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Sample records for 1985-95 incidence des

  1. Analysis of water-level data in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--95

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.

    1997-12-31

    From 1985 through 1995, a water-level network that consists of 28 wells for monitoring 36 depth intervals has been maintained in the Yucca Mountain area. The network includes wells that were measured manually, approximately monthly, and/or measured hourly with a transducer/data logger system. Manual water-level measurements were made with either calibrated steel tapes or single or multiconductor-cable units. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Annual mean water-level altitudes for all wells for the period 1985-95 ranged from 727.93 to 1,034.60 meters. The maximum range in water-level change between monthly measurements and/or monthly mean values was 12.22 meters in well USW H-3 lower interval, and the minimum range was 0.31 meter in wells UE-25 b-1 upper interval, and J-11. In 31 of the 36 depth intervals monitored, the range of water-level change was less than 1 meter. The range of standard deviation of all depth interval measurements for all wells that were monitored was 0.053 to 3.098 meters. No seasonal water-level trends were detected in any of the wells, and regional ground-water withdrawals did not appear to cause water-level changes. Most annual water-level fluctuations can be attributed to barometric and Earth-tide changes. Regional earthquakes, which occurred on June 28--29, 1992, might have simultaneously affected the water level in seven wells. Periods of rising and declining water levels were observed in most wells. However, 11 years of record were not sufficient to determine if these periods were cyclic. Because a goal of monitoring water levels at Yucca Mountain is to determine if there are water-level trends that could affect the potential repository, observed water-level changes over the period of this report may not be representative of the overall long-term trends in water levels.

  2. Incidence et Caracteristiques des Signalements d'Enfants Maltraites: Comparaison Interculturelle (Incidence and Characteristics of Reported Child Abuse: Intercultural Comparisons).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourigny, Marc; Bouchard, Camil

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 953 reports of child abuse in Montreal (Quebec) found the incidence slightly higher among Haitians than French-Canadians. Among Haitians, reporting tended to originate with police or school personnel, and cases consisted mainly of physical abuse. Results suggest that child-rearing practices of Haitian families are in conflict with…

  3. Incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court

    PubMed Central

    Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo; Nkongni, Ines Nepetsoun; Luma, Henry Namme; Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo Mbtachou; Barla, Esther; Ngwane, Samuel; Mouelle, Albert Soné; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Avec l'introduction de la trithérapie dans les années 1996, la morbidité et la mortalité liées à l'infection par le VIH a nettement diminué. Concomitamment avec ce succès clinique, plusieurs changements métaboliques incluant diabète, hypertension artérielle, dyslipidémie et lipodystrophie ont été observés, ceux-ci étant des pourvoyeurs d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer l'incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective, menée dans le Centre de Traitement Agrée de l'Hôpital Général de Douala (HGD), avec un recueil des données sur 10 ans allant de Mai 2001 à avril 2010, portant sur les patients VIH positifs adultes sous traitement antirétroviral depuis au moins 6 mois. Les patients étaient suivis selon le protocole national de prise en charge du Cameroun. La survenue d'un AVC a été déterminée par la méthode Kaplan-Meyer tandis que les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC ont été recherché par le test de Khi-2. Le seuil de signification statistique était fixé à 0,05. Résultats 307 patients étaient inclus dont 62,4% de sexe féminin, et l’âge moyen était de 40,1 ± 9,9 ans. L'incidence des AVC était de 1,7% sur 72 mois de suivi sans différence significative entre les femmes et les hommes (P= 0,76). Le taux d'incidence calculé était de 0,3 pour 100 personnes années. Dans 85,7% des cas il s'agissait d'un AVC ischémique. Le délai moyen de survenue d'un AVC était de 33,4 mois. Les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC étaient: les patients ayant initié leur traitement au stade III et IV de l'OMS et le taux de CD4 > 100/mm3 à l'initiation du traitement antirétroviral. Conclusion L'incidence des AVC chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral est similaire à celle rapportée ant

  4. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  5. L’explosion intravésicale au cours des procédures de résection endoscopique: Un incident dangereux qui peut être évité

    PubMed Central

    Anzaoui, Jihad El; Abakka, Najib; El harrech, Younes; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; Lahkim, Mohammed; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Bakzaza, Walid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Les explosions survenant au cours des manœuvres endoscopiques urologiques sont rares et dangereuses. Elles sont dues à une production d’hydrogène par hydrolyse de l’eau lors des procédés de coagulation et de section. L’hydrogène devient très combustible une fois mélangé avec l’oxygène ambiant. Nous rapportons un cas d’explosion intravésicale au cours d’une résection transurethrale d’une tumeur de la vessie et nous exposons, par une revue de littérature, les différentes théories physiopathologiques et les moyens de prévention. PMID:23914274

  6. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  7. Incident reporting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    Healthcare delivery is a risky business. People view the NHS in the same light as other commercial businesses such as the hotel, retail and airline industries. The White Paper 'The New NHS: Modern, Dependable' (Secretary of State for Health, 1997) places statutory responsibilities on managers and clinicians to provide a quality service and to have accountability for clinical governance and performance management. Quality and risk are two sides of the same coin, i.e. if you have good quality you have low risk, and this firmly supports the clinical effectiveness agenda. Healthcare organizations in all sectors of care delivery need to demonstrate their high levels of achievement and commitment to continuous quality improvements. Risk management is a process for identifying, assessing and evaluating risks which have adverse effects on the quality, safety and effectiveness of service delivery, and taking positive action to eliminate or reduce them. Having an open, honest and blame-free organization which is open to improving processes and systems of care is a big step towards having staff who are committed to quality and getting things right. Near-miss, incident and indicator recording and reporting are cornerstones of any quality and risk management system.

  8. Cancer risk in DES daughters

    PubMed Central

    Verloop, Janneke; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Helmerhorst, Theo J. M.; van Boven, Hester H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined long-term risk of cancer in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Methods A total of 12,091 DES-exposed women in the Netherlands were followed prospectively from December 1992 till June 2008. Cancer incidence was assessed through linkage with the Dutch pathology database (PALGA) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry and compared with the Dutch female population. Results A total of 348 medically verified cancers occurred; median age at end of follow-up was 44.0 years. No overall increased risk of cancer was found (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91, 1.13). The risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix (CCA) was statistically significantly increased (SIR = 24.23; 95% CI = 8.89, 52.74); the elevated risk persisted above 40 years of age. The risk of melanoma diagnosed before age 40 was increased (SIR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.26). No excess risks were found for other sites, including breast cancer. Conclusions Except for an elevated risk of CCA, persisting at older ages, and an increased risk of melanoma at young ages, we found no increased risk of cancer. Longer follow-up is warranted to examine cancer risk at ages when cancer occurs more frequently. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-010-9526-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20204493

  9. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  10. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  11. Incident analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.W.; Buerer, A.; Leeds, S.

    1996-02-20

    This document presents information about a fire that occurred in January 1996 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This fire was caused by the spontaneous combustion of 100% fuming nitric acid. Topics discussed include: Summary of the incident; technical background; procedural background; supervision; previous incidents with 100% fuming nitric acid; and judgment of potential hazards.

  12. Identification et prise en charge des femmes ayant des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les meilleures données portant sur les stratégies d’identification et de prise en charge des femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur PubMed à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management et magnetic resonance imaging screening, entre 2000 et 2016. La plupart des données sont de niveau II. Message principal Une bonne anamnèse familiale est essentielle lors de l’évaluation du risque de cancer du sein afin d’identifier les femmes qui sont candidates à une recommandation en counseling génétique pour un éventuel test génétique. On peut sauver des vies en offrant aux femmes porteuses d’une mutation au gène BRCA des interventions chirurgicales de réduction des risques (mastectomie bilatérale prophylactique, salpingo-ovariectomie bilatérale). Il faut encourager toutes les femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein à demeurer actives et à limiter leur consommation d’alcool à moins de 1 verre par jour; certaines femmes sont admissibles à la chimioprévention. Il faut offrir aux femmes dont le risque à vie de cancer du sein est de 20 à 25 % ou plus un dépistage poussé par imagerie par résonance magnétique en plus d’une mammographie. Conclusion Une vie saine et la chimioprévention (chez les candidates) pourraient réduire l’incidence du cancer du sein; le dépistage poussé pourrait entraîner une détection plus précoce. Le fait d’aiguiller des femmes porteuses d’une mutation au BRCA vers la chirurgie de réduction des risques sauve des vies. PMID:27737991

  13. Profil épidémiologique des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires : à propos de 154 cas

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Khadija; Mouanis, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelmounim; Maher, Mostafa; Harmouch, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont des tumeurs rares représentant 3à 5% des tumeurs de la tête et du cou. La classification de l'OMS 2005 distingue les tumeurs épithéliales, les tumeurs mésenchymateuses, les tumeurs hématologiques et les tumeurs secondaires. Méthodes Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 10 ans allant de janvier 2002 à janvier 2012. Les critères d'inclusion étaient: l'âge, le sexe, le siège de la tumeur et le type histologique. Résultats L'incidence annuelle des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires dans notre série était de 15 cas par an. Cent cinquante quatre cas de tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires ont été colligés sans prédominance de sexe (78 femmes (50,6%) et 76 hommes (49,4%)). La moyenne d'âge était de 60 ans avec des extrêmes de 4 et 83 ans et un pic de fréquence entre 51et 70 ans. Deux tiers des cas (65%) avaient une localisation au niveau des glandes principales avec 66 cas au niveau de la parotide (43%) et 34 cas au niveau de la glande sous maxillaire (22%). Cinquante quatre patients avaient une tumeur maligne des glandes salivaires accessoires (35%) dont 61% au niveau du palais. Aucun cas de tumeur maligne de la glande sublinguale n'a été recensé dans notre étude. Le type histologique prédominant dans notre série était le carcinome adénoïde kystique et retrouvé chez 43 patients (27,9%), suivi de l'adénocarcinome sans autre indication chez 37 patients (24%) puis du carcinome mucoépidermoïde chez 16 patients (10,4%) et de l'adénocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade également chez 16 patients (10. 4%). Conclusion Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires représentent un ensemble hétérogène de maladies de caractérisation complexe et de fréquence variable. PMID:25120861

  14. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  15. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  16. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  17. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  18. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  19. [Incidence of inguinal hernias].

    PubMed

    Michalský, R

    2001-04-01

    Groin hernia operation is the third most frequent operation in the Czech republic. Early recurrence of the hernia after prime operation is a medical failure. The recurrences can arise after all types of operation. Incidence of recurrences, time factors of its genesis and treatment are discussed there.

  20. Critical Incidents in Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This report presents imaginary dialogues between a management team and an employee team and critiques the dialogues to emphasize the significance of situations and episodes that can hasten or hamper a settlement at the negotiation table. Three critical incidents are studied within each developmental phase of the negotiation process: (1) procedural…

  1. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  2. Incident meteoroid flux density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badadjanov, P. B.; Bibarsov, R. SH.; Getman, V. S.; Kolmakov, V. M.

    1987-01-01

    Complex photographic and radar meteor observations were carried out. Using the available observational data, the density of incident flux of meteoroids was estimated over a wide mass range of 0.001 to 100 g. To avoid the influence of apparatus selectivity a special technique was applied. The main characteristics of this technique are given and discussed.

  3. L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

  4. Clear cell renal carcinoma in a pregnant DES-exposed patient.

    PubMed

    Mansi, M L

    1989-07-01

    Several decades ago, diethylstilbestrol (DES) was prescribed to support the pregnancy of women who were diabetic, who had had consecutive abortions, or who were threatening to abort. The use of this estrogen substitute to support human gestation had ceased by the 1960s. In 1971, the first report was published in which DES exposure was linked with clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix. Since then, many other documentations have been published on upper genital tract anomalies, poor reproductive performance, and the high incidence of fetal wastage in DES-exposed women. The author describes a case of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney in an 18-year-old pregnant woman with a prior history of vaginal adenosis who had been exposed to DES in utero.

  5. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abelmann, Walter H.

    1985-01-01

    Full reliable data on the incidence and prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy are not available. In the United States, at least 0.7% of cardiac deaths are attributable to cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy probably contributes the great majority of these cases. The mortality rate for cardiomyopathy in males is twice that of females, and for blacks it is 2.4 times that of whites. Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 0.67% of patients discharged from hospitals in 1979 with diagnoses of disease of the circulatory system. Cardiomyopathy accounted for 1% of general cardiologists' and for 7% of academic cardiologists' patient encounters. In Scandinavia, population surveys suggested an annual incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy ranging from 0.73 to 7.5 cases per 100,000 population; for Tokyo this figure is 2.6. The prevalence of cardiomyopathy in underdeveloped and in tropical countries is considerably higher than in developed countries.

  6. Profil épidemio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Rabemanorintsoa, Feno Hasina; Randrianantenaina, Faralahy Ravelonarivo; Rakoto, Olivat Alson Aimée; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer le profil épidémio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles malagasy. Méthodes Une étude prospective, descriptive portant sur 25 patients hémophiles venant de tout Madagascar a été réalisée. Des radiographies numérisées des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes en incidence de face et de profil ainsi qu'une échographie des hanches, des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes ont été réalisées chez ces patients. Le type et la sévérité de la maladie ainsi que l'aspect de la cavité articulaire, la synoviale, les noyaux épiphysaires et les surfaces articulaires ont été analysés. Résultats Soixante-huit pourcent des patients étaient hémophiles de type A et 32 % de type B. Quarante pourcent étaient classés sévères, 28 % modérés et 32 % mineurs. Les atteintes ostéo-articulaires ont été retrouvées chez 56 % des patients. Il n'existait pas de prédominance d'atteinte selon le type ni la sévérité de la maladie. Les plus jeunes étaient les plus atteints et l'articulation du genou et de la cheville étaient les plus touchées. Conclusion Les complications ostéo-articulaire de l'hémophilie sont graves et ne dépendent pas du type ni de la sévérité de l'affection. Elles touchent surtout les enfants d'âge scolaire. Le couple radiographie-échographie permet de diagnostiquer et de surveiller ces lésions. PMID:25870742

  7. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  8. Les transfusions de globules rouges chez le nouveau-né : Des directives révisées

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    En général, depuis dix ans, les professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque dans des unités de soins intensifs néonatals sont plus restrictifs dans leur utilisation de transfusions de globules rouges. Le présent énoncé est conçu pour ceux qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque (des prématurés aux nouveau-nés d’un mois). Il vise à fournir des directives pour réduire l’incidence d’anémie chez les nourrissons prématurés et à terme, à repérer des stratégies pour réduire le besoin de transfusions de globules rouges et à limiter l’exposition à des donneurs au sein de cette population. Des recommandations portant sur les transfusions de globules rouges sont incluses.

  9. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  10. Racist Incident-Based Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ocampo, Carlota

    2005-01-01

    Racist incidents are potentially traumatizing forms of victimization that may lead to increased psychiatric and psychophysiological symptoms in targets. The magnitude of the problem of racist incidents in the United States is difficult to estimate; however, data from several sources permit the inference that the prevalence of racist incidents,…

  11. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  12. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  13. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  14. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  15. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  16. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  17. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  18. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  19. Classification of 8 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; OâNeill, C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  20. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, N.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Gshwend, J.; Martini, P.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 2 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, C. R.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  4. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  5. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  6. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  7. Racial differences in melanoma incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Crombie, I. K.

    1979-01-01

    The incidences of malignant melanoma recorded by 59 population-based cancer registries were investigated to determine the effects of racial and skin-colour differences. White populations exhibited a wide range of melanoma incidences and females commonly, though not invariably, had a higher incidence than males. Non-white populations experienced in general a much lower incidence of melanoma although there was some overlap of white and non-white rates. No predominant sex difference emerged among non-whites. Populations of African descent were found to have a higher incidence than those of Asiatic origin, but it was concluded that this was due largely to the high frequency of tumours among Africans on the sole of the foot. A clear negative correlation between degree of skin pigmentation and melanoma incidence emerged for the exposed body sites. These data provide strong support for the hypotheses that UV radiation is a major cause of malignant melanoma and that melanin pigmentation protects against it. Further research is required to elucidate the aetiology of melanoma of the sole of the foot. PMID:475965

  8. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  9. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  10. Modeling wildfire incident complexity dynamics.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire management in the United States and elsewhere is challenged by substantial uncertainty regarding the location and timing of fire events, the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of these events, and the costs of suppression. Escalating U.S. Forest Service suppression expenditures is of particular concern at a time of fiscal austerity as swelling fire management budgets lead to decreases for non-fire programs, and as the likelihood of disruptive within-season borrowing potentially increases. Thus there is a strong interest in better understanding factors influencing suppression decisions and in turn their influence on suppression costs. As a step in that direction, this paper presents a probabilistic analysis of geographic and temporal variation in incident management team response to wildfires. The specific focus is incident complexity dynamics through time for fires managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The modeling framework is based on the recognition that large wildfire management entails recurrent decisions across time in response to changing conditions, which can be represented as a stochastic dynamic system. Daily incident complexity dynamics are modeled according to a first-order Markov chain, with containment represented as an absorbing state. A statistically significant difference in complexity dynamics between Forest Service Regions is demonstrated. Incident complexity probability transition matrices and expected times until containment are presented at national and regional levels. Results of this analysis can help improve understanding of geographic variation in incident management and associated cost structures, and can be incorporated into future analyses examining the economic efficiency of wildfire management.

  11. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... investigation began; (3) A description of the incident; (4) The factors that contributed to the incident; and... job tasks are relevant to the incident findings including contract employees where applicable....

  12. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... investigation began; (3) A description of the incident; (4) The factors that contributed to the incident; and... job tasks are relevant to the incident findings including contract employees where applicable....

  13. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  14. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  15. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  16. Incidents Unsuitable for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray; And Others

    Educators from over 30 countries judged the suitability of incidents in moral education in the context of their native environment. Participants were 54 secondary school principals or teachers, most of whom were graduate students or married to graduate students at the University of California, Santa Barbara. They were given descriptions of 23…

  17. Modeling Wildfire Incident Complexity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire management in the United States and elsewhere is challenged by substantial uncertainty regarding the location and timing of fire events, the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of these events, and the costs of suppression. Escalating U.S. Forest Service suppression expenditures is of particular concern at a time of fiscal austerity as swelling fire management budgets lead to decreases for non-fire programs, and as the likelihood of disruptive within-season borrowing potentially increases. Thus there is a strong interest in better understanding factors influencing suppression decisions and in turn their influence on suppression costs. As a step in that direction, this paper presents a probabilistic analysis of geographic and temporal variation in incident management team response to wildfires. The specific focus is incident complexity dynamics through time for fires managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The modeling framework is based on the recognition that large wildfire management entails recurrent decisions across time in response to changing conditions, which can be represented as a stochastic dynamic system. Daily incident complexity dynamics are modeled according to a first-order Markov chain, with containment represented as an absorbing state. A statistically significant difference in complexity dynamics between Forest Service Regions is demonstrated. Incident complexity probability transition matrices and expected times until containment are presented at national and regional levels. Results of this analysis can help improve understanding of geographic variation in incident management and associated cost structures, and can be incorporated into future analyses examining the economic efficiency of wildfire management. PMID:23691014

  18. Caractérisation des effets de l'implantation ionique dans les alliages super-élastiques nickel titane par diffraction des rayons X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, H.; Muller, D.; Grob, J. J.; Mille, P.; Cornet, A.

    2002-07-01

    the specific properties (shape memory effect and super-elasticity) of NiTi alloys have provided the enabling technology for many groundbreaking applications in the medical and dentistry industries. These applications include everything from the surgical tools to permanent implants. Super-elastic NiTi alloys take advantage of a stress induced martensitic transformation to achieve incredible amounts of flexibility. This last property represents the most interesting aspect of such alloys for restoration procedures. However, recent instrumentation tests have shown brittle rupture of endodontic instruments inside the tooth during preparation of dental root channels.To improve the mechanical properties of NiTi endodontic instruments, argon, nitrogen and boron implantations at different energies and at fixed dose (1.10^{17} at.cm^{-2}) have been used. In this paper, we have investigated the effects on NiTi microstructure, especially the crystalline to amorphous transition induced by ion bombardment, using Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD). Nano-indentation tests have also been performed to determine hardness H and elastic modulus E of implanted surfaces as a function of ion species and energy. Le but de cette d'étude est de caractériser les effets de l'implantation ionique sur la microstructure d'un alliage Nickel Titane à l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X en incidence rasante. Nous avons réalisé différents types d'implantation en faisant varier l'espèce implantée (bore, azote, argon) ainsi que l'énergie d'implantation, pour des doses d'implantation de l'ordre de 1.10^{17} at.cm^{-2}. Les résultats des mesures de diffraction sous différents angles d'incidence (0{,}5^circ leq α_ileq 6^circ) ont été corrélés avec les différents profils d'implantation simulés. Des tests de nanoindentation ainsi que des mesures de RBS ont été également réalisés. Après implantation, on observe la formation d'une couche amorphe, conduisant à une

  19. La Prise en Charge des Brulures Electriques: a Propos de 30 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, K.; Bellamari, H.; Ennouhi, A.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Achbouk, A.; Moussaoui, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques sont rares mais graves nécessitant une prise en charge urgente et adéquate car l'évolution peut être émaillée de complications graves, notamment cardiaques, neurologiques et rénales, et les séquelles sont importantes. A travers une étude analytique et rétrospective de janvier 2000 à novembre 2007 ayant inclus 30 patients admis au Service des Brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V de Rabat, Maroc, pour prise en charge de brûlures électriques, il a été relaté les mécanismes des brûlures électriques, comme aussi les complications, la morbidité et la mortalité, dues aux brûlures électriques, tout en insistant sur les modalités de prise en charge initiale chez ces patients. La prévention reste le point capital pour réduire l'incidence de ces accidents. Cette prévention se base sur la surveillance des enfants et l'élimination de facteurs de risque à la maison, par la maintenance des installations électriques et par l'information et l'éducation du public. PMID:21991148

  20. Structure and function of the fallopian tubes following exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) during gestation.

    PubMed

    DeCherney, A H; Cholst, I; Naftolin, F

    1981-12-01

    The association between the use of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and vaginal and cervical adenocarcinoma and adenosis in the progeny was first reported by Herbst et al. in 1971. This progeny will reach a peak as far as reproduction is concerned in this decade. It is estimated that 2 million women may be involved to varying degrees. Changes in uterine and cervical contour and structure have been detailed. Thus DES exposure and anatomic changes in the Müllerian system have been documented. In this report 16 women in the reproductive age group who were exposed to DES in utero and presented with infertility are discussed. On workup for infertility they were found to have unique tubal morphologic features consisting of a foreshortened, convoluted tube with "withered" fimbria with a pinpoint os at laparoscopy. The diagnosis could not be made at the time of hysterosalpingogram. Three patients had surgery in an attempt to correct this condition; and in all cases the surgery was unsuccessful. No statistical data is offered as to epidemiologic factors or incidence rates, but the suspected increase in infertility and ectopic pregnancy rates in patients with DES exposure may corroborate these findings.

  1. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  2. Development of an incident reporting system.

    PubMed

    Puetz, K

    1988-08-01

    Incident reports document occurrences that are not consistent with routine hospital procedures or routine patient care; they are one measure of the quality of patient care. Waukesha (Wisconsin) Memorial Hospital has developed an incident reporting system that allows analysis of incidents by type and location of occurrence so trends can be identified. The hospital has also developed an "incident rate," which is useful for analyzing incident occurrences in relation to patient census.

  3. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  4. Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Choy, Y C

    2006-12-01

    Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia is an important tool for quality improvement and maintenance of high safety standards in anaesthetic services. It is now widely accepted as a useful quality improvement technique for reducing morbidity and mortality in anaesthesia and has become part of the many quality assurance programmes of many general hospitals under the Ministry of Health. Despite wide-spread reservations about its value, critical incident monitoring is a classical qualitative research technique which is particularly useful where problems are complex, contextual and influenced by the interaction of physical, psychological and social factors. Thus, it is well suited to be used in probing the complex factors behind human error and system failure. Human error has significant contributions to morbidities and mortalities in anaesthesia. Understanding the relationships between, errors, incidents and accidents is important for prevention and risk management to reduce harm to patients. Cardiac arrests in the operating theatre (OT) and prolonged stay in recovery, constituted the bulk of reported incidents. Cardiac arrests in OT resulted in significant mortality and involved mostly de-compensated patients and those with unstable cardiovascular functions, presenting for emergency operations. Prolonged-stay in the recovery extended period of observation for ill patients. Prolonged stay in recovery was justifiable in some cases, as these patients needed a longer period of post-operative observation until they were stable enough to return to the ward. The advantages of the relatively low cost, and the ability to provide a comprehensive body of detailed qualitative information, which can be used to develop strategies to prevent and manage existing problems and to plan further initiatives for patient safety makes critical incident monitoring a valuable tool in ensuring patient safety. The contribution of critical incident reporting to the issue of patient safety is

  5. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures instables des métacarpes et des phalanges reste un objet de controverse. Peu de séries ont été rapportées dans la littérature, rendant leur analyse difficile. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective comportant 12 patients, opérés par cette technique, ayant eu des fractures déplacées des métacarpes ou des phalanges, sur une période de deux ans. Les résultats globaux ont été bons dans 75% des cas, moyenne dans 16,5% des cas et mauvais dans 8,5% des cas. La stabilité du montage par mini plaques des fractures instables des métacarpiens et des phalanges ont permis une mobilisation précoce des articulations de la main, évitant ainsi la raideur. PMID:27800079

  6. Épidémiologie des brûlures de la main chez les enfants vus dans le Centre National des Brûlés et de Chirurgie Plastique de Casablanca, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Rafik, A.; Lahlou, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Chlihi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures de la main chez l’enfant constituent une source de séquelles invalidantes. A cet régard, la conservation et la restauration complète de la fonction de la main demeurent le but primordial de la prise en charge. Afin de répertorier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutives des mains brûlées, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective étalée sur 4 ans, de janvier 2011 à janvier 2015. Cette étude a permis de colliger les cas de 313 enfants atteints de brûlure de la main vus dans le Centre National des Brulés et de Chirurgie Plastique du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca. La majorité des brûlures touche les enfants de 3 à 6 ans (70% des cas), avec une légère prédominance masculine. La principale cause des brûlures survenant à cet âge est l’ébouillantement. Les brûlures par flamme représentent 33% des cas, celles par électricité 4,5%. Les brûlures chimiques et par contact sont anecdotiques (1 cas chacune). L’accident survient le plus souvent à domicile. Soixante douze pour cent des brûlures ont guéri spontanément. Afin de diminuer l’incidence de ces accidents, une approche préventive faite de sensibilisation et d’éducation devrait faire partie du cursus scolaire. PMID:27777543

  7. Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Orjan; Johansson, Olle

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing steadily in many countries since 1960, but the underlying mechanism causing this increase remains elusive. The incidence of melanoma has been linked to the distance to frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting towers. In the current study, the authors sought to determine if there was also a related link on a larger scale for entire countries. Exposure-time-specific incidence was extracted from exposure and incidence data from 4 different countries, and this was compared with reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. Geographic differences in melanoma incidence were compared with the magnitude of this environmental stress. The exposure-time-specific incidence from all 4 countries became almost identical, and they were approximately equal to the reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. A correlation between melanoma incidence and the number of locally receivable FM transmitters was found. The authors concluded that melanoma is associated with exposure to FM broadcasting.

  8. A critical analysis of sarcoidosis incidence assessment.

    PubMed

    Reich, Jerome M

    2013-01-01

    Valid sarcoidosis incidence assessment is contingent on access to medical care, thoroughness of reportage, assiduity of radiographic interpretation, employment and health care screening policies, misclassification, and population ethnicity. To diminish ambiguity and foster inter-population comparison, the term "sarcoidosis incidence" must be modified to convey the methodology employed in compiling the numerator. In age-delimited cohorts, valid comparison to population incidence requires age adjustment due to the age-dependency of incidence. The "true incidence" of sarcoidosis is a notional concept: more than 90% of cases are subclinical and radiographically inevident. Occupational causal inference based on incidence differential vs. populations has been undermined by methodological differences in ascertainment and computation.

  9. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  10. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  11. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  12. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is... Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) to coordinate effectively when responding to...

  13. Une porte optique intensificatrice picoseconde a gain eleve: Caracterisation et application potentielle en imagerie de petits objets places dans des milieux diffusants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Stephanie

    Dans cette etude, nous avons developpe un amplificateur a colorant possedant ces deux caracteristiques. Le colorant choisi, l'iodure de 3,3'-dimethyloxatricarbocyanine (methyl-DOTCI), possede un epaulement dans la bande d'absorption a 620 nm ce qui convient bien a notre pompe femtoseconde. De plus, son maximum de fluorescence est a 720 nm ce qui est particulierement interessant dans le cas des etudes avec des tissus biologiques humains. En effet, la fenetre dite "therapeutique" se situe dans les longueurs d'onde rouge et proche infrarouge. Le phenomene d'amplification, qui se produit dans des conditions experimentales precises, est en fait une emission stimulee du colorant qui est largement favorisee par rapport a sa fluorescence naturelle (emission spontanee). L'arrivee du signal incident, dont la longueur d'onde correspond au saut energetique entre l'etat fondamental et l'etat excite ou se trouvent les molecules, provoque une avalanche coherente de celles-ci vers l'etat fondamental generant ainsi l'emission stimulee. Une des conditions necessaires pour l'obtention d'un gain eleve est que la duree de l'impulsion de pompe soit inferieure au temps de relaxation des molecules ainsi qu'inferieure au temps requis pour effectuer un trajet dans la cellule de colorant. Ceci nous a permis d'amplifier un signal incident par un facteur entre 103 et 104. De plus, ce gain eleve n'est observe qu'a l'interieur d'une fenetre temporelle d'environ 10 picosecondes. Nous avons integre cet amplificateur a notre montage de transillumination afin d'acquerir des images d'un patron de lignes opaques immerge dans un milieu diffusant liquide. Des images de lignes ayant une resolution spatiale de 200 mum ont ete obtenues. La cible etait placee au centre d'un melange contenant des proportions variables de lait et d'eau. Deux longueurs de trajet optique dans la solution ont ete utilisees: 30 et 50 mm. Pour determiner les proprietes optiques de notre milieu diffusant, nous avons mis au point

  14. 40 CFR 68.60 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... began; (3) A description of the incident; (4) The factors that contributed to the incident; and, (5) Any... findings shall be reviewed with all affected personnel whose job tasks are affected by the findings....

  15. Etude des propriétés optiques des couches minces de CuInS2 et d'In-S " Airless spray "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, N.; Bennaceur, R.; Frigerio, J. M.

    1994-05-01

    In this work we have studied the optical properties of the thin CuInS2 and In-S layers prepared by airless spray " P.S.A. ". The study of the optical properties from the ellipsometric measure realized in the interval energy of incident photons [1.5-4] eV, has showed that the refraction index n_1 and the extinction coefficient k_1 vary in the interval [1.8-2.3] and [0.45-0.80] respectively. The absorption coefficient α of the thin CuInS2 layers realized for different ratios x of the concentrations in the spray solution (x =frac[CuI][InIII]) is high with values varied between (5 × 10^4 and 18 × 10^4 cm^{-1}). The direct gap energy of the thin CuInS2 layers of the order of 1.38 eV. In the same way, we study the spectrum variation of n_1 (λ) and k_1 (λ) of the thin In-S layers, realized for two values of ratio y of the concentration in the spray solution (y=frac{[In^{3+}]}{[S^{2-}]}), shows that for the value of y = 0.6 (material β-In2S3) the refraction index is higher than that of the thin layer obtained for the value of y = 0.75 (material In6S7) [1], and that the extinction coefficient is lower than that of In6S7. For In-S thin layers, α is also high with values varing between 2×10^4 and 12×10^4 cm^{-1}. The direct band gap of materials β-In2S3 and In6S7 are 2.22 eV and 1.94 eV respectively. The heat treatment under vacuum at 573 K during two hours improves the optical quality of the thin " p " type CuInS2 Layer. Dans ce travail nous avons étudié les propriétés optiques des couches minces de CuInS2 et d'In-S réalisées par pulvérisation chimique réactive sans air " P.S.A. ". L'étude des propriétés optiques des couches minces de CuInS2, à partir des mesures ellipsométriques effectuées dans le domaine des photons incidents [1,5-4] eV, a révélé que l'indice de réfraction n_1 et le coefficient d'extinction k_1 varient respectivement dans les domaines [1,8-2,3] et [0,45-0,80]. Le coefficient d'absorption α, des couches minces de CuInS2 r

  16. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism, or to compete with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor, it may be possible that these products affect the risk of developing impaired fertility, precocious puberty or some kinds of cancer in man. Le plus ancien récit de lutte contre la pollution remonte à une légende indienne racontant que la divinité Sing-bonga était incommodée par les émanations des fours dans lesquels les Asuras fondaient leurs métaux (1). Evidemment depuis, la problématique n-a cessé de s-accroître et la contamination de la Terre par de nombreux polluants est devenue aujourd-hui un problème majeur de notre Société. La protection de notre environnement est une question capitale qui doit être respectée malgré la pression économique actuelle et qui ne cessera de croître au cours des prochaines années même si l-identification objective et indiscutable de ce qui est essentiel - donc devant être prioritairement garanti sur la planète - est difficile à cerner (2). « Un oiseau en mauvais état ne pond pas de bons oeufs » disait un proverbe grec. Mais ce n-est qu-à partir de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle que les toxicologues ont commencé à identifier les effets qu-avaient entraînés à l-échelle mondiale les pollutions émises aux XIXème siècle sur la faune sauvage et sur le cheptel (3). L-histoire contemporaine des pesticides industriels commence vers 1874 (synthèse des organochlorés) et se poursuit tout au long de ces 2 siècles en passant par la synthèse des organophosphorés (1950), des carbamates (1970) et des pyréthroïdes (1975) (4). Le dichlorodiphényltrichloroéthane (DDT) a été synthétisé pour la première fois par un étudiant en cours de préparation de sa thèse de doctorat : Othmer Zeidler. La production, reprise par les

  17. Computer Simulation for Emergency Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2004-12-03

    This report describes the findings and recommendations resulting from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Incident Management Simulation Workshop held by the DHS Advanced Scientific Computing Program in May 2004. This workshop brought senior representatives of the emergency response and incident-management communities together with modeling and simulation technologists from Department of Energy laboratories. The workshop provided an opportunity for incident responders to describe the nature and substance of the primary personnel roles in an incident response, to identify current and anticipated roles of modeling and simulation in support of incident response, and to begin a dialog between the incident response and simulation technology communities that will guide and inform planned modeling and simulation development for incident response. This report provides a summary of the discussions at the workshop as well as a summary of simulation capabilities that are relevant to incident-management training, and recommendations for the use of simulation in both incident management and in incident management training, based on the discussions at the workshop. In addition, the report discusses areas where further research and development will be required to support future needs in this area.

  18. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  19. Improving incident reporting among junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Emily; Jordan, Lesley; Peden, Carol

    2014-01-01

    To ensure systems in hospitals improve to make patient care safer, learning must occur when things go wrong. Incident reporting is one of the commonest mechanisms used to learn from harm events and near misses. Only a relatively small number of incidents that occur are actually reported and different groups of staff have different rates of reporting. Nationally, junior doctors are low reporters of incidents, a finding supported by our local data. We set out to explore the culture and awareness around incident reporting among our junior doctors, and to improve the incident reporting rate within this important staff group. In order to achieve this we undertook a number of work programmes focused on junior doctors, including: assessment of their knowledge, confidence and understanding of incident reporting, education on how and why to report incidents with a focus on reporting on clinical themes during a specific time period, and evaluation of the experience of those doctors who reported incidents. Junior doctors were asked to focus on incident reporting during a one week period. Before and after this focussed week, they were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their confidence about what an incident was and how to report. Prior to "Incident Reporting Week", on average only two reports were submitted a month by junior doctors compared with an average of 15 per month following the education and awareness week. This project highlights the fact that using a focussed reporting period and/or specific clinical themes as an education tool can benefit a hospital by promoting awareness of incidents and by increasing incident reporting rates. This can only assist in improving hospital systems, and ultimately increase patient safety.

  20. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  1. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  2. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  3. 75 FR 63714 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Des Allemands Bayou, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Des Allemands Bayou, LA AGENCY: Coast... Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing bridge across Des Allemands Bayou, mile 14.0, in St. Charles and... INFORMATION: The Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing span drawbridge across Bayou Des Allemands,...

  4. Statutes of limitations: the special problem of DES suits.

    PubMed

    Feigin, C A

    1981-01-01

    In 1971, medical studies determined that DES causes a rare type of vaginal cancer in a small number of daughters of mothers who took DES during pregnancy. Subsequently, medical studies determined that exposure to DES can cause other vaginal abnormalities in the daughters, some of which may be precancerous. As a result of these discoveries, many lawsuits have been filed by these daughters against DES manufacturers. Many DES suits may be barred by statutes of limitations, both because the number of years between the daughters' exposure to DES in utero and the discovery that DES can cause injuries exceeds the statutory period, and because the cancer or other injuries caused by DES may not develop for many additional years. This Note discusses two methods that DES plaintiffs may be able to use to overcome the potential statutes of limitations bar: the discovery rule, and state provisions which toll the statute of limitations for minors. The Note contends that courts should apply an expanded discovery rule to DES suits to avoid the unfair result of barring a claim before the plaintiff could have known that she had a cause of action. In addition, the Note argues that the injury which causes the statute of limitations to begin to run in DES suits should not be rigidly defined. Finally, the Note urges that courts allow eligible DES plaintiffs to take advantage of applicable state provisions that toll the statute of limitations for minors.

  5. Epidémiologie et prise en charge des infections du per-partum à la maternité du centre hospitalier départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Saizonou, Jacques; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Paraiso, Moussiliou Noël; Ayélo, Paul; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Daraté, René; Traoré, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude avait pour objectif de mesurer l'ampleur des infections du per-partum à la maternité du Centre Hospitalier Départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau d'analyser les conditions de survenue et de prise en charge dans la perspective de l'amélioration des soins et services maternels et néonataux. Méthodes Une étude descriptive et analytique a été conduite de Août 2009 à Février 2010 et a impliqué 110 mères victimes d'infections du per-partum; elles ont été soumises à un questionnaire durant tout leur séjour hospitalier; des observations des pratiques de prise en charge des prestataires de soins ont été menées et des registres et autres supports de données sanitaires ont été exploités. L'analyse des données a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel Epi Info 6.4 dans sa version française. Résultats L'incidence des infections du per-partum était de 5,9 pour 100 accouchements (110/ 1875); les types d'infections les plus incriminés étaient les endométrites (27,3%), les chorioamniotites (18,2%), les infections du site opératoire (12,7%) et les infections urinaires (2,7%). Les examens cliniques ont été relativement acceptables. En revanche, les examens biologiques ont été très insuffisants expliquant l'imprécision importante au niveau des diagnostics. L'antibiothérapie a été instaurée systématiquement. Le taux de mortinaissance était de 25,6% et les enfants de petit poids représentaient 23,2%. Conclusion L'incidence des infections du per-partum dans la présente étude était assez élevée. Des efforts de préventions et de dépistage de ces infections sont nécessaire afin d'améliorer la qualité des soins PMID:25120854

  6. Traitement intra-artériel des métastases hépatiques de cancer colorectal

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, O.; Geschwind, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer colorectal représente un problème majeur de santé publique. Son incidence annuelle mondiale est d’environ un million de cas et la mortalité annuelle est de plus de 500 000 cas par an. Le foie est l’organe le plus fréquemment touché par les métastases. Leur survenue est observée dans 40 à 60% des cas (contemporaines dans 25% des cas). Bien que la résection chirurgicale soit le seul traitement curatif, nombre de patients ne peuvent en bénéficier en raison de l’importante diffusion des métastases hépatiques. Chimiothérapies et biothérapies systémiques sont les options conventionnelles de la prise en charge des métastases hépatiques multiples. C’est dans ces situations cliniques que les thérapies intra-artérielles peuvent jouer un rôle important. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les différentes thérapies endovasculaires applicables aux métastases hépatiques de cancers colorectaux, avec leurs indications, résultats et complications éventuelles. PMID:21944243

  7. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d

  8. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  9. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  10. How effective incident management retains market share.

    PubMed

    Enright, Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for business continuity practitioners to make incident management a focal element of their programme. Particularly during the first few minutes and hours of a business disruption, an established incident management methodology is not only key to achieving a successful, coordinated recovery, but it can play an even more important role in maintaining customer confidence following a disruption or crisis.

  11. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  12. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  13. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  14. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  15. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  16. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  17. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  18. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  19. DOE's Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.

    1990-09-01

    Computer security is essential in maintaining quality in the computing environment. Computer security incidents, however, are becoming more sophisticated. The DOE Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) team was formed primarily to assist DOE sites in responding to computer security incidents. Among CIAC's other responsibilities are gathering and distributing information to DOE sites, providing training workshops, coordinating with other agencies, response teams, and vendors, creating guidelines for incident handling, and developing software tools. CIAC has already provided considerable assistance to DOE sites faced with virus infections and worm and hacker attacks, has issued over 40 information bulletins, and has developed and presented a workshop on incident handling. CIAC's experience in helping sites has produced several lessons learned, including the need to follow effective procedures to avoid virus infections in small systems and the need for sound password management and system administration in networked systems. CIAC's activity and scope will expand in the future. 4 refs.

  20. Incidence of lead shot in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, 2,544 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from North Dakota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Maryland were flouroscoped to determine the incidence of body shot. A significant increase from west to east was detected in the incidence of shot for immatures from the four states. The incidence of shot in immatures after the 1975-76 hunting season was 18 percent in Maryland and 20 percent in Illinois. In Wisconsin no difference in the incidence of shot could be detected between areas trapped or time periods when trapping was conducted. In Maryland a significant decrease in the incidence of body shot was detected in adults, but not immatures, between 1975 and 1976. shot was located throughout the body of canvasbacks. Frequency varied from one to nine shot per bird and averaged 2.0 for adults and 1.5 for immatures.

  1. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  2. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  3. Caracterisation des etats de surface par teledetection infrarouge thermique multispectrale: Contribution a l'etude des conditions de viabilite hivernale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, Frederic

    La mesure de temperature d'une surface et de son emissivite thermique constitue encore de nos jours, un defi de taille. D'un point de vue microclimatique, la temperature significative d'une surface est celle qui reflete l'etat des echanges energetiques qui y ont lieu. La radiometrie infrarouge thermique permet de lire la temperature de l'interface air-sol pour une couche infiniment petite de la surface (de l'ordre de quelques microns). Dans le cadre d'un systeme d'aide aux decisions en viabilite hivernale, nous avons defini un prototype de station de mesures mobiles. Cette station permet de determiner, avec precision, la temperature radiative de la surface de la chaussee ainsi que de determiner, avec un taux de succes de plus de 65 %, l'etat de cette meme surface. Par la conception de ce prototype, nous avons aborde le principe physique de la mesure de temperature de surface par radiometrie multispectrale infrarouge thermique. Ce travail aura permis d'evaluer une approche standard de mesure a bande spectrale unique (de 8 a 14 mum). Dans la correction de la temperature radiative de surface, nous avons considere trois methodes distinctes. La premiere methode utilisee est celle de l'algorithme TES (Gillespie et al., 1998). Cet algorithme etablit le spectre d'emissivite, puis calcule une temperature de surface corrigee, en tenant compte de la reflexion du rayonnement thermique incident a la surface. La seconde methode consideree est l'indice TISI (Li et al., 1999) qui consiste en un indice d'emissivite relatif independant de la temperature de la surface et qui tient compte du rayonnement incident a la surface. La troisieme methode est un indice de temperature relative (ITR) qui correspond au contraste normalise des temperatures radiatives de surface. L'identification du type de surface a montre un taux de succes de 54,8 % pour les resultats de l'indice ITR, de 51,9 % pour les resultats de l'indice TISI et de 67,3 % pour les resultats de l'algorithme TES. Quant a la

  4. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, Peter B. Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-05-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources.

  5. Diffraction of H from LiF(001): From slow normal incidence to fast grazing incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzas, A. S.; Gatti, F.; Martín, F.; Díaz, C.

    2016-09-01

    Describing diffraction of atomic and molecular projectiles at fast grazing incidence presents a real challenge for quantum theoretical simulations due to the high incidence energy (100 eV-1 keV) used in experiments. This is one of the main reasons why most theoretical simulations performed to date are based on reduced dimensional models. Here we analyze two alternatives to reduce the computational effort, while preserving the real dimensionality of the system. First, we show that grazing incidence conditions are already fulfilled for incidence angles ⩽ 5 ° , i.e., incidence angles higher than those typically used in experiments. Thus, accurate comparisons with experiment can be performed considering diffraction at grazing incidence, but with smaller total incidence energies, whilst keeping the same experimental normal energy in the calculations. Second, we show that diffraction probabilities obtained at fast grazing incidence are fairly well reproduced by simulations performed at slow normal incidence. This latter approach would allow one to simulate several experimental spectra, measured at the same normal incidence energy for several incidence crystallographic directions, with only one calculation. This approach requires to keep the full dimensionality of the system.

  6. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  7. La microscopie ionique analytique des tissus biologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, P.

    Proposed in 1960 by R. Castaing and G. Slodzian, secondary ion emission microanalysis is a microanalytical method which is now largely used for the study of inert material. The instrument called the analytical ion microscope can also be used for the study of biological spécimens ; images representing the distribution of a given stable or radioactive isotope in a tissue section are obtained with a resolution of 0.5 μm. Among the characteristics of this method, two are of particular interest in biological research : its capacity for isotopic analysis and its very high sensitivity which makes possible for the first time a chemical analysis of element at a very low or even at a trace concentration in a microvolume. Proposé en 1960 par R. Castaing et G. Slodzian, la microanalyse par émission ionique secondaire est une méthode qui permet, entre autre, d'obtenir des images représentant la distribution des isotopes présents à la surface d'un échantillon solide avec une résolution de 0,5 μm. D'intérêt très général, cette méthode a été d'abord largement utilisée pour l'étude des matériaux inertes. Elle offre en outre des possibilités entièrement nouvelles dans le domaine de la recherche biomédicale. L'instrument réalisé, le microscope ionique analytique présente deux caractéristiques particulièrement intéressantes pour la biologie : la possibilité d'analyse isotopique, et l'extrême sensibilité permettant de détecter et de localiser dans une coupe histologique des éléments à des concentrations très faibles voire à l'état de trace.

  8. Elaboration de nouvelles approches micromecaniques pour l'optimisation des performances mecaniques des materiaux heterogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutajeddine, Ahmed

    Les modeles micromecaniques de transition d'echelles qui permettent de determiner les proprietes effectives des materiaux heterogenes a partir de la microstructure sont consideres dans ce travail. L'objectif est la prise en compte de la presence d'une interphase entre la matrice et le renforcement dans les modeles micromecaniques classiques, de meme que la reconsideration des approximations de base de ces modeles, afin de traiter les materiaux multiphasiques. Un nouveau modele micromecanique est alors propose pour tenir compte de la presence d'une interphase elastique mince lors de la determination des proprietes effectives. Ce modele a ete construit grace a l'apport de l'equation integrale, des operateurs interfaciaux de Hill et de la methode de Mori-Tanaka. Les expressions obtenues pour les modules globaux et les champs dans l'enrobage sont de nature analytique. L'approximation de base de ce modele est amelioree par la suite dans un nouveau modele qui s'interesse aux inclusions enrobees avec un enrobage mince ou epais. La resolution utilisee s'appuie sur une double homogeneisation realisee au niveau de l'inclusion enrobee et du materiau. Cette nouvelle demarche, permettra d'apprehender completement les implications des approximations de la modelisation. Les resultats obtenus sont exploites par la suite dans la solution de l'assemblage de Hashin. Ainsi, plusieurs modeles micromecaniques classiques d'origines differentes se voient unifier et rattacher, dans ce travail, a la representation geometrique de Hashin. En plus de pouvoir apprecier completement la pertinence de l'approximation de chaque modele dans cette vision unique, l'extension correcte de ces modeles aux materiaux multiphasiques est rendue possible. Plusieurs modeles analytiques et explicites sont alors proposee suivant des solutions de differents ordres de l'assemblage de Hashin. L'un des modeles explicite apparait comme une correction directe du modele de Mori-Tanaka, dans les cas ou celui ci echoue a

  9. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  10. Incidence of Wife Abuse in Incestuous Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truesdell, Donna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigates a largely uncharted dynamic in the literature--the incidence of wife abuse among incestuous families--and suggests that professional caregivers reevaluate conventional treatment modalities that are based on certain assumptions regarding the mother's role in incest. (Author)

  11. Prevention of future incidents and investigational lines

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Miguel J.; Zapatero, José; López, Mario

    2011-01-01

    All radiation devices in use nowadays are subject to cause serious incidents and accidents, with potential risks in exposed population groups. These risks may have immediate or long term health implications. The detection of radioactive incidents is a procedure that should be systematized in economically developed societies. International organizations may provide support to other states in the event of a radioactive incident. Prevention, mitigation and treatment of the radiation effects are done by anticipating the moment of exposure and by establishing new efforts for investigation of radioprotective products. In this article we will analyze the causes of radiological incidents, the means to detect them, and the current preventive and therapeutic procedures available, with special emphasis on new biodosimetry methods for triage and investigational radioprotective drugs. Finally, we will explore the most efficient measures, for future prevention. PMID:24376973

  12. 1000 anaesthetic incidents: experience to date.

    PubMed

    James, R Hugh

    2003-09-01

    The anaesthetic incident reporting scheme in Leicester has been running for 11 years and 1000 incidents have now been reported. The scheme has successfully highlighted weaknesses where a procedural change has been able to prevent repetition. It has provided advance notification of problems which could be overcome by publicity and has been a source of educational cases. The experience of this scheme supports the use of a definition which does not include blame and allows the possibility of anonymous reporting. The scheme has evolved, driven by hospital decisions on reporting risk management cases, by inclusion of the Royal College of Anaesthetists' incident categories and by progressive refinements. Summary figures are given for the different categories of incident. These show marked similarities with previous studies. PMID:12911357

  13. Risk-based Classification of Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Strunk, Elisabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    As the penetration of software into safety-critical systems progresses, accidents and incidents involving software will inevitably become more frequent. Identifying lessons from these occurrences and applying them to existing and future systems is essential if recurrences are to be prevented. Unfortunately, investigative agencies do not have the resources to fully investigate every incident under their jurisdictions and domains of expertise and thus must prioritize certain occurrences when allocating investigative resources. In the aviation community, most investigative agencies prioritize occurrences based on the severity of their associated losses, allocating more resources to accidents resulting in injury to passengers or extensive aircraft damage. We argue that this scheme is inappropriate because it undervalues incidents whose recurrence could have a high potential for loss while overvaluing fairly straightforward accidents involving accepted risks. We then suggest a new strategy for prioritizing occurrences based on the risk arising from incident recurrence.

  14. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-09-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  15. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  16. How effective incident management retains market share.

    PubMed

    Enright, Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for business continuity practitioners to make incident management a focal element of their programme. Particularly during the first few minutes and hours of a business disruption, an established incident management methodology is not only key to achieving a successful, coordinated recovery, but it can play an even more important role in maintaining customer confidence following a disruption or crisis. PMID:22948102

  17. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  18. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  19. Environmental protection for hazardous materials incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, B.D.; Carter, R.J.; Dobson, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Ogle, P.S.; VanCleave, A.K.

    1990-02-01

    This document was prepared to provide the US Air Force fire protection community with an integrated program for handling hazardous materials (HAZMAT)s and hazardous material incidents. The goal of the project was to define and identify a computer system for the base fire departments that would facilitate hazard assessment and response during HAZMAT emergencies, provide HAZMAT incident management guidelines, and provide a training tool to simulate emergency response during normal times. Site visits to Air Force bases were made to observe existing HAZMAT related organizations, their methods and procedures used in HAZMAT management, and to collect personnel input for the development of the computerized Hazardous Materials Incident Management System (HMIMS). The study concentrated on defining strategic areas of concern to emergency response personnel. Particular emphasis was given to such areas as responsibilities and roles for response agencies; personnel requirements to handle HAZMAT incidents; procedures to follow during HAZMAT incidents and decontamination; personnel evacuation; postincident evaluation and feedback; emergency response personnel participation in installation restoration program; personal protective clothing; mutual air requirements; and training. Future recommendations were made for purchase, use, storage, disposal, and management of HAZMATs during their life cycle on bases and during incidents. This detailed technical report and the HMIMS are expected to meet the integrated HAZMAT program needs primarily of Air Force fire departments and secondarily in other response agencies. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Low birth weight incidence in Lundu, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    1994-06-01

    The overall mean birth weight of the total deliveries (1986-1988) in Lundu Hospital was 2.96 kg. The mean birth weight for the male babies was 2.94 kg. The Chinese babies had a significantly higher mean birth weight (3.12 kg) than the other ethnic groups (p < 0.05). The overall incidence of low birth weight (LBW) in this study was 11.84 per cent. The Chinese again had a lower incidence of LBW of 6.73 per cent compared to Ibans who had the highest incidence of LBW, 13.59 per cent, with the Bidayuhs 12.97 per cent and Malays, 12.45 per cent. It was also noticed that of the 14.9 per cent preterm deliveries, 37.5 per cent were LBW. The very young mothers (15-19 years) and older mothers (> 40 years) seem to have a higher incidence of LBW. Mothers who had medical conditions like anaemia, hypertension, pre-eclampsia also had a higher incidence of LBW when compared to mothers who did not have a medical condition. Special emphasis should be given to mothers who have medical conditions, and to very young and very old mothers during antenatal care, to prevent incidence of LBW. PMID:8090096

  1. Étude des déplacements induits par des précipités dans des alliages à base de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, I.; Servant, C.; Lyon, O.

    2004-11-01

    Cette étude a pour but de mieux comprendre les premières étapes des phénomènes se produisant lors de la formation de nanoprécipités. En effet, la microstructure des alliages conditionne leurs propriétés mécaniques, et donc l'emploi de ces matériaux. Alors que l'anisotropie des déformations élastiques permet d'expliquer la morphologie des précipités formés lors des traitements thermiques de revenu, peu d'études se sont attachées à les déterminer expérimentalement. Mots clés : transformations de phases, diffusion/diffraction, synchrotron, alliages à base Cu, déplacements

  2. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  3. Safety incident reporting in emergency radiology: analysis of 1717 safety incident reports.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Aran, Shima; Raja, Ali S; Lev, Michael H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the incidence and types of safety reports logged in the radiology safety incident reporting system in our emergency radiology section over an 8-year period. Electronic incident reporting system of our institute was searched for the variables in emergency radiology. All reports from April 2006 to June 2014 were included and deindentified. The following event classifications were investigated in radiography, CT, and MRI modalities: diagnostic test orders, ID/documentation/consent, safety/security/conduct, service coordination, surgery/procedure, line/tube, fall, medication/IV safety, employee general incident, environment/equipment, adverse drug reaction, skin/tissue, and diagnosis/treatment. A total of 881,194 emergency radiology examinations were performed during the study period, 1717 (1717/881,194 = 0.19 %) of which resulted in safety reports. Reports were classified into 14 different categories, the most frequent of which were "diagnostic test orders" (481/1717 = 28 % total incident reports), "medication/IV safety" (302/1717 = 18 % total incident reports), and "service coordination" (204/1717 = 12 % total incident reports). X-ray had the highest report rate (873/1717 = 50 % total incident reports), followed by CT (604/1717 = 35 % total incident reports) and MRI (240/1717 = 14 % total incident reports). Forty-six percent of safety incidents (789/1717) caused no harm and did not reach the patient, 36 % (617/1717) caused no harm but reached the patient, 18 % (308/1717) caused temporary or minor harm/ damage, and less than 1 % caused permanent or major harm/ damage or death. Our study shows an overall safety incident report rate of 0.19 % in emergency radiology including radiography, CT, and MRI modalities. The most common safety incidents were diagnostic test orders, medication/IV safety, and service coordination. PMID:26246282

  4. Epidémiologie et facteurs de risque des anomalies de fermeture du tube neural: données marocaines

    PubMed Central

    Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Chahid, Naima; Benmiloud, Loubna; Elammari, Laila; Lahlou, Khalid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les anomalies de fermeture du tube neural sont des défauts congénitaux de la formation du système nerveux central. L'incidence varie entre 3 et 40 cas pour 10000 dans le monde. Il existe des facteurs de risque de survenue de cette affection. La prévention reste un élément important dans la prise en charge. L'objectif de ceete étude est d’étudier les paramètres sociodémographiques, maternels, obstétricaux et néonatals des anomalies de fermeture du tube neural et analyser les facteurs de risque responsables dans notre contexte. Méthodes Etude prospective cas-témoin sur 4 ans. Ont été recrutés tous les cas portant une malformation du tube neural isolée ou associée à d'autres malformations. Les données maternelles, obstétricales et néonatales ont été enregistrées. L'analyse statistique était réalisée par le biais d'un logiciel de statistiques SPSS version 17.0 pour Windows. Résultats Soixante huit cas ont été inclus. Quatre-vingts cinq pour cent des malformations étaient isolées. L'anencéphalie était l'anomalie la plus retrouvée (67%). L’âge maternel moyen était 31,03±7,50 ans. La consanguinité parentale était notée dans 9 cas. Un niveau socio-économique bas et un non suivi des grossesses ont été rapportés dans 29% des cas. L’étude a retrouvé des antécédents de mort-nés et de morts néonatales dans 4% des cas. La consommation de Fenugrec était significativement associée aux malformations du tube neural et a été retrouvée dans 8 cas contre 1 cas dans le groupe sain. La voie haute d'accouchement était utilisée dans 29% des cas. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 35,55±4,16 semaines d'aménorrhée. Il n'y avait pas de prédominance de sexe. On avait noté une relation significative entre les malformations du tube neural et l'avènement d'une asphyxie périnatale, 15 cas présentaient un apgar à 0 à la première minute et 12 cas un apgar inférieur à 7 à la cinquième minute. Conclusion

  5. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  6. Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

    2010-08-01

    Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

  7. Inhomogeneites dans le Vent des Etoiles Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1992-01-01

    Des mesures spectroscopiques effectuees avec un haut rapport signal sur bruit et une bonne resolution ont demontre l'existence de regions perturbees en mouvement dans le vent d'etoiles Wolf-Rayet (WR). L'echantillon d'objets etudies ici comprend 9 etoiles WR couvrant differents sous-types WN et WC. De nombreuses petites structures variables superposees au profil des raies d'emission formees dans le vent stellaire signalent la presence des perturbations. L'etude des variations globales des raies et l'examen des micro-structures individuelles ont permis de decrire plusieurs caracteristiques des perturbations. Entre autres, on observe des correlations significatives entre le niveau de variabilite des raies et certains parametres des etoiles qui confirment que le phenomene de variabilite est intrinseque au vent stellaire. En comparant les changements des vitesses radiales et des largeurs equivalentes des differentes raies d'une meme etoile, on conclut que les regions perturbees ont une etendue finie par rapport a l'enveloppe des etoiles. On peut facilement suivre les structures individuelles sur une periode de temps couvrant ~eq8 heures (et peut etre meme 24 heures) avant qu'elles ne disparaissent. Durant ce temps les structures se deplacent en s'eloignant du centre de la raie. A partir des differents comportements notes lors de l'analyse des variations globales et lors de l'examen des structures individuelles, on propose de representer les perturbations par un modele d'inhomogeneites discretes en expansion dans le vent. On suppose simplement que les inhomogeneites emettent comme le vent global (et absorbent aussi si le vent global montre un profil P Cyg). La superposition du graphique de l'acceleration radiale moyenne des inhomogeneites de WR140 en fonction de leur vitesse radiale et du modele theorique d'inhomogeneites qui suivent la loi generale de vitesse donne un taux d'acceleration lent, avec beta >= 3 pour les inhomogeneites de cette etoile. On obtient, entre

  8. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire. PMID:27516827

  9. Profil anthropometrique des enfants scolarises tananariviens

    PubMed Central

    Razafimanantsoa, Fetralinjiva; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Raherimandimby, Hasina; Robinson, Annick; RakotoAlson, Olivat; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2013-01-01

    Les enfants tananariviens sont en état de malnutrition chronique. Notre objectif est d’évaluer l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) pour estimer les enfants apparemment "sains". Une enquête et une mesure de la taille et du poids des enfants scolarisés tananariviens de 6 à 11 ans ont été réalisées. Après leur accord, la taille et l'indice de masse corporelle des 442 enfants tirés au hasard ont été ainsi obtenus. L'analyse de la moyenne de la taille a révélé une différence significative à 8 ans, une différence non évidente sur l'indice de masse corporelle. La comparaison avec les valeurs de référence (OMS 2006) a montré un retard statural de 34% avec une tendance globale à la hausse et un déficit pondéral égal à 5,5% selon le z score. Ainsi, au sein d'une population malnutrie, l'indice de masse corporelle pourrait être utilisé comme un des paramètres à considérer dans l’évaluation de l’état de santé pour classer ces enfants en bonne santé apparente. PMID:24711862

  10. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  11. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-24

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l’on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  12. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  13. Les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiantes et des etudiants en formation des ingenieurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Nicolas

    Les representants des secteurs industriels et les, milieux professionnels en Amerique du Nord reprochaient aux universites de former des ingenieurs avec peu d'experience pratique en resolution de problemes et en conception. Quelques programmes de genie ont alors mis en place le travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets. Beaucoup d'ecrits font valoir les benefices de l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiants. Or, ces benefices commencent a peine a faire l'objet de recherches visant a produire des donnees probantes a ce sujet. Les travaux sur la motivation en contexte d'apprentissage et les modeles theoriques developpes sont issus d'environnements d'apprentissage marques par l'enseignement magistral. Le modele de la valeur attendue de la tache (Eccles et Wigfield, 1995; Neuville, 2004) et le modele du systeme-groupe (St-Arnaud, 2008) ont ete retenus pour mesurer les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation. La recherche visait aussi a approfondir et a nuancer la comprehension de la motivation des etudiants universitaires apprenant en contexte innovant. Les sujets constituent des etudiants (n=100) travaillant sur des projets d'integration au cours des trois sessions initiales du programme de genie mecanique d'une universite canadienne. L'analyse de regression multiple revele que les construits de la motivation expliquent un tiers de la variance de l'engagement academique dans la realisation du projet d'integration. Les perceptions de l' "expectancy", de la valeur intrinseque et utilitaire sont les determinants principaux de l'engagement des etudiants. L'analyse de variance multivariee a mesures repetees indique que la motivation des etudiants pour le travail sur les projets d'integration a augmente au cours des trois sessions initiales du parcours de formation. Finalement, malgre l'absence d'interaction significative entre les variables de motivation et de l'equipe, les reponses des sujets indiquent une

  14. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  15. Automated Classification of Clinical Incident Types.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jaiprakash; Koprinska, Irena; Patrick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We consider the task of automatic classification of clinical incident reports using machine learning methods. Our data consists of 5448 clinical incident reports collected from the Incident Information Management System used by 7 hospitals in the state of New South Wales in Australia. We evaluate the performance of four classification algorithms: decision tree, naïve Bayes, multinomial naïve Bayes and support vector machine. We initially consider 13 classes (incident types) that were then reduced to 12, and show that it is possible to build accurate classifiers. The most accurate classifier was the multinomial naïve Bayes achieving accuracy of 80.44% and AUC of 0.91. We also investigate the effect of class labelling by an ordinary clinician and an expert, and show that when the data is labelled by an expert the classification performance of all classifiers improves. We found that again the best classifier was multinomial naïve Bayes achieving accuracy of 81.32% and AUC of 0.97. Our results show that some classes in the Incident Information Management System such as Primary Care are not distinct and their removal can improve performance; some other classes such as Aggression Victim are easier to classify than others such as Behavior and Human Performance. In summary, we show that the classification performance can be improved by expert class labelling of the training data, removing classes that are not well defined and selecting appropriate machine learning classifiers. PMID:26210423

  16. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises. PMID:17447573

  17. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    PubMed

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  18. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.

  19. Plasmonics metalens independent from the incident polarizations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Zhongyi; Li, Rongzhen; Zhang, Jingran; Li, Yan; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-06-29

    An ultra-thin, planar, broadband metalens composed of L-shaped gap antennas on a thin gold film has been designed, which is suitable for both circular and X/Y linear polarizations focusing simultaneously. The phase discontinuity of the cross-polarized transmisson light can be manipulated by the length and width of the L-shaped gap antenna accurately. The designed planar metalens posses a strong focusing ability over a large wavelength range, and the size of the focus spot is in sub-wavelength scale. The focal lengths change from 13 to 7 um with incident wavelength from 750 to 1300 nm, and the cause of dispersion is explained and analyzed in detail. The designed metalens can work very well at a wide incident angles of 0~45°. Most importantly, its unique focusing ability that is independent of the incident polarizations will greatly promotes the practical applications and developments of the metasurfaces.

  20. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  1. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.

  2. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  3. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  4. [Incidence of dengue in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Orozco Hechavarría, N; Díaz Portuondo, I M; Abad Cañete, U; Martínez Delgado, Y

    2001-01-01

    A descriptive study of children and adolescents that got sick with dengue in the health area served by "José Martí" polyclinics in Santiago de Cuba from May to August 1997 was conducted to determine the incidence of this affection in these age groups. It was observed that dengue was more frequent in males aged 5-11 years. Bronchial asthma, epilepsy and congenital cardiopathy were the most common previous affections found. The incidence of the disease in the casuistry was low, with well-nourished males without histories of chronic processes and good clinical recovery prevailing. Only one case was classified as hemorrhagic dengue.

  5. Etude des defauts microscopiques et des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques du compose neodyme cerium oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Pierre

    La presente these, qui combine des mesures de diffusion Raman, de transmission infrarouge, de conductivite hyperfrequence et d'interferometrie ultrasonore sur les composes Nd 2-xCexCuO 4, traite des defauts d'oxygene, ainsi que des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques de ces materiaux. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus sont correles avec plusieurs donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature. D'abord, la caracterisation des modes Raman et des niveaux d'energie de champ cristallin de l'ion Nd3+ au moyen de techniques optiques, en fonction du dopage en cerium et du contenu en oxygene, permettent de conclure a la presence de defauts lies a une non-stoechiometrie en oxygene dans ces composes. En effet, des excitations de champ cristallin assignees a des ions Nd3+ en sites irreguliers sont observees, en plus des bandes d'absorption associees aux ions Nd3+ en site regulier, dans les spectres correspondant aux multiplets 4I11/2, 4I13/2 et 4I 15/2 de l'ion Nd3+. Les resultats experimentaux indiquent que, contrairement a la croyance largement repandue, les oxygenes apicaux, bien que presents dans les echantillons dopes, ne sont pas enleves lors du processus de reduction des echantillons necessaire pour faire apparaitre la supraconductivite dans cette famille de cuprates. Au contraire, des lacunes d'oxygene, dont le type varie en fonction du dopage, sont creees lors de ce processus. En particulier, il est montre dans ce travail que la reduction des echantillons dopes de maniere optimale conduit a la creation de lacunes d'oxygene dans les plans CuO2. Les consequences de telles lacunes sont largement discutees. En outre, il est suggere que de telles lacunes sont responsables de la perte de l'ordre antiferromagnetique a longue portee des ions Cu2+. Finalement, l'interaction d'echange anisotrope Nd3+-Cu 2+ dans le compose nondope est caracterisee au moyen de la transmission infrarouge sous champ magnetique. L'eclatement des doublets de Kramers mesure

  6. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  7. Comparaison des effets des irradiations γ, X et UV dans les fibres optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Baggio, J.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.-P.; Leray, J.-L.

    2005-06-01

    Les fibres optiques présentent de nombreux avantages incitant à les intégrer dans des applications devant résister aux environnements radiatifs associés aux domaines civil, spatial ou militaire. Cependant, leur exposition à un rayonnement entraîne la création de défauts ponctuels dans la silice amorphe pure ou dopée qui constitue les différentes parties de la fibre optique. Ces défauts causent, en particulier, une augmentation transitoire de l'atténuation linéique des fibres optiques responsable de la dégradation voire de la perte du signal propagé dans celles-ci. Dans cet article, nous comparons les effets de deux types d'irradiation: une impulsion X et une dose γ cumulée. Les effets de ces irradiations sont ensuite comparés avec ceux induits par une insolation ultraviolette (244 nm) sur les propriétés d'absorption des fibres optiques. Nous montrons qu'il existe des similitudes entre ces différentes excitations et qu'il est possible, sous certaines conditions, d'utiliser celles-ci afin d'évaluer la capacité de certaines fibres optiques à fonctionner dans un environnement nucléaire donné.

  8. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents-MRMI course.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-06-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise ("learning by doing"). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident.

  9. 1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  10. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  11. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  12. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  13. Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?

    PubMed

    Albina, Emmanuel; Kwiatek, Olivier; Minet, Cécile; Lancelot, Renaud; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Libeau, Geneviève

    2013-07-26

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. Morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. Cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. Other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. PPR has recently spread in southern and northern Africa, and in central and far-east Asia. More than one billion sheep and goats worldwide are at risk. PPR is also present in Europe through western Turkey. Because of its clinical incidence and the restrictions on animal movements, PPR is a disease of major economic importance. A live attenuated vaccine was developed in the 1980s, and has been widely used in sheep and goats. Current researches aim (i) to make it more thermotolerant for use in countries with limited cold chain, and (ii) to add a DIVA mark to shorten and reduce the cost of final eradication. Rinderpest virus-another Morbillivirus-was the first animal virus to be eradicated from Earth. PPRV has been proposed as the next candidate. Considering its wide distribution and its multiple target host species which have an intense mobility, it will be a long process that cannot exclusively rely on mass vaccination. PPR specific epidemiological features and socio-economic considerations will also have to be taken into account, and sustained international, coordinated, and funded strategy based on a regional approach of PPR control will be the guarantee toward success.

  14. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  15. Etude des systèmes protoplanétaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2000-11-01

    Les disques de poussières et de gaz autour des étoiles rejoignant la Séquence Principale sont les sites de formation des planètes extra-solaires dont l'existence s'est vu confirmée récemment. Cette thèse aborde l'étude de la poussière des environnements circumstellaires. Elle associe des observations spatiales à haute résolution angulaire, la modélisation des propriétés physico-chimiques des poussières et leur comportement optique, la modélisation des disques optiquement fins et la dynamique des planétésimaux à l'origine des grains observés autour des étoiles âgées. Les images obtenues avec le Télescope Spatial Hubble révèlent deux nouveaux disques circumstellaires autour des étoiles HD 141569 et HD 100546, parfois classées dans la catégorie des étoiles de Herbig. Bien que les systèmes présentent des âges proches (~10 millions d'années), les morphologies très différentes des disques mettent en évidence la difficulté pour élaborer un scénario unique d'évolution des systèmes protoplanétaires. L'anneau fin de poussières autour de HR 4796A, une étoile d'âge similaire aux précédentes, est marginalement résolu depuis le sol. La modélisation complète de ce disque permet de reproduire l'ensemble des observations disponibles. Ces résultats impliquent la présence de planétésimaux, à un âge aussi peu avancé, pour repeupler le disque en poussières poreuses et essentiellement amorphes qui sont soufflées par la pression de radiation. Une modélisation dynamique du prototypique disque autour de β Pictoris est proposée. Associée à une description réaliste du comportement optique des grains, cette approche reproduit les caractéristiques générales du disque ainsi que des asymétries plus fines en supposant la présence d'une planète dans un disque de planétésimaux et en tenant compte des effets différentiels de la pression de radiation sur les grains. Enfin, le modèle de disques que j'ai développé est exploit

  16. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  17. Anisotropie des coefficients de diffusion dans des cristaux liquides discotiques hexagonaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Gharbia, M.; Gharbi, A.

    1994-06-01

    The diffusion constants of dyes in several hexagonal discotic liquid crystals are measured and discussed. For all the liquid crystals studied, these constants are anisotropic : the diffusion in the direction parallel to the columns is faster than that in the perpendicular plane (frac{D_allel}{D_perp}>1). The effects of the length and shape of the chains bound to the triphenylene discs are shown. The effect of the dye molecular size is also described. The study of the diffusion coefficients of hexapentoxytriphenylene (C5HET) as a function of temperature has shown that the activation energies along the columns and perpendicular to the columns are comparable. The main features of dye diffusion in the hexagonal columnar liquid crystals studied are similar to those reported in nematic phases. Les mesures des constantes de diffusion de colorants dans plusieurs cristaux liquides discotiques hexagonaux sont présentées et discutées. Pour tous les cristaux liquides étudiés, ces constantes présentent une anisotropie, avec une diffusion plus rapide parallèlement aux colonnes que perpendiculairement à celles-ci (frac{D_allel}{D_perp}>1). Des effets de longueur et de forme des chaînes branchées sur les disques de triphénylène sont mis en évidence. Il en est de même pour la taille des molécules de colorants. L'étude en fonction de la température a montré que dans le cas de l'hexapentoxytriphénylène (C5HET), les énergies d'activation dans les directions parallèle et perpendiculaire aux colonnes sont comparables. Les caractéristiques de la diffusion de colorants dans les cristaux liquides colonnaires hexagonaux étudiés sont semblables à celles des nématiques.

  18. Pattern of Melanoma Incidence in Miami, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Tim E.; Garcia, Norberto

    1981-01-01

    Although melanoma causes only 1.4 percent of cancers nationally, it accounts for 3.6 percent of cancers in southern Flordia. The authors conducted an incidence survey to determine if the distribution of melanoma was a function of population density, an outdoors lifestyle, or the presence of an older population. PMID:7277525

  19. 78 FR 38878 - Critical Incident Stress Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... report prepared by FRA grantee, Dr. Richard Gist, in support of Grant FR-RRD-0024-11- 01, titled... involved in a critical incident, often outside the control of the railroad employees, which can lead to... of duty upon request, often involving contact with occupational medicine or EAP...

  20. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players

    PubMed Central

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. Methods: A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at p<0.05, Odds ratios, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: 75.50% participated, 71.40% were 18 years old, and 71.40% were White. Injury was sustained by 83% of players with the knee (25%) most commonly injured. Injury incidence was 1.52 per player with an injury rate of 5.95 injuries per 1000 match playing hours. The Stability Index increased significantly (p=0.03) by 15% in the medial/lateral direction post-season compared to pre-season. Significant differences in post-test anterior posterior and overall static and front and front right dynamic stability between injured and uninjured players were noted. Risk factors for injury included the scrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only. PMID:25674136

  1. Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

    1989-08-01

    The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer.

  2. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  5. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  6. Melanoma and naevi: Incidence, interrelationships and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Elwood, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Trend with Time of the Incidence of Malignant Melanoma of Skin in White Populations; Classical and Molecular Genetics of Malignant Melanoma and Dysplastic Naevi; Individuals at High Risk of Melanoma (with 1 color plate); Control of Melanoma in High-Risk Populations; and Frequency of Benign Pigmented Naevi in the General Population.

  7. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop emergency response procedures to incidents of threats identified in paragraph (a) of this section. (d)...

  8. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.14 Incident response. (a) An individual or entity required to register... select agent or toxin; inventory discrepancies; security breaches (including information systems); severe... response procedures must account for hazards associated with the select agent or toxin and...

  9. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.14 Incident response. (a) An individual or entity required to register... select agent or toxin; inventory discrepancies; security breaches (including information systems); severe... response procedures must account for hazards associated with the select agent or toxin and...

  10. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.14 Incident response. (a) An individual or entity required to register... response procedures for the theft, loss, or release of a select agent or toxin, inventory discrepancies... outage, etc. The response procedures must account for hazards associated with the select agent and...

  11. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.14 Incident response. (a) An individual or entity required to register... response procedures for the theft, loss, or release of a select agent or toxin, inventory discrepancies... outage, etc. The response procedures must account for hazards associated with the select agent and...

  12. Taken with Surprise: Critical Incidents in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pui-Lan, Kwok; Brown, William P.; Delamarter, Steve; Frank, Thomas E.; Marshall, Joretta L.; Menn, Esther; Riggs, Marcia Y.

    2005-01-01

    This collection of essays tackles thorny questions related to critical incidents in teaching. By using different pedagogical methods and techniques, each author provokes creative thinking about how to address specific concerns common to teaching. The authors demonstrate that the teaching and learning process must make room for--if not…

  13. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  14. Reducing Incidents of Cheating in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Mary; Gleason, Patricia; Misicka, Stacey

    This report describes a program implemented to raise the awareness of the dramatic increases of reported academic cheating, to influence the attitudes of the targeted students towards cheating, and ultimately to reduce incidents of cheating in the targeted classrooms. The targeted populations consisted of middle school students in growing…

  15. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.14 Incident response. (a) An individual or entity required to register... response procedures for the theft, loss, or release of a select agent or toxin, inventory discrepancies... outage, etc. The response procedures must account for hazards associated with the select agent and...

  16. Finding the True Incidence Rate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Julie; Price, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on research that explores the use of detection software in the fight against plagiarism. The aim of the research was to determine if the true incidence rate of plagiarism could be found for a cohort of Higher Education students. The paper outlines the problems and issues when attempting this. In addition, this report highlights…

  17. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  18. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  19. Economic deprivation and AIDS incidence in Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, S; Krieger, N; Tang, Y; Coady, W; Siegfried, E; DeMaria, A; Auerbach, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study quantified AIDS incidence in Massachusetts in relation to economic deprivation. METHODS: Using 1990 census block-group data, 1990 census population counts, and AIDS surveillance registry data for the years 1988 through 1994, we generated yearly and cumulative AIDS incidence data for the state of Massachusetts stratified by sex and by neighborhood measures of economic position for the total, Black, Hispanic, and White populations. RESULTS: Incidence of AIDS increased with economic deprivation, with the magnitude of these trends varying by both race/ethnicity and sex. The cumulative incidence of AIDS in the total population was nearly 7 times higher among persons in block-groups where 40% or more of the population was below the poverty line (362 per 100,000) than among persons in block-groups where less than 2% of the population was below poverty (53 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Observing patterns of disease burden in relation to neighborhood levels of economic well-being elucidates further the role of poverty as a population-level determinant of disease burden. Public health agencies and researchers can use readily available census data to describe neighborhood-level socioeconomic conditions. Such knowledge expands options for disease prevention and increases the visibility of economic inequality as an underlying cause of AIDS. PMID:10897184

  20. Latitude and incidence of ocular melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Pei; Hu, Dan-Ning; McCormick, Steven A

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the associations between latitude and the incidence of two different types of ocular melanoma, external ocular melanoma (exposed to sunlight) and internal melanoma (not exposed to sunlight), separately. Using 1992-2002 data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of National Cancer Institute, we identified 2142 ocular melanoma cases in non-Hispanic whites, and then regressed the incidences of various types of ocular melanomas with latitude. Our analysis indicated that the higher the latitude (away from the equator, the less sun exposure), the lower the risk of external ocular melanoma (eyelid and conjunctival melanomas) among non-Hispanic whites (P for trend = 0.018). The incidence increased 2.48 fold from 47-48 degrees to 20-22 degrees. This trend is very similar to that of skin melanoma. The incidence of internal ocular melanoma (uveal melanoma) increased significantly with increasing latitudes (the less sun exposure, P for trend < 0.0001), it increased 4.91 fold from 20-22 degrees to 47-48 degrees. The latitudinal patterns of ocular melanomas may reflect the dual effects of sunlight exposure, i.e. a mutagenic effect of direct solar radiation on external ocular melanomas and a protective effect for internal uveal melanoma, which is similar to the sun radiation protective effects for various internal malignant tumors that are not exposed to the sunlight.

  1. Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; El-Aini, Yehia M.; Capece, Vincent R.

    1996-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 x l0(exp 6). For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.

  2. Lunar Tractive Forces and Renal Stone Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Arampatzis, Spyridon; Thalmann, George N.; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED). Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who attended our ED between 2000 and 2010 because of nephrolithiasis-induced renal colic. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± 1 day, new moon ± 1 day, and the days in-between as “normal” days. Results. During this 11-year period, 156 cases of acute nephrolithiasis were diagnosed at the time of a full moon and 146 at the time of a new moon (mean of 0.4 per day for both). 1198 cases were diagnosed on “normal” days (mean 0.4 per day). The incidence of nephrolithiasis in peak and other lunar gravitational phases, the circannual variation and the gender-specific analysis showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. In this adequate powered longitudinal study, changes in tractive force during the different lunar phases did not influence the incidence of renal colic admissions in emergency department. PMID:22046548

  3. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  4. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  5. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  6. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  7. The incidence of inherited porphyrias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elder, George; Harper, Pauline; Badminton, Michael; Sandberg, Sverre; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-01

    Retrospective estimates of the prevalence of porphyrias have been reported but there has been no large scale prospective study of their incidence. The European Porphyria Network collected information prospectively over a 3 year period about the number of newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with an inherited porphyria (335 patients from 11 countries). Prevalence was calculated from the incidence and mean disease duration. The incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in acute hepatic porphyria and the prevalence of patients with recurrent acute attacks of porphyria were also investigated. The incidence of symptomatic acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) was similar in all countries (0.13 per million per year; 95 % CI: 0.10 - 0.14) except Sweden (0.51; 95 % CI: 0.28-0.86). The incidence ratio for symptomatic AIP: variegate porphyria: hereditary coproporphyria was 1.00:0.62: 0.15. The prevalence of AIP (5.4 per million; 95 % CI: 4.5-6.3) was about half that previously reported. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was less uniform between countries and, in some countries, exceeded previous estimates. Fourteen new cases of HCC (11 from Sweden) were reported in patients with acute porphyria. Sixty seven patients (3 VP; 64 AIP: 53 females, 11 males) with recurrent attacks of acute porphyria were identified. The estimated percentage of patients with AIP that will develop recurrent acute attacks was 3-5 %. In conclusion, the prevalence of symptomatic acute porphyria may be decreasing, possibly due to improved management, whereas the prevalence of EPP may be increasing due to improved diagnosis and its greater recognition as a cause of photosensitivity.

  8. Caractéristiques bactériologiques des infections de liquide de dialyse péritonéale

    PubMed Central

    Jellouli, Manel; Ferjani, Meriem; Abidi, Kamel; Hammi, Yosra; Abdallah, Taieb Ben; Gargah, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    La péritonite infectieuse (PI) est la principale complication de la dialyse péritonéale (DP). L'objectif de notre travail était de déterminer l’écologie bactérienne des PI et d'adapter l'antibiothérapie selon les germes isolés et les résistances observées. Étude rétrospective effectuée chez tous les enfants traités par DP et ayant présenté une PI dans le service de pédiatrie de l'hôpital Charles Nicolle de Tunis (2004-2013). Au total, 61 ont développé 97 PI. L'incidence des PI était de 0,75 épisode/patient-année. La culture du LDP était négative dans 40 cas. Les Gram Positif ont été notés dans 56% des cas avec prédominance du Staphylococcus aureus. Les Gram négatif étaient retrouvés en seconde position (40%) représentés principalement par le Klebsiella pneumoniae et le Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Des souches de Staphylocoque méticilline résistant étaient isolées dans 21,4%. Les bactéries à Gram positif étaient résistantes aux céphalosporines de première génération dans 25% des cas et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'avait été décelée. Les bactéries à Gram négatif avaient une résistance globale de 38% avec des souches β-lactamase à spectre élargi (BLSE). L'antibiothérapie empirique devra couvrir les germes à Gram positif par la vancomycine et les germes à Gram négatif par la ceftazidime. PMID:26893796

  9. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses.

  10. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses. PMID:23333698

  11. Additional renal arteries: incidence and morphometry.

    PubMed

    Satyapal, K S; Haffejee, A A; Singh, B; Ramsaroop, L; Robbs, J V; Kalideen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Advances in surgical and uro-radiological techniques dictate a reappraisal and definition of renal arterial variations. This retrospective study aimed at establishing the incidence of additional renal arteries. Two subsets were analysed viz.: a) Clinical series--130 renal angiograms performed on renal transplant donors, 32 cadaver kidneys used in renal transplantation b) Cadaveric series--74 en-bloc morphologically normal kidney pairs. The sex and race distribution was: males 140, females 96; African 84, Indian 91, White 43 and "Coloured" 18, respectively. Incidence of first and second additional arteries were respectively, 23.2% (R: 18.6%; L: 27.6%) and 4.5% (R: 4.7%; L: 4.4%). Additional arteries occurred more frequently on the left (L: 32.0%; R: 23.3%). The incidence bilaterally was 10.2% (first additional arteries, only). The sex and race incidence (first and second additional) was: males, 28.0%, 5.1%; females, 16.4%, 3.8% and African 31.1%, 5.4%; Indian 13.5%, 4.5%; White 30.9%, 4.4% and "Coloured" 18.5%, 0%; respectively. Significant differences in the incidence of first additional arteries were noted between sex and race. The morphometry of additional renal arteries were lengths (cm) of first and second additional renal arteries: 4.5 and 3.8 (right), 4.9 and 3.7 (left); diameters: 0.4 and 0.3 (right), 0.3 and 0.3 (left). Detailed morphometry of sex and race were also recorded. No statistically significant differences were noted. Our results of the incidence of additional renal arteries of 27.7% compared favourably to that reported in the literature (weighted mean 28.1%). The study is unique in recording detailed morphometry of these vessels. Careful techniques in the identification of this anatomical variation is important since it impacts on renal transplantation surgery, vascular operations for renal artery stenosis, reno-vascular hypertension, Takayasu's disease, renal trauma and uro-radiological procedures.

  12. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Vandenesch, A; Turbelin, C; Couturier, E; Arena, C; Jaulhac, B; Ferquel, E; Choumet, V; Saugeon, C; Coffinieres, E; Blanchon, T; Vaillant, V; Hanslik, T

    2014-08-28

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) has become a major concern recently, as trends in several epidemiological studies indicate that there has been an increase in this disease in Europe and America over the last decade. This work provides estimates of LB incidence and hospitalisation rates in France. LB data was obtained from the Sentinelles general practitioner surveillance network (2009–2012) and from the Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information (PMSI) data processing centre for hospital discharges (2004–09). The yearly LB incidence rate averaged 42 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval (CI): 37–48), ranging from 0 to 184 per 100,000 depending on the region. The annual hospitalisation rate due to LB averaged 1.55 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 1.42–1.70). Both rates peaked during the summer and fall and had a bimodal age distribution (5–10 years and 50–70 years). Healthcare providers should continue to invest attention to prompt recognition and early therapy for LB, whereas public health strategies should keep promoting use of repellent, daily checks for ticks and their prompt removal. PMID:25188613

  13. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  14. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  15. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Chiara; Vulcano, Ettore; La Barbera, Giuseppe; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Cherubino, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis can significantly impact on the risk of developing a fracture. Thus, fragility fractures represent a challenge for health professionals and decision makers of the twenty-first century. The aim of this work is to review the literature concerning osteoporotic fractures in Italy in terms of incidence, rate of hospitalization, relative risk of a new fragility fracture, and costs for the national health system. It was estimated that the costs of treating proximal femur fragility fractures in 2002 summed up to 1 billion Euros. The number of fragility fractures in Italy was calculated as follows: 91.494 hip fractures, 61.009 clinical vertebral fractures, 57.401 humeral fragility fractures, and 94.045 forearm/wrist fragility fractures. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy is very high, and osteoporosis is the leading cause of morbidity in the Italian population. PMID:24046040

  16. Hyperemesis Incidence in Planned versus Unplanned Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    AKSOY, Ayse Nur

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the incidence of hyperemesis between planned and unplanned pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted among 100 women with planned pregnancies and 100 women with unplanned pregnancies. Participants completed a questionnaire to determine the presence of vomiting. If pregnant women had severe vomiting (>3 times per day), urinary investigation was performed; at least one positive ketonuria was considered as hyperemesis. Results: There was a significant difference between planned and unplanned pregnancy in terms of the incidence of hyperemesis (p=0.0001). Women with unplanned pregnancies had a more than 18-fold increased risk of hyperemesis (OR=18.88; %95 CI, 8.84–40.31) compared to women with planned pregnancies. Conclusion: Healthy women may be able to improve their management of hyperemesis during pregnancy if they plan their pregnancies. PMID:25610031

  17. Critical incidents: effective communication and documentation.

    PubMed

    Carelock, J; Innerarity, S

    2001-02-01

    Critical incidents can be defined at sentinel events, critical patient care issues, or any patient event outside the normal parameters of care. Nurses are central to maintaining the standard of care for patients in these situations. Miscommunication, including inadequate communication and illegible or incomplete documentation, forms a basis for many clinical and interpersonal problems in nursing practice. This practical article discusses expectations, both professional and legal, for avoiding and/or managing critical incidents. Suggestions for assessment parameters to report are included in table format, which the nurse can 'clip and use' as a reminder of data to have prepared before calling and/or presenting the problem. Steps are proposed for a logical, organized plan to help the nurse communicate more effectively. Recommendations for essentials of documentation regarding the verbal interaction and orders received are also presented. PMID:11852951

  18. Evaluating calibrations of normal incident pyrheliometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignola, Frank; Lin, Fuding

    2010-08-01

    When an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer is calibrated against an Eppley Hickey Frieden Absolute Cavity Radiometer, the instrument systematically deviates from the absolute cavity readings. The reason for this deviation is not understood. Comparisons are made between one pyrheliometer and an absolute cavity radiometer on selected clear days over a period of 8 months in Eugene, Oregon. The ratios of the readings from the two instruments are correlated against wind speed, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, beam intensity, and zenith angle to determine if any of these parameters statistically influence the calibration process. Wind speed, pressure, beam intensity, and air mass are shown to be statistically significant factors in determining the responsivity of the normal incident pyrheliometer. The results of these tests are evaluated and discussed. Use of air mass instead of zenith angle is proposed for calibration reports.

  19. Major incidents in Britain over the past 28 years: the case for the centralised reporting of major incidents

    PubMed Central

    Carley, S.; Mackway-Jones, K.; Donnan, S.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents occurring in Britain over the past 28 years. METHODS: Major incidents were identified through a MEDLINE search, a hand search of journals and government reports at the Home Office Emergency Planning College, newspaper reports, a postal survey of ambulance emergency planning officers, and through requests for information posted on the internet. MAIN RESULTS: Brief incidents profiles from 108 British major incidents are presented. Most major incidents pass unreported in the medical literature. On average three to four major incidents occur in Britain each year (range 0-11). Sixty three of 108 (59.2%) of incidents involve public transportation. The next two largest groups are civil disturbance 22 of 108 (20.3%) and industrial accidents 16 of 108 (14.8%). Although incidents at sports stadiums are rare they produce large numbers of casualties. The data currently available on major incidents are difficult to find and of questionable accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of data makes planning for major incidents and exercising major incident plans difficult. Casualty incident profiles (CIPs) may assist major incidents exercises and planning. CIPs from future major incidents should be collated and made available to all major incident planners.   PMID:9764261

  20. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  1. Combating a rising incidence of Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Beckford-Ball, Jason

    A statement released last week by the Health Protection Agency highlighted a recent increase in the incidence of Legionnaire's disease in England and Wales. Although an upsurge in cases is common at this time of year due to people returning from holidays abroad, only a small proportion of the recent cases can be attributed to foreign travel. Nurses need to be aware of the symptoms and what health measures they can take.

  2. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While early studies demonstrated a positive association between testosterone and prostate cancer, evidence on the nature of the relationship has evolved with time and newer data. Studies examining links between baseline testosterone levels as well as testosterone therapy and incident prostate cancer, reveal a more complex relationship. Moreover, investigators have reported their initial experiences with supplementing testosterone in men with a history of both treated and untreated prostate cancer. PMID:26770932

  3. Pulmonary Predictors of Incident Diabetes in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Gregory L.; Baker, Emma H.; Klein, Oana L.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Wan, Emily S.; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Bowler, Russell P.; Lutz, Sharon M.; Young, Kendra A.; Duca, Lindsey M.; Washko, George R.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Hokanson, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus and its complications are a large and increasing burden for health care worldwide. Reduced pulmonary function has been observed in diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), and this reduction is thought to occur prior to diagnosis. Other measures of pulmonary health are associated with diabetes, including lower exercise tolerance, greater dyspnea, lower quality of life (as measured by the St. George’s Respiratory Questionaire [SGRQ]) and susceptibility to lung infection and these measures may also predate diabetes diagnosis. Methods We examined 7080 participants in the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene) study who did not report diabetes at their baseline visit and who provided health status updates during 4.2 years of longitudinal follow-up (LFU). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling, censoring participants at final LFU contact, reported mortality or report of incident diabetes to model predictors of diabetes. These models were constructed using known risk factors as well as proposed markers related to pulmonary health, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, respiratory exacerbations (RE), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), pulmonary associated quality of life (as measured by the SGRQ), corticosteroid use, chronic bronchitis and dyspnea. Results Over 21,519 person years of follow-up, 392 of 7080 participants reported incident diabetes which was associated with expected predictors; increased body mass index (BMI), high blood pressure, high cholesterol and current smoking status. Age, gender and accumulated smoking exposure were not associated with incident diabetes. Additionally, preserved ratio with impaired spirometry (PRISm) pattern pulmonary function, reduced 6MWD and any report of serious pulmonary events were associated with incident diabetes. Conclusions This cluster of pulmonary indicators may aid clinicians in identifying and treating patients with pre- or undiagnosed diabetes. PMID

  4. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a widespread toxic metal with potential cardiovascular effects, but no studies have evaluated cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association of urine cadmium concentration with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in a large population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,348 American Indian adults aged 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Follow-up extended through 31 December 2008. Results The geometric mean cadmium level in the study population was 0.94 μg/g (95% confidence interval= 0.92 – 0.93). We identified 1,084 cardiovascular events, including 400 deaths. After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios (comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations) was 1.43 for cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval=1.21 – 1.70), and 1.34 for coronary heart disease mortality (1.10 – 1.63). The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure were 1.24 (1.11 – 1.38), 1.22 (1.08 – 1.38), 1.75 (1.17 – 2.59) and 1.39 (1.01 – 1.94), respectively. The associations were similar in most study subgroups including never-smokers. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term exposure, was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. These findings support that cadmium exposure is a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23514838

  5. [Incidence of sports-related eye injuries].

    PubMed

    Pikkel, J; Gelfand, Y; Miller, B

    1995-10-01

    The incidence of sports-related eye injuries was analyzed retrospectively for 1991-1993. It was fairly steady at about 2% of all eye casualties annually. 21% of those with sports-related eye injuries required hospitalization. The commonest pathological findings were corneal erosion (32%), eye lid injuries (27%), hyphema (19%) and macular edema (3%). Most eyes were injured during soccer (37%) and basketball (27%) games, the most popular sports in Israel.

  6. A common language for computer security incidents

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  7. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  8. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment.

  9. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  10. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  11. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  12. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  13. Incidence, aetiology and epidemiology of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Okolo, Stanley

    2008-08-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumour of the female genital tract. However, their true prevalence is probably under-estimated, as the incidence at histology is more than double the clinical incidence. Recent longitudinal studies have estimated that the lifetime risk of fibroids in a woman over the age of 45 years is more than 60%, with incidence higher in blacks than in whites. The cause of fibroids remains unclear and their biology poorly understood. No single candidate gene has been detected for commonly occurring uterine fibroids. However, the occurrence of rare uterine fibroid syndromes, such as multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis, has been traced to the gene that codes for the mitochondrial enzyme, fumarate hydratase. Cytogenetic abnormalities, particularly deletions of chromosome 7, which are found in up to 50% of fibroid specimens, seem to be secondary rather than primary events, and investigations into the role of tumour suppressor genes have yielded conflicting results. The key regulators of fibroid growth are ovarian steroids, both oestrogen and progestogen, growth factors and angiogenesis, and the process of apoptosis. Black race, heredity, nulliparity, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes and hypertension are associated with increased risk of fibroids, and there is emerging evidence that familial predisposition to fibroids is associated with a distinct pattern of clinical and molecular features compared with fibroids in families without this prevalence.

  14. Epidémiologie des PFA et les performances du système de surveillance en Mauritanie de 2008 à 2012

    PubMed Central

    Doumtsop, Jean Gérard Tatou; Khalef, Ishagh; Diakite, Med Lemine Brahim; Boubker, Naouri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La Commission Régionale de Certification de l'Eradication de la poliomyélite pour l'Afrique(CRCA) en session à Brazzaville du 8 au 10 octobre 2007 avait déclaré la Mauritanie « libérée de la poliomyélite ». Objectif Décrire l’épidémiologie des PFA (Paralysies flasques aigues) et évaluer les indicateurs de performance du système de surveillance pour la période de 2008 à 2012 ayant suivi cette déclaration. Méthodes Les données du service de surveillance épidémiologique ont été nettoyées et analysées à l'aide du logiciel Epi-infoversion 3.4.3 (CDC Atlanta). Résultats 319 cas de PFA ont été notifié soit une incidence moyenne de 4.61/100000 enfants de moins de 15 ans par an. La distribution des cas cumulés par mois montre une importante notification des cas PFA pendant la période de Février à Juillet et à la suite de l’épidémie de 2009 alors que l'incidence des cas confirmés a été plus importante entre Novembre et Février. L’âge moyen était de 4ans (E.T. ±4ans) et 77.4% avaient un âge = 5ans. 18 cas de PFA ont été confirmés poliovirus sauvage(PVS) dont 6 en 2009 et 12 en 2010 et tous d'importation. L’âge moyen était de 3.4 ans (E.T ±2.6 ans). 44,4% étaient des filles et 55.5% garçons. Cette proportion était proche de celle des PFA non polio (45.1% versus 54.9%). 61% avaient reçu au plus une dose de vaccin polio orale (VPO) pour les cas de PFA polio contre 7.4% pour les PFA non polio. Aucune discrimination de genre n'a été observé sur la population des PFA ayant reçu une dose au plus (ratio-sexe= 16/17=0.94). La fièvre était présente pour 90%des cas de PFA non polio contre 85% pour les cas PVS. Cette fièvre à progresser en 3 jours pour tous les cas de PVS et pour 82,7% des cas de PFA non polio. Le taux d'hospitalisation était de 13.6% pour les cas de PFA non polio contre 89% pour les PFA polio. Dans tous les deux groupes, les membres de prédilection étaient d'abord l'un des 2 membres

  15. Occupational Bloodborne Exposure Incident Survey & Management of Exposure Incidents in a Dental Teaching Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sedky, Nabila A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of occupational exposure incidents among undergraduate dental students and the factors associated with it in the educational dental clinics at Pharos University in Alexandria – Egypt, and to measure the commitment with applying infection control policy in the form of compliance with post-exposure management protocol and reporting exposure incidents. Materials and Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of thirteen multiple-choice questions was distributed among 350 undergraduate dental students in mid-senior and senior levels during lectures at the end of the second semester of 2011, with a response rate of 90.00%. Results About 62.00% of the senior students reported that exposures occurred outside the patient’s mouth. A high percentage of both the mid-senior and senior students (74.70% and 70.70%, respectively) reported that they were exposed to multiple sources of incidents. The vast majority of studied groups stated that they didn’t follow Infection Control Protocol after Incident Exposure. Conclusion The findings of this study confirm that dental students experience exposure incidents but are not likely to report them, thus it is important that the principles of infection control training and reporting of all exposure incidents continue to be emphasized throughout undergraduate dental education. PMID:24421746

  16. Oblique incidence for broad monoenergetic proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, David; Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The depth dose of a monoenergetic broad parallel proton beam has been modeled in a number of ways, but evidently not yet for oblique incidence. The purpose of this investigation is to find an accurate analytic formula for this case, which can then be used to model the depth dose of a broad beam with an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Methods: The Bortfeld model of depth dose in a broad normally incident proton beam has been extended to the case of oblique incidence. This extension uses an empirically determined Gaussian parameter {sigma}{sub x} which (roughly) characterizes the off-axis dose of a proton pencil beam. As with Bortfeld's work, the modeling is done in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. To obtain the depth dose for an initial angular distribution, the result is integrated over the angle of incidence, weighted by a Gaussian probability function. The predictions of the theory have been compared to MCNPX Monte Carlo calculations for four phantom materials (water, bone, aluminum, and copper) and for initial proton energies of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 MeV. Results: Comparisons of the depth dose predicted by this theory with Monte Carlo calculations have established that with very good accuracy, {sigma}{sub x} can be taken to be independent both of the depth and of the angle of incidence. As a function of initial proton range or of initial proton energy, {sigma}{sub x} has been found to obey a power law to very high accuracy. Good fits to Monte Carlo calculations have also been found for an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Conclusions: This investigation is the first step in the accurate modeling of a proton pencil beam with initial Gaussian angular distribution. It provides the longitudinal factor, with its Bragg peak buildup and sharp distal falloff. A transverse factor must still be incorporated into this theory and this will give the lateral penumbra of a collimated proton beam. Also, it will be necessary to model the dose of

  17. Association between Incident Cancer and Subsequent Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Navi, Babak B.; Reiner, Anne S.; Kamel, Hooman; Iadecola, Costantino; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Panageas, Katherine S.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of stroke. Methods Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database, we identified patients with a new primary diagnosis of breast, colorectal, lung, pancreatic, or prostate cancer from 2001 through 2007. These patients were individually matched by age, sex, race, registry, and medical comorbidities to a group of Medicare enrollees without cancer, and each pair was followed through 2009. Validated diagnosis codes were used to identify a primary outcome of stroke. Cumulative incidence rates were calculated using competing risk survival statistics. Results Among 327,389 pairs of cancer patients and matched controls, the 3-month cumulative incidence of stroke was generally higher in patients with cancer. Cumulative incidence rates were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–5.2%) in patients with lung cancer compared to 1.2% (95% CI, 1.2–1.3%) in controls (p<0.001), 3.4% (95% CI, 3.1–3.6%) in patients with pancreatic cancer compared to 1.3% (95% CI, 1.1–1.5%) in controls (p<0.001), 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2–3.4%) in patients with colorectal cancer compared to 1.3% (95% CI, 1.2–1.4%) in controls (p<0.001), 1.5% (95% CI, 1.4–1.6%) in patients with breast cancer compared to 1.1% (95% CI, 1.0–1.2%) in controls (p<0.001), and 1.2% (95% CI, 1.1–1.3%) in patients with prostate cancer compared to 1.1% (95% CI, 1.0–1.2%) in controls (p=0.085). Excess risks attenuated over time and were generally no longer present beyond 1 year. Interpretation Incident cancer is associated with an increased short-term risk of stroke. This risk appears highest with lung, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. PMID:25472885

  18. Cancer incidence in Thailand, 1995-1997.

    PubMed

    Sriplung, Hutcha; Sontipong, Sineenat; Martin, Nimit; Wiangnon, Surapon; Vootiprux, Visoot; Cheirsilpa, Arkom; Kanchanabat, Chol; Khuhaprema, Theeravud

    2005-01-01

    There are five population-based cancer registries in Thailand in different regions of the country. Four of them (Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen, Bangkok, and Songkhla) have been operating since 1988 and the other (Lampang) since the early 1990s. These registries have published regular 3-year cancer incidence reports since the first in 1993 for the period 1989-1991. The objective of this article is to summarize the figures of cancer incidence in Thailand during 1995-1997. The population of Thailand in 1996, at the middle of the period, was 27 million males and 27.5 million females. Information of cancer cases residing in the five provinces was collected and abstracted from different sources. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of cancer in males and females was calculated for each registry and that for the whole country was estimated using the five registries as representatives for the four geographical regions of Thailand. The estimated number of new cancer cases in 1996 for the whole country was 35,539 men and 38,476 women and the ASRs were 149.2 and 125.0 per 10(5) population in men and women respectively. Cancer incidences greatly differed from region to region. Lung cancer was the commonest in Chiang Mai and Lampang in the Northern region in both sexes. The incidence of liver cancer in Khon Kaen in the Northeastern region outnumbered all the others in both sexes; cholangiocarcinoma was the major type of liver cancer. In Bangkok, lung cancer was the most important cancer in males and breast cancer was in females. Though it was lung and cervix uteri cancer that ranked the first in men and women in Songkhla, the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer was exceptionally higher than in other registries. The geographical variability in cancer patterns in Thailand reflects exposure of the population to different risk factors unique to the different regions. In the study as a whole, there are some methodological weak points in estimating the ASRs and number of cancer cases for the

  19. Prise en charge péri opératoire des urgences chirurgicales abdominales chez l’adulte au CHU Aristide Le Dantec

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Ibrahima; Leye, Pape Alassane; Traoré, Mamadou Mour; Ndiaye, Pape Ibrahima; Ba, El Hadji Boubacar; Bah, Mamadou Diawo; Fall, Mouhamed Lamine; Diouf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    La prise en charge périopératoire des urgences chirurgicales abdominales reste une préoccupation majeure des anesthésistes du fait des désordres hémodynamiques et/ou métaboliques souvent présents en préopératoire; mais également des complications postopératoires auxquelles elles sont exposées. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient d'étudier les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques des urgences abdominales. Etude rétrospective descriptive sur une période de 6 mois portant sur les patients âgés de plus de 16 ans opérés d'une urgence abdominale à l'hôpital Aristide Le Dantec. Les paramètres étudiés portaient sur les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques des urgences chirurgicales abdominales. Nous avions colligé 161 cas, près de 20% de l'activité du service. L'âge moyen était de 41 ans [16, 80 ans]. Le sex ratio était de 2, 9. Le délai moyen de consultation était de 4,6 jours. Les péritonites étaient les pathologies les plus fréquentes (25,5%). La fréquence cardiaque moyenne des patients était de 92 bpm (battements/min)et 97 bpm pour ceux ayant eu une préparation hémodynamique préopératoire. La moyenne de la PAM était de 9,66 cmhg et 8,61 cmhg chez les patients préparés. 49,1% des patients étaient de la classe ASA1, 39,9% ASA2, 8,7% ASA3, 2,5% ASA4 et 0,6% ASA5. Une antibioprophylaxie était faite chez 46,30% des patients et 53,41% d'entre eux avaient eu une antibiothérapie.95,6% des patients avaient eu une anesthésie générale et 4,4% une rachianesthésie. La fréquence des incidents peropératoires était de 11,08%. La morbidité était de 4,3% et la mortalité 4,96%. La prise en charge des urgences chirurgicales abdominales doit être multidisciplinaire impliquant anesthésistes, chirurgiens et biologistes afin de réduire davantage le taux de morbimortalité qui reste de nos jours non négligeable. PMID:27795787

  20. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l’on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  1. Evaluation des connaissances des parents sur les bronchiolites aiguës

    PubMed Central

    Gueddari, Widad; Tazi, Abderrahmane; Ouardi, Amine; Nani, Samira; Zineddine, Abdelhadi

    2014-01-01

    Les infections respiratoires (IR) constituent la deuxième cause de mortalité infantile au Maroc, dû en partie à l'absence d'information et de sensibilisation. Le but de ce travail était d’évaluer les connaissances des parents sur la bronchiolite aiguë, infection respiratoire très fréquente. Nous avons réalisé une enquête basée sur un questionnaire, auprès de parents de nourrissons consultants pour toux, avec ou sans gêne respiratoire. 180 parents ont été inclus dans l’étude. Les parents pensaient que l'infection respiratoire était secondaire au climat froid (96%); seuls 4% ont évoqué une origine infectieuse. Aucun des parents ne savait que le lavage des mains était un moyen de prévention de la transmission. Les parents ont majoritairement répondu que la kinésithérapie respiratoire ne servait à rien (65%), et qu'elle était nocive (24.5%). Ce manque de connaissances fondamentales en matière d'IR et de bronchiolite en particulier, devrait inciter à entreprendre un programme de sensibilisation PMID:25328606

  2. Breed variations in the incidence of pyometra and mammary tumours in Swedish dogs.

    PubMed

    Jitpean, S; Hagman, R; Ström Holst, B; Höglund, O V; Pettersson, A; Egenvall, A

    2012-12-01

    Dogs enrolled in a Swedish insurance company (during 1995-2006) were studied for development of pyometra and mammary tumours (MTs), with special attention to breed and age. There were over 260,000 female dogs with over 1,000,000 dog-years at risk (DYAR) in the database, using data on bitches up to 10 years of age and 110 breeds with over 1000 DYAR. In total, 20 423 bitches were diagnosed with pyometra and 11,758 with MTs and 30,131 with either or both of the two diseases. The incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was 199 (95% CI 196-202), for MTs 112 (95% CI 110-114) and for either or both of the two diseases 297 (95% CI 294-301) dogs per 10,000 DYAR. The mean age of diagnosis pyometra was 7.0 years (SD ± 2.2), MTs 8.0 years (SD ± 1.6). In all breeds, the overall proportion of the bitches that developed disease by 10 years of age was for pyometra 19%, MTs 13%, and either or both of two diseases 30%. The top 10 breeds diagnosed with either or both of the two diseases were the Leonberger (73%), Irish Wolfhound (69%), Bernese Mountain Dog (69%), Great Dane (68%), Staffordshire Bull Terrier (66%), Rottweiler (65%), Bullterrier (62%), Doberman (62%), Bouvier des Flandres (60%), Airdaleterrier (60%). These data provide information of the combined disease incidence in a large number of different breeds. Breed variations in incidence rate suggests genetic components in disease development. Our study may be valuable in the search for genetic risk-factors or protective factors. PMID:23279535

  3. DES the year in review: controversies.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Bourantas, C; Serruys, P W

    2013-04-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have transformed interventional cardiology over the past decade. Whilst their efficacy has rarely been called into question, there have been concerns over the safety of the early devices, which has prompted the development of new coronary stents. Many of these new devices have entered clinical practice, however questions remain as to whether they offer the improvements in clinical outcomes that were originally anticipated. In addition, there is a debate whether the reported high efficacy of these devices enables percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to be performed in patient and lesion sub-groups previous entirely the domain of the cardiac surgeon. This review paper addresses these outstanding questions. PMID:23492595

  4. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  5. Epidémiologie et facteurs de risque des complications respiratoires majeures après chirurgie de l'aorte abdominale au CHU Ibn Sina, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Awab, Almahdi; Elahmadi, Brahim; Lamkinsi, Tarik; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'incidence des complications respiratoires postopératoires (CRPO) reste très diversement appréciées selon les critères diagnostiques retenues dans les différentes études, ce qui la fait varier de 5 à plus de 50%. Les CRPO majeurs après chirurgie de l'aorte abdominale sont responsables d'une grande morbi-mortalité pouvant aller jusqu’à 36%, d'une durée d'hospitalisation et d'un coût plus importants. Ainsi dans l'optique d'améliorer notre prise en charge périopératoire de la chirurgie de l'aorte, nous avons décidé de mener une étude pour dresser le profil épidémiologique et déterminer les facteurs de risque des complications respiratoires dans notre contexte Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective du mois de Janvier 2007 au mois de décembre 2011 portant sur l'ensemble des patients opérés pour pathologie aortique au bloc opératoire central de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat, Maroc. Résultats Cent vingt cinq patients ont été inclus dans notre étude, 24 patients ont été opérés pour anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale et 101 patients pour lésion occlusive aortoiliaque. Dans notre série 22 malades soit 17,6% ont présenté une complication respiratoire majeure avec, une reventilation dans 4,8% des cas, une difficulté de sevrage de la ventilation artificielle dans 3,2% des cas, une pneumopathie dans 4% des cas, un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigue (SDRA) dans 4% des cas et une nécessité de fibroaspiration bronchique dans 1,6% des cas. En analyse univariée: l’âge, la présence d'une BPCO avec dyspnée stade 3 ou 4, la présence d'une anomalie à l'EFR préopératoire, la présence d'un stade avancé (III ou IV) de LOAI et la reprise chirurgicale étaient statistiquement associés à la survenue d'une complication respiratoire postopératoire. En analyse multivariée, seule une anomalie à l'EFR en préopératoire constituait un facteur de risque indépendant de survenue d'une complication

  6. Le syndrome des enfants battus: aspects cliniques et radiologiques

    PubMed Central

    Jlalia, Zied; Znaigui, Talel; Smida, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    La maltraitance physique des enfants ou le syndrome des enfants battus est responsable de plus de 75.000 décès par an en France. Ce problème de santé publique reste sous diagnostiqué en Tunisie et dans le monde. Le chemin a été laborieux pour la reconnaissance du syndrome des enfants battus dans certaines sociétés même occidentales. Nous avons voulus exposer ce problème aux praticiens afin qu'il soit mieux diagnostiqué et pris en charge. La maltraitance physique des enfants est appelée à tort syndrome de Silverman qui ne regroupe en fait que les lésions squelettiques chez ces enfants tels que les fractures. Mots clés: Fracture, maltraitance, enfant, neuro-radiologie PMID:27642408

  7. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2kqw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Kniazev, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2kqw discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (380-820nm) was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  8. 2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, Collection de Dessins Distribues aus eleves, (n.d. and no place), ORIGINAL FINK TRUSS BRIDGE, 1852. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Fairmont Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Fairmont, Marion County, WV

  9. Die Evolution des Universums. Eine Geschichte der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, H.

    This volume covers in an elementary course a historical overview on cosmology ranging from the ancient aspects up to big bang theory and the concepts of inflationary universe and grand unified theories. Contents: 1. Auf dem Wege zur Wissenschaft. 2. Die neue Kosmologie. 3. Die Struktur des Weltalls. 4. Dramatik im Weltall. 5. Die endliche Welt. 6. Die Evolution des frühen Universums. 7. Die Zukunft. 8. Die neue Teleologie. 9. Das Leben.

  10. Mesothelioma incidence and community asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Berry, M

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluates the environmental, nonoccupational component of mesothelioma incidence among persons living in Manville, Somerset County, New Jersey, the location of the largest asbestos manufacturing plant in North America. Prior to removal of occupational cases, residents of Manville had an average annual (1979-1990) mesothelioma rate of 636 male cases and 96 female cases per million population, about 25 times higher than average state rates. Somerset County had 143 diagnosed mesothelioma cases reported to the population-based. New Jersey State Cancer Registry from 1979 through 1990. Cases were removed from the analysis when their "usual employment" was reported as being at the asbestos plant, as evidenced through union lists or occupational information from either the Cancer Registry or mortality records. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed for residents of Manville and Somerset County (less the Manville population) by sex. New Jersey mesothelioma rates less the Somerset County contribution, 1979-1990, were used to generate the expected number of cases. The SIRs for Manville males and females were respectively 10.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8-16.4] and 22.4 (95% CI: 9.7-44.2). Male and female Somerset County mesothelioma incidence rates were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.4-2.5) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.6). This record-based approach demonstrates a strong relationship between past asbestos exposure from living in Manville and eventual development of mesothelioma. The use of methods in this study may be helpful in evaluating hazards of other known occupational carcinogens found in community settings.

  11. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  12. Pelvic Incidence in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Ibrahim J.; Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Restrepo, Santiago; Albert, Todd J.; Radcliff, Kris E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability that results in considerable social and medical costs. Mechanics such as posture, alignment and orientation of the hips and the spinal column and the relationship between these factors have been implicated in the development of both hip and spine pathologies. This study aims to test the hypothesis if pelvic incidence varies in patients with and without osteoarthritis. We assessed the relationship between spinopelvic alignment as measured by pelvic incidence (PI) and the presence of hip OA. Methods: We collected supine pelvis CT scans of 1,012 consecutive patients not known to have hip OA. Our first group consisted of 95 patients with moderate to severe hip OA as per radiology reports. The second group included 87 patients with no evidence of hip OA. Power analysis revealed the need for 77 patients per group to find a mean difference in PI of 5° or less between both groups. Two trained physicians independently measured the PI to account for inter-observer reliability. Results: Patients with moderate to severe hip OA had a mean PI of 56.5°±12.8°. The mean PI for patients without hip OA was 57.2°±7.5°. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant difference between the PI values of the two groups. Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.754 demonstrated a high inter-observer reliability. Conclusion: There was no difference in PI angle of hip OA patients and “healthy” patients. Our measurements of patients without OA were almost identical to the reported normal PI values in the literature. It appears that hip OA is not associated with PI angle, refuting the hypothesis made in previous studies, stating that elevated PI contributes to the future development of hip arthritis. CT scan seems to be a reliable and accurate way of assessing pelvic incidence. PMID:27200390

  13. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose <0.1 mSv and the highest ≥ 0.5 mSv) allowing for a latency of 5 years for leukemia and thyroid cancer, and 10 years for other cancers. Of the eight predefined cancer sites regarded as radiation-related from earlier studies, only colon cancer among women showed an association with exposure from fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  14. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been associated with peripheral arterial disease in cross-sectional studies but prospective evidence is lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the association of urine cadmium concentrations with incident peripheral arterial disease in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results A prospective cohort study was performed with 2,864 adult American Indians 45-74 years old from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989-91 and were followed through two follow-up examination visits in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. Participants were free of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, at baseline and had complete baseline information on urine cadmium, potential confounders and ankle brachial index determinations in the follow-up examinations. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and corrected for urinary dilution by normalization to urine creatinine.. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were computed using Cox-proportional hazards models for interval-censored data. A total of 470 cases of incident peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, were identified. After adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking status and pack-years, the hazard ratio comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations was 1.41 (1.05, 1.81). The hazard ratio comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 1.96 (1.32, 2.81). The associations persisted after excluding participants with ankle brachial index > 1.4 only as well as in subgroups defined by sex and smoking status. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, was independently associated with incident peripheral arterial disease, providing further support for cadmium as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:24255048

  15. Non-melanoma skin cancer incidence and impact of skin cancer screening on incidence.

    PubMed

    Eisemann, Nora; Waldmann, Annika; Geller, Alan C; Weinstock, Martin A; Volkmer, Beate; Greinert, Ruediger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Katalinic, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized. This analysis has two objectives: first, to provide up-to-date incidence estimates by sex, age group, histological type, and body site; and second, to study the impact of skin cancer screening. The impact of screening on NMSC incidence in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, is analyzed by comparing four time periods of different screening settings (no screening (1998-2000), pilot project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany, SCREEN, 2003-2004), after SCREEN (2004-2008), and nation-wide skin cancer screening (2008-2010)) to a reference region (Saarland, Germany). Age-standardized (Europe) NMSC incidence was 119/100,000 for women and 145/100,000 for men in the most recent screening period in Schleswig-Holstein (2008-2010). During implementation of SCREEN (2003-2004), incidence increased from 81.5/100,000 to 111.5/100,000 (1998-2000) by 47% for women and 34% for men. All age groups in women were affected by the increase, but increases for men were mostly limited to the older age groups. Incidence in Saarland first increased slowly, but increased steeply with the introduction of the nation-wide skin cancer screening in 2008 (+47% for women and +40% for men, reference 2004-2008). Observed changes are most likely attributed to screening activities.

  16. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes.

    PubMed

    Saha, T T

    1987-02-15

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higherorder telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters. PMID:20454195

  17. Incidence of injury in elite Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    Newell, M; Grant, S; Henry, A; Newell, J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive prospective epidemiological study of injuries sustained by elite Gaelic Football players over one season. The pattern of injury is strikingly similar across all teams with 47% of all injuries occurring in the final quarter of games and training. Injuries to the lower limb, particularly the hamstrings muscles accounted for the majority of injuries. 65% of players were unable to participate fully in Gaelic Football activity for between one and three weeks as a result of injury. The high incidence of injury especially hamstrings injuries in the latter stages of training and games warrants further investigation.

  18. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  19. SLOPE PROFILOMETRY OF GRAZING INCIDENCE OPTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS,P.Z.

    2003-01-14

    Profiling instruments are well-suited to the measurement of grazing incidence optics, such as those found in synchrotron radiation beam lines. Slope measuring profilers, based upon the principle of the pencil beam interferometer, have proven to be especially useful in measuring the figure and slope errors on cylindrical aspheres. The Long Trace Profiler, in various configurations, is the most widely used of this class of profiler. Current performance provides slope measurement accuracy at the microradian level and height measurements accurate to 25 nm over 1 meter trace lengths.

  20. Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer Film Thickness Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    The Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer (NIS) Measurement Tool is used to automatically measure the thickness of transparent films on silicon wafers. Under the control of an IBM. System 7 computer, both, wafer handling and the thickness measurement are performed. automatically. Wafers are transported through the tool on a covered airtrack, and after posi-tioning in a vacuum, chuck, are moved under the measurement head to pre-programmed measurement sites. Reflectivity data from the wafer surface, as a function of wavelength, is used by a software algorithm to calculate film, thickness. This tool is used on advanced manufacturing lines at IBM in both. East Fishkill, N.Y. and Burlington, Vt.

  1. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River basins, southern Minnesota and northern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  2. [Le leadership en santé et l'éthique de la gestion des attentes des soignants et des patients].

    PubMed

    Browne, Alister

    2016-03-01

    Les dispensateurs de soins et les patients sont souvent déçus du niveau de soins que les hôpitaux publics peuvent prodiguer. La solution consiste à réduire les attentes. Les dispensateurs devraient être amenés à considérer que leur obligation consiste à prodiguer les meilleurs soins en fonction des ressources. Le public devrait être bien informé des services que les hôpitaux de soins actifs peuvent ou non lui offrir et participer aux prises de décision. Les leaders en santé peuvent jouer des rôles novateurs à cet égard.

  3. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lankisch, P G; Dröge, M; Gottesleben, F

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of drug induced acute pancreatitis, data from 45 German centres of gastroenterology were evaluated. Among 1613 patients treated for acute pancreatitis in 1993, drug induced acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 22 patients (incidence 1.4%). Drugs held responsible were azathioprine, mesalazine/sulfasalazine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), oestrogens, frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and rifampicin. Pancreatic necrosis not exceeding 33% of the organ was found on ultrasonography or computed tomography, or both, in three patients (14%). Pancreatic pseudocysts did not occur. A decrease of arterial PO2 reflecting respiratory insufficiency, and an increase of serum creatinine, reflecting renal insufficiency as complications of acute pancreatitis were seen in two (9%) and four (18%) patients, respectively. Artificial ventilation was not needed, and dialysis was necessary in only one (5%) case. Two patients (9%) died of AIDS and tuberculosis, respectively; pancreatitis did not seem to have contributed materially to their death. In conclusion, drugs rarely cause acute pancreatitis, and drug induced acute pancreatitis usually runs a benign course. PMID:7489946

  4. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled.

  5. Incident and Emergency Centre of the IAEA.

    PubMed

    Baciu, Florian; Buglova, Elena; Martincic, Rafael; Spiegelberg Planer, Rejane; Stern, Warren; Winkler, Guenther

    2010-06-01

    The Incident and Emergency Centre of the International Atomic Emergency Agency is the global focal point for preparedness, event reporting, and response to nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies irrespective of their cause. The Centre continuously works to develop standards and guidance for strengthening Member States' preparedness; develops practical tools and training programs to assist Member States in promptly applying the standards and guidance; and organizes a variety of training events and exercises. The Centre evaluates national plans and assists in their development; facilitates effective communication between countries; develops response procedures; and supports national exercises. The Centre provides access to multiple information resources; assesses trends that may influence crisis and consequence management plans and response; and develops and continuously enhances methodology for identifying conditions needed for early warning and response. The Centre provides around-the-clock assistance to Member States in dealing with nuclear and radiological events, including security related events through timely and efficient services and the provision of a coordinated international response to such emergencies. PMID:20445379

  6. Incidence of Aflatoxin in California Almonds

    PubMed Central

    Schade, J. E.; McGreevy, K.; King, A. D.; Mackey, B.; Fuller, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of California almonds, aflatoxin was found in 14% of 74 samples of unsorted, in-shell almonds as received by the processor in 1972, but it occurred at very low levels (below 20 parts per billion [ppb]) in 90% of the contaminated samples. The overall proportion of individual nuts contaminated was especially low and is estimated with 95% probability to have been in the range of 1 nut/55,300 nuts to 1 nut/14,700 nuts. Aflatoxin contamination is not restricted to any particular section of the almond-growing region of California. Commercial sorting procedures are effective in removing most aflatoxin-contaminated nutmeats, since none of 26 samples of processed, whole nutmeats contained aflatoxin. In contrast, 13 of 27 samples of diced almonds were contaminated, but nine of these 13 samples contained less than 20 ppb. Only one of 25 samples of sliced nutmeats contained aflatoxin (4 ppb). Thus, aflatoxin incidence in almonds varies greatly with the category of finished product. The apparent high incidence in diced nutmeats is probably due mostly to the more uniform distribution of aflatoxin occurring in this product (because of its small particle size) than that occurring in the other products. Sample size requirements for monitoring aflatoxin in almonds are discussed. PMID:1110492

  7. Tripod-BETA: Incident investigation and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.A.; Graaf, G.C. van der

    1996-12-31

    Tripod-BETA is a methodology for conducting an incident analysis in parallel with the investigation, supported by a PC based tool. Interaction between these two processes provides the investigators with confirmation of the relevance of their fact gathering and highlights avenues of investigation leading to latent failures. The benefit to the analysis process is that logical anomalies can be highlighted and resolved while The investigation is still active. Tripod-BETA focuses initially on the accident mechanism - the physical process of the accident - and uses it as a structure to identify the controls and defenses that should have been in place. For the incident to happen these controls and defenses either were missing or failed. The investigation then examines the immediate and latent failures behind each missing or failed defense, following the Tripod theory of accident causation. Tripod-BETA software provides the means to collect and assemble investigation facts and manipulate them on screen into a graphic representation of the event and its causes - an accident tree. The logic of the tree structure (labeling and connections) can be tested to ensure that it conforms to the concepts of the Hazard and Effects Management Process (HEMP) and the Tripod theory. When anomalies and omissions have been resolved, a draft accident report can be auto-generated for final editing using a word processing package.

  8. The incidence of diagnostic error in medicine.

    PubMed

    Graber, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    A wide variety of research studies suggest that breakdowns in the diagnostic process result in a staggering toll of harm and patient deaths. These include autopsy studies, case reviews, surveys of patient and physicians, voluntary reporting systems, using standardised patients, second reviews, diagnostic testing audits and closed claims reviews. Although these different approaches provide important information and unique insights regarding diagnostic errors, each has limitations and none is well suited to establishing the incidence of diagnostic error in actual practice, or the aggregate rate of error and harm. We argue that being able to measure the incidence of diagnostic error is essential to enable research studies on diagnostic error, and to initiate quality improvement projects aimed at reducing the risk of error and harm. Three approaches appear most promising in this regard: (1) using 'trigger tools' to identify from electronic health records cases at high risk for diagnostic error; (2) using standardised patients (secret shoppers) to study the rate of error in practice; (3) encouraging both patients and physicians to voluntarily report errors they encounter, and facilitating this process. PMID:23771902

  9. Incidence and treatment of neoplasia after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Penn, I

    1993-01-01

    Cancer incidence in patients who undergo transplantation ranges from 4% to 18% (average, 6%). We have data on 7248 types of malignancy that developed in 6798 patients. The predominant tumors are lymphomas, skin and lip carcinomas, vulvar or perineal carcinomas, in situ uterine cervical carcinomas, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Tumors appear relatively early after transplantation. The earliest are Kaposi's sarcomas, which appear an average of 22 months after transplantation, whereas the latest are tumors that involve the vulva and perineum, which appear an average of 113 months after transplantation. Unusual features of the lymphomas include a high incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, frequent involvement of extranodal sites, marked predilection for the brain, and frequent allograft involvement by tumor. Lymphomas are much more common in heart or heart and lung recipients than in kidney recipients, and in pediatric patients compared with adults. Neoplastic regression after reduction or cessation of immunosuppressive therapy occurs in some patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or Kaposi's sarcoma. PMID:8312352

  10. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled. PMID:27405126

  11. Incidence of injury in kickboxing participation.

    PubMed

    Romaine, Linda J; Davis, Shala E; Casebolt, Kevin; Harrison, Kelly A

    2003-08-01

    Cardio kickboxing classes have become a popular form of exercise to enhance fitness. This study surveyed kickboxing participants and instructors to ascertain the severity, type, and incidence of injuries sustained while performing cardio kickboxing exercise. The respondents consisted of 77.4% instructors and 29.3% participants with a mean age of 32.29 years (+/-8.98 years). Injury from kickboxing exercise was reported by 29.3% of the respondents, 31% of the instructors, and 15.5% of the participants. The most common site of injury for instructors was the back, followed by the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common site of injury for participants was the back, knee, and ankle. Strains were the most common type of injury reported, followed by sprains and tendinitis. More than half of the injuries reported were new injuries (64%), with almost 59% of the total injuries reported causing a disruption of the normal exercise routine or an alteration of normal daily activities. Instructors who reported using music speeds greater than 140 beats per minute had a higher incidence of injury, compared with instructors who used music between 125 and 139 beats per minute. The wrist and elbow had the highest percentage of new injuries reported. This study suggests that kickboxing exercise can be a safe form of exercise for fitness purposes. Keeping music speeds below 140 beats per minute and limiting the number of kickboxing sessions per week may help to reduce injury rates.

  12. The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. Methods EMT/paramedics (n = 223) completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a) endorsing any domain item and (b) outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms). Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Results Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only) as the 22-item inventory. Conclusions Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics’ personal experience, and least

  13. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus

  14. Childhood cancer incidence in a cohort of twin babies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M F G; Whiteman, D; Hey, K; Griffith, M; Gill, L; Goldacre, M J; Vincent, T J; Bunch, K

    2001-01-01

    We studied childhood cancer incidence in a population-based twin cohort using record linkage to the National Registry of Childhood Tumours. After correcting for mortality, an incidence deficit was observed (Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) 79; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 39–120). Pooled analysis with data from published cohort studies indicates a similar significant incidence reduction (SIR 81, 95% CI 67–96). Further studies are warranted. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384093

  15. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  16. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  17. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  18. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  19. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  20. Incident duration modeling using flexible parametric hazard-based models.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruimin; Shang, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  1. Practice What You Preach: Using Critical Incidents to Involve Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagravier, Sharon H.; Beatty, Paulette T.

    The critical incidents method is an instructional method that is particularly suited for use with adult learners. The method involves the following sequence of activities: brief introduction to the subject under consideration, short explanation of the critical incident technique, presentation of the critical incident and directions, group work and…

  2. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  3. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  4. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  5. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  6. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  7. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  8. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  9. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  10. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  11. Viscous flow solutions for slender bodies of revolution at incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.

    1991-01-01

    Flow over slender prolate spheroids at incidence is examined. The incidence angle is chosen high enough to cause streamwise separation of the flow in addition to crossflow separation generally observed at lower incidence angles. The freestream Mach number for the cases investigated here is subsonic, thus precluding the use of parabolized procedures. Laminar, transitional and turbulent flow cases are investigated.

  12. Critical Incidents in Multicultural Training: An Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, M. Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study examined critical incidents in graduate students' multicultural counseling training. Trainees (N=59) were asked to describe a critical incident and their multicultural training environment by responding to a critical incident protocol and the multicultural environment Inventory-Revised (D. B. Pope-Davis, W. M. Liu, J. Nevitt, & R. L.…

  13. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  14. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  15. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  16. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  17. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  18. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  19. Incident duration modeling using flexible parametric hazard-based models.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruimin; Shang, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time. PMID:25530753

  20. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  1. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  2. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  3. Fatty liver incidence and predictive variables.

    PubMed

    Tsuneto, Akira; Hida, Ayumi; Sera, Nobuko; Imaizumi, Misa; Ichimaru, Shinichiro; Nakashima, Eiji; Seto, Shinji; Maemura, Koji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2010-06-01

    Although fatty liver predicts ischemic heart disease, the incidence and predictors of fatty liver need examination. The objective of this study was to determine fatty liver incidence and predictive variables. Using abdominal ultrasonography, we followed biennially through 2007 (mean follow-up, 11.6+/-4.6 years) 1635 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (606 men) without fatty liver at baseline (November 1990 through October 1992). We examined potential predictive variables with the Cox proportional hazard model and longitudinal trends with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. In all, 323 (124 men) new fatty liver cases were diagnosed. The incidence was 19.9/1000 person-years (22.3 for men, 18.6 for women) and peaked in the sixth decade of life. After controlling for age, sex, and smoking and drinking habits, obesity (relative risk (RR), 2.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.33-3.69, P<0.001), low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (RR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.42-2.47; P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.96-3.15; P<0.001), glucose intolerance (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.09-2.10; P=0.013) and hypertension (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.30-2.04; P<0.001) were predictive of fatty liver. In multivariate analysis including all variables, obesity (RR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.93-3.38; P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.41-2.62; P<0.001) and hypertension (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.71; P=0.046) remained predictive. In fatty liver cases, body mass index and serum triglycerides, but not systolic or diastolic blood pressure, increased significantly and steadily up to the time of the diagnosis. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and, to a lesser extent, hypertension might serve as predictive variables for fatty liver. PMID:20379184

  4. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  5. Cognitive Impairments Are Different in Single-Incidence and Multi-Incidence ADHD Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Bruijn, Yvette G. E.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We may improve our understanding of the role of common versus unique risk factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining ADHD-related cognitive deficits in single- (SPX), and multi-incidence (MPX) families. Given that individuals from multiplex (MPX) families are likely to share genetic vulnerability for the…

  6. The Australian Incident Monitoring Study. Difficult intubation: an analysis of 2000 incident reports.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J A; Webb, R K; Szekely, S; Gillies, E R; Dreosti, A V

    1993-10-01

    The first 2000 incidents reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study were analysed with respect to the incidence and circumstances of problems with endotracheal intubation; 85 (4%) indicated difficulties with intubation. One third of these were emergency cases, one third involved an initially unassisted trainee and one fifth were outside normal working hours. Failure to predict a difficult intubation was reported in one third of the cases, with another quarter presenting serious difficulty despite preoperative prediction. Difficulties with ventilation were experienced in 1 in 7 of the 85 reports; there was one cardiac arrest, but no death. Endotracheal intubation was not achieved in one fifth of the cases. The commonest complications reported amongst the 85 incidents were oesophageal intubation (18 cases), arterial desaturation (15 cases), and reflux of gastric contents (7 cases). Emergency trans-tracheal airways were required in 5 cases. Obesity, limited neck mobility and mouth opening, and inadequate assistance together accounted for two thirds of all the contributing factors. The most successful intubation aid in this series was a gum elastic bougie. A capnograph contributed to management in 28% and a pulse oximeter in 12% of the cases in which they were used. The most serious desaturations were associated with accidental oesophageal intubation. These data suggest a lack of reliable preoperative assessment techniques and skills for the prediction of difficult intubations. They also suggest the need for a greater emphasis on ensuring that the necessary equipment is available, and on teaching and learning drills for difficult intubation and any associated difficulty with ventilation.

  7. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  8. Catalog Production for the DES Blind Cosmology Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, R. H.; Becker, M. R.; Erickson, B.; Evrard, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Blind Cosmology Challenge (BCC) is an effort by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to test analysis tools for extracting cosmological information using a set of detailed synthetic galaxy catalogs. Here, we describe the creation of these synthetic sky catalogs based on requirements of the optical (DES) and the near-IR VISTA Hemisphere Survey, producing catalogs covering a quarter of the sky to z ˜ 2, with sources complete to r ˜ 25. Starting with a nested set of lightcone outputs of large, N-body simulation, galaxies are assigned to the dark matter distribution using an empirical algorithm that is tunable to match observed evolution of low-order galaxy population properties (counts and spatial clustering) in luminosity-color-density space. Galaxies are lensed by matter along the line of sight (including magnification, shape distortion, and multiple images), using a new algorithm that calculates shear with 3.22 arcsec resolution at galaxy positions in the full catalog. The catalog is well suited to support DES+VISTA joint studies of galaxy clustering, groups and clusters of galaxies, and gravitational lensing, and we highlight their application to the ongoing DES BBCC. Catalogs include ˜320 million galaxies and ˜150 million stars, with realistic colors, shapes and photometric errors. Using the expected DES photometric errors, three independent photometric redshift codes are run on the catalog, two of which produce full probability distributions. The synthetic observable catalog includes object position, magnitudes in the DES and VISTA bands, photometric errors, photometric redshifts, size, ellipticity, for each of ˜ 500 million objects. The galaxy distribution is additionally masked appropriately for the 5000 square degree DES footprint, including the impact of bright stars. In addition, we offer separate catalogs with magnitudes for additional existing and planned surveys, including SDSS, CFHTLS, HSC, LSST, and Euclid.

  9. Incident Angle Dependence of Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeorge, Vincent; Valle, Brent; Singer, Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    We have been recently studying the use of interference effects to enhance optical absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells. These interference effects are expected to be angle dependent. We measure here the angle dependent absorption and compare with numerical simulations. The cells used were P3HT/PCBM active layer, organic photovoltaic cells. The angular dependence of the cells' reflection was measured using an Ocean Optics light source and spectrophotometer and a precision rotary stage apparatus. The experimental results were compared to a Matlab simulation of the characteristic matrix problem. Analysis showed that the reflection/absorption peaks predicted by the simulation largely coincided in wavelength to those observed in experiment. Moreover, no additional cavity resonance can be attributed to incidence angle.

  10. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents :

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.; Hammer, Ann E.

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  11. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Normal Incidence for Graded Index Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khankhoje, Uday K.; Van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A plane wave is incident normally from vacuum (eta(sub 0) = 1) onto a smooth surface. The substrate has three layers; the top most layer has thickness d(sub 1) and permittivity epsilon(sub 1). The corresponding numbers for the next layer are d(sub 2); epsilon(sub 2), while the third layer which is semi-in nite has index eta(sub 3). The Hallikainen model [1] is used to relate volumetric soil moisture to the permittivity. Here, we consider the relation for the real part of the permittivity for a typical loam soil: acute epsilon(mv) = 2.8571 + 3.9678 x mv + 118:85 x mv(sup 2).

  13. Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs. PMID:21798011

  14. Post Traumatic Endophthalmitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Leila; Salam, Hasan; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Post traumatic endophthalmitis is an uncommon but severe complication of ocular trauma. We aimed to identify the incidence of post traumatic endophthalmitis and its contributing risk factors in Feiz hospital (Isfahan, Iran) from 2006 until 2010. Medical records of 1042 patients with open globe injury were analyzed and data were collected including age, sex, location of being injured, visual acuity (VA), time from injury to hospitalization and to repair, site of ophthalmic injury and the presence of foreign body. The frequency of post-traumatic endophthalmitis was about 2.1% (N = 22) of all patients. Nine of 22 cases with endophthalmitis were under 8 years. The visual acuity at the time of admission was seen to be contributed to high rate of endophthalmitis. Intraocular foreign body was detected in 139 patients; and the rate of endophthalmitis was 5% among these patients. Statistical analysis showed significant relationship between presence of foreign body and higher rate of endophthalmitis. Also, duration of hospitalization was significantly different between two study groups (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of other studied variables. Patients with low age, low visual acuity at admission, presence of intraocular foreign body and long duration of hospital stay had a higher risk of endophthalmitis after the repair of the globe. Compared to the reports of other large institutions, we can attribute the low incidence rate of endophthalmitis in our institution to the early use of systemic antibiotics such as gentamycin and cephalosporins in the first hour of hospitalization until discharge. PMID:25363107

  15. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  16. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  17. Use of Critical Incident Reports in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Branch, William T

    2005-01-01

    Critical incident reports are now being widely used in medical education. They are short narrative accounts focusing on the most important professional experiences of medical students, residents, and other learners. As such, critical incident reports are ideally suited for addressing values and attitudes, and teaching professional development. This manuscript describes critical incident reports and gives examples of their use, provides a theoretical underpinning that explains their effectiveness, and describes the educational impacts of critical incident reports and similar methods that use reflective learning. The author recommends critical incident reports as an especially effective means to address learners' most deeply held values and attitudes in the context of their professional experiences. PMID:16307635

  18. 75 FR 25319 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System (DES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System (DES... Control No. 2900-New (DES).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Survey of Satisfaction with the...

  19. Pratique de la prophylaxie de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse: enquête réalisée auprès des professionnels de santé de la ville de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Naibe, Dangwe Temoua; Samadoulougou, André; Kabore, Hervé; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'impact clinique et l'incidence de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse ont conduit à établir des recommandations pour la thromboprophylaxie. L'objectif de notre étude était d’évaluer la pratique de cette prophylaxie par les professionnels de santé de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête d'intention réalisée dans le mois de mai 2012 au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo et Centre Médical avec Antenne chirurgicale Paul VI. Un questionnaire a été administré auprès des prescripteurs impliqués dans la prophylaxie de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse (MTEV). Résultats Une interview a été administrée à 86 professionnels de santé dont 20 attachés de santé en anesthésie-réanimation, 17 chirurgiens, 11 médecins généralistes et 07 gynécologue-obstétriciens. Leur expérience professionnelle était inférieure à cinq ans dans 65% des cas et ils exerçaient dans 70% des cas au CHU-YO. Les héparines de bas poids moléculaire étaient les plus utilisées (81,4%) avec une intention de prescription significativement plus élevée en réanimation et en chirurgie (p<0,05). Dans 65,7% des cas, la prophylaxie était maintenue jusqu'à la mobilisation des patients. Le coût élevé de l'héparinothérapie représentait une raison de la non utilisation de la prophylaxie dans 46,5% des cas. Conclusion Nous constatons que la réalisation de la prophylaxie de la MTEV reste insuffisante à Ouagadougou en dépit de l'existence de recommandations précises de bonnes pratiques. Ces résultats suggèrent la nécessité de la formation médicale continue des professionnels de santé, avec l’établissement des recommandations de pratique clinique adaptée à notre niveau de développement. PMID:25995791

  20. Biomécanique de la rupture des membranes fœtales. Les membranes fœtales sont plus résistantes avant terme qu’à terme1

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, N; Abdelrahim, A; Moore, RM; Uyen, L; Mercer, BM; Mansour, JM; Kumar, D; Sawady, J; Moore, JJ

    2011-01-01

    Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les caractéristiques biomécaniques des membranes fœtales humaines (FM) durant la gestation. Ces propriétés notamment la force et le travail produisant la rupture ont été déterminées pour 115 d’entre elles de 23–41 semaines de gestation. Les domaines de FM à proximité immédiate des zones les plus et les moins résistantes testées ont été échantillonnés pour l’analyse histomorphométriques. Les données cliniques sur les patientes dont les FM ont été examinées ont également été recueillies. Les FM de ≤ 28 semaines de gestation sont associées à une incidence plus élevée de décollement placentaire et de chorioamniotite. Sur le plan topographique, les FM à tous les stades de gestations ont des caractéristiques biomécaniques hétérogènes distinctes des zones fragiles quand à leur résistance. La plupart des membranes de préterme ont une plus forte résistance. La force et le travail de rupture des FM diminuent avec l’âge gestationnel. Cette diminution est spectaculaire à ≥ 38 semaines de gestation. La couche amnio-choriale est plus mince dans les zones fragiles par rapport aux zones résistantes. Les FM de préterme sont plus résistantes mais elles sont aussi très hétérogènes. L’augmentation progressive de la fragilité des FM avec la gestation atteint un maximum à 38 semaines. Les zones de faiblesses sont plus minces que les parties les plus résistantes. On ne peut affirmer que la différence d’épaisseur soit suffisante pour expliquer des différences de résistance des MF. PMID:21602078

  1. Evaluation des complications cardiaques chez les hémodialysés chroniques de Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Moustapha, Cissé Mouhamadou; Tall, Lemrabott Ahmed; Maria, Faye; Khodia, Fall; Moustapha, Faye; Fary, Ka El Hadji; Abdou, Niang; Boucar, Diouf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’évaluation cardiovasculaire est essentielle en hémodialyse périodique car les affections cardiovasculaires sont la première cause de mortalité chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Nous avons conduit cette étude afin de déterminer la prévalence et le type des différentes complications cardiovasculaires et d'identifier les principaux facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective de 4 ans portant sur les dossiers de patients traités au moins 6 mois en hémodialyse et ayant des explorations cardio-vasculaires comportant une radiographie du thorax de face, un électrocardiogramme et une échographie cardiaque. Les données épidémiologiques, cliniques, paracliniques, les aspects évolutifs des complications cardiaques ont été recueillies pour chaque patient retenu. Résultats Trente huit dossiers de patients ont été inclus dans cette étude. L’âge moyen était de 52 ans ± 12,85 et le sex-ratio H/F de 1,53. Les complications cardiovasculaires étaient dominées par l'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche (71,05%), la maladie coronaire (34,21%), l'insuffisance cardiaque congestive (18,42%), Calcifications vasculaires (5,78%), les troubles du rythme (7.89%), les fuites valvulaires mitrales (44,73%), tricuspidiennes (42,10%) et les accidents vasculaires cérébraux hémorragiques (5,26%). L'incidence moyenne de l'HVG était de 81% chez les patients hypertendus. Au cours de cette étude, 27 patients avaient poursuivi l'hémodialyse et 11 étaient décédés dont 6 de causes cardiovasculaires (54,55%). Conclusion L'hémodialyse est une technique d’épuration qui expose les patients à de multiples complications cardiovasculaires. PMID:27217869

  2. Improving reporting of critical incidents through education and involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Critical incident reporting involves highlighting events and near-misses which have a potential impact on patient care and patient safety. Reporting of critical incidents is a recognised tool in improving patient safety. Within the community paediatric setting in the Belfast Health & Social Care Trust (BHSCT) there is a paucity of incident report forms. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to establish the barriers to reporting critical incidents and to implement plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles to create a climate for change. The methodology for this project was to firstly perform a baseline audit to review all submitted critical incident reports for the Community Paediatric team in the BHSCT for a six month period. A questionnaire was distributed to staff within the multidisciplinary team to establish examples of barriers to reporting. Interventions performed included introducing an agreed definition of a critical incident, distributing/presenting questionnaire findings to senior members of the various management teams and providing feedback to healthcare workers after presentation of a critical incident presentation. A review of incident reports was performed over the subsequent six month period to assess how the interventions impacted on incident reporting. Over 12 questionnaires 28 barriers to reporting critical incidents were reported which fell into five separate categories. Staff members were twice as likely to report negativity after reporting a critical incident. Overall critical incident reporting within the BHSCT Community Paediatric team improved from 11 incident reports (1.8 per month) to 22 incident reports (3.7 per month) after completion of the quality improvement project. This represents an increase of 100%. PMID:26734409

  3. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  4. Problemes en enseignement fonctionnel des langues (Problems in the Functional Teaching of Languages). Publication B-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program of Study in French…

  5. Incidence of cancer among commercial airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Rafnsson, V.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; Tulinius, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the cancer pattern in a cohort of commercial pilots by follow up through the Icelandic Cancer Registry.
METHODS—This is a retrospective cohort study of 458 pilots with emphasis on subcohort working for an airline operating on international routes. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cancer cases were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and incidences of cancer at specific sites for men provided by the Cancer Registry. Numbers of separate analyses were made according to different exposure variables.
RESULTS—The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62 to 1.46) in the total cohort and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.81) among those operating on international routes. The SIR for malignant melanoma of the skin was 10.20, 95% CI 3.29 to 23.81 in the total cohort and 15.63, 95% CI 5.04 to 36.46 in the restricted cohort. Analyses according to number of block-hours and radiation dose showed that malignant melanomas were found in the subgroups with highest exposure estimates, the SIRs were 13.04 and 28.57 respectively. The SIR was 25.00 for malignant melanoma among those who had been flying over five time zones.
CONCLUSIONS—The study shows a high occurrence of malignant melanoma among pilots. It is open to discussion what role exposure of cosmic radiation, numbers of block-hours flown, or lifestyle factors—such as possible excessive sunbathing—play in the aetiology of cancer among pilots. This calls for further and more powerful studies. The excess of malignant melanoma among those flying over five time zones suggests that the importance of disturbance of the circadian rhythm should be taken into consideration in future studies.


Keywords: cancer registry; malignant melanoma of the skin; cosmic radiation; block-hours; time zones PMID:10810099

  6. Incidents/accidents classification and reporting in Statoil.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Rune; Holmboe, Rolf H

    2004-07-26

    Based on requirements in the new petroleum regulations from Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) and the realisation of a need to improve and rationalise the routines for reporting and follow up of incidents, Statoil Exploration & Production Norway (Statoil E&P Norway) has formulated a new strategy and process for handling of incidents/accidents. The following past experiences serve as basis for the changes made to incident reporting in Statoil E&P Norway; too much resources were spent on a comprehensive handling and analysis of a vast amount of incidents with less importance for the safety level, taking the focus away from the more severe and important issues at hand, the assessment of "Risk Factor", i.e. the combination of recurrence frequency and consequence, was difficult to use. The high degree of subjectivity involved in the determination of the "Risk Factor" (in particular the estimation of the recurrence frequency) resulted in poor data quality and lack of consistency in the data material. The new system for categorisation and handling of undesirable incidents was established in January 2002. The intention was to get a higher degree of focus on serious incidents (injuries, damages, loss and near misses), with a thorough handling and follow-up. This is reflected throughout the handling of the serious incidents, all the way from immediate notification of the incident, through investigation and follow-up of corrective and preventive actions. Simultaneously, it was also an objective to rationalise/simplify the handling of less serious incidents. These incidents are, however, subjected to analyses twice a year in order to utilize the learning opportunity that they also provide. A year after the introduction of this new system for categorisation and follow-up of undesirable incidents, Statoil's experiences are predominantly good; the intention to get a higher degree of focus on serious incidents (injuries, damages, loss and near misses), has been met, the data

  7. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part. PMID:26827551

  8. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part.

  9. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  10. Incidence du carcinome hépatocellulaire lors de l'infection chronique par le virus de l'hépatite B

    PubMed Central

    Ntagirabiri, Rénovat; Munezero, Bélyse; Kaze, Hippolyte; Ndirahisha, Eugène; Manirakiza, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est incriminé comme cause de cancer primitif du foie. Le stade de fibrose et d'autres facteurs environnementaux et génétiques seraient intriqués. Le but de notre travail était de déterminer l'incidence du carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC) lors d'une infection chronique par le VHB et estimer le risque relatif (RR) de CHC lié au stade de la fibrose hépatique. Méthodes Étude prospective de suivi d'une cohorte de patients porteurs chroniques du VHB sur une période de 5 ans (2009 à 2014). Etaient inclus les patients consécutifs qui ont subi un dosage de la charge virale B, une évaluation de la fibrose hépatique et un suivi régulier de tous les 6 à 12 mois par une échographie hépatique. Résultats Au total 194 patients ont été retenus. L’âge moyen était de 39,1 ans. Parmi eux 112 étaient des hommes. L'incidence cumulée de CHC a été de 8,8% dans la population d’étude soit une incidence annuelle de 1,8%. Selon le stade de fibrose, 31 patients avaient une fibrose sévère ou une cirrhose (score Fibrotest >0,73). Parmi eux, l'incidence cumulée de CHC était de 35,5% soit une incidence annuelle estimée à 7,10%. Parmi 163 patients ayant une fibrose mineure, l'incidence cumulée de CHC était de 3,7% soit une incidence annuelle de 0,7%. Le RR lié à la cirrhose était de 9,7; IC 95%: (3,8-24,1%). Conclusion Le VHB expose au CHC jusqu’à 10 fois. La fibrose sévère et la cirrhose constituent des facteurs prédictifs de CHC chez le porteur chronique du VHB. Evaluer systématiquement la fibrose pour traiter précocement les malades pourra prévenir l’évolution vers la cirrhose et par là réduire la survenue du CHC. PMID:26113910

  11. [Megacolon and sigmoid volvulus: incidence and physiopathology].

    PubMed

    Saravia Burgos, Jaime; Acosta Canedo, Abel

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of Megacolon is multiple. One of these causes and the most frequent is Chagas disease. Its complication: sigmoid volvulus was de main diagnosis in the admitted patients at the Bolivian and Japanese Gastroenterological Institute of Cochabamba Bolivia. It usually affects people of a low economic income. In this Gastroenterological Hospital a transversal and prospective study has been done, in order to know the real incidence and the physiopathology of this disease. In a six year period, from 2000 to 2006, 8.954 patients were admitted to the Hospital: of these, 814 (9.09%), where diagnosticated as lower intestinal obstruction. In 608 (74.7%) the final diagnosis was sigmoid torsion. Radiological diagnosis was made in 84% of the patients and endoscopic decompression was successful in 88.7%. As reported in the medical literature, the main cause of megacolon in this part of the world is Chagas disease. In our investigation 22% (98 patients), were serology positive to Chagas disease, and another 21.44% (95 patients) were serology negative. They were coca leaf chewers. One of coca leaf compounds is cocaine which blocks the adrenaline and noradrenaline degradation by mean of monoamine oxidase inactivation. These two hormones stay a long term of time in the target organ: the large bowel. By this mean chronic and persistent vessel constriction develops intestinal wall atrophy and lower resistance to the intraintestinal pressure.

  12. Variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence x ray telescope is disclosed, which capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more ellipsoidal mirrors are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each mirror having a concave surface coated with a multilayer synthetic microstructure coating to reflect a desired wavelength. The ellipsoidal mirrors are segments of respective ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second focus of each of the ellipsoids so that each of the ellipsoidal mirrors may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector. In one embodiment the mirrors are inclined at different angles and has its respective second focus at a different location, separate detectors being located at the respective second focus. The mirrors are arranged so that the magnification and field of view differ, and a solenoid activated arm may withdraw at least one mirror from the beam to select the mirror upon which the beam is to impinge so that selected magnifications and fields of view may be detected.

  13. Incidence of gliomas by anatomic location.

    PubMed

    Larjavaara, Suvi; Mäntylä, Riitta; Salminen, Tiina; Haapasalo, Hannu; Raitanen, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Juha; Auvinen, Anssi

    2007-07-01

    The anatomic location of a glioma influences prognosis and treatment options. The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of gliomas in different anatomic areas of the brain. A representative population-based sample of 331 adults with glioma was used for preliminary analyses. The anatomic locations for 89 patients from a single center were analyzed in more detail from radiologic imaging and recorded on a three-dimensional 1 x 1 x 1-cm grid. The age-standardized incidence rate of gliomas was 4.7 per 100,000 person-years. The most frequent subtypes were glioblastoma (47%) and grade II-III astrocytoma (23%), followed by oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma. The gliomas were located in the frontal lobe in 40% of the cases, temporal in 29%, parietal in 14%, and occipital lobe in 3%, with 14% in the deeper structures. The difference in distribution between lobes remained after adjustment for their tissue volume: the tumor:volume ratio was 4.5 for frontal, 4.8 for temporal, and 2.3 for parietal relative to the occipital lobe. The area with the densest occurrence was the anterior subcortical brain. Statistically significant spatial clustering was found in the three-dimensional analysis. No differences in location were found among glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma. Our results demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in the anatomic distribution of gliomas within the brain.

  14. Seasonal variations of cancer incidence and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Johan; Bruland, Øyvind; Juzeniene, Asta

    2010-01-01

    The overall death rates are highest in the winter season in many countries at high latitudes. In some but not all countries, this is also true for more specific diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and influenza. For internal cancers we find no consistent, significant seasonal variation, neither of incidence nor of death rates. On the other hand, we find a significant seasonal variation of cancer prognosis with season of diagnosis in Norway. Best prognosis is found for summer and autumn diagnosis; i.e., for the seasons of the best status of vitamin D in the population. There were no corresponding seasonal variations, neither of the rates of diagnosis, nor of the rates of death which could explain the variations of prognosis. The most likely reason for this variation is that the vitamin D status in Norway is significantly better in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Earlier, seasonal variations have been explained by circannual variations of certain hormones, but the data are not consistent. PMID:21547098

  15. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  16. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, R A; Clay, M E; Eichorst, A J

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. PMID:9415588

  18. Incidence of myocardial infarction and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, Henning

    1982-08-01

    Extreme values of temperature and/or humidity in the temperate climate of Hamburg are not able to explain the influence of weather on day-to-day fluctuations of morbidity. Short term changes in weather are described by two objective classifications as deviation from the meteorological past: 1. the temperature-humidity-environment, derived from values of temperature and water vapour pressure at 07.00 h, 2. changes in the cyclonality, derived from the difference of 500 and 850 mbar vorticity values. Their suitability for human biometeorology is illustrated with a material of 1262 subjects who suffered from acute myocardial infarction. For these investigated cases it was known whether angina pectoris was already manifest before the infarction or not. The daily weather conditions have a significant effect on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction according to angina pectoris. Compared to subjects with angina pectoris those without angina pectoris show an increased susceptibility to infarction during changes in weather conditions to warmer/more humid and also during all strong changes in the cyclonality whereby the temperature-humidity-environment seems to leave only the role of an indicator too. Persons with a preceeding angina pectoris are more sensitive agains rapid changes in weather conditions.

  19. Incidence of hepatotropic viruses in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Rauschenfels, Stefan; Krassmann, Miriam; Al-Masri, Ahmed N; Verhagen, Willem; Leonhardt, Johannes; Kuebler, Joachim F; Petersen, Claus

    2009-04-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the most frequent indication for paediatric liver transplantation. We tested the hypothesis of a viral aetiology of this disease by screening liver samples of a large number of BA patients for the common human hepatotropic viruses. Moreover, we correlated our findings to the expression of Mx protein, which has been shown to be significantly up-regulated during viral infections. Seventy-four liver biopsies (taken during Kasai portoenterostomy) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for DNA viruses (herpes simplex virus [HSV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], varicella zoster virus [VZV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], adenovirus, parvovirus B19 and polyoma BK) and RNA viruses (enteroviruses, rotavirus and reovirus 3). Mx protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Virus DNA/RNA was found in less than half of the biopsies (8/74 CMV, 1/74 adenovirus; 21/64 reovirus, 1/64 enterovirus). A limited number presented with double infection. Patients that had detectable viral RNA/DNA in their liver biopsies were significantly older than virus-free patients (P = 0.037). The majority (54/59) of the liver biopsies showed expression of Mx proteins in hepatocytes, bile ducts and epithelium. Our data suggest that the known hepatotropic viruses do not play a major role in the aetiology and progression of BA. Their incidence appears to be, rather, a secondary phenomenon. Nonetheless, the inflammatory response in the livers of BA patients mimics that observed during viral infections.

  20. Cancer incidence at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery.

    PubMed

    Egedahl, R; Rice, E

    1984-01-01

    Sherritt Gordon Mines Limited established hydrometallurgical nickel refining operations at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, in 1954. Records of workers with a minimum of one year's employment with Sherritt Gordon Mines were obtained and identification information as well as details of work history were collected and placed on computer. Cancer cases were identified by matching the study records with the computer listings of the Alberta Cancer Registry. Cancer deaths were verified utilizing record-linkage with death registrations of the Alberta Vital Statistics Division. The files of the Alberta Health Care Insurance Commission were used to ascertain the vital status of past employees of Sherritt Gordon Mines Limited. Among the 993 employees in the nickel refining and maintenance groups at Sherritt Gordon Mines, 30 cases of cancer were identified occurring at 13 diagnostic sites. No neoplasms of the nasal cavities or paranasal sinuses were found in the study population. Two cases of lung cancer were detected among maintenance workers. A single case of renal-cell cancer was diagnosed in the nickel-exposure category as well as in the maintenance group. None of the observed-to-expected cancer incidence ratios at the various diagnostic sites were statistically significant at the p less than 0.05 level. PMID:6535579

  1. Incidence of cancer among Norwegian boiler welders.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, T E; Langård, S; Andersen, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The cancer incidence among 2957 boiler welders was investigated. The subjects were registered electrical welders from 1942 to 1981. A subcohort of 606 stainless steel welders was studied separately. METHODS: The investigation was a historical prospective cohort study based on a national registry. The loss of follow up was 4.9%. RESULTS: There were 625 deaths (659 expected). There were 269 cancer cases (264 expected). An excess of lung cancer was found; 50 cases v 37.5 expected. There were three cases of pleural mesotheliomas v 1.1 expected. The subcohort of stainless steel welders had six cases of lung cancer v 5.8 expected, and one case of pleural mesothelioma v 0.2 expected. CONCLUSIONS: The welders in the study were assumed to represent a qualified work force. These welders had a small excess risk of lung cancer. The excess risk did not seem to be associated with stainless steel welding. Smoking and asbestos exposure were potential confounders. PMID:8664959

  2. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multispectural glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system. The primary optical system further includes an optical axis having a primary focus at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus. A rotating carrier is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam. In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5A or longer. Each of the identifical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus at which a detector is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam.

  3. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system (20, 22). The primary optical system further includes an optical axis (24) having a primary focus (F1) at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors (30a, 30b, 30cand 30d) are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus (F1). A rotating carrier (32) is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam (26). In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5 .ANG. or longer. Each of the identical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus (F2) at which a detector (16) is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam. In this manner, a plurality of low wavelengths in a wavelength band generally less than 30 angstroms can be imaged with a high resolution.

  4. Migration pelvienne de broche guide dans la chirurgie des fractures de hanche: à propos de 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Thiam, Ousmane; Touré, Alpha Oumar; Seck, Mamadou; Cissé, Mamadou; Kâ, Ousmane; Dieng, Madieng; Dia, Abderahmane; Touré, Cheikh Tidiane

    2015-01-01

    La migration de matériel d'ostéosynthèse est une complication bien connue du traitement chirurgical des fractures. Toutefois, la migration pelvienne de broche guide dans la chirurgie des fractures de la hanche est un incident rare et potentiellement grave. Nous rapportons 3 observations dans lesquelles on notait une migration de broche guide dans le pelvis lors d'une ostéosynthèse dela hanche de type DHS. L'indication chirurgicale était une fracture per-trochantérienne dans 2 cas et une fracture du col fémoral type 4 de Garden dans 1 cas. Une minilaparotomie permettait d'objectiver une plaie du ligament large gauche et un hématome ligamentaire dans 1 cas, tandis que dans les 2 autres cas, il n'y avait pas de lésion viscérale. L'extraction de la broche a été effectuée dans les 3 cas. Les suites opératoires ont été simples chez tous les patients. PMID:26327949

  5. The influence of incident shock Mach number on radial incident shock wave focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Tan, Sheng; He, Liming; Rong, Kang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-04-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate radial incident shock focusing on a test section where the planar incident shock wave was divided into two identical ones. A conventional shock tube was used to generate the planar shock. Incident shock Mach number of 1.51, 1.84 and 2.18 were tested. CCD camera was used to obtain the schlieren photos of the flow field. Third-order, three step strong-stability-preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta method, third-order weighed essential non-oscillation (WENO) scheme and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm were adopted to simulate the complicated flow fields characterized by shock wave interaction. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Complex shock wave configurations and interactions (such as shock reflection, shock-vortex interaction and shock focusing) were observed in both the experiments and numerical results. Some new features were observed and discussed. The differences of structure of flow field and the variation trends of pressure were compared and analyzed under the condition of different Mach numbers while shock wave focusing.

  6. Restauration adaptative des contours par une approche inspiree de la prediction des performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Kami

    En teledetection, les cartes de contours peuvent servir, entre autres choses, a la restitution geometrique, a la recherche d'elements lineaires, ainsi qu'a la segmentation. La creation de ces cartes est faite relativement tot dans la chaine de traitements d'une image. Pour assurer la qualite des operations subsequentes, il faut veiller a obtenir une carte de contours precise. Notre problematique est de savoir s'il est possible de diminuer la perte de temps liee au choix d'algorithme et de parametre en corrigeant automatiquement la carte de contours. Nous concentrerons donc nos efforts sur le developpement d'une methode de detection/restauration de contours adaptative. Notre methode s'inspire d'une technique de prediction des performances d'algorithmes de bas niveau. Elle consiste a integrer un traitement par reseau de neurones a une methode " classique " de detection de contours. Plus precisement, nous proposons de combiner la carte de performances avec la carte de gradient pour permettre des decisions plus exactes. La presente etude a permis de developper un logiciel comprenant un reseau de neurones entraine pour predire la presence de contours. Ce reseau de neurones permet d'ameliorer les decisions de detecteurs de contours, en reduisant le nombre de pixels de fausses alarmes et de contours manques. La premiere etape de ce travail consiste en une methode d'evaluation de performance pour les cartes de contours. Une fois ce choix effectue, il devient possible de comparer les cartes entre elles. Il est donc plus aise de determiner, pour chaque image, la meilleure detection de contours. La revue de la litterature realisee simultanement a permis de faire un choix d'un groupe d'indicateurs prometteurs pour la restauration de contours. Ces derniers ont servi a la calibration et a l'entrainement d'un reseau de neurones pour modeliser les contours. Par la suite, l'information fournie par ce reseau a ete combinee par multiplication arithmetique avec les cartes d

  7. Heparin enhances the catalytic activity of des-ETW-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C A; Deadman, J J; Le Bonniec, B F; Elgendy, S; Kakkar, V V; Scully, M F

    1996-04-01

    The thrombin mutant, des-ETW-thrombin, lacking Glu(146), Thr(147), and Trp(148) within a unique insertion loop located at the extreme end of the primary specificity pocket, has been shown previously to exhibit reduced catalytic activity with respect to macromolecular and synthetic thrombin substrates and reduced or enhanced susceptibility to inhibition. Investigation of the hydrolysis of peptidyl p-nitroanilide substrates by des-ETW-thrombin showed increased activity in the presence of heparin and other sulphated glycosaminoglycans. No effect was observed upon the activity of wild-type thrombin. Heparin was found to decrease the K(m) for cleavage of four thrombin-specific substrates by des-ETW-thrombin by 3-4-fold. Similarly, pentosan polysulphate (PPS) decreased the K(m) with these substrates by 8-10-fold. Heparin also increased the rate of inhibition of des-ETW-thrombin by antithrombin III and D-phenylalanyl-prolyl-arginylchloromethane (PPACK). The inhibition of des-ETW-thrombin by a number of thrombin-specific peptide boronic acids also showed significant reduction in the final K(i) in the presence of heparin, due to reduction in the off-rate. A peptide analogue of a sequence of hirudin which binds thrombin tightly to exosite I (fibrinogen recognition site) potentiated the activity of des-ETW-thrombin against peptide p-nitroanilide substrates in a manner similar to heparin. The K(i) for the inhibition of des-ETW-thrombin by p-aminobenzamidine was decreased by these ligands from 9.7 mM to 7.5 mM, 5.1 mM, and 2.5 mM in the presence of heparin, hirudin peptide and PPS respectively, suggesting the increased catalytic activity is due to enhanced access to the primary specificity pocket. The positive influence of these ligands on des-ETW-thrombin was reversed in the presence of ATP or ADP; the latter has previously been shown to inhibit thrombin activity by blocking initial interaction with fibrinogen at exosite 1. Because the effect of heparin and PPS is similar to

  8. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits. PMID:18669179

  9. SU-E-P-07: Retrospective Analysis of Incident Reports at a Radiology Department: Feedback From Incident Reporting System

    SciTech Connect

    Kakinohana, Y; Toita, T; Heianna, J; Murayama, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide an overview of reported incidents that occurred in a radiology department and to describe the most common causal source of incidents. Methods: Incident reports from the radiology department at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital between 2008 and 2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The incident report form contains the following items, causal factors of the incident and desirable corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar incidents. These items allow the institution to investigate/analyze root causes of the incidents and suggest measures to be taken to prevent further, similar incidents. The ‘causal factors of the incident’ item comprises multiple selections from among 24 selections and includes some synonymous selections. In this study, this item was re-categorized into four causal source types: (i) carelessness, (ii) lack of skill or knowledge, (iii) deficiencies in communication, and (iv) external factors. Results: There were a total of 7490 incident reports over the study period and 276 (3.7%) were identified as originating from the radiology department. The most frequent causal source type was carelessness (62%). The other three types showed similar frequencies (10–14%). The staff members involved in incidents indicate three predominant desirable corrective actions to prevent or decrease the recurrence of similar incidents. These are ‘improvement in communication’ (24%), ‘staff training/education’ (19%), and ‘daily medical procedures’ (22%), and the most frequent was ‘improvement in communication’. Even though the most frequent causal factor was related to carelessness, the most desirable corrective action indicated by the staff members was related to communication. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the most immediate causes are strongly related to carelessness. However, the most likely underlying causes of incidents would be related to deficiencies in effective communication. At our

  10. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  11. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  12. C2-Related Incidents Reported by UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. This presentation focuses on incidents that involved the management of the command and control (C2) link. The identified issues include loss of link, interference from undesired transmissions, voice latency, accidental control transfer, and the use of the lost link timer, or lost link OK features.

  13. Incident investigation and analysis for E and P operations

    SciTech Connect

    Waterfall, K.W.; Willink, C.A.T.; Milne, D.J. )

    1995-01-01

    Incident investigation and analysis in Shell E and P operations is part of performance monitoring in health, safety, and environment (HSE) management systems. The focus is on identifying underlying causes. A step-wise approach is given from immediate response through determining the level of investigation, coverage of investigation aspects, analysis, recording, and follow-up. The means to analyze incidents by application of the Tripod system, which is directed toward understanding underlying causes of incidents, are reviewed.

  14. Classification of DES16C2nm as a SLSN at z=1.998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Ponder, K.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Forster, F.; Hamuy, M.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of DES16C2nm as a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). DES16C2nm was discovered in the first epoch of DES Y4, on 22 August 2016 at R.A. = 03:40:14.83, Decl = -29:05:53.5 with i = 23.2 mag. DES16C2nm has a non-detection in the final epoch of DES Y3 on 08 February 2016.

  15. Explaining the racial difference in AKI incidence.

    PubMed

    Grams, Morgan E; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Estrella, Michelle M; Foster, Meredith C; Tin, Adrienne; Kao, W H Linda; Coresh, Josef

    2014-08-01

    African Americans face higher risk of AKI than Caucasians. The extent to which this increased risk is because of differences in clinical, socioeconomic, or genetic risk factors is unknown. We evaluated 10,588 African-American and Caucasian participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a community-based prospective cohort of middle-aged individuals. Participants were followed from baseline study visit (1996-1999) to first hospitalization for AKI (defined by billing code), ESRD, death, or December 31, 2010. African-American participants were slightly younger (61.7 versus 63.1 years, P<0.001), were more often women (64.5% versus 53.2%, P<0.001), and had higher baseline eGFR compared with Caucasians. Annual family income, education level, and prevalence of health insurance were lower among African Americans than Caucasians. The unadjusted incidence of hospitalized AKI was 7.4 cases per 1000 person-years among African Americans and 5.8 cases per 1000 person-years among Caucasians (P=0.002). The elevated risk of AKI among African Americans persisted after adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney markers, and time-varying number of hospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.43; P=0.04); however, accounting for differences in income and/or insurance by race attenuated the association (P>0.05). High-risk APOL1 variants did not associate with AKI among African Americans (demographic-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.65; P=0.77). In summary, the higher risk of AKI among African Americans may be related to disparities in socioeconomic status.

  16. Explaining the Racial Difference in AKI Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Estrella, Michelle M.; Foster, Meredith C.; Tin, Adrienne; Kao, W.H. Linda; Coresh, Josef

    2014-01-01

    African Americans face higher risk of AKI than Caucasians. The extent to which this increased risk is because of differences in clinical, socioeconomic, or genetic risk factors is unknown. We evaluated 10,588 African-American and Caucasian participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a community-based prospective cohort of middle-aged individuals. Participants were followed from baseline study visit (1996–1999) to first hospitalization for AKI (defined by billing code), ESRD, death, or December 31, 2010. African-American participants were slightly younger (61.7 versus 63.1 years, P<0.001), were more often women (64.5% versus 53.2%, P<0.001), and had higher baseline eGFR compared with Caucasians. Annual family income, education level, and prevalence of health insurance were lower among African Americans than Caucasians. The unadjusted incidence of hospitalized AKI was 7.4 cases per 1000 person-years among African Americans and 5.8 cases per 1000 person-years among Caucasians (P=0.002). The elevated risk of AKI among African Americans persisted after adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney markers, and time-varying number of hospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.43; P=0.04); however, accounting for differences in income and/or insurance by race attenuated the association (P>0.05). High-risk APOL1 variants did not associate with AKI among African Americans (demographic-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.65; P=0.77). In summary, the higher risk of AKI among African Americans may be related to disparities in socioeconomic status. PMID:24722442

  17. Endometrial cancer: rising incidence, detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kistner, R W; Krantz, K E; Lebherz, T B; Lewis, G L; Reagan, J W; Smith, J; Tobin, J J; Wied, G L

    1973-02-01

    This editorial consists of summaries of the discussions on incidence, pathogenesis, prognosis and patient follow-up, and transcripts of the discussions on detection and treatment of endometrial carcinoma, from a symposium held in Carefree, Arizona. 75% of the cancers occur in postmenopausal women; average age is 52 years, but is decreasing. Endometrial carcinoma rose from 20.3 to 46.3% of all uterine cancers in Cleveland University Hospitals from 1941-1970. Older patients are often diabetic, overweight, nulliparous, with anovulatory or familial history; young women frequently resemble mild Stein-Levinthal syndrome. Clinically, 20% of patients are assymptomatic, others may have softer or larger uterus, larger ovaries, irregular postmenopausal bleeding, or lengthy onset of menopause. The Gravlee jet wash is indicated for high risk patients and those about to take estrogen. Endometrial carcinoma first affects epithelium, then endometrial stroma, then upper myometrium, lower myometrium, then other organs, perhaps via lymphatics, vagina, tubes, but ascites is uncommon. Generally, U.S. physicians use intrauterine radium followed by surgery, British use surgery first, and Swedish use radiation only. Cases must be treated individually, e.g. surgery only for minimal cancer, radium and surgery for more serious cases, and preoperative external radiation also for advanced disease. Although radiation lessens chance of implantation during surgical trauma, insertion of intrauterine radium enhances spread of tumor cells. Injectable progestins sometimes control metastatic disease, although they require 8 weeks to act. Progestins may help those with late recurrence, squamous metaplasia, or who are under 50 years of age. Estrogens are rarely effective. Prognois for terminal patients often includes subjective improvement, bowel obstruction, lung complications, hemorrhage. Radiation side effects and menopausal symptoms are often problems for cured patients. In young cured patients the

  18. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  19. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Cashwell, C. E.; McClure, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information on transportation-related accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials that have occurred in the United States. The RMIR was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development program efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will address the following topics: background information on the regulations and process for reporting a hazardous materials transportation incident, overview data of radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents, and additional information and summary data on how packagings have performed in accident conditions.

  20. Determinants of the incidence of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disorder, is the most common muscular dystrophy with an incidence in boys of about 200 per million births. It presents in early childhood leading to death in early teens. Its relatively high incidence and severity have stimulated many studies from epidemiological to curative. Recent advances in molecular biology have opened up the possibility of carrier identification and potential reduction of the incidence of cases. This paper gives a population genetics model which can be used to predict the reduction in incidence. PMID:26697447

  1. 10 CFR 1049.9 - Firearms and firearms incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discharge of firearms shall be reported to the Department of Energy Headquarters Emergency Operations Center... Petroleum Reserve Project Manager shall appoint a committee to investigate the incident....

  2. Connaissances des médecins généralistes de Mohammedia (Maroc) concernant le dépistage du cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Zine, Karima; Nani, Samira; Lahmadi, Imad Ait; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer du sein représente un problème de santé publique majeur au Maroc. C'est le premier cancer chez la femme. L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer les connaissances des médecins généralistes (MG) en matière de dépistage du cancer du sein dans la préfecture de Mohammedia Maroc. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale, descriptive, exhaustive incluant les 97 MG exerçant dans les établissements de soins de santé de base du secteur public et privé de la province de Mohammedia. Résultats Le taux de participation était de 87%. L'âge moyen des MG était de 49,6 ± 8,1. Quatre-vingt pour cent (n=55) des MG ont donné une incidence incorrecte, 77,6% (n=85) ont reconnu l'existence d'un plan national de prévention et de contrôle du cancer (PNPCC) au Maroc, et 67,1 des MG ont rapporté l'existence d'un registre du cancer au Maroc. Le secteur d'activité était associé significativement avec les connaissances des MG sur le PNPCC et sur l'existence d'un guide de détection précoce du cancer du sein avec respectivement (p=0,003 et p=0,001). Une association significative entre l'ancienneté et l'existence d'un guide de détection précoce du cancer du sein et d'un registre du cancer du sein a été retrouvée avec (respectivement p=0,005 et p=0.002). Conclusion À la lumière de ces résultats il faudra renforcer les connaissances et les pratiques des MG par la promotion de la formation initiale et continue sur le dépistage. PMID:27800098

  3. Profil épidémiologique des femmes enceintes cardiaques dans le centre de maternité de Tunis: expérience du service A

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Khaled; Jenayah, Amel Achour; Boudaya, Fethia; Hamdi, Asma; Meskhi, Souad; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le profil épidémiologique des femmes enceintes porteuses d'une cardiopathie ayant accouché dans le service «A» du centre de maternité de Tunis. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive sur 3 ans, de janvier 2010 à décembre 2012, portant sur les dossiers des parturientes cardiaques suivies et ayant accouché dans notre service, à l'exclusion des cardiopathies hypertensives. Les paramètres analysés étaient la gestité et parité des parturientes, le type de la cardiopathie, le mode d'accouchement et le pronostic foetal. Cinquante six cas sur 19655 accouchements avaient été recrutés, soit une incidence de 1 pour 351 accouchements (0,285%). L’âge moyen de nos parturientes était de 30,89±5,3 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 21 à 42 ans. 23 (41,07%) avaient une cardiopathie congénitale, 35 (62,5%) une valvulopathie, 6 (10,71%) un trouble du rythme, 3 (5,35%) un trouble de la conduction à type de bloc auriculo-ventriculaire et 3 (5,35%) une cardiopathie ischémique. Cinquante deux parturientes (92,85%) avaient accouché à un terme dépassant les 37 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA). L'accouchement s'est déroulé par les voies naturelles chez 22 (39,28%) patientes et par césarienne chez 34 (60,71%). Le poids moyen des nouveaux nés à la naissance était de 3341,25 grammes. 3 transferts néonataux en unité de réanimation étaient réalisés avec un seul cas de décès néonatal. La grossesse et l'accouchement chez la femme cardiaque constituent un haut risque materno-foetal dépendant du type, mais surtout du stade de la cardiopathie, nécessitant une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de la parturiente. PMID:26327977

  4. Critical incident stress management (CISM) in support of special agents and other first responders responding to the Fort Hood shooting: summary and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Strand, Russell; Felices, Karina; Williams, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    On November 5, 2009, an individual entered the Fort Hood Soldier Readiness Processing (SRP) site and opened fire with a handgun. The result of the shooting was a total of 13 people killed and 31 wounded. A two-person critical incident peer support (CIPS) team from the United States Army Military Police School (USAMPS) provided critical incident stress management (CISM) in the forms of critical incident stress debriefings (CISD) and one-on-one crisis intervention for investigators and their spouses. This article provides a summary and discussion of the results of the interventions that were conducted. Key results for successful CISM were accessibility of CIPS team, the credibility of trained peers and the development of supportive relationships, the reduction of stigma by requiring attendance at interventions, and the commitment of the CIPS team to the principles of CISM (e.g., homogenous groups, utilizing a multicomponent approach, and facilitating the normalization of emotional reactions to the crisis). Recommendations include mandating critical incident peer support cells for Criminal Investigation Division (CID) units, Director of Emergency Services (DES) on military installations, and Military Police units; providing a pool of trained peers in the above-mentioned organizations; providing permanent funding for USAMPS' CIPS Course; and recognition of CIPS/CISMas an essential element of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and Army Human Capital in promoting Soldier Family, and Civilian well-being and resiliency. This article would benefit leaders, chaplains, mental health professionals, and emergency services personnel in investigative, operational, and U.S. Army Garrison units.

  5. Opération multimode transverse des OPOs: des structures classiques aux corrélations quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, M.; Ducci, S.; Gigan, S.; Treps, N.; Maître, A.; Fabre, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous démontrons la formation de structures transverses sur les faisceaux émis par un oscillateur paramétrique optique (OPO) de type II en configuration confocale. D'un point de vue classique nous mettons en évidence le caractère multimode transverse de telles structures. A travers l'étude des corrélations spatiales des faisceaux générés nous montrons que ces structures sont également multimodes d'un point de vue quantique.

  6. Apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la dilatation des sténoses caustiques de l’œsophage

    PubMed Central

    Seydou, Togo; Abdoulaye, Ouattara Moussa; xing, Li; Zi, Sanogo Zimogo; sekou, Koumaré; Wen, Yang Shang; Ibrahim, Sankare; Sekou, Toure Cheik Ahmed; Boubacar, Maiga Ibrahim; Saye, Jacque; Jerome, Dakouo Dodino; Dantoumé, Toure Ousmane; Sadio, Yena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toutes les sténoses symptomatiques de l’œsophage peuvent être dilatées par voie endoscopique. Nous évaluons l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la prise en charge de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique de l’œsophage (SCO) au Mali. Méthodes IL s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et prospective réalisée dans le service de chirurgie thoracique à l'hôpital du Mali. Au total 46 dossiers cliniques de patients on été enregistrés et subdivisés en 4 groupes en fonction de la topographie des lésions cicatricielles. Le nombre de cas d'assistance endoscopique réalisé a été déterminé afin de comprendre l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans le succès de la dilatation des SCO. Pour les 2 différentes méthodes de dilatation utilisées, le résultat du traitement et le coût ont comparés. Résultats La FOGD a été utilisée dans 19 cas (41.30%) de dilatation avec la bougie de Savary Guillard et dans 47.82% des cas dans la dilatation de Lerut. La vidéo-laryngoscopie a été utilisé 58.69% des cas de dilatation à la bougie de Lerut. Le passage de guide métallique et / ou de fil-guide a été réalisée dans 39.13% avec la vidéo laryngoscopie et dans 58.68% avec la FOGD. Dans la comparaison des deux méthodes, il existe une différence significative dans la survenue des complications (p=0.04075), l'anesthésie générale (p=0.02287), l'accessibilité à la méthode (p=0.04805) et la mortalité (p=0.00402). Conclusion La SCO est une pathologie grave et sous évaluée au Mali. Les moyens endoscopiques contribuent considérablement au succès de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique dans les différentes méthodes utilisées. PMID:27200129

  7. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E.; Beyer, Dean E.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003–2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  8. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    PubMed

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  9. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    PubMed

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  10. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  11. Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B.

    2013-04-01

    As with many professions, safety planners and first responders tend to be specialists in certain areas. To be truly useful, tools should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Thus, general software suites aimed at the professional geographic information system (GIS) community might not be the best solution for a first responder with little training in GIS terminology and techniques. On the other hand, commonly used web-based map viewers may not have the capability to be customized for the planning, response, and recovery (PR&R) mission. Data formats should be open and foster easy information flow among local, state, and federal partners. Tools should be free or low-cost to address real-world budget constraints at the local level. They also need to work both with and without a network connection to be robust. The Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) can satisfy many of these needs while working in harmony with established systems at the local, state, and federal levels. The IMPACT software framework, termed the Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment (GIPSE), organizes tasks, tools, and resources for the end user. It uses the concept of software wizards to both customize and extend its functionality. On the Tasks panel are a number of buttons used to initiate various operations. Similar to macros, these task buttons launch scripts that utilize the full functionality of the underlying foundational components such as the SQL spatial database and ORNL-developed map editor. The user is presented with a series of instruction pages which are implemented with HTML for interactivity. On each page are links which initiate specific actions such as creating a map showing various features. Additional tasks may be quickly programmed and added to the panel. The end user can customize the graphical interface to faciltate its use during an emergency. One of the major components of IMPACT is the ORNL Geospatial Viewer (OGV). It is used to

  12. Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    2013-04-01

    As with many professions, safety planners and first responders tend to be specialists in certain areas. To be truly useful, tools should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Thus, general software suites aimed at the professional geographic information system (GIS) community might not be the best solution for a first responder with little training in GIS terminology and techniques. On the other hand, commonly used web-based map viewers may not have the capability tomore » be customized for the planning, response, and recovery (PR&R) mission. Data formats should be open and foster easy information flow among local, state, and federal partners. Tools should be free or low-cost to address real-world budget constraints at the local level. They also need to work both with and without a network connection to be robust. The Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) can satisfy many of these needs while working in harmony with established systems at the local, state, and federal levels. The IMPACT software framework, termed the Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment (GIPSE), organizes tasks, tools, and resources for the end user. It uses the concept of software wizards to both customize and extend its functionality. On the Tasks panel are a number of buttons used to initiate various operations. Similar to macros, these task buttons launch scripts that utilize the full functionality of the underlying foundational components such as the SQL spatial database and ORNL-developed map editor. The user is presented with a series of instruction pages which are implemented with HTML for interactivity. On each page are links which initiate specific actions such as creating a map showing various features. Additional tasks may be quickly programmed and added to the panel. The end user can customize the graphical interface to faciltate its use during an emergency. One of the major components of IMPACT is the ORNL Geospatial Viewer (OGV). It is

  13. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard; Sharp, Rob; Lidman, C.

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrain the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

  14. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  15. Mechanistic Enzymology of the Radical SAM Enzyme DesII

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    DesII is a member of the radical SAM family of enzymes that catalyzes radical-mediated transformations of TDP-4-amino-4,6-didexoy-D-glucose as well as other sugar nucleotide diphosphates. Like nearly all radical SAM enzymes, the reactions begin with the reductive homolysis of SAM to produce a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical which is followed by regiospecific hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate. What happens next, however, depends on the nature of the substrate radical so produced. In the case of the biosynthetically relevant substrate, a radical-mediated deamination ensues; however, when this amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl, one instead observes dehydrogenation. The factors that govern the fate of the initially generated substrate radical as well as the mechanistic details underlying these transformations have been a key focus of research into the chemistry of DesII. This review will discuss recent discoveries pertaining to the enzymology of DesII, how it may relate to understanding other radical-mediated lyases and dehydrogenases and the working hypotheses currently being investigated regarding the mechanism of DesII catalysis.

  16. How Organisations Learn from Safety Incidents: A Multifaceted Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukic, Dane; Margaryan, Anoush; Littlejohn, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to review current approaches to learning from health and safety incidents in the workplace. The aim of the paper is to identify the diversity of approaches and analyse them in terms of learning aspects. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was conducted searching for terms incident/accident/near…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  18. Assessing Program Impact with the Critical Incident Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The critical incident technique (CIT) is a qualitative research method where subjects are encouraged to tell personal stories that provide descriptive data. Researchers who use the CIT employ a structured methodology to encourage respondents to share their experiences regarding a particular topic. Incidents are considered effective/successful when…

  19. Responding to Critical Incidents: A Resource Guide for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This resource guide is intended to assist schools in developing protocols for responding to critical incidents. It focuses on proactive plans to deal with the traumatic aftereffects of a critical incident which affects some or all of the members of a school community. The guide outlines a generic protocol which includes steps to be undertaken in…

  20. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    DOEpatents

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  1. 75 FR 81209 - Information Collection; National Incident Support Stakeholder Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; National Incident Support Stakeholder Assessment AGENCY: Forest... on the new information collection, National Incident Support Contracts Stakeholders Survey. DATES... concerning this notice should be e-mailed to NCA@fs.fed.us with ``Stakeholders Assessment Comments''...

  2. Care Staff Perceptions of Choking Incidents: What Details Are Reported?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Susan; Lecko, Caroline; Roddam, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following a series of fatal choking incidents in one UK specialist service, this study evaluated the detail included in incident reporting. This study compared the enhanced reporting system in the specialist service with the national reporting and learning system. Methods: Eligible reports were selected from a national organization and…

  3. 32 CFR 536.43 - Incident to service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Incident to service. 536.43 Section 536.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.43 Incident to service. (a)...

  4. Comparison of Assessment Results of Children with Low Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dennis J.; Reilly, AmySue; Henley, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a research study that assessed young children with a low incidence disability, specifically Cri-du-Chat Syndrome (CDSC). A description of the concerns of assessing individuals with low incidence disabilities is described. Parent reports (using the Development Observation Checklist System) on the functioning of their children…

  5. Attachment Theory in Supervision: A Critical Incident Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Fitch, Jenelle C.

    2008-01-01

    Critical incident experiences are a powerful source of counselor development (T. M. Skovholt & P. R. McCarthy, 1988a, 1988b) and are relevant to attachment issues. An attachment theory perspective of supervision is presented and applied to a critical incident case scenario. By focusing on the behavioral systems (i.e., attachment, caregiving, and…

  6. When Things Go Wrong: Managing Critical Incidents in Children's Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Critical incidents particular to an individual or family (such as parental divorce or death of a family member) and incidents of national or international significance (such as wars or terrorist attacks) effect those involved in children's services and can result in some children, families, or staff suffering long-term psychological effects. This…

  7. 10 CFR 1049.9 - Firearms and firearms incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Firearms and firearms incidents. 1049.9 Section 1049.9... FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.9 Firearms and firearms incidents. (a) Protective Force Officers shall receive firearms of a type suitable to adequately protect persons...

  8. 10 CFR 1049.9 - Firearms and firearms incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Firearms and firearms incidents. 1049.9 Section 1049.9... FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.9 Firearms and firearms incidents. (a) Protective Force Officers shall receive firearms of a type suitable to adequately protect persons...

  9. 10 CFR 1049.9 - Firearms and firearms incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Firearms and firearms incidents. 1049.9 Section 1049.9... FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.9 Firearms and firearms incidents. (a) Protective Force Officers shall receive firearms of a type suitable to adequately protect persons...

  10. 49 CFR 174.750 - Incidents involving leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incidents involving leakage. 174.750 Section 174... Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.750 Incidents involving leakage. (a) In... case of obvious leakage, or if it appears likely that the inside container may have been damaged,...

  11. 49 CFR 174.750 - Incidents involving leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incidents involving leakage. 174.750 Section 174... Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.750 Incidents involving leakage. (a) In... case of obvious leakage, or if it appears likely that the inside container may have been damaged,...

  12. 49 CFR 174.750 - Incidents involving leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incidents involving leakage. 174.750 Section 174... Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.750 Incidents involving leakage. (a) In... case of obvious leakage, or if it appears likely that the inside container may have been damaged,...

  13. 49 CFR 174.750 - Incidents involving leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidents involving leakage. 174.750 Section 174... Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.750 Incidents involving leakage. (a) In... case of obvious leakage, or if it appears likely that the inside container may have been damaged,...

  14. 49 CFR 174.750 - Incidents involving leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incidents involving leakage. 174.750 Section 174... Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.750 Incidents involving leakage. (a) In... case of obvious leakage, or if it appears likely that the inside container may have been damaged,...

  15. Using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique in Counselling Psychology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.; Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an effective approach to using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique (ECIT) research method based on Flanagan's (1954) Critical Incident Technique (CIT). It begins with an overview of the CIT, how to decide if it is the appropriate methodology to use, then, using a recent CIT study as an example, discusses Flanagan's five…

  16. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  17. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  18. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  19. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  20. The CSB Incident Screening Database: description, summary statistics and uses.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Manuel R; Casper, Susan; Smith, E Allen

    2008-11-15

    This paper briefly describes the Chemical Incident Screening Database currently used by the CSB to identify and evaluate chemical incidents for possible investigations, and summarizes descriptive statistics from this database that can potentially help to estimate the number, character, and consequences of chemical incidents in the US. The report compares some of the information in the CSB database to roughly similar information available from databases operated by EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and explores the possible implications of these comparisons with regard to the dimension of the chemical incident problem. Finally, the report explores in a preliminary way whether a system modeled after the existing CSB screening database could be developed to serve as a national surveillance tool for chemical incidents.

  1. The Concept of Missing Incidents in Persons with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredeth; Houston, Amy; Molinari, Victor; Bulat, Tatjana; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Spring, Heather; Mutolo, Sandra; McKenzie, Barbara

    2015-11-10

    Behavioral symptoms of dementia often present the greatest challenge for informal caregivers. One behavior, that is a constant concern for caregivers, is the person with dementia leaving a designated area such that their whereabouts become unknown to the caregiver or a missing incident. Based on an extensive literature review and published findings of their own research, members of the International Consortium on Wandering and Missing Incidents constructed a preliminary missing incidents model. Examining the evidence base, specific factors within each category of the model were further described, reviewed and modified until consensus was reached regarding the final model. The model begins to explain in particular the variety of antecedents that are related to missing incidents. The model presented in this paper is designed to be heuristic and may be used to stimulate discussion and the development of effective preventative and response strategies for missing incidents among persons with dementia.

  2. Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectance measured at oblique incidence.

    PubMed

    Berreman, D W

    1967-09-01

    Kramers-Kronig analysis of spectra of reflectance has usually been done only with radiation incident as nearly normal to the sample surface as possible. Any effects of obliquity have been assumed to be negligible. However, it is not much more difficult or time consuming to do Kramers-Kronig analysis of spectra taken with almost any angle of incidence, provided that polarized radiation is used to obtain the data. The method for such analysis for radiation incident at almost any angle is described in this paper. The method fails with pi polarized radiation if the angle of incidence lies between the two somewhat different Brewster angles at the high and low frequency ends of the spectrum. The rather small error in a typical analysis caused by neglecting a 15 degrees angle of incidence is illustrated.

  3. Cancer incidence among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Preston, D.L.; Ron, E.

    1997-03-01

    The long-term follow-up of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors is a major source of epidemiological data for risk assessment used in radiological protection. Previous analyses of cancer risk have primarily focused on mortality data for this cohort. Recently, it has also become possible to use cancer incidence data from the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for a subset of the LSS cohort, and a series of reports from the first comprehensive analyses of the LSS cancer incidence data have been published. The availability of cancer incidence data has also prompted a series of in-depth studies of specific cancers. This paper describes how the incidence and mortality data differ and discusses how the incidence data will add a new dimension to the radiation risk assessment.

  4. Homicide-Followed-by-Suicide Incidents Involving Child Victims

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Joseph E.; Walsh, Sabrina; Patel, Nimeshkumar; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victims Methods Using 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System data, we characterized 129 incidents based on victim and perpetrator demographic information, their relationships, the weapons/mechanisms involved, and the perpetrators’ health and stress-related circumstances. Results These incidents accounted for 188 child deaths; 69% were under 11 years old, and 58% were killed with a firearm. Approximately 76% of perpetrators were males, and 75% were parents/caregivers. Eighty-one percent of incidents with paternal perpetrators and 59% with maternal perpetrators were preceded by parental discord. Fifty-two percent of incidents with maternal perpetrators were associated with maternal psychiatric problems. Conclusions Strategies that resolve parental conflicts rationally and facilitate detection and treatment of parental mental conditions might help prevention efforts. PMID:23985234

  5. The incidence of side effects after laser hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanigan, Sean W.

    2004-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of lasers for hair removal there is little data published on the incidence of side effects from this treatment. We aimed to generate data on a large number of patients receiving laser hair removal to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence and type of side effects resulting from treatment. A multicentre prospective study of patients attending for laser hair removal was conducted to determine incidence of side effects in relation to skin type and laser(s) used. Laser hair removal is associated with a low incidence of side effects which are self-limiting in the majority of cases. Highest incidence of side effects was seen in darker skinned patients treated with the long pulsed ruby laser. Laser hair removal is inherently safe. For darker Fitzpatrick skin types the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is preferred to the ruby laser.

  6. A Kolsky tension bar technique using a hollow incident tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, O.; Frew, D. J.; Chen, W.

    2011-04-01

    Load control of the incident pulse profiles in compression Kolsky bar experiments has been widely used to subject the specimen to optimal testing conditions. Tension Kolsky bars have been used to determine dynamic material behavior since the 1960s with limited capability to shape the loading pulses due to the pulse-generating mechanisms. We developed a modified Kolsky tension bar where a hollow incident tube is used to carry the incident stress waves. The incident tube also acts as a gas gun barrel that houses the striker for impact. The main advantage of this new design is that the striker impacts on an impact cap of the incident tube. Compression pulse shapers can be attached to the impact cap, thus fully utilizing the predictive compression pulse-shaping capability in tension experiments. Using this new testing technique, the dynamic tensile material behavior for Al 6061-T6511 and TRIP 800 (transformation-induced plasticity) steel has been obtained.

  7. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  8. Trends in cancer incidence rates in Georgia, 1982–2011

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lillard, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results (SEER)-affiliated cancer registry are accessible to the public, there is a shortage of published research describing cancer incidences for White, Black, and other residents in Georgia. The objective of this research is to provide an overview of the trends in incidence of cancer in Georgia. Methods Incidence data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 program, supported by the National Cancer Institute, spanning the years 1982 to 2011. To assess trends over time, age-adjusted cancer incidence rates relative to the 2000 Standard US population and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated using SEER*Stat software. Results In Georgia, cancer incidence rates for women increased from 365.1 per 100,000 in 1982 to 404.2 per 100,000 in 2011, with an overall APC of 0.3% (95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.4), but, for men, cancer incidence rates showed a slight decline from 528.0 per 100,000 in 1982 to 513.7 per 100,000 in 2011 (APC of 0.2%, 95% CI: −0.6 to 0.1). For Black, White, and Other (Asian/Pacific Islanders/American Indians) females, there were increases in incidence in this period, with APC values of 0.6, 0.4, and 0.3, respectively. For all males and for Black and White males, there were overall decreases in incidence, with APC values of −0.2. For Other males, however, the APC value was −0.9. Conclusions In Georgia, increases in cancer incidence rates occurred during 1982–2011 among the female population and within various racial groups in this population, but there was relative stability in incidence rates among the male population, except for Other males. PMID:26336654

  9. Estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Grant L; Hills, Susan L; Fischer, Marc; Jacobson, Julie A; Hoke, Charles H; Hombach, Joachim M; Marfin, Anthony A; Solomon, Tom; Tsai, Theodore F; Tsu, Vivien D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using recent data for the purpose of guiding prevention and control efforts. Methods Thirty-two areas endemic for JE in 24 Asian and Western Pacific countries were sorted into 10 incidence groups on the basis of published data and expert opinion. Population-based surveillance studies using laboratory-confirmed cases were sought for each incidence group by a computerized search of the scientific literature. When no eligible studies existed for a particular incidence group, incidence data were extrapolated from related groups. Findings A total of 12 eligible studies representing 7 of 10 incidence groups in 24 JE-endemic countries were identified. Approximately 67 900 JE cases typically occur annually (overall incidence: 1.8 per 100 000), of which only about 10% are reported to the World Health Organization. Approximately 33 900 (50%) of these cases occur in China (excluding Taiwan) and approximately 51 000 (75%) occur in children aged 0–14 years (incidence: 5.4 per 100 000). Approximately 55 000 (81%) cases occur in areas with well established or developing JE vaccination programmes, while approximately 12 900 (19%) occur in areas with minimal or no JE vaccination programmes. Conclusion Recent data allowed us to refine the estimate of the global incidence of JE, which remains substantial despite improvements in vaccination coverage. More and better incidence studies in selected countries, particularly China and India, are needed to further refine these estimates. PMID:22084515

  10. Microscopie interférentielle X-UV : un outil pour l'étude des endommagements des surfaces optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, G.; Ros, D.; Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Kozlová, M.; Mocek, T.; Homer, P.; Polan, J.; Stupka, M.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons des résultats récents concernant des premières investigations de microscopie interférentielle par laser X-UV d'endommagement optique. Le laser X-UV utilisé est un laser collisionnel en régime quasi-stationnaire émettant à 21.2 nm, développé au Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS, Prague, République Tchèque). Des échantillons de silice fondue de haute qualité, avec ou sans rayure, étaient irradiées en face avant par un laser bleu, correspondant au 3selectfontfontsize{7{9}{textrm{ème}}} harmonique du laser à iode du PALS (1.315 μ m), servant également à réaliser le laser X-UV à 21.2 nm. Celui-ci était utilisé, 5 ns après l'irradiation pour réaliser une imagerie microscopique et interférentielle de la face arrière de l'échantillon. Les résultats font apparaître des déformations locales transitoires. Des premières analyses mettent en évidence une probable variation de la rugosité de la surface. Cette démonstration expérimentale encourageante ouvre la voie à de futures investigations, notamment sur notre prochaine installation laser : LASERIX.

  11. Methodes iteratives paralleles: Applications en neutronique et en mecanique des fluides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaddouri, Abdessamad

    Dans cette these, le calcul parallele est applique successivement a la neutronique et a la mecanique des fluides. Dans chacune de ces deux applications, des methodes iteratives sont utilisees pour resoudre le systeme d'equations algebriques resultant de la discretisation des equations du probleme physique. Dans le probleme de neutronique, le calcul des matrices des probabilites de collision (PC) ainsi qu'un schema iteratif multigroupe utilisant une methode inverse de puissance sont parallelises. Dans le probleme de mecanique des fluides, un code d'elements finis utilisant un algorithme iteratif du type GMRES preconditionne est parallelise. Cette these est presentee sous forme de six articles suivis d'une conclusion. Les cinq premiers articles traitent des applications en neutronique, articles qui representent l'evolution de notre travail dans ce domaine. Cette evolution passe par un calcul parallele des matrices des PC et un algorithme multigroupe parallele teste sur un probleme unidimensionnel (article 1), puis par deux algorithmes paralleles l'un mutiregion l'autre multigroupe, testes sur des problemes bidimensionnels (articles 2--3). Ces deux premieres etapes sont suivies par l'application de deux techniques d'acceleration, le rebalancement neutronique et la minimisation du residu aux deux algorithmes paralleles (article 4). Finalement, on a mis en oeuvre l'algorithme multigroupe et le calcul parallele des matrices des PC sur un code de production DRAGON ou les tests sont plus realistes et peuvent etre tridimensionnels (article 5). Le sixieme article (article 6), consacre a l'application a la mecanique des fluides, traite la parallelisation d'un code d'elements finis FES ou le partitionneur de graphe METIS et la librairie PSPARSLIB sont utilises.

  12. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  13. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, C.; Benzenine, E.; Hägi, M.; Auverlot, B.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Cottenet, J.; Fournier, E.; Binquet, C.; Compain, D.; Monnet, E.; Bouvier, A. M.; Danzon, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold standards.” We then constructed a multivariable regression model to estimate the corrected total number of incident colorectal-cancer cases from the whole national administrative database. Results. The first algorithm provided an estimated local incidence very close to that given by the regional registries (646 versus 645 incident cases) and had good sensitivity and positive predictive values (about 75% for both). The second algorithm overestimated the incidence by about 50% and had a poor positive predictive value of about 60%. The estimation of national incidence obtained by the first algorithm differed from that observed in 14 registries by only 2.34%. Conclusion. This study shows the usefulness of administrative databases for countries with no national cancer registry and suggests a method for correcting the estimates provided by these data. PMID:22792103

  14. Emergency medical services systems and HAZMAT major incidents.

    PubMed

    Moles, T M

    1999-10-01

    Exposures to released hazardous materials (HAZMAT) pose an increasing threat to individual and public health, particularly in high population density. Any incident causing casualties on a scale which threaten or causes overload of the available resources of the emergency medical services (EMS) or associated systems (EMSS), constitutes a major incident (MI). Emergency services, including the EMSS, have a statutory duty to develop a comprehensive, integrated and flexible all-risk Major Incident Plan (MIP) for such an event. The MIP should also include developed management provision for HAZMAT incidents and in particular provision for safety and protection of both casualties and the EMSS personnel and systems, from secondary contamination by persistent, transmissible HAZMAT agents. This paper offers an outline review of contemporary policy and practice guidelines for the management of HAZMAT incidents and major incidents, with emphasis on the following: strategic and tactical preparation, integrated modular planning, communications, evaluation, training and equipment, including personal protection. In addition organisational aspects of the safe management and protection of the EMSS and personnel at the incident site, during transportation and at the receiving hospitals are considered. Safe and effective management of casualties requires adequate protection from further exposure, triage and synchronous decontamination and life support. Finally, the implications of conventional and unconventional conflict including terrorism and current unsolved problems are discussed.

  15. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  16. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. PMID:24018010

  17. Multiple incidence angle SIR-B experiment over Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jobea; Casey, Daren; Wall, Stephen; Brandani, Aldo; Domik, Gitta; Leberl, Franz

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to fly aboard a shuttle, was launched on October 5, 1984. One of the primary goals of the SIR-B experiment was to use multiple incidence angle radar images to distinguish different terrain types through the use of their characteristic backscatter curves. This goal was accomplished in several locations including the Chubut Province of southern Argentina. Four descending image acquisitions were collected providing a multiple incidence angle image set. The data were first used to assess stereo-radargrammetric techniques. A digital elevation model was produced using the optimum pair of multiple incidence angle images. This model was then used to determine the local incidence angle of each picture element to generate curves of relative brightness vs. incidence angle. Secondary image products were also generated using the multi-angle data. The results of this work indicate that: (1) various forest species and various structures of a single species may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery, and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to a variable incidence angle when analyzing and comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.

  18. Macrocognition in Day-To-Day Police Incident Response

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris; McMaster, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using examples of incidents that UK Police Forces deal with on a day-to-day basis, we explore the macrocognition of incident response. Central to our analysis is the idea that information relating to an incident is translated from negotiated to structured and actionable meaning, in terms of the Community of Practice of the personnel involved in incident response. Through participant observation of, and interviews with, police personnel, we explore the manner in which these different types of meaning shift over the course of incident. In this way, macrocognition relates to gathering, framing, and sharing information through the collaborative sensemaking practices of those involved. This involves two cycles of macrocognition, which we see as ‘informal’ (driven by information gathering as the Community of Practice negotiates and actions meaning) and ‘formal’ (driven by the need to assign resources to the response and the need to record incident details). The examples illustrate that these cycles are often intertwined, as are the different forms of meaning, in situation-specific ways that provide adaptive response to the demands of the incident. PMID:27014117

  19. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling.

  20. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the current cancer burden in Korea, cancer incidence and mortality were projected for the year 2011. Materials and Methods The cancer incidence data from 1999-2008 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and the cancer mortality data from 1993-2009 were obtained from the Korea National Statistics Office. Cancer incident cases and rates in 2011 were projected from fitting a linear regression model on observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. For cancer mortality, a similar procedure was applied for projection except that a Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend significantly changed. Results A total of 216,809 new cancer cases and 71,036 cancer deaths are projected to occur in Korea in 2011. For all sites combined, the crude incidence rates are projected to be 437.9 and 420.5 and the age-standardized incidence rates are projected to be 336.5 and 279.7 per 100,000 for men and women, respectively. Conclusion Cancer has become an important public health concern in Korea, and as Korea becomes an aged society, the cancer burden will continue to increase. PMID:21509158

  1. Incidence of injuries in French professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Dauty, M; Collon, S

    2011-12-01

    In this prevalence cohort study, injuries sustained during 15 seasons in a professional soccer team were investigated according to the different soccer seasons, number of matches per season, month the injury occurred, location, severity, playing position and the team's rank at the end of the French professional championship. Altogether, 903 injuries in 173 professional soccer players were reported. Injury incidence per 1 000 h of exposure during matches and training was 4.7±5. This incidence did not vary significantly between seasons. However, injury incidence increased after the year 2003 and constantly exceeded 4.2. In the same way, after 2002 muscle injury incidence always exceeded 2 per 1 000 h of exposure. Injury incidence peaked during the month of January. Hamstring muscle injury represented the most frequent injury. No difference in injury incidence was found according to the playing position or to the season whether the team participated or not in the European cup. No correlation was found with the team's rank at the end of the French championship. This study highlighted no significant variation on injury incidence over a 15-season period except for the muscle injury rate in high level soccer players.

  2. Prevalence and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2013-06-01

    Several studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) incidence and prevalence indicate that occurrence of the disease varies significantly among different populations. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of RA in South Korea. We used Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data to estimate the prevalence of RA in 2007-2009 and the incidence of RA in 2008. On the basis of our previous validation study, the presence of RA was defined by the diagnostic code for RA with biologic or non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in the same claim in each year. To estimate the incidence of RA, we identified cases of RA in 2008 and set the 12-month period prior to 2008 as a disease-free period. Among the incident case of 2008, only patients who continued treatment in 2009 were defined as true incident case of RA in 2008. The corresponding prevalence estimates were 0.26 % (95 % CI 0.25-0.27) in 2006, 0.27 % (95 % CI 0.26-0.28) in 2007, and 0.27 % (95 % CI 0.26-0.28) in 2008. The incidence of RA in 2008 was estimated at 42/100,000 (95 % CI 29.3-54.7) in the general population of South Korea. Data gathered nationwide through the NHI yielded estimates of RA prevalence and incidence in South Korea. This study is the first report of nationwide prevalence and incidence of South Korea and those are comparable to values for other countries in Asia.

  3. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-09-15

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A.

  4. Cosmic rays, solar activity, magnetic coupling, and lightning incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, J. T. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented and described that unifies the complex influence of several factors on spatial and temporal variation of lightning incidence. These factors include the cosmic radiation, solar activity, and coupling between geomagnetic and interplanetary (solar wind) magnetic fields. Atmospheric electrical conductivity in the 10 km region was shown to be the crucial parameter altered by these factors. The theory reconciles several large scale studies of lightning incidence previously misinterpreted or considered contradictory. The model predicts additional strong effects on variations in lightning incidence, but only small effects on the morphology and rate of thunderstorm development.

  5. Oral cancer incidence disparity among ethnic groups on Guam.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Robert L

    2005-03-01

    Although the prevalence of betel nut use among Chamorro residents of Guam is higher than that of other Micronesians residing on the island, the "other Micronesian" ethnic groups have a mouth cancer incidence rate more than double that of Chamorros. The reason for this apparent disparity in rates of mouth cancer incidence may be clarified by future studies focused on the frequency and method of betel nut use among these populations. Another possible explanation for this apparent disparity in cancer incidence rates could be that of migration to Guam for medical treatment.

  6. Incident Angle of Saltating Particles in Wind-Blown Sand

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin-Tao; Bo, Tian-Li; Gu, Hai-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Incident angle of saltating particles plays a very important role in aeolian events. In this paper, the incident angles of sand particles near the sand bed were measured in wind tunnel. It reveals that the incident angles range widely from 0° to 180° and thereby the means of angles are larger than published data. Surprisingly, it is found the proportion that angles of 5°–15° occupy is far below previous reports. The measuring height is probably the most important reason for the measurement differences between this study and previous investigations. PMID:23874470

  7. Image-plane incidence for a baffled infrared telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija Strojnik; Padilla, Gonzalo Páez

    1997-03-01

    The on-axis image plane incidence of an extended object (sometimes also called irradiance), radiating as a Lambertian radiator is derived for an optical system with a central obscuration. It is then extended to off-axis image points to obtain a generalized form of image incidence for an extended source. A specific example is provided by the conceptual design proposed for the next generation US IR telescope facility, called SIRTF. An incidence error of 1% is obtained for a telescope with a large baffle around a small secondary mirror. The small error is attributed to the unusually small diameter of the secondary mirror.

  8. Stochastic modeling of the dynamics of incident-induced lane traffic states for incident-responsive local ramp control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jiuh-Biing

    2007-12-01

    Incident-induced traffic congestion has been recognized as a critical issue to solve in the development of advanced freeway incident management systems. This paper investigates the applicability of a stochastic optimal control approach to real-time incident-responsive local ramp control on freeways. The architecture of the proposed ramp control system embeds two primary functions including (1) real-time estimation of incident-induced lane traffic states and (2) dynamic prediction of ramp-metering rates in response to the changes of incident impacts. To accomplish the above two goals, a discrete-time nonlinear stochastic optimal control model is proposed, followed by the development of a recursive prediction algorithm. Based on the simulation data, the numerical results of model tests indicate that the proposed method permits relieving incident impacts particularly under low-volume and medium-volume conditions, relative to high-volume lane-blocking conditions. Particularly, the incident-induced queue lengths can be improved by 50.1% and 67.9%, compared to the existing ramp control and control-free strategies, respectively.

  9. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  10. Exploration des mécanismes de repliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilquin, B.

    2005-11-01

    Comment se replient les protéines? Cette question est ancienne. En introduction nous rappellerons ce qu'est le paradoxe de Levinthal et comment on est passé de la notion de chemin de repliement à la notion de paysage énergétique. Les simulations de dynamique moléculaire ont permis d'aborder la compréhension du processus de repliement au niveau atomique. Cependant l'échelle de temps des processus de repliement (de l'ordre de la milliseconde) n'est pas accessible aux simulations numériques (de l'ordre de la nanoseconde). Plusieurs auteurs ont donc proposé de simuler le dépliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire. En admettant le principe de micro-réversibilité l'étude du processus de dépliement renseigne sur celui de repliement. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'accélérer le dépliement en introduisant un biais afin que les états dépliées soient accessibles aux échelles de temps des simulations. Nous présenterons un exemple de ce qui a été réalise dans le cas de l'étude de protéines de petite taille suivant un repliement simple, globalement à deux états. Nous présenterons ensuite ce que nous avons réalisé dans le cas d'une protéine de taille plus importante et pour laquelle le processus de repliement est plus complexe car il existe un intermédiaire transitoire de repliement. C'est le cas du lysozyme pour lequel les simulations de dépliement permettent d'accéder au mécanisme atomique de repliement et de comprendre pourquoi des mutants de cette protéine se replient plus lentement et forment des fibres amyloïdiques. Ainsi les intermédiaires de repliement seraient à l'origine de formes pathogènes des protéines observées dans les maladies neuro-dégéneratives. Enfin nous montrerons comment à partir de plusieurs simulations longues de dynamique moléculaire, le paysage énergétique pour de petites protéines peut être calculé.

  11. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies, respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-yr DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  12. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-01-01

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells. PMID:26304168

  13. Zweistufige Segmentierung des Tracheobronchialbaums mittels iterativen adaptiven Bereichswachstumsverfahren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, Ingmar; Wegner, Ingmar; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die Segmentierung des Tracheobronchialbaums aus medizinischen Bilddaten ist essentiell für unterschiedliche Anwendungen, beispielsweise der navigierten Bronchoskopie. Hierbei liegt das Hauptaugenmerk auf einer möglichst detaillierten Segmentierung der Bronchien bei möglichst geringer Laufzeit des Algorithmus. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt ein Verfahren, welches in zwei Schritten den Tracheobronchi-albaum anhand eines adaptiven Bereichswachstumsverfahrens aus CT-Aufnahmen segmentiert. Im ersten Schritt werden die großen Atemwege und im zweiten Schritt die kleinen Atemwege getrennt segmentiert. Insgesamt wird dadurch die Anzahl der Voxel, die von rechenaufwändigeren Algorithmen (bspw. Gefäß-Tracking) verarbeitet werden müssen, verringert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen bei minimaler Laufzeiterhöhung eine deutliche Steigerung der Anzahl sowie Tiefe der segmentierten Bronchien.

  14. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-08-21

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  15. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    DOE PAGES

    Jarvis, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SVmore » data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.« less

  16. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-14

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d’autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  17. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d’autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  18. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  19. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  20. Critical Incident Nursing Management Using Human Patient Simulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehring, Wendy M.; Lahsley, Felissa R.; Ellis, Wayne E.

    2002-01-01

    Human patient simulators are computerized mannequins that present patient scenarios in which nursing students learn to assess critical health incidents. Their use involves faculty time and commitment, maintenance and upgrading investment, and careful scenario preparation. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  1. 10 CFR 1049.9 - Firearms and firearms incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... immediately, and to the SPR Project Management Office Security Division within 24 hours. The Strategic... FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.9 Firearms and firearms incidents....

  2. Developing a departmental culture for reporting adverse incidents.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, R; Blackshaw, G; Rogers, A; Grant, A; Kulkarni, R

    2003-01-01

    A simple, reproducible model for reporting adverse events was developed in order to promote cultural awareness and acceptance of risk management within the authors' department. A departmental proforma was created and prospective reporting of adverse events was encouraged. In the six months prior to commencing this study only four adverse incidents were reported. Following the introduction of the proforma 64 critical incidents and near-misses were reported in the one-year period. In conclusion a simple model for reporting critical incidents and near-misses has been established. This has fostered a cultural change within the department and all members of staff feel more comfortable with reporting such incidents. The process is seen as educational and an important part of continuing professional and departmental development. Protocols and changes in organisational practice have been developed to reduce and prevent the occurrence of adverse events and offer patients continuous improvement in care. PMID:12870255

  3. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis. PMID:19558397

  4. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis.

  5. Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide.

    PubMed

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S

    1986-04-01

    The overall mortality and the incidence of cancer have been studied among male employees at a plant producing calcium carbide. The cohort was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least 18 months in the period 1953 to 1970 and was classified according to 10 occupational categories. The 790 men have been observed from 1953 to 1983 and the incidence of cancer in the cohort has been compared with national incidence rates. A significant excess of colonic cancer (standardised incidence ratio, SIR = 2.09) and of prostatic cancer (SIR = 1.78) was found, and also a slight excess of lung cancer among furnace and maintenance workers (SIR = 1.56). The possible exposure of the workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and cadmium is discussed.

  6. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment § 68.108 Incidence of... the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline...

  7. 28 CFR 115.186 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Consider whether the incident or allegation was motivated by race; ethnicity; gender identity; lesbian, gay... motivated or otherwise caused by other group dynamics at the lockup; (3) Examine the area in the...

  8. 28 CFR 115.186 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Consider whether the incident or allegation was motivated by race; ethnicity; gender identity; lesbian, gay... motivated or otherwise caused by other group dynamics at the lockup; (3) Examine the area in the...

  9. Bulimia: Estimate of Incidence and Relationship of Shyness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Shirley Ann; Figley, Charles R.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 160 college women to examine the incidence of bulimia and its relationship to shyness. Results indicated 23 percent of the participants were bulimic. A significant relationship was found between bulimia and fear of rejection (private shyness). (JAC)

  10. Whose Voices are Heard in Patient Safety Incident Reports?

    PubMed Central

    Saranto, Kaija; Bates, David W.; Mykkänen, Minna; Härkönen, Mikko; Miettinen, Merja

    2012-01-01

    Patient safety incident reporting systems are used to monitor adverse events, generate information for risk management and to improve patient safety. A number of electronic reporting systems have been developed, but their data elements appear relatively similar. An inductive data analysis was carried out to find out especially what is the content of descriptions of contributing factors of adverse events. The data consisted of incident reports entered in a hospital based reporting system in the years 2008–2010. Overall, 82 reports of 785 contained free text information about patients’ and relatives’ involvement in the events reported by staff. We found that patients themselves noticed almost half of these incidents. Of the incidents they noticed, most resulted in moderate harm. PMID:24199120

  11. 32 CFR 536.43 - Incident to service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personal injury or wrongful death by members of a foreign military force participating in a joint military... member of the armed forces' claim for personal injury or wrongful death arising incident to service...

  12. 32 CFR 536.43 - Incident to service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personal injury or wrongful death by members of a foreign military force participating in a joint military... member of the armed forces' claim for personal injury or wrongful death arising incident to service...

  13. 32 CFR 536.43 - Incident to service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personal injury or wrongful death by members of a foreign military force participating in a joint military... member of the armed forces' claim for personal injury or wrongful death arising incident to service...

  14. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmon, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear on 31 May 1984 is discussed by an airline employee. The specs of the plane are given, the weather conditions are listed, and the actions taken by the flight crew are discussed.

  15. Incident light adjustable solar cell by periodic nanolens architecture

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Eunsongyi; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, Wayne A.; Kim, Joondong; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Zeng, Jinwei; Yi, Junsin; Kumar, M. Melvin David; Sun, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Could nanostructures act as lenses to focus incident light for efficient utilization of photovoltaics? Is it possible, in order to avoid serious recombination loss, to realize periodic nanostructures in solar cells without direct etching in a light absorbing semiconductor? Here we propose and demonstrate a promising architecture to shape nanolenses on a planar semiconductor. Optically transparent and electrically conductive nanolenses simultaneously provide the optical benefit of modulating the incident light and the electrical advantage of supporting carrier transportation. A transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanolens was designed to focus the incident light-spectrum in focal lengths overlapping to a strong electric field region for high carrier collection efficiency. The ITO nanolens effectively broadens near-zero reflection and provides high tolerance to the incident light angles. We present a record high light-conversion efficiency of 16.0% for a periodic nanostructured Si solar cell. PMID:25371099

  16. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  17. 28 CFR 541.14 - Incident report and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline and Special Housing Units § 541.14 Incident... Discipline Hearing Officer, the DHO shall give a copy of the investigation and other relevant materials...

  18. Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide.

    PubMed Central

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S

    1986-01-01

    The overall mortality and the incidence of cancer have been studied among male employees at a plant producing calcium carbide. The cohort was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least 18 months in the period 1953 to 1970 and was classified according to 10 occupational categories. The 790 men have been observed from 1953 to 1983 and the incidence of cancer in the cohort has been compared with national incidence rates. A significant excess of colonic cancer (standardised incidence ratio, SIR = 2.09) and of prostatic cancer (SIR = 1.78) was found, and also a slight excess of lung cancer among furnace and maintenance workers (SIR = 1.56). The possible exposure of the workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and cadmium is discussed. PMID:3964572

  19. Simultaneous normal and parallel incidence planar left-handed metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jianhong; Yan, Baorong; Liu, Minghai; Hu, Xiwei

    2009-08-01

    We investigate numerically the negative refraction of a simultaneous normal and parallel incidence planar left-handed metamaterial (LHM) in this paper. This LHM is comprised of fourfold C-shaped rings, which are printed on both sides of the substrates symmetrically, and it can exhibit left-handed properties with electromagnetic wave incident in three different directions. The retrieved result and the simulated result verify the left-handed properties of the fourfold C-shaped metamaterial very well. Then the different electric responses of the normal and parallel incidence cases to the incident electromagnetic wave are discussed, and it is due to the different distribution of the induced currents in the metallic wires.

  20. Manned space programs accident/incident summaries (1963 - 1969)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This summary is a compilation of 508 mishaps assembled from company and NASA records which cover several years of manned space flight activity. The purpose is to provide information to be applied towards accident prevention. The accident/incident summaries are categorized by the following ten systems: cryogenic; electrical; facility/GSE; fuel and propellant; life support; ordnance; pressure; propulsion; structural; and transport/handling. Each accident/incident summary has been summarized by description, cause and recommended preventive action.

  1. Effect of Emergency Argon on FCF Operational Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Solbrig

    2011-12-01

    The following report presents analyses of operational incidents which are considered in the safety analysis of the FCF argon cell and the effect that the operability of the emergency argon system has on the course of these incidents. The purpose of this study is to determine if the emergency argon system makes a significant difference in ameliorating the course of these incidents. Six incidents were considered. The following three incidents were analyzed. These are: 1. Cooling failing on 2. Vacuum Pump Failing on 3. Argon Supplies Failing on. In the remaining three incidents, the emergency argon supply would have no effect on the course of these transients since it would not come on during these incidents. The transients are 1. Loss of Cooling 2. Loss of power (Differs from above by startup delay till the Diesel Generators come on.) 3. Cell rupture due to an earthquake or other cause. The analyses of the first three incidents are reported on in the next three sections. This report is issued realizing the control parameters used may not be optimum, and additional modeling must be done to model the inertia of refrigeration system, but the major conclusion concerning the need for the emergency argon system is still valid. The timing of some events may change with a more accurate model but the differences between the transients with and without emergency argon will remain the same. Some of the parameters assumed in the analyses are Makeup argon supply, 18 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -6 iwg., shuts off when pressure is = -3.1 iwg. 170,000 ft3 supply. Min 1/7th always available, can be cross connected to HFEF argon supply dewar. Emergency argon supply, 900 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -8 iwg. shuts off when pressure is =-4 iwg. reservoir 220 ft3, refilled when tank farm pressure reduces to 1050 psi which is about 110 ft3.

  2. Development of First Responders Equipment at RN Incident Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroki, K.; Kurosawa, K.; Akiba, N.

    2015-10-01

    On site categorization and collection of radioactive and nuclear materials are required at radiological and nuclear incident site. We are developing portable equipment and radiation protection for radiological emergency response team to carry out emergency missions safely at the incident sites. In this report, we review radiation monitoring system including wireless dosimeter system and neutron shield with water developed in our institute. Also the development of fast-neutron directional detector with a micro pattern gas detector is described.

  3. Cancer incidence in airline cabin crew: experience from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Linnersjo, A; Hammar, N; Dammstrom, B; Johansson, M; Eliasch, H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the cancer incidence in Swedish cabin crew. Methods: Cancer incidence of cabin crew at the Swedish Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) (2324 women and 632 men) employed from 1957 to 1994 was determined during 1961–96 from the Swedish National Cancer Register. The cancer incidence in cabin crew was compared with that of the general Swedish population by comparing observed and expected number of cases through standardised incidence ratios (SIR). A nested case-control study was performed, including cancer cases diagnosed after 1979 and four controls per case matched by gender, age, and calendar year. Results: The SIR for cancer overall was 1.01 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.24) for women and 1.16 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.55) for men. Both men and women had an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin (SIR 2.18 and 3.66 respectively) and men of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 4.42). Female cabin attendants had a non-significant increase of breast cancer (SIR 1.30; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.74). No clear associations were found between length of employment or cumulative block hours and cancer incidence. Conclusions: Swedish cabin crew had an overall cancer incidence similar to that of the general population. An increased incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer may be associated with exposure to UV radiation, either at work or outside work. An increased risk of breast cancer in female cabin crew is consistent with our results and may in part be due to differences in reproductive history. PMID:14573710

  4. Global surveillance for chemical incidents of international public health concern.

    PubMed Central

    Olowokure, B.; Pooransingh, S.; Tempowski, J.; Palmer, S.; Meredith, T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In December 2001, an expert consultation convened by WHO identified strengthening national and global chemical incident preparedness and response as a priority. WHO is working towards this objective by developing a surveillance and response system for chemical incidents. This report describes the frequency, nature and geographical location of acute chemical incidents of potential international concern from August 2002 to December 2003. METHODS: Acute chemical incidents were actively identified through several informal (e.g. Internet-based resources) and formal (e.g. various networks of organizations) sources and assessed against criteria for public health emergencies of international concern using the then proposed revised International Health Regulations (IHR). WHO regional and country offices were contacted to obtain additional information regarding identified incidents. FINDINGS: Altogether, 35 chemical incidents from 26 countries met one or more of the IHR criteria. The WHO European Region accounted for 43% (15/35) of reports. The WHO Regions for Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific each accounted for 14% (5/35); South-East Asia and the Americas accounted for 9% (3/35) and 6% (2/35), respectively. Twenty-three (66%) events were identified within 24 hours of their occurrence. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first global surveillance system for chemical incidents of potential international concern. Limitations such as geographical and language bias associated with the current system are being addressed. Nevertheless, the system has shown that it can provide early detection of important events, as well as information on the magnitude and geographical distribution of such incidents. It can therefore contribute to improving global public health preparedness. PMID:16462985

  5. Breast cancer incidence and overdiagnosis in Catalonia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Early detection of breast cancer (BC) with mammography may cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment, detecting tumors which would remain undiagnosed during a lifetime. The aims of this study were: first, to model invasive BC incidence trends in Catalonia (Spain) taking into account reproductive and screening data; and second, to quantify the extent of BC overdiagnosis. Methods We modeled the incidence of invasive BC using a Poisson regression model. Explanatory variables were: age at diagnosis and cohort characteristics (completed fertility rate, percentage of women that use mammography at age 50, and year of birth). This model also was used to estimate the background incidence in the absence of screening. We used a probabilistic model to estimate the expected BC incidence if women in the population used mammography as reported in health surveys. The difference between the observed and expected cumulative incidences provided an estimate of overdiagnosis. Results Incidence of invasive BC increased, especially in cohorts born from 1940 to 1955. The biggest increase was observed in these cohorts between the ages of 50 to 65 years, where the final BC incidence rates more than doubled the initial ones. Dissemination of mammography was significantly associated with BC incidence and overdiagnosis. Our estimates of overdiagnosis ranged from 0.4% to 46.6%, for women born around 1935 and 1950, respectively. Conclusions Our results support the existence of overdiagnosis in Catalonia attributed to mammography usage, and the limited malignant potential of some tumors may play an important role. Women should be better informed about this risk. Research should be oriented towards personalized screening and risk assessment tools. PMID:20682042

  6. Incidence of Restless Legs Syndrome and Its Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Budhiraja, Pooja; Budhiraja, Rohit; Goodwin, James L.; Allen, Richard P.; Newman, Anne B.; Koo, Brian B.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder whose incidence is not known. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and correlates of RLS in a population-based sample. Methods: We obtained data from the Tucson Cohort of the Sleep Heart Health Study, a prospective multicenter study. This cohort included 535 participants aged ≥ 40 years, who answered questions regarding RLS on the 2002 and 2006 sleep surveys. For this study, RLS was defined as the presence of all 4 International RLS Study Group criteria, with symptoms occurring ≥ 5 days/month and associated with at least moderate distress. Results: Mean age of the predominantly Caucasian (90.8%) participants on the 2002 survey was 59.8 ± 9.7 years; 52.2% were women. RLS prevalence was 4.1% in 2002 and 7.7% in 2006. The yearly incidence of RLS was 1.7% (6.6% over 4 years). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that estrogen use (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.17-5.10) and self-reported obstructive lung disease (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.37-5.83) were independent risk factors predicting incident RLS. Incident RLS was associated with higher prevalence of insomnia (26.5% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.001), increased sleepiness (38.2% vs. 22%, p = 0.036); and higher sleeping pill use in 2006 (23.5% vs. 9.7%, p = 0.019). Conclusion: The incidence of RLS in this population sample was 1.7% per year. Use of estrogen and history of obstructive lung disease were associated with a significantly higher incidence of RLS. RLS, in turn, was associated with insomnia and increased sleepiness. Citation: Budhiraja P; Budhiraja R; Goodwin JL; Allen RP; Newman AB; Koo BB; Quan SF. Incidence of restless legs syndrome and its correlates. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):119-124. PMID:22505854

  7. Critical incidents influencing students' selection of elective science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essary, Danny Ray

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the critical incidents that determined high school students' self selection into and out of elective science classes. The Critical Incident Technique was used to gather data. Procedure. Subjects for study were 436 students attending five high schools within the geographical boundaries of a Northeast Texas County. Each student was enrolled in a senior level government/economics course during the spring semester of 1997. Students enrolled and in attendance during data collection procedures were subjects of the study. The subjects recorded 712 usable critical incidents. Incidents were categorized by examiners and a total of eleven incident categories emerged for analysis purposes. Incident frequencies were categorized by sample population, selectors, and nonselectors; subdivided by gender. Findings. The following categories emerged for study; (A) Mentored, (B) Requirements, (C) Personal Interest(s), (D) Level of Difficulty, (E) Time Restraints, (F) Future Concerns, (G) Grades, (H) Teacher, (I) Peer Influence, (J) Challenge, (K) Other Academic Experiences. Data were analyzed qualitatively to answer research questions and quantitatively to test hypotheses. There was an emergence of ten incident categories for nonselectors and an emergence of eleven incident categories for selectors. Of the twelve hypotheses, four failed to be rejected and eight were rejected. Conclusions. Nonselectors and selectors of elective science were influenced by various external factors. Requirements were influential for nonselectors. Nonselectors chose to select the minimum number of science classes necessary for graduation. Selectors were influenced by curriculum requirements, future concerns and mentors. Special programs that required extra science classes were influential in students' decisions to enroll in elective science. Gender differences were not influential for selectors or nonselectors of elective science.

  8. Increasing incidence of Barrett's oesophagus: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Helen G; Bhat, Shivaram; Murray, Liam J; McManus, Damian; Gavin, Anna T; Johnston, Brian T

    2011-09-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma, a highly fatal cancer, has risen in incidence in Western societies, but it is unclear whether this is due to increasing incidence of its pre-cursor condition, Barrett's oesophagus (BO) or whether the proportion of BO patients undergoing malignant progression has increased in the face of unchanged BO incidence. Data from population-based studies of BO incidence is limited, with equivocal results to date difficult to distinguish from changes in endoscopic practices. The aim of this study was to assess population trends in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) diagnoses in relation to endoscopy and biopsy rates over a 13 year period. The Northern Ireland Barrett's oesophagus Register (NIBR) is a population-based register of all 9,329 adults diagnosed with columnar epithelium of the oesophagus in Northern Ireland between 1993 and 2005, of whom 58.3% were male. European age-standardised annual BO incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 of the population, per 100 endoscopies and per 100 endoscopies including an oesophageal biopsy. Average annual BO incidence rates rose by 159% during the study period, increasing from 23.9/100,000 during 1993-1997 to 62.0/100,000 during 2002-2005. This elevation far exceeded corresponding increases in rates of endoscopies and oesophageal biopsies being conducted. BO incidence increased most markedly in individuals aged < 60 years, and most notably amongst males aged < 40 years. This study points towards a true increase in the incidence of BO which would appear to be most marked in young males. These findings have significant implications for future rates of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and surveillance programmes.

  9. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    DOE PAGES

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; et al

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrainmore » the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.« less

  10. Einstein à l'épreuve des faits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1998-02-01

    Apres plus de 80 ans d'existence, la theorie d'Einstein cherche encore des preuves, bien que plusieurs de ses predictions aient ete deja verifiees avec une incroyable precision et certains de ses effets les plus spectaculaires reconnus de facon indeniable. Plusieurs missions parmi les plus complexes jamais envisagees sont en projet ou en cours de construction dans le but unique de verifier la relativite. Pourquoi cet enjeu est-il capital pour la physique contemporaine ?

  11. Landform Variability in the Chaine Des Puys Tracing Multiple Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys is a highly varied, type monogenetic field, and was acknowledged by 38th WH UNESCO Committee to contain Outstanding Universal Value. The Chaîne des Puys - Limagne Fault should be presented in 2016 for World Heritage Status. The 30 km long Chaîne des Puys contains ranges from simple basaltic scoria cones to complex, multicrater cones, and small simple domes to complicated trachytic edifices. There is also a range of phreatomagmatic landforms from tuff rings to maars and vulcanian to sub plinian deposits. There is a wide range of pahoehoe and aa lava types, that have flowed over different topographies. Here we take morphometrical data to analyse the variability of the edifices using a 10 m regional topographic DTM. The volcanoes form a broad continuum of morphological features, and height/widths of domes and cones overlap. Some edifices, are smooth and elliptical, even though they have erupted complex lava sequences, while others complex shapes, but are related to simple lava flows. There seems to be no easy correlation between cone morphology and eruption histories derived from lava fields and distal tephras. In the few cones where the interior is visible, the shape of the cone is seen to vary with changing eruption events. The final shape is a combination of changing activity, with the last events having the strongest morphometic signature. The broad variations in edifice, lava field, and deposit morphology are described and quantified, however it becomes clear from the few individual eruptions already studied, that to fully appreciate the range of monogenetic eruption scenarios presented by the Chaîne des Puys, much more detailed work is required. This is being made possible by new acquisitions of LiDAR imagery, new geophysical work, and the combination of excellent preservation and extensive outcrop that is partly the result the original geology and long term responsible land management by the local populace, regional park and local

  12. Gestion des plaines inondables: Hauteur ou débit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Jabi, Nassir; Rousselle, Jean

    1983-07-01

    A stochastic model based on the recent developments in the theory of extreme values is presented to describe the flood occurrence. This model is applied to the "Rivière des Prairies", assuming that the exceedances (flood peak and/or stage above a given base flow and/or base stage) are independent and identically distributed in the time interval for a given year and season.

  13. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  14. La dysplasie fibreuse: état des lieux

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Talbi, Sofia; Tahiri, Latifa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse des os est une affection osseuse bénigne congénitale mais non héréditaire, où l'os normal est remplacé par un tissu fibreux renfermant une ostéogenèse immature. Elle est due à une mutation du gène GNAS 1sur le chromosome 20q13, une mutation activatrice de la sous-unité α de la protéine G. C'est une pathologie qui est le plus souvent silencieuse, de découverte fortuite sur une radiographie standard ou révélée par une douleur osseuse ou une fracture pathologique. L'imagerie et l'histologie, quand elle est nécessaire, permettent d’établir le diagnostic. Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'une tumeur, elle est souvent classée dans la catégorie des tumeurs osseuses bénignes pour des raisons de diagnostic différentiel radiographique et anatomopathologique. Elle peut être monostotique ou polyostotique. L'approche thérapeutique est essentiellement symptomatique. Quelques publications récentes ont suggéré l'intérêt majeur d'un bisphosphonate, en particulier le pamidronate, qui diminuerait les douleurs et stimulerait une reminéralisation progressive des zones ostéolytiques chez les patients traités. D'autres traitements tels que la thérapie ciblée sont en cours d’évaluation. PMID:26401215

  15. Evolution of Bacillus subtilis to enhanced growth at low pressure: up-regulated transcription of des-desKR, encoding the fatty acid desaturase system.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Waters, Samantha M; Schuerger, Andrew C; George, Sheeja; Marois, James J; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2012-03-01

    The atmospheric pressure on Mars ranges from 1-10 mbar, about 1% of Earth pressure (∼1013 mbar). Low pressure is a growth-inhibitory factor for terrestrial microorganisms on Mars, and a putative low-pressure barrier for growth of Earth bacteria of ∼25 mbar has been postulated. In a previous communication, we described the isolation of a strain of Bacillus subtilis that had evolved enhanced growth ability at the near-inhibitory low pressure of 50 mbar. To explore mechanisms that enabled growth of the low-pressure-adapted strain, numerous genes differentially transcribed between the ancestor strain WN624 and low-pressure-evolved strain WN1106 at 50 mbar were identified by microarray analysis. Among these was a cluster of three candidate genes (des, desK, and desR), whose mRNA levels in WN1106 were higher than the ancestor on the microarrays. Up-regulation of these genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The des, desK, and desR genes encode the Des membrane fatty acid (FA) desaturase, the DesK sensor kinase, and the DesR response regulator, respectively, which function to maintain membrane fluidity in acute response to temperature downshift. Pressure downshift caused an up-regulation of des mRNA levels only in WN1106, but expression of a des-lacZ transcriptional fusion was unaffected, which suggests that des regulation was different in response to temperature versus pressure downshift. Competition experiments showed that inactivation of the des gene caused a slight, but statistically significant, loss of fitness of strain WN1106 at 50 mbar. Further, analysis of membrane FA composition of cells grown at 1013 versus 50 mbar revealed a decrease in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated FAs but an increase in the ratio of anteiso- to iso-FAs. The present study represents a first step toward identification of molecular mechanisms by which B. subtilis could sense and respond to the novel environmental stress

  16. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  17. [Influence of diethyl sulfate (DES) mutagenesis on growth properties and pigment secondary metabolites of Phellinus igniarius].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Xin-yuan; Ma, Wei; Chen, Jing; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Xiu-li

    2015-06-01

    The diethyl sulfate (DES) mutagenesis was chosen for the mutagenic treatment to Phellinus igniarius, and the relationship of mutagenesis time and death rate was investigated with 0.5% DES. The differences of mycelial growth speed, liquid fermentation mycelia biomass, morphology and pigment classes of secondary metabolites production speed and antioxidant activities of metabolite products were discussed. The study displayed that DES mutagenesis could change mycelial morphology without obvious effect on mycelium growth, and the DES mutagenesis improved antioxidant activities of the active ingredients of P. igniarius and had more antioxidant activity of hypoxia/sugar PC12 nerve cells than that of P. igniarius. PMID:26591512

  18. Incident response: crew scheduling and rerouting of hazmat carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherali, Hanif D.; Subramanian, Shivaram; Kachroo, Pushkin

    1998-01-01

    Incident response strategies deal with the resource allocation and minimum risk re-routing of hazardous material carriers in response to traffic incidents. Such strategies also address the effect of loss in coverage due to the non- availability of response vehicles. In addition, the effect of an incident on hazmat carriers that are presented in the local vicinity is that the resulting traffic congestion considerably increases the risk of exposure for motorists. In such a situation, the hazmat carrier needs to be re- routed through a safer path. We have proposed mathematical models that address each of the two problems. The incident response model identifies an optimal allocation of response agency units and their routing in the even of traffic incidents in real-time, while also taking into consideration the response requirements for future demands. The hazmat re- routing model determines an optimal diversion route in a network using multiple risk-based objective functions to re- route Hazmat carriers in the event of an incident occurring along the prescribed route. Mathematical programming formulations are presented for each case, and solution procedures are outlined. Some computational experience is also provided.

  19. Measuring Psychosocial Impact of CBRN Incidents by the Rasch Model.

    PubMed

    van Buuren, Stef; Wijnmalen, Diederik J D

    2015-01-01

    An effective response to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents requires capability planning based upon an assessment of risks in which all types of possible consequences of such incidents have been taken into account. CBRN incidents can have a wide range of consequences of which psychological and social effects (possibly leading to societal unrest) are often pointed out as very likely to occur. The goal of our research was to establish an objective measurement of psychosocial impact of CBRN incidents with the use of the Rasch model. We created a list of eleven items, each of which tapped into an aspect of psychosocial impact of incidents. Eleven judges scored ten CBRN scenarios on this list of items. Two items needed to be removed due to misfit. The resulting nine-items test fitted the Rasch model well. Three items showed mild forms of differential item functioning, but were retained in the test. The reliability of the instrument was 0.83. The scale can be used to quantitatively measure the inherently qualitative nature of psychosocial impact of CBRN incident scenarios in order to better compare this type of impact with quantitative impact types such as number of casualties, costs, etc. Administration of the scale is simple and takes about one minute per scenario. We recommend wider use of the Rasch model for improving the quality of total impact measurement in case of being faced with both qualitative and quantitative types of impact.

  20. Traffic Incident Management in the Presence of Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zlatanova, S.; Steenbruggen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Traffic incidents can result in different kinds of hazards (e.g., plumes) that influence the status of road networks, therefore there is a great need for incident management in the presence of the hazards. When incidents occur, the created hazards not only affect the normal road users (make them detour or blocked), but also influence the movement of first responders. Traffic managers, who are responsible for maintaining the road safety and traffic stability, should carry out quick and effective measures to manage the incidents. In this paper, we present four issues to help people better understand the situations that could occur in the management of incidents with hazards: 1). Evacuation in the presence of hazards; 2). 3D incident management; 3). Navigation support for first responders; 4). Navigation support for road users. To address these issues, we propose a solution which combines agent technology, geo-database, hazard simulation, and traffic simulation. Further research would be needed to investigate the potentials of the proposed solution in real applications.

  1. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Hellen Cristina de Almeida; Reiners, Annelita Almeida Oliveira; Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Abreu, Débora Regina de Oliveira Moura; de Oliveira, Adriana Delmondes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25), polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05), visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23), gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14), urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44) and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39) and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event. PMID:26083943

  2. The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and income per capita across countries. Data on breast cancer incidence in 52 countries were obtained from GLOBOCAN, along with economic indicators of gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank. Number of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging (from World Health Organization) were used as a surrogate for technology and access to screening for cancer diagnosis. Statistical analyses for correlation and regression were performed, along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A strong positive association between breast cancer incidence and gross domestic product per capita, Pearson's r = 65.4 %, controlling latitude, density of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging was found in countries of temperate zones. The estimated relationship suggests that 1 % higher gross domestic product per capita, within the temperate zones (latitudes), increases the expected age-standardized breast cancer incidence by about 35.6 % (p < 0.001). ANOVA confirms these vital results. While some have argued that latitude and seasonality may affect breast cancer incidence, these findings suggest that wealthier nations may have a higher incidence of breast cancer independent of geographic location and screening technology.

  3. The meaning of justice in safety incident reporting.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bryan Jeffrey; Hobgood, Cherri; Lewis, Megan A

    2008-01-01

    Safety experts contend that to make incident reporting work, healthcare organizations must establish a "just" culture-that is, an organizational context in which health professionals feel assured that they will receive fair treatment when they report safety incidents. Although healthcare leaders have expressed keen interest in establishing a just culture in their institutions, the patient safety literature offers little guidance as to what the term "just culture" really means or how one goes about creating a just culture. Moreover, the safety literature does not indicate what constitutes a just incident reporting process in the eyes of the health professionals who provide direct patient care. This gap is unfortunate, for knowing what constitutes a just incident reporting process in the eyes of front-line health professionals is essential for designing useful information systems to detect, monitor, and correct safety problems. In this article, we seek to clarify the conceptual meaning of just culture and identify the attributes of incident reporting processes that make such systems just in the eyes of health professionals. To accomplish these aims, we draw upon organizational justice theory and research to develop a conceptual model of perceived justice in incident reporting processes. This model could assist those healthcare leaders interested in creating a just culture by clarifying the multiple meanings, antecedents, and consequences of justice.

  4. C and D comes curbside in Des Moines

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.

    1997-07-01

    Until last October, virtually all the commingled construction and demolition (C and D) waste in Des Moines, Iowa, was being landfilled. But thanks to a $483,000 grant from the state and the financial commitment of two local solid waste businesses, overall diversion rates of C and D waste have gone from 20% to 50%, and are still climbing as the construction season shifts into high gear. It is a demonstration project initiated by Iowa`s Department of Natural Resources (DNR). In the late 1980s, the state passed legislation that called for a goal of 50% of all solid waste to be diverted from landfills by 2000. Last October, the grant was awarded to the Corell Team, a joint effort comprising Central Recycling, a unit of Corell Contractor (Des Moines, Iowa), Corell itself, and Artistic Waste Services, Inc. (Des Moines, Iowa). The uniqueness of the project is its degree of vertical integration, from the collection and transport of C and D waste to its recycling, marketing, and disposal. Artistic collects, presorts recoverable commodities, and hauls them to its own markets or to Central Recycling for further sorting and recycling. Central, using a Re-Tech (Myerstown, Pa.) trommel and a 12-man picking crew, further sorts and recycles materials.

  5. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannantonio, T.; Fosalba, P.; Cawthon, R.; Omori, Y.; Crocce, M.; Elsner, F.; Leistedt, B.; Dodelson, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Holder, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Percival, W. J.; Kirk, D.; Bauer, A. H.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Carretero, J.; Crawford, T. M.; Crittenden, R.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Krause, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ross, A. J.; Simard, G.; Soergel, B.; Stark, A.; Story, K. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Weller, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C. L.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-03-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck , respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the Λ cold dark matter Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.

  6. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Giannantonio, T.

    2016-01-07

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of themore » signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the LCDM Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.« less

  7. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE, Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa, July 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-21

    The Des Moines TCE site includes the underground infiltration gallery used by the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) as a source of the public water supply. The site was discovered in 1984 after trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in the city's public water supply. The Dico Company disposed of an unknown quantity of oily waste sludge containing TCE onto their parking lot for dust control and into a drainage ditch on their property. The primary contaminants of concern include: TCE, PCE, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride. The selected remedial action for this site includes: extraction wells to collect the contaminated ground water; isolation of the northern-most section of the north gallery; treatment of the ground water through air stripping to remove 96% of the TCE; discharge of the treated water to the Raccoon River; operation of the west extraction wells until established effluent levels are achieved for four consecutive months.

  9. Que peut-on voir avec des neutrons? Une introduction pour des non spécialistes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2005-11-01

    Le neutron est une particule élémentaire qui a été découverte en 1932 par James Chadwick. Ses caractéristiques principales sont résumées dans le tableau I. Il a été utilisé pour la première fois par Clifford Shull en 1946 comme outil pour des expériences de diffusion. Cette technique s'est depuis constamment développée pour concerner tous les aspects de la matière condensée: physique, chimie, matériaux, biologie. Il s'agit d'un outil tout à fait exceptionnel car le neutron possède des propriétés uniques et particulièrement adaptées pour ces études.

  10. Critical steps in learning from incidents: using learning potential in the process from reporting an incident to accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Drupsteen, Linda; Groeneweg, Jop; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M

    2013-01-01

    Many incidents have occurred because organisations have failed to learn from lessons of the past. This means that there is room for improvement in the way organisations analyse incidents, generate measures to remedy identified weaknesses and prevent reoccurrence: the learning from incidents process. To improve that process, it is necessary to gain insight into the steps of this process and to identify factors that hinder learning (bottlenecks). This paper presents a model that enables organisations to analyse the steps in a learning from incidents process and to identify the bottlenecks. The study describes how this model is used in a survey and in 3 exploratory case studies in The Netherlands. The results show that there is limited use of learning potential, especially in the evaluation stage. To improve learning, an approach that considers all steps is necessary. PMID:23498711

  11. Etudes physiques des mélanges eau-cryoprotecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassoille, R.; Perez, J.

    The aim of the following review is to present the most important studies concerning the physical properties of water-solutes mixtures used in cryobiology. Cryobiology is a branch of biology which deals with the very low temperature behaviour of cells. This technique is developed today in several directions. The creation of banks of cells and perhaps in a short time of small organs, is the purpose of much research in this domain. Before freezing, living cells are generally put in a solution containing one or more solutes. The role of these solutes is to protect the cells against damage due to crystallization of water (cryoprotectors). The mechanisms of cryoprotection are not well known ; nevertheless the vitreous state formation during cooling is often invoked. So, it is possible to avoid crystallization damage such as mechanical strain (due to an increase of volume of about 10 %) and salt effects (due to osmotic pressure). The conditions in which the vitreous state is obtained, maintained during cooling, storage at low temperature and rewarming can be defined by physical studies presented in the following review. Le présent travail est essentiellement une revue bibliographique des principales études physiques qui ont été réalisées avec des solutions de composés habituellement employés en cryobiologie. La cryobiologie est une branche de la biologie qui s'intéresse au comportement des cellules à basse température. Cette discipline est actuellement en plein développement dans des domaines très divers. Son principal but est la création de banques de cellules de plus en plus complexes avec comme perspective la conservation des organes. Les cellules vivantes sont généralement placées avant congélation dans une solution contenant divers composés dont le rôle est de protéger les cellules contre les effets de la cristallisation de l'eau. L'action protectrice de ces cryoprotecteurs est encore mal connue; cependant, la formation d'un état vitreux lors du

  12. Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Yoon, Ju Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Hee Young; Won, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An epidemiologic study of childhood cancer would provide useful information on cancer etiology and development of management guidelines. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database were used to examine the incidence and survival of cancer in patients aged 0-14 years. Patients were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, 3rd edition. Age-specific and age-standardized incidences per million and estimated annual percentage change (APC) were calculated by sex and age. Five-year relative survival was calculated for four periods from 1993 to 2011. Results The study comprised 15,113 patients with malignant neoplasms. Age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers were 134.9 per million children in 1999-2011 and 144.0 and 124.9 per million for males and females, respectively (M/F ratio, 1.2; p < 0.05). The highest incidences were observed for ‘leukemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and myelodysplastic diseases’ (group I) (46.4), ‘central nervous system neoplasms’ (group III) (18.3), and ‘lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms’ (group II) (13.4). Age-standardized incidence increased from 117.9 in 1999 to 155.3 in 2011, with an APC of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 2.7). There was a significant increase of APC in ‘neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors’ (group IV) (5.6%) and ‘other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas’ (group XI) (5.6%). The 5-year relative survival rate for all childhood cancers improved significantly from 56.2% (1993-1995) to 78.2% (2007-2011) (males, 56.7% to 77.7%; females, 55.5% to 78.8%). Conclusion This study provides reliable information on incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Korea. PMID:26790965

  13. Public health aspects of nuclear and radiological incidents.

    PubMed

    Katz, Seth K; Parrillo, Steven J; Christensen, Doran; Glassman, Erik S; Gill, Kimberly B

    2014-01-01

    Radiological and nuclear incidents are low probability but very high risk events. Measures can be, and have been, implemented to limit or prevent the impact on the public. Preparedness, however, remains the key to minimizing morbidity and mortality. Incidents may be related to hospital-based mis-administration of radiation in interventional radiology or nuclear medicine, industrial or nuclear power plant accidents. Safety and security measures are in place to prevent or mitigate such events. Despite efforts to prevent them, terrorist-perpetrated incidents with, for example, a radiological dispersal device (RDD) are also possible. Due to a misunderstanding of, or lack of, formal education regarding things in this realm, there can be considerable anxiety, even fear, about radiation-related incidents. Multiple studies evaluating healthcare provider willingness to report to work rank radiation as the hazard that will keep the largest number of workers at home. Even incidents that do not constitute a disaster can spiral out of control quite rapidly, placing considerable demands on community resources. Our communities will face these threats in the future and it is the responsibility of physicians and allied healthcare personnel to be trained and ready to care for those affected. The scope of resources needed to prepare for and respond to such incidents is indeed vast. It encompasses the coordinated effort of first responders and physicians, the preparedness of national agencies involved in responding to such events, and individual community cooperation and solidarity. This article reviews the approach to the short- and long-term effects of a radiological or nuclear incident on an affected population, with a specific focus on the medical and public health issues. It also summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of our current ability to respond effectively and makes recommendations to improve these capabilities. PMID:25348384

  14. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Lloyd D; Middleton, Rod M; Tuite-Dalton, Katie; Pouliou, Theodora; Williams, Kate Elizabeth; Noble, Gareth J

    2016-01-01

    Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs) in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69-8.59) among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44-13.50) among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80-9.40). All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08-1.36). MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D. PMID:27182982

  15. Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: Population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gollogly, Heidrun E.; Hodge, David O.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Erie, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of cataract surgery in a defined population and to determine longitudinal cataract surgery patterns. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) databases were used to identify all incident cataract surgeries in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States white population. Data were merged with previous REP data (1980 to 2004) to assess temporal trends in cataract surgery. Change in the incidence over time was assessed by fitting generalized linear models assuming a Poisson error structure. The probability of second-eye cataract surgery was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS Included were 8012 cataract surgeries from 2005 through 2011. During this time, incident cataract surgery significantly increased (P < .001), peaking in 2011 with a rate of 1100 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1050–1160). The probability of second-eye surgery 3, 12, and 24 months after first-eye surgery was 60%, 76%, and 86%, respectively, a significant increase compared with the same intervals in the previous 7 years (1998 to 2004) (P < .001). When merged with 1980 to 2004 REP data, incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 3 decades (P < .001). CONCLUSION Incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 32 years and has not leveled off, as reported in Swedish population-based series. Second-eye surgery was performed sooner and more frequently, with 60% of residents having second-eye surgery within 3-months of first-eye surgery. PMID:23820302

  16. First principles modeling of nonlinear incidence rates in seasonal epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence rate function, which results from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.

  17. Increasing incidence of celiac disease in a North American population

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; van Dyke, Carol T.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, potentially because of incomplete ascertainment of cases and small study samples with limited statistical power. Previous reports indicate that the incidence of CD is increasing. We examined the prevalence of CD in a well-defined US county. METHODS Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, US. Using the infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, medical, histopathology, and CD serology records were used to identify all new cases of CD in Olmsted County since 2000. Age- and sex-specific and adjusted (to the US white 2000 population) incidence rates for CD were estimated. Clinical presentation at diagnosis was also assessed. RESULTS Between 2000 and 2010, 249 individuals (157 female or 63%, median age 37.9 years) were diagnosed with CD in Olmsted County. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CD in the study period was 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.2–19.6) per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 11.1 (95% CI=6.8–15.5) in 2000–2001 to 17.3 (95% CI=13.3–21.3) in 2008–2010. The temporal trend in incidence rates was modeled as a two-slope pattern, with the incidence leveling off after 2004. Based on the two classic CD symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss, the relative frequency of classical CD among incident cases decreased over time between 2000 and 2010 (p=0.044). CONCLUSION The incidence of CD has continued to increase in the past decade in a North American population. PMID:23511460

  18. Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence.

  19. Spatial Clustering of Tuberculosis Incidence in the North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid; Siamian, Hasan; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious threat to public health throughout the world but disproportionately afflicts low-income nations. The aim of this study is to identify the high-risk areas in Mazandaran province (North of Iran) in helping the heath programmer for the best intervention. Materials and Methods: This is an ecological study conducted from 1999 through 2008. The sample included 2444 Tuberculosis (TB) patients. The variables were age, gender, type of disease and residential location, analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and spatial analysis to identify cluster of disease incidence. Geographical information system software applied to map of smooth rate of TB. Results: Of 2444 registered patients, 1283 (52.5%) were male. The data showed 61% urban and 96.4% of them with the Iranian nationality. There was insignificant difference between genders, but the main difference was observed between locations that are the incidence rate in the Tonekabon and Behshahr cities were 30% higher than mean incidence rate of Mazandaran province (P-value<0.05). The comprising chance of acquiring infection between urban and rural was 1.46 with confidence interval of 95% (1.35, 1.59). Conclusion: Geostatistical method showed spatial variability of TB incidence rate in all districts and identifying high-risk area (core areas). The most important core of TB incidence has been noticed in the eastern boundary of Mazandaran in the city of Behshahr which is due to proximity to Golestan Province. The incidence rate of TB in Behshahr city is about two times more than the number observed in Mazandaran province. Lower TB incidence rate has been observed in Golestan province is because there is usually a delay in the diagnosis of the disease especially in the positive smear patients. PMID:25363121

  20. Estimation of HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Ferreira, Orlando da Costa; de Brito, Ana Maria; Luhm, Karin Regina; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa Lopes; Silva, Ana Maria; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Ito, Tomoko Sasazawa; Raboni, Sonia Mara; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, Recife and Curitiba, in the year of 2013. METHODS The method for estimating incidence was based on primary information, resulting from the Lag-Avidity laboratory test for detection of recent HIV infections, applied in a sample of the cases diagnosed in the two cities in 2013. For the estimation of the HIV incidence for the total population of the cities, the recent infections detected in the research were annualized and weighted by the inverse of the probability of HIV testing in 2013 among the infected and not diagnosed cases. After estimating HIV incidence for the total population, the incidence rates were estimated by sex, age group, and exposure category. RESULTS In Recife, 902 individuals aged 13 years and older were diagnosed with HIV infection. From these, 528 were included in the study, and the estimated proportion of recent infections was 13.1%. In Curitiba, 1,013 people aged 13 years and older were diagnosed, 497 participated in the study, and the proportion of recent infections was 10.5%. In Recife, the estimated incidence rate was 53.1/100,000 inhabitants of 13 years and older, while in Curitiba, it was 41.1/100,000, with male-to-female ratio of 3.5 and 2.4, respectively. We observed high rates of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men, of 1.47% in Recife and 0.92% in Curitiba. CONCLUSIONS The results obtained in the two cities showed that the group of men who have sex with men are disproportionately subject to a greater risk of new infections, and indicate that strategies to control the spread of the epidemic in this population subgroup are essential and urgent. PMID:27598785

  1. Incidence of cerebral microbleeds in preclinical Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, Patricia M.; Phal, Pramit M.; Steward, Christopher; Szoeke, Cassandra; Salvado, Olivier; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Villemagne, Victor L.; Rowe, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and associations of lobar microbleeds (LMBs) in a longitudinal cohort with 11C–Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging. Methods: One hundred seventy-four participants from the observational Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (97 with normal cognition [NC], 37 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 40 with Alzheimer disease [AD] dementia) were assessed at 3 time points over 3 years with 3-tesla susceptibility-weighted MRI and 11C-PiB PET. MRIs were inspected for microbleeds, siderosis, infarction, and white matter hyperintensity severity, blind to clinical and PiB findings. Neocortical PiB standardized uptake value ratio, normalized to cerebellar cortex, was dichotomized as positive or negative (PiB+/−, standardized uptake value ratio >1.5). Annualized LMB incidence was calculated, and logistic regression was used to determine the association of incident LMBs with PiB, APOE ε4+ status, and cerebrovascular disease. Results: LMBs were present in 18.6% of NC, 24.3% of MCI, and 40% of AD participants (p < 0.05 vs NC). LMB incidence was 0.2 ± 0.6 per year in NC participants, 0.2 ± 0.5 in MCI, and 0.7 ± 1.4 in AD (p < 0.03 vs NC) and was 6-fold higher in PiB+ than PiB-NC. Incident LMBs were associated with age, APOE ε4+, PiB+, and baseline LMBs. Incidence of multiple LMBs was also associated with lacunar infarction and white matter hyperintensity severity. Conclusions: Older age, baseline LMBs, higher β-amyloid burden, and concomitant cerebrovascular disease may all confer higher risk of incident LMBs. This should be considered when designing protocols for amyloid-modifying clinical trials. PMID:24623839

  2. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE Site, Operable Unit 3, Des Moines, IA. (Second remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-18

    The Des Moines TCE site is located southwest of downtown Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and commercial, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Raccoon River. Water from the Des Moines Water Works north infiltration gallery was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride at levels above accepted drinking water standards. The ROD addresses OU3, which encompasses potential sources of ground water contamination in an area north of the Raccoon River. The selected remedial action for OU3 includes no action with periodic groundwater monitoring.

  4. Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Incidence among Residents of Guam

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Robert L; Whippy, Helen JD; Talon, Rebecca J; Montano, Melani V

    2015-01-01

    Cancer incidence data collected by the Guam Cancer Registry for the period 1998 through 2002 were analyzed by cancer site, age, and ethnicity. Ethnicity and site specific age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for Guam residents were calculated utilizing Guam 2000 census data and the U.S. 2000 standard population and were compared to U.S. 2000 data. Age-adjusted total cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population for the major ethnic groups represented on Guam were generally lower than U.S. averages (the exception was the Caucasian group which was higher). Some highlights include: 1). Chamorros (the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands) living on Guam had a slightly lower total cancer incidence rate than the total U.S. population (406.8/100,000 vs. 478.6 U.S.). Chamorros had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (24.4 vs. U.S. 10.7), nasopharynx (13.9 vs. 0.6 U.S.), liver (13.2 vs. 5.2 U.S.), and cervix (16.2 vs. 9.6 U.S.). Rates for prostate cancer (103.9 vs. 167.7 U.S.), female breast (115.9 vs. 130.9 U.S.), ovary (7.0 vs. 14.2 U.S.), colon-rectum-anus (44.3 vs. 56.9 U.S.), leukemia (11.0 vs. 12.6 U.S.), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.0 vs. 18.9 U.S.) were all lower than U.S. rates. 2). Filipinos living on Guam had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the nasopharynx (5.1), and liver (9.6). Filipinos had low age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancers (215.7), cancers of the mouth and pharynx when NPC was excluded (4.8), lung and bronchus (35.6 vs. U.S. 70.1), pancreas (1.7 vs. U.S. 11.1), colon-rectum-anus (37.1), female breast (60.7), prostate (46.1), leukemia (4.7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (8.4). 3). Micronesians other than Chamorros had the highest age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the lung and bronchus (111.5), liver (39.4), and cervix (27.4). Micronesians had low age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the colon-rectum-anus (4.1), female breast (35.0), prostate (78.4), leukemia (6.3), and non

  5. Ethnic disparities in cancer incidence among residents of Guam.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Robert L; Whippy, Helen J D; Talon, Rebecca J; Montano, Melani V

    2009-01-01

    Cancer incidence data collected by the Guam Cancer Registry for the period 1998 through 2002 were analyzed by cancer site, age, and ethnicity. Ethnicity and site specific age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for Guam residents were calculated utilizing Guam 2000 census data and the U.S. 2000 standard population and were compared to U.S. 2000 data. Age-adjusted total cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population for the major ethnic groups represented on Guam were generally lower than U.S. averages (the exception was the Caucasian group which was higher). Some highlights include: 1). Chamorros (the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands) living on Guam had a slightly lower total cancer incidence rate than the total U.S. population (406.8/100,000 vs. 478.6 U.S.). Chamorros had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (24.4 vs. U.S. 10.7), nasopharynx (13.9 vs. 0.6 U.S.), liver (13.2 vs. 5.2 U.S.), and cervix (16.2 vs. 9.6 U.S.). Rates for prostate cancer ( 103.9 vs. 167.7 U.S.), female breast (115.9 vs. 130.9 U.S.), ovary (7.0 vs. 14.2 U.S.), colon-rectum-anus (44.3 vs. 56.9 U.S.), leukemia (11.0 vs. 12.6 U.S.), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.0 vs. 18.9 U.S.) were all lower than U.S. rates. 2). Filipinos living on Guam had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the nasopharynx (5.1), and liver (9.6). Filipinos had low age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancers (215.7), cancers of the mouth and pharynx when NPC was excluded (4.8), lung and bronchus (35.6 vs. U.S. 70.1), pancreas (1.7 vs. U.S. 11.1), colon-rectum-anus (37.1), female breast (60.7), prostate (46.1), leukemia (4.7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (8.4). 3). Micronesians other than Chamorros had the highest age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the lung and bronchus (111.5), liver (39.4), and cervix (27.4). Micronesians had low age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the colon-rectum-anus (4.1), female breast (35.0), prostate (78.4), leukemia (6.3), and non

  6. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in Nigerian women.

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, J. E. N.; Obiechina, N. J. A.; Obionu, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence and types of utero-vaginal prolapse. METHODS: Retrospective medical records analyses of women who were subjected to reconstructive pelvic surgery for various types of pelvic relaxation at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and the University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria was carried out. The study was conducted from January 1996 to December 1999 during which there were 7515 surgical admissions. The inclusion criteria were those women who complained of feeling a mass in the vagina with demonAstrable descent of the anterior and/or posterior and/or apical vaginal walls and/or perineal descent. Excluded were patients who had other symptoms other than utero-vaginal prolapse and those whose grades and sites of prolapse were not determinable from the clinical or surgical notes. Also excluded were patients with nerve injury or disease, connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 54 women (age < or = 40 years), and group II included 105 women (age > or = 40 years). The findings between those two groups were compared with reference to sites, types and degree of prolapse. Also, coexistence of pelvic relaxation and underlying medical conditions were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 159 subjects out of 492 charts studied met the inclusion criteria for the study. In group I, mean age was 32.839 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 6.012 years; and in group II the mean age was 56.543 with a SD of 8.094. Hypertrophic (elongated) cervix was determined in 15 (6.3%) subjects in group I for an incidence of 1.58% per year, cystocele (vaginal anterior wall descent) was present in 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year; rectocele (posterior vaginal wall descent) was identified in 15 (6.3%) women for an incidence of 1.58% per year; vaginal cough prolapse (apical descent) was present 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year

  7. The London polonium incident: lessons in risk communications.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Public responses to large-scale radiological incidents are often thought to be disproportionate to the objective risk and can involve widespread societal disruption. Recent experiences of the (200)Po incident in central London suggest that public responses depend heavily on the nature of the incident and the effectiveness of risk communication efforts. This paper describes the outcome of several studies done in the aftermath of the (200)Po incident that suggest the reaction of the public on this occasion was muted, even for those directly affected. However, the desire for accurate, up-to-date and individually-tailored information was strong, and satisfaction with the efforts of the responding agencies was mediated by this information provision. A small minority of individuals was difficult to reassure effectively. This group may confer a particular drain on resources. Lessons for the risk communication efforts of public health responders are identified, in particular the importance of helping individuals to identify their risk of exposure, understand the difference between acute and chronic effects of exposure, and appreciate the meaning of any test results. Attempts at providing reassurance in the absence of specific information are likely to be counterproductive in any future radiological incident.

  8. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  9. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women. PMID:26153559

  10. Incident and emergency medical services management from a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Cavusoglu, Ozge

    2012-07-01

    Traffic crashes and other emergencies have impacts on traffic operations in transportation networks, often resulting in non-recurring congestion. Congestion, in turn, may impede the ability of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to provide timely response to those in need of medical attention. The work in this paper investigated the impact of incidents of varying severity and duration on transportation network performance in the Birmingham (AL, USA) area. The intensity and extent of the impact over space and time were assessed on the basis of average speeds. The analysis of incident scenarios was performed using the Visual Interactive System for Transport Algorithms (VISTA) platform. Moreover, first responders' travel times to the scene of the incident were collected to identify best units for responding, in an effort to improve current dispatching practices. Finally, a secondary incident on the EMS to the hospital was considered to further demonstrate the superiority of Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) over traditional static assignment methods in capturing dynamically changing traffic conditions. The study findings are expected to benefit local transportation planners, traffic engineers, emergency responders, and policy makers by allowing them to assess various response strategies to major incidents and emergencies and select the ones that minimize their potential impacts.

  11. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  12. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in Mozambique: national and regional estimates.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies.

  13. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women.

  14. Role of the dental team in mass fatality incidents.

    PubMed

    Fixott, R H; Arendt, D; Chrz, B; Filippi, J; McGivney, J; Warnick, A

    2001-04-01

    The process of dental identification for a mass fatality incident has unique aspects in comparison with that of a routine dental identification, outside of the obvious increase in the number of victims and responders. The dental team is a small part of a large effort to resolve the incident. Incident command structure applies to the dental team as a unit as well as to the entire organization of the response. Teamwork and planning are essential on all levels. Discussing the casework is limited to the public information officer; only the public information officer is authorized to talk to anyone outside the medical examiner's office. For the team, communication is essential between the team members and between the team and other morgue sections. Daily meetings not only update progress, but also identify and solve problems as they arise. Redundancy and cross-checking occur each step in each section. A core team of trained individuals provides a framework for the use of less experienced members. Use of a dental identification computer program is extremely beneficial, especially as the amount of fragmentation or number of victims increases. Because of the magnitude of the response, the physical and mental stresses require critical incident stress debriefing for all responders, regardless of their experience. The past and future service of the dental profession to the victims of mass fatality incidents and their families is an excellent example of the ideal of service on which the profession is based.

  15. Lift on Flexible and Rigid Cambered Wings at High Incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anya; Mancini, Peter; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The effects of camber and camber change due to elastic deflection of a membrane wing were investigated for wings in rectilinear translation with parameter variations in wing incidence and acceleration. Direct force and moment measurements were performed on a rigid flat plate wing, rigid cambered wings, and a membrane wing. Features in the force histories were further examined via flow visualization by planar laser illumination of fluorescent dye. Below 10 degrees of incidence, Wagner's approximation accurately predicts the time-evolution of lift for the rigid wings. At higher incidence, flow separation results in force transients, and the effect of wing camber is no longer additive. Both the rigid flat plate and rigid cambered wings reach peak lift at a 35 degree angle of attack, whereas the flexible wing experiences stall delay and reaches peak lift at 50 degrees. Due to the aeroelasticity of the flexible membrane, flow over the suction surface remains attached for much higher incidence angles than for the rigid wings. For incidence angles less than 30 degrees, the peak lift of the flexible wing is lower than that of its rigid counterparts. Beyond 30 degrees, the flexible wing experiences an aeroelastically induced stall delay that allows lift to exceed the rigid analogs. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) program.

  16. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  17. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries. PMID:27165207

  18. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Alison; Hachey, Kevin; Curtis, Andrew; Bourdeaux, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question. Methods We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices) and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004–2009. Results We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010–0.0404). Conclusions The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio. PMID:26958854

  19. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Joachim; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Palm, Frederick; Nix, Wilfred A; Maschke, Matthias; Safer, Anton; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of prospective and population based epidemiological data on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany to date. The ALS registry Rhineland-Palatinate was established to investigate the incidence, course and phenotypic variety of ALS in this south-west German state of about 4 million inhabitants. During the period 2010-2011, consecutive incident patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and followed up using multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment. One hundred and forty-six patients were enrolled. The annual crude incidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate was 1.8/100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.2). Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Incidence increased with age reaching a peak in the 70-74 years age group and declined thereafter. Late-onset ALS (≥ 75 years) was found in 14.4% of patients. About 32% of patients presented with bulbar onset. In conclusion, incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate is within the range of other prospective population based registers in Europe and North America. Gender ratio is nearly balanced.

  20. Malignant epithelial tumours in children: incidence and aetiology.

    PubMed

    al-Sheyyab, M; Muir, K R; Cameron, A H; Raafat, F; Pincott, J R; Parkes, S E; Mann, J R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the incidence of carcinomas in children, changes in incidence over a 30-year period, and to identify features of possible aetiological significance. A total of 173 cases were identified, but after review of the histopathology, 30 patients were excluded because they were considered to have benign epithelial tumours or malignant tumours of nonepithelial origin. Seven other cases were excluded because pathology material was not available. Overall, in 28% of cases, the diagnoses were changed by pathology review. Thus, 136 children in the West Midlands Region diagnosed 1957-1986 were included, with carcinoid tumours (44) and tumours of skin (22), nasopharynx (14), salivary gland (13), adrenal cortex (13), thyroid (9), large bowel (5), other (16). Excluding carcinoids, the age-standardised incidence rate was 2.4 x 10(6) per year. Male:female ratio was 0.7:1 and 66% were aged > 10 years. Incidence increased from 1.5 to 3.3 x 10(6) per year. Genetic factors predisposing to carcinoma included tyrosinosis, MEN II and III, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and basal cell naevus syndrome. There was a case of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and several other patients had relevant family histories. Probable "environmental" causes included antenatal exposure to stilboestrol or hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate, stilboestrol given for premature menarche, neonatal hepatitis and prior radiotherapy. The aetiology of carcinomas in children is multifactorial, both genetic and environmental factors being important. The incidence is increasing.