Photocopied August 1978. ROCK DRILLING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 23, 1898. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopied August 1978. ROCK DRILLING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 23, 1898. THE HOLES DRILLED BY THESE MACHINES WERE PACKED WITH GUNPOWDER FOR BLASTING. (19) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  6. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center Technical Publications announced in 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All the publications were announced in the 1978 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  7. 239. Photocopied July 1978, courtesy LGK and N. Eilertsen. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    239. Photocopied July 1978, courtesy LGK and N. Eilertsen. VIEW FROM SHAFT-ROCKHOUSE OVERLOOKING 'LOWER PEWABIC' WITH TELESCOPE HOUSES BUILT 1899-1900 AND SEARS-ROEBUCK HOUSES, BUILT 1917. C. 1920. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  8. 70. Jet Lowe, Photographer, Jude 1978. STEAM ENGINE AND BOILER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Jet Lowe, Photographer, Jude 1978. STEAM ENGINE AND BOILER, 'WASHINGTON FOUNDRY, ST. LOUIS, MO.', ON CONDENSER; IN SHED AT EAST END OF MILL. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  9. 120. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, C. 1920. FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, C. 1920. FROM THE WEST. THE UNION CARBIDE PLANT IS ON THE EXTREME RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. (883) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. 132. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. GENERAL VIEW NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. GENERAL VIEW NORTH OF HEADGATES TO POWER CANAL, FROM RAILROAD BRIDGE. - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. 135. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. GENERAL VIEW NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. GENERAL VIEW NORTH OF HEADGATES OF POWER CANAL, FROM ROADWAY BRIDGE INTO TOWN. - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. 122. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. POWER CANAL LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. POWER CANAL LOOKING NORTH. WOODEN LINING OF CANAL STILL VISIBLE NEXT TO ROCKS. - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. 138. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. GENERAL VIEW NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. GENERAL VIEW NORTH FROM CORPS OF ENGINEERS POWERHOUSE OVERLOOKING ST. MARY'S RAPIDS. - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. 180. Jet Lowe, Photographer July 1978. VIEW FROM SLAG DUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Jet Lowe, Photographer July 1978. VIEW FROM SLAG DUMP OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) RAILROAD WAREHOUSE (1901); BRIQUETTING PLANT (1906); CUPOLA BUILDING (1898) AND MACHINE SHOP (1907). - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  15. 36. Photocopied August 1978. SECTION III, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopied August 1978. SECTION III, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM SPRUCE STREET, JUNE 13, 1902, WITH TIMBER LINING ALMOST COMPLETED. (245) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. 41. JL photographer, summer 1978, view of chemical mixer from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. JL photographer, summer 1978, view of chemical mixer from atop chemical spray nozzels. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 164. Photocopied July 1978. VIEW OF STEAMTURBINE BUILDING AT STAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    164. Photocopied July 1978. VIEW OF STEAM-TURBINE BUILDING AT STAMP MILL. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED IN 1921 TO USE EXHAUST STEAM TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY. C. 1925. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  18. 112. Photocopied July 1978. (MTU, #01062) UNDERGROUND VIEW OF MEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopied July 1978. (MTU, #01062) UNDERGROUND VIEW OF MEN RIDING QMC MAN-ENGINE WITH MINING CAPTAIN (IN WHITE) STANDING ON THE RIGHT. C. 1890. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  19. 123. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) UNDERGROUND VIEW SHOWING MINERS CUTTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) UNDERGROUND VIEW SHOWING MINERS CUTTING MASS COPPER BY HAND. NOTE CANDLES USED FOR ILLUMINATION. MINING CAPTAIN IN WHITE. C. 1890. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  20. 232. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'CLERK'S HOUSE, QUINCY MINE, 1890.' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    232. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'CLERK'S HOUSE, QUINCY MINE, 1890.' FRONT ELEVATION, FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS. LOCATED ON LOT SOUTH OF QMC MINING OFFICE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI