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Sample records for 1990 91 heating season

  1. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  2. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  3. The 1990-91 apparition of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beish, Jeffrey D.

    2003-12-01

    Mars was favorably placed for telescopic observation in the northern hemisphere from January 1990 through March 1991. This report outlines the International Mars Patrol (IMP) observational programs of the Association of Lunar & Planetary Observers and summarizes the observations of the 1990-1991 Apparition. The Martian South Polar Region's seasonal aspects are described, the environmental conditions that favored the development and the movements of two individual dust storms during October and November 1990 are discussed. Although several reports on this apparition were presented previously to ALPO members at meetings and in popular astronomy magazines, a comprehensive report has not yet appeared in The Strolling Astronomer. Note: See Special reference list at the end of this article for previous papers pertaining to the 1990 apparition.

  4. Roanoke College Student Conduct Code 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roanoke Coll., VA.

    This Roanoke College (Virginia) 1990-91 conduct code manual is intended for distribution to students. A reproduction of the Academic Integrity and Student Conduct Code Form which all students must sign leads off the document. A section detailing the student conduct code explains the delegation of authority within the institution and describes the…

  5. Water withdrawal and use in Maryland, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    During 1990, about 1,460 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of freshwater was withdrawn from surface- water and ground-water sources in Maryland. Total freshwater withdrawals increased during 1991 to about 1,500 Mgal/d. Saline surface-water withdrawals for cooling condensors increased from about 4,550 Mgal/d during 1990 to 5,760 Mgal/d during 1991. During 1990-91, most freshwater withdrawals (about 1,220 Mgal/d during 1990 and 1,250 Mgal/d during 1991) were from surface-water sources. More than 70 percent of the fresh surface water was withdrawn and used in the Potomac drainage basin. Most ground water (about 170 Mgal/d in 1990 and 184 Mgal/d in 1991) was withdrawn and used in the Upper Chesapeake drainage basin. The Potomac Group aquifers provided most of the ground water (about 64 Mgal/d during 1990 and 68 Mgal/d during 1991 or about 27 percent each year). Ten water-use categories represent the major demands on the surface-water and ground-water resources of the State: Public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power, hydroelectric power, livestock, irrigation, and aquaculture. Largest withdrawals were for public supply (798 Mgal/d during 1990 and 826 Mgal/d during 1991), and the water was used by residences, commercial establishments, and industries. Baltimore City received the largest public-supply deliveries (totaling about 135 Mgal/d during 1990 and 127 Mgal/d during 1991). Freshwater withdrawals for self-supplied domestic use, aquaculture, and irrigation increased during the period, whereas withdrawals for commercial, industrial, thermo- electric power, and mining uses decreased.

  6. Pharmacists' compensation and work patterns, 1990-91.

    PubMed

    Schondelmeyer, S W; Mason, H L; Miller, C S; Kibbe, A H

    1992-01-01

    Several major trends were observed in these findings from the 1990-91 National Pharmacists' Compensation Survey (for details see the final report). Only 72.6% of licensed pharmacists were working full-time in pharmacy; another 14.4% were working part-time in pharmacy, and nearly 13.0% were either not working in pharmacy or not working at all. Although 90.0% of active men pharmacists were working full-time, only 70.7% of active women pharmacists were working full-time. Men were more likely to be working in independent and chain pharmacies as a manager or owner. Women were more likely to be working in hospital or chain pharmacies as a staff pharmacist. Pharmacists' base salary in 1990 was substantially higher for men than for women with averages of $46,661 versus $42,668. Total pharmacy compensation showed a similar pattern but an even greater spread between men and women with averages of $51,032 versus $44,751. However, after adjusting for years in practice and number of hours worked per week, the base HWE for employee pharmacists shows that men and women pharmacists do get "equal pay for equal work" in the first 20 years of practice. The difference that develops between men and women with more years in practice is probably due to the higher proportion of men in management positions and to differences in practice setting preferences.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. National water summary 1990-91: Hydrologic events and stream water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Richard W.; Chase, Edith B.; Williams, John S.; Moody, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The following discussion is an overview of the three parts of this 1990-91 National Water Summary - "Hydrologic Conditions and Water-Related Events, Water Years 1990-91," "Hydrologic Perspectives on Water Issues," and "State Summaries of Stream Water Quality."

  8. The Kamehameha Journal of Education. 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, Gisela E., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the three 1990 issues and the two 1991 issues of a journal that publishes articles on the education of Hawaii's children. The journal covers such topics as teaching strategies, instructional settings, and cultural differences. Articles in the January 1990 issue consider: (1) reading and literacy in the Kamehameha…

  9. An Assessment of Educational Benefits: A Response by 1990-91 Mendocino College Graduates. Research Report 91-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Thomas F.

    In an effort to assess students' impressions of the educational growth and change they experienced at Mendocino College (MC), a survey was administered to all students participating in graduation ceremonies during the 1990-91 school year. Usable surveys were obtained from 40% (N=73) of this sample. In addition, existing data were analyzed for the…

  10. Arab World Almanac, Volume 2, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie Schmida, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Each of the three issues of this volume of "Arab World Almanac" features a self-contained lesson plan on one aspect of the Arab world. The Fall, 1990 issue focuses on "Oil and the Arab World." The Winter, 1991 issue looks at "The Arab World in the World Wars." The Spring, 1991 issue examines "Islamic Revival in the Arab World." Each issue includes…

  11. Harris County Juvenile Detention Center (1990-91).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Houston Independent School District's (HISD) educational program at the Harris County Juvenile Detention Center provided instruction to the 1,138 youths residing at that facility from August 1990 to March 1991. The youth at the Detention Center had been detained by Harris County Law Enforcement Officials and were awaiting court action. The…

  12. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  13. Technology Preparation Pilot Test. Year 2, School Year 1990-91. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; And Others

    An evaluation described Tech Prep prototypes as they were implemented in five different Indiana sites and assessed their effectiveness. Evaluation procedures included: (1) collection and analysis of data from students involved in Tech Prep for the first time in 1990-91 and students involved for the second year; (2) analysis of prototype project…

  14. AISD on AISD: Reflections on the State of the District--1990-91 Districtwide Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Sedra G.

    In 1990-91, over 75,000 surveys were administered to Austin Independent School District (AISD), Texas, high school students. elementary school and secondary school teachers and administrators, other school professionals, and parents of students. These surveys gave respondents a chance to express their views on the AISD, and provide insight into…

  15. Dropout and Migration Statistics: District of Columbia Public Schools, School Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Kathy D.

    This report presents statistics from the second year (1990-91) of the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) implementation of procedures to identify and track student dropouts. Other school "leaver" data was also collected. The primary data presented in this report focuses on secondary school dropouts (grades 7-12). However,…

  16. State Bilingual and ECIA Chapter 1 Migrant Product Evaluation Report, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saginaw Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Evaluation Services.

    Through the Section 41, State Bilingual Education program and the E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Migrant Education program, Saginaw public schools provide supplemental instruction and specialized services in 24 elementary and 6 secondary schools. In 1990-91, the bilingual program served 773 students, mostly Hispanic and some Laotian, while the migrant…

  17. The 1990-91 Term of the Supreme Court and Its Impact on Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatel, David; Brannan, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin reviews the 1990-91 term of the U.S. Supreme Court in terms of its impact on public schools, finding that the Court tended to decline to review decisions by lower courts that gave school districts discretion to resolve questions of student and employee rights. Court opinions that were handed down are discussed, and the impact of…

  18. Report on Fiscal and Compliance Accountability: Fiscal Year 1990-91. Report 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    A summary of the results of various California community college financial audits and reviews for fiscal year (FY) 1990-91 are presented in this report. Section I explains the scope, purpose, and procedures of annual financial and compliance audits which are conducted to evaluate financial statements, encourage sound fiscal management practices,…

  19. Publications Relating to the 1990-91 College Debate Topic. Subject Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

    This document contains a partially annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, government reports, and other documents relating to the 1990-91 college debate topic: Resolved: That the United States should substantially change its trade policy with China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. (DB)

  20. Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant. Evaluation Findings, 1990-91. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Catherine; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's (AISD) Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant programs. Chapter 1 is a federally funded compensatory educational program that provided funding in 1990-91 to 25 AISD elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Chapter 1 Migrant is also a…

  1. Special Education School Articulation Program. Phase I: Program Implementation 1990-91. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    New York City's Special Education School Articulation Program, which fosters informed student and parent choice about available high school program options, is described. Initial program objectives for the 1990-91 school year included hiring of school articulation coordinators and development of specific articulation plans by middle and high…

  2. Follow-Up of Career Program Completers: Class of 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    In November 1991, a follow-up study was conducted of 514 former students of Johnson County Community College (JCCC), in Kansas, who had earned a career program degree or certificate in 1990-91, or had been identified as leaving the college with marketable skills. Of these, 480 completed mail or telephone surveys for a response rate of 93%.…

  3. Fecundity of walleyes in western Lake Erie, 1966 and 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muth, Kenneth M.; Ickes, Brian S.

    1993-01-01

    Ovaries were collected from walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in western Lake Erie just prior to spawning in 1990 and 1991 to determine current fecundity. Results were compared with fecundity determined in 1966 prior to stock rehabilitation when walleye abundance was lower and fish size at age was greater. Fecundity estimates determined from 121 fish aged 3-10 ranged from 53,000 to 426,000 eggs per female. Increases in egg production correlated with increases in length and weight, and weight accounting for most of the variability. In 1990-91 the mean egg production of the dominant age groups of spawners (ages 4 to 8) was approximately 25% lower than fishes of similar age in 1966. The mean egg diameter in 1990-91 (1.63 mm) was not related to the size or age of the fish and was not significantly smaller than the egg diameter in 1966 (1.72 mm).

  4. HISD Magnet Evaluation: Science, Math, and Computer Enrichment Programs, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Nanda D.; And Others

    Twenty-one magnet programs in the Houston Independent School District in Texas feature an enriched curriculum in science, math, and/or computers (science/math). Of these, 12 are elementary programs, 4 are middle school programs, and 5 are high school programs. In these programs, a total of 9,574 students were served during the 1990-91 school year:…

  5. Trends in Degrees Conferred by Institutions of Higher Education: 1984-85 through 1990-91. E.D. TABS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Frank

    Using two large national survey databases, a study was done of trends in degrees conferred by colleges and universities. The data were gathered from: (1) the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) 1986-87 through 1990-91 "Completions" surveys, and the 1990 and 1991 "Consolidated" surveys; and (2) the Higher…

  6. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1990--91

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 27 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada during 1990--91. Twelve wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 15 wells representing 24 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,035 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1990--91. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  7. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  8. Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

  9. PCB congeners in human milk in Germany from 1984/85 and 1990/91

    SciTech Connect

    Georgii, S.; Bachour, G.; Brunn, H.; Elmadfa, I.

    1995-04-01

    Studies of so-called bioindicators clearly show the impact of environmental legislation on PCB contamination of the environment and of the food chain in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is evident from the results of studies performed in our laboratory on samples of muscle tissue from foxes that were submitted for post-mortem examination in the years 1983, 1987 and 1991. Whereas the concentration of low-chlorinated congeners of high-chlorinated biphenyls, with the exception of PCB no. 101, decreased. This trend may also be responsible for changes in the otherwise stable PCB concentrations in human milk. Consequently, in the study describe here, milk samples from 1990/91, from women in Middle-Hesse, Germany, were examined and the results compared to samples stemming from 1984/85. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Seasonal constraints on inferred planetary heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Karen A.; Huybers, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Planetary heating can be quantified using top of the atmosphere energy fluxes or through monitoring the heat content of the Earth system. It has been difficult, however, to compare the two methods with each other because of biases in satellite measurements and incomplete spatial coverage of ocean observations. Here we focus on the the seasonal cycle whose amplitude is large relative to satellite biases and observational errors. The seasonal budget can be closed through inferring contributions from high-latitude oceans and marginal seas using the covariance structure of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM1). In contrast, if these regions are approximated as the average across well-observed regions, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle is overestimated relative to satellite constraints. Analysis of the same CESM1 simulation indicates that complete measurement of the upper ocean would increase the magnitude and precision of interannual trend estimates in ocean heating more than fully measuring the deep ocean.

  11. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  12. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  13. Career Awareness in Education (Project CARE), Community School District 10. 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of the New York City Public Schools' Career Awareness Resources in Education Project (Project CARE). During the 1990-91 school year, Project CARE operated at 4 schools serving 710 immigrant students of limited English proficiency in grades 6, 7, 8, and 9. The program provided instruction in English as a Second Language,…

  14. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1 Children's Art Carnival Creative Reading Program 1990-91 and 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoerri-Simons, Yvonne; And Others

    The Children's Art Carnival (CAC) is an intensive holistic reading and reading-oriented arts program for Chapter 1-eligible students who have scored below the cut-off point on a standardized reading test or have performed poorly in the classroom. This report presents the findings of evaluations of the 1990-91 and 1991-92 programs by the Office of…

  15. Asian and Arabic Mediated Enrichment Resource and Instructional Career Awareness (Project AMERICA). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of the New York City Public Schools' Asian and Arabic Mediated Enrichment Resource and Instructional Career Awareness Program (Project AMERICA). During the 1990-91 school year, Project AMERICA operated at 2 high schools (Lafayette High School and Fort Hamilton High School) and served 408 Chinese-speaking Asian immigrant…

  16. Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use among Fourth-Grade Urban Schoolchildren in 1988/89 and 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Patricia J.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Studies alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use by fourth graders in Washington, DC (n=4,675 in 1988-89 and n=4,678 in 1990-91). Lifetime prevalence of self-reported alcohol use, alcohol use without parental knowledge, and smoking more than a puff of a cigarette declined, although marijuana use and cigarette experimentation did not decline. (SLD)

  17. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: How Are We Measuring Up? A Progress Report, School Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Compensatory Education and Support Services.

    This report measures how well Maryland educators are working together to provide a public education that meets the long- and short-term needs of homeless children and youth by providing environments that support their physical, social, and emotional growth. It outlines accomplishments for the 1990-91 school year, recommends ways of addressing…

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. B Appendix B to Part 541—Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate,...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. B Appendix B to Part 541—Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate,...

  20. QED Estimates of the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey: Deriving and Comparing QED School Estimates with CCD Estimates. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Albert; Scanlon, Brian R.

    This study examines the magnitude of the difference between estimates from the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) using a Common Core of Data (CCD) definition of a school and a Quality Education Data (QED) definition of a school. The 1990-91 SASS sample design allows for the development of school and administrator estimates using either…

  1. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  2. The Incidence of Spearing during a High School's 1975 and 1990 Football Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Jonathan F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the incidence of spearing between two high school football seasons, one before and one after a rule change banning spearing. Reviews of 18 game films of a New Jersey team from 1975 and 1990 indicated that, overall, the rule change did not have a favorable impact on the incidence of spearing. (SM)

  3. Meteorites from the 1990/91 Expedition to the Frontier Mountains, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.

    1992-07-01

    Between December 1990 and January 1991 a field team of four, supported by the Italian Progetto Antartide from its Terra Nova base, recovered 243 samples. At time of writing, 74 stony meteorites have been classified and 6 samples have been found to be terrestrial rocks. Workers involved in classification were: R. Hutchison and M. M. Grady (Natural History Museum, London), S. J. B. Reed (Cambridge University), P. A. Bland (The Open University), C. M. Levy (University of Paris), G. Kurat (Natural History Museum, Vienna), L. Folco (University of Siena), A. Maras and M. Serracino (University of Rome), G. R. Levi-Donati (Inst. Tec. Ind. di Stato "A. Volta"), A. M. Fioretti, G.-M. Molin, and G. Salvioulo (University of Padova). Of 74 meteorites characterised, 71 are ordinary chondrites, 2 are ureilites, and 1 is an acapulcoite. Six of the ordinary chondrites are unequilibrated type 3 (3 H group and 3 L or LL group) and 8 are highly metamorphosed L7 chondrites; pairing has not yet been established. A full list of meteorite classifications will appear regularly in the Meteoritical Bulletin. The first samples can be found in The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 72, Meteoritics 27, 109-117. Ureilites: Two stones were recovered weighing 34.6 g and 17.5 g. They are texturally and compositionally distinct and therefore represent two falls. FRO 90036 has olivine crystals varying in composition between Fa(sub)20 cores and Fa(sub)10 rims, which are mosaiced. It corresponds to type "II" after Vdovykin (1970). Average pyroxene composition is Fs(sub)16Wo(sub)3. FRO 90054 has homogeneous olivine of Fa(sub)13.1. Average low-Ca pyroxene composition is Fs(sub)16Wo(sub)5 but Ca-rich pyroxene (augite) constitutes ca. 60% of this sample. Olivine is found as discrete crystals without evidence of subgrain formation, hence type "I" after Vdovykin (1970). Acapulcoite: FRO 90011 is a 1.8-g stone. Average olivine composition is Fa(sub)9.4 and pyroxene is Fs(sub)12.6, i.e., similar to Acapulco (Palme et

  4. Thulium heat source: IR D project 91-031

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Newman, J.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-04-10

    The goal of the Thulium Heat Source study is to determine the performance capability and evaluate the safety and environmental aspects of a thulium-170 heat source. Our approach is to study parametrically the performance of thulium-170 heat source designs in the power range of 5--50 kW{sub th}. At least three heat source designs will be characterized in this power range and integrated with various power conversion subsystems to assess their performance, mass, and volume. We will determine shielding requirements, and consider the safety and environmental aspects of their use.

  5. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Beasley, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    From 1953 to 1990, an estimated 0.56 to 1.18 curies of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The waste- water was discharged directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well prior to February 1984 and through unlined disposal ponds in 1984-90. The wastewater did not contain measurable concentrations of iodine-129 in 1989-90. Samples were collected from 51 wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer and 1 well that obtains water from a perched ground-water zone. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129 using an accelerator mass spectrometer which is two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than neutron- activation methods. Therefore, iodine-129 was detectable in samples from a larger number of wells distributed over a larger area than previously was possible. Ground-water flow velocities calculated using iodine-129 data are estimated to be at least 6 feet per day. These velocities compare favorably with those of 4 to 10 feet per day calculated from tritium data and tracer studies at wells down- gradient from the ICPP. In 1990-91, concentrations of iodine-129 in water samples from wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from less than 0.0000006+0.0000002 to 3.82.+0.19 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The mean concentration in water from 18 wells was 0.81+0.19 pCi/L as compared with 1.30+0.26 pCi/L in 1986. The decrease in the iodine-l29 concentrations from 1986 to 1990-91 chiefly was the result of a decrease in the amount of iodine-129 disposed of annually, and changes in disposal techniques.

  6. Thulium heat source IR D Project 91-031

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Newman, J.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Thulium Heat Source study is to determine the performance capability and evaluate the safety and environmental aspects of a thulium-170 heat source. Thulium-170 has several attractive features, including the fact that it decays to a stable, chemically innocuous isotope in a relatively short time. A longer-range goal is to attract government funding for the development, fabrication, and demonstration testing in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) of one or more thulium isotope power (TIP) prototype systems. The approach is to study parametrically the performance of thulium-170 heat source designs in the power range of 5-50 kW{sub th}. At least three heat source designs will be characterized in this power range to assess their performance, mass, and volume. The authors will determine shielding requirements, and consider the safety and environmental aspects of their use.

  7. Are there useful lessons from the 1990-91 oil price shock?

    SciTech Connect

    Tatom, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    Following Iraq`s invasion of Kuwait, oil prices temporarily doubled. This paper examines the hypothesis that the U.S. economy had changed following previous oil price shocks, so that the 1990 oil price rise (and its subsequent decline) had smaller effects than previously. It also examines a related hypothesis that such a transitory oil price hike would have little or no macroeconomic effect. It surveys and rejects arguments for a reduced impact of oil price shocks and for hysteresis. The article argues that recent experience was comparable in magnitude to earlier shocks and that there were comparable macroeconomic developments and changes in the composition of output. The paper concludes with a test of the effect of energy prices on the misery index and shows that recent changes in misery are consistent with previous experience. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Approximate water-level changes in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1977-91 and 1990-91, and measured compaction, 1973-90, in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, Dana L.; Kasmarek, M.C.; Campodonico, Al

    1991-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that depict water-level changes and compaction of subsurface material in the Houston-Galveston region. The maps present approximate water-level changes in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1977-91 and 1990-91 (figs. 1-4). The location of borehole extensometers is shown in figure 5, and graphs present measured compation for 1973-90 (fig. 6).

  9. Ground-water resources and contamination at Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    Kwajalein Island is the largest of the many low, sandy islets that form Kwajalein Atoll in the western North Pacific Ocean. Salinity and water-level surveys at exploratory monitoring wells in 1990 and 1991 delineated a freshwater lens nearly 40 feet thick floating on saltwater within the carbonate sand and gravel aquifer. A transition zone of mixture between the freshwater and saltwater is as thick as 90 feet. Maximum water-table height is only 1.5 feet above sea level. The freshwater lens thinned and thickened by 5 feet during the year-long field study in response to seasonal rainfall and pumping. Freshwater is produced by airstrip rain catchments and shallow, horizontal wells up to 1,400 feet long. Catchment and ground-water yields are roughly equal on average, but catchment is the principal source during the wet season, whereas the dry season requires sustained pumping. The salinity of pumped water has remained below drinking-water standards since wells were installed in 1971, except during the drought of 1983-84, the most severe drought in the rainfall record dating back to 1945. Wet-season rains at the end of the drought reduced salinity to low levels in just a few months. The operating history of the combined catchment/well water supply indicates that it is capable of producing at least 300,000 gallons per day in all but the driest years, and more in wet years. Several sites are contaminated by fuels, solvents, or metals, but most are at the periphery of the freshwater flow system where contaminants are carried toward the shore. However, three interior sites have greater potential to contaminate nearby water-supply wells.

  10. ARL Statistics, 1990-91. A Compilation of Statistics from the One Hundred and Nineteen Members of the Association of Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Sarah M., Comp.; Finer, Eileen, Comp.

    This report presents statistics on the 107 university libraries and 12 independent research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 1990-91 fiscal year. Data are reported in alphabetical and rank order on collections (volumes in library, gross and net volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  11. The Year of the Arts in Education: 1990-91. What It Is All About. What To Expect. What To Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Robert J.; Shuler, Scott C.

    The 1990-91 school year has been designated the Year of the Arts in Education in Connecticut. This guide describes what state agencies are doing to celebrate this special year and seeks to inform various groups about what they can do to help develop Year of the Arts in Education activities. Suggestions are made for various groups including: art…

  12. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  13. Seasonal Cycle of Ocean Heat Transport and its Projected Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Saenko, O.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal cycle of ocean heat transport (OHT) and its projected changes are analyzed using the second-generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The future anthropogenic forcing is assessed using two newly-developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gases and aerosols (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Consistent with some previous results based on eddy-permitting models, it is found that much of the seasonal variability of meridional circulation in the CanESM2 ocean is captured by the seasonal cycle of meridional Ekman fluxes, compensated by deep-reaching barotropic return flows. Since the seasonal cycle of zonal wind stress is projected to change at some latitudes, both in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, the projected seasonal variability of OHT essentially follows these changes in the wind.

  14. The year 1990 marks end of Pluto-Charon mutual event season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.

    1991-01-01

    From late 1984 until late 1990, the orbit of Pluto's satellite Charon was sufficiently close to an edge-on configuration, as seen from Earth, to produce transit, occultation, and eclipse events involving the two objects. The systematic observation of these events, each of which offers a unique geometry of Pluto, Charon and shadow, has been used to directly measure several parameters of the system. With data now available from the entire mutual event season, reliable values for the radii of Pluto and Charon can be derived. Pluto's radius is 0.05860 plus or minus 0.00031, in units of Chiron's mean orbital radius, and Charon's radius is 0.03019 plus or minus 0.00066, in the same units.

  15. Agricultural Workers in Central California. Volume 1: In 1989; Volume 2: Phase II, 1990-91. California Agricultural Studies, 90-8 and 91-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew J.; And Others

    Two surveys developed profiles of seasonal agricultural workers and their working conditions in central California. In 1989, a random sample of 347 seasonal workers was interviewed. The sample was 30 percent female and 87 percent Mexican-born. Average age was 35 years and average educational attainment was 5.9 years. Most had parents, spouses, or…

  16. Changes in seasonality of birth rates in Germany from 1951 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, A; Simoni, M; Nieschlag, E

    1993-11-01

    Annual birth rates have been found to be affected up to 10-20% by seasonal variation. Variations affecting birth patterns are attributed to biological and social factors: annual rhythms of climatic conditions, or the photoperiod and varying sexual activity. A recent study placed greater priority on biological factors as responsible for seasonal variation: annual variations in sperm quality, serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in men, and ovulation variations in women by time of day. Seasonal variations in birth rates were found in Munster, Germany, between 1890-99, 1965-74, and 1981-90. Further examination was made to ascertain whether the variations pertained to the entire country of Germany. Data were obtained on monthly birth rates from 1951 to 1990 from the states of the former West Germany. Annual means were calculated and the monthly deviations from the mean computed (centered moving average with a window size of 13 months), as well as monthly means within 5-year intervals. Yearly cosine functions with 2 harmonics were also fitted to the data. The results showed maximum births in the first half of the year between 1951-75 and later months in the following years until stabilization after 1981. The amplitudes of the rhythms declined from 1972 until stabilizing and increasing after 1978. The annual patterns were smooth and stable with peaks in February and March, and a "shoulder" peak in September, which conforms to long suspected seasonal conceptions in December. The annual rhythms appear to support biologic seasonal variation until 1970. The shift after 1970 to conceptions in the winter months for Germany has also been observed with US data since 1950, and in southern hemisphere countries. The explanation may be environmental changes. The workplace environment has replaced the photoperiod influences and temperature fluctuations, but the shift by 6 months would not support this deseasonalization hypothesis. It is suggested that social reasons

  17. Identification and Characterization of Intercritical Heat-Affected Zone in As-Welded Grade 91 Weldment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyu; Kannan, Rangasayee; Li, Leijun

    2016-12-01

    A metallurgical method is proposed for locating the intercritical heat-affected zone in the as-welded Grade 91 steel. New austenitic grains, preferentially formed along the original prior austenite grain boundaries, are characterized to contain finer M23C6 carbides and higher strain levels than the original prior austenite grains. Kurdjumov-Sachs Group 1 variant pairs, with a low misorientation of 7 deg within a martensitic block, are identified as the dominant variants in the new PAGs.

  18. Follow-Up 91. Minnesota High School Follow-Up. Class of 1990--One Year Later. Trend Data: 1978-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedey, John M.

    A study examined the educational and employment activities of members of Minnesota's high school class of 1990. Data regarding 12,458 students (11,814 graduates, 356 dropouts, and 288 students school leavers not classified as dropouts) were collected from 90 high schools participating in the Minnesota Secondary School Follow-up System and from 926…

  19. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Owyhee and Vale Projects, Oregon and Idaho, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.; Mullins, W.H.; Schuler, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was conducted during 1990--91 in the Owyhee and Vale projects in eastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, as well as at a number of sites in the Snake River and tributaries to the Snake River in the area of study. The objective of the study was to determine if agricultural drainwater entering the study area was causing, or had the potential to cause, significant harmful effects to human health, fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Approximately 153,000 acres of land are irrigated annually within the areas of the Owyhee and Vale projects. Large quantities of water are required because of the semiarid climate and relatively high evaporation rates. Several reservoirs in the area are filled annually during the wet, nonirrigation season to sustain irrigation during the dry summer months. During the irrigation season, this impounded water, along with direct diversions from the Malheur, Owyhee, and Snake Rivers, is transported to the irrigated areas through a series of diversion tunnels, siphons, canals, aqueducts, ditches, and drains. Major crops grown in the area include sugar beets, alfalfa hay and other hay crops, onions, and winter wheat. Minor crops include corn, potatoes, mint, various seed crops, and fruit. In 1987, it was estimated that the following amounts of pesticides were used in the project areas: 2,4-D (21,000 lbs [pounds]), chlorpyrifos (1,000 lbs), dacthal (40,000 lbs), dicamba (320 lbs), endosulfan (2,500 lbs), ethion (11,000 lbs), malathion (24,000 lbs), parathion (5,000 lbs), and phorate (11,000 lbs). Median concentrations and values for total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness in the Vale project area were greater than 1.5 times those values observed in the Owyhee project area or at other Snake River locations. During irrigation (August 1990), total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness values increased in a

  20. Tribological properties of heat-treated electroless Ni-P coatings on AZ91 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, M.; Vojtěch, D.; Novák, P.; Vítů, T.

    2011-09-01

    Influence of heat treatment regime on adhesion and wear resistance of Ni-P electroless coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy is investigated in this work. The pretreated substrate was plated using a bath containing nickel sulphate, sodium hypophosphite and sodium acetate as main constituents. The coated samples were heat treated at 400-450 °C for 1-8 h. Adhesion of coating was estimated from the scratch test with an initial load of 8.80 N. Wear resistance was studied using the pin-on-disc method. It was found that there is no significant dependence of the coating wear resistance on heat treatment regime, as the formation of Al-Ni intermetallic sub-layers that reduce coating adhesion is limited to regions where Al17Mg12 phase is present in the substrate. Moreover, the coating shows good sliding properties due to the formation of oxide glazes in the wear track.

  1. Heat Treatment of AZ91D Mg-Al-Zn Alloy: Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, Dung D.; Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Cox, James; Gupta, Nikhil; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are attracting great interest from the automotive industry because of the potential for weight reduction. An AZ91D cast alloy was studied in the current work to understand the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic compressive properties. The selected heat treatments include solution treatment (T4) and solution treatment followed by aging (T6). The as-cast alloy microstructure consists of intermetallic β-phase (Mg17Al12) precipitates surrounded by α + β lamellar eutectic in α-Mg solid solution. The AZ91D-T4 specimens showed small β-phase precipitates along the grain boundaries and regions of eutectic mixture. The T6 heat treatment causes the β-phase platelets in the α + β eutectic to grow and develop into β-precipitates. The difference in the phase morphology reflects into the mechanical properties. The Vickers hardness of the T6 heat-treated specimens was 3.6% higher than the as-cast alloy. The compressive yield strengths of T4 and T6 treated specimens were 1.3% and 43.1% higher than those of as-cast specimens. The high strain rate compression testing resulted in increase in the strength with strain rate for the T4 and T6 specimens. A maximum increase of 42% was observed in T6 specimen tested at a strain rate of 4,000/s in comparison to the quasi-static compression. Under high strain rate compression testing, the T6 heat-treated specimens showed failure of the β-precipitates resulting in increased energy absorption in comparison to the quasi-static compression.

  2. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  3. Seasonality of the urban heat island effect: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a rigorous analysis of the drivers of seasonality in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Many studies report annual cycles in UHI intensity and have attributed those patterns to various hypotheses, including seasonal trends in wind and clouds, prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions, soil moisture, and day length. But to our knowledge, those hypotheses have never been tested, leaving a substantial gap in our basic understanding of the urban climate. We tested these and other hypotheses using two years of continuous temperature measurements from an array of 150 sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin USA, an urban area of 407,000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. This is one of the best replicated urban climate arrays ever deployed, which allowed us to characterize the UHI in rich spatial and temporal detail and rigorously assess the biophysical and synoptic drivers of its seasonal variation. UHI intensities were typically highest in summer and lowest in winter. Seasonal trends in wind speed and cloud cover generally tracked annual trends in UHI intensity, with the clearer, calmer conditions conducive to stronger UHIs more common in summer. This is consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal trends in wind, clouds, and anti-cyclonic conditions drive UHI seasonality. However, clear, calm summer nights still had higher UHI intensities than clear, calm winter nights, indicating that some background factor shifted baseline UHI intensities throughout the year. We found that regional vegetation and snow cover conditions set distinct seasonal baselines for UHI intensity, with nighttime intensities averaging 4°C in summer and 1°C in winter. Synoptic and biophysical factors that vary on shorter time scales (e.g. wind, clouds, soil moisture, relative humidity) modified daily UHI intensity around those baselines by 1-3°C but were not the primary drivers of UHI seasonality, contrary to the most common

  4. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-09-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China’s central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960–2011, resulting in a decline of HL (‑2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China’s central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future.

  5. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China’s central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960–2011, resulting in a decline of HL (−2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China’s central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  6. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-09-21

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future.

  7. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  8. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  9. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  10. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historic (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, whereas a time series analysis using a piecewise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day vs. a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages and all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect of heat intensity on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4°C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly age groups (<85 years) experience significant risk for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma hospitalizations.

  11. Variability of the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index across the north slope of Alaska in the 1990s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, D.; Daeschner, S.; Hope, A.; Douglas, D.; Petersen, A.; Myneni, R.; Zhou, L.; Oechel, W.

    2003-01-01

    The interannual variability and trend of above-ground photosynthetic activity of Arctic tundra vegetation in the 1990s is examined for the north slope region of Alaska, based on the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index (SINDVI) derived from local area coverage (LAC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. Smaller SINDVI values occurred during the three years (1992-1994) following the volcanic eruption of Mt Pinatubo. Even after implementing corrections for this stratospheric aerosol effect and adjusting for changes in radiometric calibration coefficients, an apparent increasing trend of SINDVI in the 1990s is evident for the entire north slope. The most pronounced increase was observed for the foothills physiographical province.

  12. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with the differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    DOE PAGES

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; ...

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with themore » differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.« less

  14. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historical (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County -King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis using a piece-wise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect that heat’s intensity has on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day versus a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages, all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect heat intensity has on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4 °C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly (less than 85) age groups experience significant risk for: nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, COPD and asthma hospitalizations. PMID:25719287

  15. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  16. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries, North Carolina, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Ronald G.

    1992-01-01

    Water quality measurements were made at six sites in or near North Carolina's Pamlico River estuary and at five sites in or near the Neuse River estuary. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. In the Pamlico River estuary, salinities generally ranged from near zero to about 20 parts per thousand during the period April 1989 through September 1991; however, unnaturally high salinities (up to about 51 parts per thousand) were observed at one site on July 11, 1990. Recorded water temperatures in the Pamlico River were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 20 milligrams per liter. In the Neuse River estuary, salinities ranged from less than 0.1 to nearly 33 parts per thousand between May 1989 and September 1991. During the same period, recorded water temperatures in this estuary were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 21 milligrams per liter. Instantaneous values for selected periods are summarized in a series of box plots. Daily mean values of salinity, water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs, as are 5-day mean values for day and night conditions. This is the second in a series of reports summarizing water quality data obtained from these continuously monitored sites.

  17. Data on selected herbicides and two triazine metabolites in precipitation of the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goolsby, D.A.; Scribner, E.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Pomes, M.L.; Meyer, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    Weekly precipitation (rain and snow) samples were collected from 81 National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network sites in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States for the analysis of herbicides. In addition, five high- elevation background sites along the Rocky Mountains and in Alaska were sampled to provide data on herbicides in precipitation at sites far from the study area. The study began in March 1990 and continued through September 1991. The precipitation samples were shipped to the Central Analytical Laboratory operated by the Illinois State Water Survey for analyses of inorganic compounds. Subsamples of the precipitation were shipped to the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, for the analysis of 11 herbicides and 2 triazines metabolites. This report provides descriptions of the study area, sample-collection methods, laboratory methods, and quality assurance. The report also includes a compilation of herbicide concentration data from both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods. Laboratory analyses consisted of 6,230 samples that were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using alachlor and atrazine microtiter plates and 2,341 samples that were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Graphical and statistical comparisons of the two analytical methods are given in this report. Data from this study have been useful in determining the spatial and temporal distribution of herbicide concentrations and deposition in precipitation of over a 26-State area of the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. The data also provide evidence of long-range atmospheric transport of herbicides and triazine metabolites.

  18. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  19. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-02

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability.

  20. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hot Impact Toughness of Various Zones of P91 Welded Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, C.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    The new generation super critical thermal power plants are required to operate at enhanced thermal efficiency of over 50% to reduce the fuel consumption and environmental pollution. Creep strength-enhanced ferritic steels, commonly known as Cr-Mo alloys such as P91 (X10CrMoVNb 9-1) are such material of choice for the next generation power plants. The operating requirement of these next generation power plants is that steam temperature of around 650 °C is maintained. For such high-temperature application, creep strength of material is the primary consideration together with adequate weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness. Present work deals with the effect of high service temperature on impact toughness of P91 (X10CrMoVNb 9-1) base material, weld fusion zone, and HAZ. The impact toughness of HAZ for conventional weld groove design and narrow weld groove design has been evaluated experimentally in as-welded and at different post-weld heat treatment conditions. Fractography of the impact toughness specimens of base metal, weld fusion zone, and HAZ was carried out using scanning electron microscope. The effects of heat treatment schemes on the percentage of element present at the fracture surface were also studied.

  1. Physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Powell at the forebay and outflows of Glen Canyon Dam, northeastern Arizona, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, R.J.; Sherman, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Powell have a direct effect on the quality of water below Glen Canyon Dam. Understanding the physical and chemical characteristics of the lake and outflows from the dam is essential in order to effectively manage the operation of the dam. During August 1990 to September 1991, physical and chemical measurements were made and water samples were collected in the forebay of Lake Powell and at the outflows (draft tubes) of Glen Canyon Dam to document the physical and chemical characteristics of water entering the Colorado River. A persistent chemocline in the forebay of Lake Powell fluctuated seasonally during the study. Thermal stratification began in mid-April and persisted into late October. Spatial variation of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved-oxygen concentration in the forebay was negligible. Sodium and sulfate were the dominant ions. Major ions, nutrients, and metals generally increased in concentration with depth in the forebay. Concentrations of dissolved nitrogen (as nitrite plus nitrate) in the forebay ranged from less than 0.02 to 0.58 milligrams per liter. Strontium and lithium were the most abundant metals. Dissolved organic carbon ranged from about 2.6 to 4.9 milligrams per. liter with larger concentrations generally occurring in the epilimnion. No diel variations of chemical constituents were observed. Vertical-attenuation coefficients of light penetration in the forebay ranged from 0.058 to 0.080 microeinsteins per meter squared per second, and the euphotic depth ranged from about 82 to 113 feet. Generally, the physical and chemical characteristics of outflows through the draft tubes of Glen Canyon Dam were similar to the physical and chemical characteristics of the water at penstock depth and deeper depths. Specific conductance ranged from 803 to 1,090 microsiemens per centimeter, and pH values ranged from about 7.2 to 8.0. Water temperatures measured in the outflows ranged

  2. Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Steel Heavy Section Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Leijun

    2012-11-02

    This project will conduct a systematic metallurgical study on the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the creep rupture properties of P91 heavy section welds. The objective is to develop a technical guide for selecting PWHT parameters, and to predict expected creep-rupture life based on the selection of heat treatment parameters. The project consists of four interdependent tasks: Experimentally and numerically characterize the temperature fields of typical post-weld heat treatment procedures for various weld and joint configurations to be used in Gen IV systems. Characterize the microstructure of various regions, including the weld fusion zone, coarse-grain heat-affected zone, and fine-grain heat affected zone, in the welds that underwent the various welding and PWHT thermal histories. Conduct creep and creep-rupture testing of coupons extracted from actual and physically simulated welds. Establish the relationship among PWHT parameters, thermal histories, microstructure, creep, and creep-rupture properties.

  3. Ground-water resources and contamination at Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted on Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll to define the extent of the freshwater lenses and recharge zones and to asses potential contaminant migration from known sources of contamination. Rainfall, which is the sole natural source of freshwater, is strongly seasonal and occasional multi-year droughts are capable of disrupting the island's water supply. The supply of freshwater is produced by a joint system of rain catchments and shallow wells. From 1980-91, rain- catchment yield and ground-water withdrawal average 22,632 and 5,829 gallons per day, respectively. Maps were produced showing the areal extent of freshwater, the thickness of the freshwater lenses, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow, and contamination sites and potential migration pathways of contaminants. Sectional views of freshwater lens thicknesses and seasonal freshwater lens thickness changes were also constructed. The freshwater lens attains a maximum thickness of 23 feet beneath the central area of Roi where recharge is high. The estimated amount of water in the lenses with chloride concentrations less than 250 milligrams per liter underlying Roi and Namur is 226 million and 4.2 million gallons, respectively. The presence of thick vegetation on Namur increases evapotranspiration losses significantly producing a smaller freshwater lens. Freshwater thicknesses shrank and expanded in a seasonal cycle as much as 3 feet near withdrawal wells. The water table forms broad mounds beneath Roi and Namur and freshwater heads reach a maximum of 1.4 feet. Most known sites of contamination lie near the periphery of the island where ground-water flow patterns will carry contaminants away from the withdrawal wells toward the shore.

  4. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  5. Seasonal heat and freshwater cycles in the Arctic Ocean in CMIP5 coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Steele, Michael; Hakkinen, Sirpa

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the processes governing the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcings as they appear in historical simulations of 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled climate models. In both models and observations, the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most of these models, sea ice melt dominates. Seasonal horizontal heat flux divergence driven by the seasonal cycle of volume transport is only important locally. In models and observations, the dominant terms in the basin-average seasonal freshwater budget are the storages of freshwater between the ocean and sea ice, and the exchange between the two. The largest external source term is continental discharge in early summer, which is an order of magnitude smaller. The appearance of sea ice (extent and volume) and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and provides two mechanisms for feedback. One consequence of such an interaction is the fact that models with strong/weak seasonal surface heating also have strong/weak seasonal haline and temperature stratification.

  6. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds. Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled ``Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.`` which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. {times} 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. {times} 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  7. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  8. World Resources: 1990-91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The World Resources series is intended to meet the critical need for accessible, accurate information on the management of natural resources and protection of the global environment. This volume of World Resources contains information on resource use and environmental issues around the world. Part 1 gives an overview of topics that stand out as having a pervasive impact on the human condition, exerting unique leverage on the future of the planet, or requiring urgent action. Part 2 includes a chapter on global climate change, and includes the first publication of the Greenhouse Index, which tracks each country's current responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions. Part 2 also includes an overview of resource use and environmental problems in Latin America - from deforestation to urban pollution - continuing and expanding on a tradition of examining in each volume a particular geographical region in more detail. Both the potential impact of climate change and Latin America resource issues are discussed in additional sections throughout the volume. Part 3 reports on basic conditions and trends, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in each of the major resource categories, from population and health to energy and freshwater. Supporting data, as well as the core data tables from the World Resources Database, are found in Part 4.

  9. Spatial and seasonal variability in water quality of Devils Lake, North Dakota, September 1988 through October 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, S.K.; Lent, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Devils Lake is a closed-basin lake characterized by large fluctuations in water level and in concen- trations of dissolved chemical constituents. A study was conducted to assess spatial and seasonal variability in water-quality conditions in Devils Lake during September 1988 through October 1990. Specific conductance generally increased from west to east in Devils Lake and East Devils Lake. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen generally were similar among sites. Devils Lake generally does not undergo thermal stratification during open-water periods but does undergo inverse thermal stratifi- cation in the winter. The potential exists for establishment of near-bottom anoxia during the summer and during the winter. Most inflow enters the western part of Devils Lake and becomes progres- sively more concentrated by evaporation as it moves eastward through Devils Lake and East Devils Lake. Concentrations of all major ions, except calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, were larger in water samples from Devils Lake and East Devils Lake than in water samples from tributaries. Concentrations of all major ions generally increased eastward through Devils Lake and East Devils Lake, but sodium, sulfate, and chloride were enriched relative to the other major ions. Dissolved-solids concen- trations varied both spatially and seasonally. Median dissolved-solids concentrations generally increased from west to east. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally were largest in the winter, smallest in the spring, and increased in the summer and fall. Nutrients also varied spatially and seasonally. Nutrient concentrations tended to be largest at shallower sites. The ratio of sediment surface area to lake volume for a given part of the lake may partly explain spatial variability in concentrations of nitrogen species.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of geothermal heat pump during the cold season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrașcu, G.; Dumencu, A.; Horbaniuc, B.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is analysing the performances (COP, power and, heating heat rate function of time) for a ground-coupled heat pump that is used to heat a space during winter, for a period of 180 days. The analysis purpose is to evaluate the time based changes in values of COP and, energy transfers of a geothermal heat pump, considering a scenario for the variation of the ambient temperature in time and an analytical solution for the time dependence of the soil one. The temperatures and the energy transfer rates were determined on the basis of the irreversible entropy balance equation.

  11. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Jensen, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Water, bottom-sediment, and biota samples were collected in 1990-91 to identify water-quality problems associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in some water samples exceeded aquatic-life criteria. Selenium was associated with irrigaton drainage from the Dolores Project, but other trace elements may be transported into the area in the irrigation water supply. Selenium concentrations exceeded the chronic aquatic-life criterion in water samples from lower McElmo Creek and Navajo Wash, which drain the Montezuma Valley, from newly irrigated areas, and from the Mancos River. The maximum selenium con- centration in water was 88 micrograms per liter from Navajo Wash. Concentrations of herbicides in water were less than concentrations harmful to aquatic life. Selenium concentrations in four bottom-sediment samples exceeded the baseline concentrations for soils in the Western United States. The largest selenium concentrations in biota were in samples from Navajo Wash, from newly irrigated areas north of the Montezuma Valley, and from the Mancos River basin. Selenium concentrations in aquatic-invertebrate samples from the newly irrigated areas exceeded a guideline for food items consumed by fish and wildlife. Selenium concen- trations in whole-body suckers were larger in the San Juan River downstream from the Dolores Project than upstream from the project at Four Corners. Selenium concentrations in fathead minnow samples from two sites were at adverse-effect levels. Mercury concentrations in warm-water game fish in reservoirs in the study area may be of concern to human health. Some concentrations of other trace elements exceeded background concentrations, but the concentrations were not toxicologically significant or the toxicologic significance is not known.

  12. Surface flux and ocean heat transport convergence contributions to seasonal and interannual variations of ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C. D.; Palmer, M. D.; Allan, R. P.; Desbruyeres, D. G.; Hyder, P.; Liu, C.; Smith, D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an observation-based heat budget analysis for seasonal and interannual variations of ocean heat content (H) in the mixed layer (Hmld) and full-depth ocean (Htot). Surface heat flux and ocean heat content estimates are combined using a novel Kalman smoother-based method. Regional contributions from ocean heat transport convergences are inferred as a residual and the dominant drivers of Hmld and Htot are quantified for seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that non-Ekman ocean heat transport processes dominate Hmld variations in the equatorial oceans and regions of strong ocean currents and substantial eddy activity. In these locations, surface temperature anomalies generated by ocean dynamics result in turbulent flux anomalies that drive the overlying atmosphere. In addition, we find large regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans where heat transports combine with local air-sea fluxes to generate mixed layer temperature anomalies. In all locations, except regions of deep convection and water mass transformation, interannual variations in Htot are dominated by the internal rearrangement of heat by ocean dynamics rather than the loss or addition of heat at the surface. Our analysis suggests that, even in extratropical latitudes, initialization of ocean dynamical processes could be an important source of skill for interannual predictability of Hmld and Htot. Furthermore, we expect variations in Htot (and thus thermosteric sea level) to be more predictable than near surface temperature anomalies due to the increased importance of ocean heat transport processes for full-depth heat budgets.

  13. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and...

  14. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and...

  15. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and...

  16. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and...

  17. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and...

  18. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  19. Seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance off the west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Biastoch, Arne; BöNing, Claus; Caputi, Nick; Meyers, Gary

    2008-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current, a warm, poleward flowing eastern boundary current, dominates the surface circulation off the west coast of Australia and has profound influence on regional marine ecosystem and fisheries recruitment. In this study, the seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance in the Leeuwin Current region are analyzed by using an eddy-resolving numerical model simulation, as a first step to quantify the climate impacts on regional ocean thermodynamics and marine ecosystem. The volume transport and heat advection of the Leeuwin Current are stronger during the austral winter on the seasonal cycle and are stronger during a La Nina event on the interannual scale. On both seasonal and interannual timescales, the mixed layer heat budget off the west coast of Australia is predominantly balanced between the variations of the Leeuwin Current heat advection and heat flux across the air-sea interface. On the interannual timescale, the variation of the Leeuwin Current heat advection tends to lead that of the air-sea (latent) heat flux by two months, which is likely a reflection of advection timescales of the Leeuwin Current and its eddy field. The interannual variation of the average February-April sea surface temperature off the west coast of Australia, which is crucial for the larval settlement of western rock lobster, is mostly influenced by the Leeuwin Current heat advection as well as the ocean memory from the previous austral winter, with the air-sea heat exchange playing a buffering role.

  20. Effect of Groove Design and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of P91 Steel Weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, C.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    The martensitic creep-resistant steel designated as ASTM A335 for plate and as P91 for pipe is primarily used for high-temperature and high-pressure applications in steam power plants due to its excellent high-temperature properties such as high creep strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and so on. However, in the case of welded joints of such steels, the presence of an inter-critical heat-affected zone (IC-HAZ) can cause the joint to have lower creep strength than the base metal. In the present study, the effect of post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) and weld groove designs on the overall microstructure and mechanical properties of P91 steel pipe welds produced by the gas tungsten arc welding process was studied. Various regions of welded joints were characterized in detail for hardness and metallographic and tensile properties. Sub-size tensile samples were also tested to evaluate the mechanical properties of the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) with respect to PWHT. After PWHT, a homogenous microstructure was observed in the HAZ and tensile test fracture samples revealed shifting of the fracture location from the IC-HAZ to the fine-grained heat-affected zone. Before PWHT, the conventional V-grooved welded joints exhibited higher tensile strength compared to the narrow-grooved joints. However, after PWHT, both narrow- and V-grooved joints exhibited similar strength. Fractography of the samples indicates the presence of carbide precipitates such as Cr23C6, VC, and NbC on the fracture surface.

  1. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  2. Heat loss from deer mice (Peromyscus): evaluation of seasonal limits to thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Conley, K E; Porter, W P

    1986-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of seasonal adaptations to thermoregulatory heat loss for deer mice (Peromyscus) during summer and winter. A general, mechanistic model of heat transfer through fur was evaluated for the structural properties of the fur of deer mice. The model was validated against heat production determined from mice exposed to a range of radiative (wall) temperatures (tr) at air temperatures (ta) of 15, 27 and 34 degrees C. Calculated heat loss from the appendages was subtracted from the measured heat production to yield heat loss from the furred torso. This calculated torso heat loss agreed closely with the predicted fur heat loss for all conditions, as shown by a regression slope near 1 (0.99). Simulations using models of fur and appendage heat loss reveal that the winter increase in thermogenic (heat production) capacity has a greater effect than changes in fur properties in expanding the limits to thermoregulation. Both wind and a clear night sky increase heat loss and can limit thermoregulation to air temperatures above those found in deer mice habitats during winter (-25 degrees C). Thus, despite seasonal adaptations, these simulations indicate that thermoregulation is not possible under certain winter conditions, thereby restricting deer mice to within the protected environment of the leaf litter or snow tunnels.

  3. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  4. Assessment of Negligible Creep, Off-Normal Welding and Heat Treatment of Gr91 Steel for Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Application

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Terry, Totemeier

    2006-10-01

    Two different topics of Grade 91 steel are investigated for Gen IV nuclear reactor pressure vessel application. On the first topic, negligible creep of Grade 91 is investigated with the motivation to design the reactor pressure vessel in negligible creep regime and eliminate costly surveillance programs during the reactor operation. Available negligible creep criteria and creep strain laws are reviewed, and new data needs are evaluated. It is concluded that modifications of the existing criteria and laws, together with their associated parameters, are needed before they can be reliably applied to Grade 91 for negligible creep prediction and reactor pressure vessel design. On the second topic, effects of off-normal welding and heat treatment on creep behavior of Grade 91 are studied with the motivation to better define the control over the parameters in welding and heat treatment procedures. The study is focused on off-normal austenitizing temperatures and improper cooling after welding but prior to post-weld heat treatment.

  5. Latent Heating Retrievals Using the TRMM Precipitation Radar: A Multi-Seasonal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Meneghini, B.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Convective-Stratiform Heating (CSH) algorithm is used to retrieve profiles of latent heating over the global tropics for a period of several months using TRMM precipitation radar data. The seasonal variation of heating over the tropics is then examined. The period of interest also coincides with several TRMM field campaigns that recently occurred over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and in the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed Q1 budgets from these experiments could provide a means of validating the retrieved profiles of latent heating from the CSH algorithm.

  6. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations.

  7. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  8. Effect of Impurity Tin on the Creep Properties of a P91 Heat-Resistant Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.-H.; Xu, Y.-W.; Yang, H.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The creep properties of P91 steel specimens undoped and doped with 0.058 wt pct tin, which was normalized from 1328 K (1055 °C) and tempered at 1033 K (760 °C), were examined under different engineering stresses (150 to 210 MPa) and temperatures [873 K to 923 K (600 °C to 650 °C)]. The creep behavior followed the temperature-compensated power law and Monkman-Grant equations. In the temperature-compensated power law equation, the apparent activation energy and stress exponent for creep were approximately 541 kJ/mol and 12 for the undoped steel and 527 kJ/mol and 11 for the Sn-doped one, respectively. In the Monkman-Grant relation, the values of constants m and C were around 1.062 and 0.0672 for the undoped steel, and 1.012 and 0.0650 for the Sn-doped one, respectively. The 100 MPa stress creep lifetime at 873 K (600 °C) was estimated as 100641 hours for the undoped steel and 35290 hours for the Sn-doped steel, respectively. These indicated that Sn substantially deteriorated the creep properties of the steel. It was found that grain or subgrain boundary segregation of Sn could promote the nucleation of cavities or microcracks, thereby leading to the deterioration of the steel creep properties.

  9. Quantitative nondestructive electronic and magnetic property assessment of heat treated grade p91 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Shai Shmuel

    Structural steels experience aging from fatigue, creep and corrosion. Prolonged high temperature service accelerates creep and stress-corrosion cracking. Microstructural degradation of structural steels is a serious problem that limits the integrity of high-temperature parts in power plants. Some power plants that utilize fossil fuels have experienced lifecycle issues with heat-treated steel alloys that have experienced progressive damage over time. A nondestructive technique for the evaluation of the microstructure of key structural materials and the prediction of lifecycle has been the focus of extensive research for many years. Advanced nondestructive wave assessment techniques are being developed using electronic and magnetic perturbation analysis. These methods are applied to ferrous materials to determine whether a designed heat-treatment provides an acceptable microstructure offering specific set of required properties for the full service life of the component. The methods used in this research include impedance spectroscopy and hysteresis measurement as preliminary assessment methods and hysteresis frequency analysis and Barkhausen noise measurement as secondary assessment methods.

  10. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined.

  11. Seasonal variation of heat balance components over a Japanese red pine forest in snowy northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Takeshi; Miya, Hiroshi; Yokota, Satoshi

    1999-10-01

    Continuous observations of the meteorological elements and heat fluxes were made for more than one and a half years above and in a red pine forest. We obtained the following results from these observations: 1) During the spring thaw, the albedo above the forest decreased as snow depth decreased and reached a minimum value after the snow disappeared. Due to seasonal variation in the canopy structure, the ratios of insolation and wind speed at the forest floor compared to those above the forest canopy also varied. 2) Under dry canopy conditions, the peaks of each heat balance component occurred at different times. The net radiation peaked in June; the latent heat flux peaked in July; the sensible heat flux peaked in May; the heat storage on the ground peaked in March. When the forest floor was snow-covered, the Bowen ratio was more than 1·0 and the maximum ratio of sensible heat flux to net radiation occurred. The forest canopy over the snow surface acted as a heat source because the direction of the sensible heat flux was upward above the forest canopy. 3) The seasonal change in evaporation efficiency was similar to that in the air temperature above the canopy. When the daily air temperature was below 10 °C, the transpiration was limited. 4) Snowcover on the forest floor also affected the relationships between evaporation efficiency and meteorological conditions. This was caused by properties of the snowcover.

  12. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  13. Under-Five Child Mortality and Morbidity Associated with Consanguineous Child Marriage in Pakistan: Retrospective Analysis using Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-91, 2006-07, 2012-13.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mudasir; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Chaudhry, Ashraf; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2017-01-02

    Objective To assess the combined effect of consanguineous and child marriages (CCM) on children health, which has not previously been explored, either globally or locally. Methods We analyzed secondary data from a series of cross-sectional, nationally representative Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys 1990-91, 2006-07, and 2012-13. A total of 5406 mothers with 10,164 children were included in the analysis. Child health was assessed by variables such as history of diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI), ARI with fever, Under-5 child mortality (U5CM) and small-size birth (SSB). Associations among variables were assessed by calculating unadjusted Odd Ratios (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR). Results A majority (n = 6,247, 61%) of the births were to mothers having CCM as compare to non-CCM (3917, 39%). There was a significant association between CCM and U5CM during 1990-91 (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.49) and 2006-07 (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.51), and infant mortality in 1990-91 (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.85) and 2006-07 (AOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.17-2.21). A significant association was also found between CCM and SSB infants in the period 2006-07 (AOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.42) and 2012-13 (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46). We noted no effect of CCM on diarrhea, ARI, and ARI with fever. Conclusion CCM increases the likelihood of U5CM, infant mortality and SSB infants. Further quantitative and qualitative research should be conducted to assess the effects of environmental, congenital and genetic factors on the health of children born to mothers in CCM.

  14. Annual Conference Journal NABE '90-'91. Proceedings of the National Association for Bilingual Education Conferences (Tucson, Arizona, 1990; Washington, D.C., 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malave, Lilliam M., Ed.

    Papers from the 1990 and 1991 conferences of the National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) are presented, including: "Beyond Socially Naive Bilingual Education: The Effects of Schooling and Ethnolinguistic Vitality of the Community on Additive and Subtractive Bilingualism" (Rodriguez Landry, Real Allard); "Descubriendo la…

  15. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  16. The role of atmospheric heat transport in the seasonal carbon dioxide cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, James R.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out numerical experiments with a general circulations model (GCM) and energy balance model of the martian atmosphere to define the importance of heat transported to the polar regions in determining the amount of CO2 condensed on the surface during the fall and winter seasons and the amount sublimated during the spring and summer seasons. In so doing, we performed both sensitivity experiments, in which the dust opacity was varied over the full range of its observed values, and annual simulations, in which the dust opacity varied continuously with seasonal data, in accord with measurements taken at the Viking landers. Dust opacity represents the key variable for determining the contribution of atmospheric heat advection to the energy budget in the polar regions. The amount of heat advected to the winter polar regions increases monotonically as the dust opacity at low and middle latitudes increases. However, the increase is sharpest between optical depths of 0 and 1 tends to level off at still higher optical depths. Heat advection is more important at times of CO2 condensation than CO2 sublimation, since the temperature gradients are much steeper in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Because dust opacity is much higher during northern winter than during southern winter, atmospheric heat advection reduces the amount of CO2 that condenses in the north by a much larger factor than it does in the south.

  17. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  18. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  19. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  20. [Dynamics of heat balance during growing season of broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Guan, Dexin; Wu, Jiabing; Wang, Anzhi; Zhao, Xiaosong; Jin, Mingshu; Xu, Hao; Dai, Guanhua; He, Xiu

    2004-10-01

    Based on the gradient measurement of microclimate factors, radiation and soil heat flux from late May to early October, 2001 and by the method of Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB), this paper estimated the latent heat and sensible heat above the broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains. The energy storage of forest air and vegetative was calculated, and the seasonal variations of heat balance components of the forest were analyzed. The results showed that the net radiation of the forest and the solar radiation were linearly correlated. All the heat balance components had the similar characteristics of diurnal variation to the net radiation, showing curves positive at daytime and negative at night, and the terms ranged as net radiation > latent heat > sensible heat > storage. The time of keeping positive terms in a day became shorter from June to October as influenced by shinning time. The highest net radiation was in June and the lowest in October. The monthly averaged net radiation was 0-527 and 0-(-)121 W x m(-2), and the latent heat was 0-441 and 0-(-)81 W x m(-2) for day and night, respectively. Sensible heat was 0-80 and 0-(-)26 W x m(-2), and energy storage was 0-44 and 0-(-)26 W x m(-2) for day and night, respectively. The ratio of latent heat to net radiation at daytime decreased gradually from August to October, and the ratio of sensible heat and energy storage increased correspondingly. Especially 2-3 days after the first severe frost, a sudden drop of latent heat and a sudden bounce of sensible heat appeared. The instruments and measurement methods of heat flux were also concisely discussed in this paper.

  1. Jet streak modification via diabatic heating during periods of intense cool-season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick Shawn

    The propagation of a jet streak in the presence of predominately stable latent heat release is examined. Unlike many prior studies which emphasized latent heat release due to mesoscale convective system activity this work addresses cool season mid-latitude weather systems in which stable latent heat release played a significant role. In both cool and warm seasons, the result is the same: the amplification of a pre-existing jet streak, or the in situ development of a new jet streak. The former situation is more typical of the cool season when thermal gradients and the jet stream are both stronger and more conducive to the transient baroclinic waves which engender streaks in the jet stream flow, while the latter development tends to be the product of a warm season environment when the background thermal and flow patterns are weaker. In this work, the development of a pre-existing straight- line jet streak upstream of its prior location (``backbuilding'') presumably due to latent heat release is studied. Both dry and moist adiabatic simulations with a mesoscale numerical model indicate that backbuilding occurs in the absence of latent heat release (dry run) due to confluence but is enhanced when such heating is included (moist run). This is due to the latent heat release and consequent warming of the column in which it occurs, thus altering the height gradient. Such a process causes accelerations in the flow. Moreover, the mid-tropospheric nature of the stable latent heating causes the backbuilding to be maximized in the mid-troposphere (500 to 400 hPa). Isentropic coordinate analyses of the model output are employed in the estimation of latent heating and ageostrophic wind components. In terms of sensible weather, the propagating jet streak tends to initiate precipitation in its right entrance region because of the induced ascent. In the present case, the latent heat release associated with this precipitation acted to anchor the jet streak in place and even build

  2. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  3. Effect of season and exposure to heat stress on oocyte competence in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Paula-Lopes, F F; Hansen, P J

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate seasonal variation in oocyte competence in Holstein cows and to test whether oocyte quality in summer is affected by the magnitude of heat stress. In the first experiment, ovaries of Holstein cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and used to harvest oocytes over 1 yr (n = 18 replicates). After in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in the warm season compared with the cool season. In the second experiment, nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in one of the following three environments for 42 d before slaughter: heat stressed (housed with shade cloth in summer; n = 14); cooled (housed in a free-stall barn with foggers and fans in summer; n = 14); and winter (housed similar to the heat-stressed group; n = 12). Cows were slaughtered at d 18 to 19 of the estrous cycle. Oocytes from the two largest follicles per cow were aspirated and cultured individually. Ovaries were then dissected to collect additional oocytes that were processed in a group for in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Cleavage rates were similar among treatments, but none of the individually cultured oocytes developed to blastocysts. For other oocytes cultured in groups, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in summer than winter with no difference between the heat-stressed and the cooled treatment groups. Summer depression in oocyte quality in Holstein cows was evident, but cooling cows for 42 d did not alleviate that seasonal effect.

  4. Latent Heating Retrievals Using the TRMM Precipitation Radar: A Multi-Seasonal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, S.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle and is a primary heat source for the atmosphere. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied by rainfall, modulates the large-scale circulations of the tropics and in turn can impact midlatitude weather. This latent heat release is a consequence of phase changes between vapor, liquid, and solid water. Present largescale weather and climate models can simulate latent heat release only crudely, thus reducing their confidence in predictions on both global and regional scales. This paper represents the first attempt to use NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall information to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to October 2000. The Goddard Convective-Stratiform. Heating (CSH) algorithm and TRMM precipitation radar data are used for this study. We will examine and compare the latent heating structures between 1997-1998 (winter) ENSO and 1998-2000 (non-ENSO). We will also examine over the tropics. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental; Indian oceans vs west Pacific; Africa vs S. America) will be also examined and compared. In addition, we will examine the relationship between latent heating (max heating level) and SST. The period of interest also coincides with several TRMM field campaigns that recently occurred over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and in the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed Q1 budgets from these experiments could provide a means of validating the retrieved profiles of latent heating from the CSH algorithm.

  5. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd.

  6. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  7. Ground-water quality and susceptibility of ground water to effects from domestic wastewater disposal in eastern Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.; Kues, Georgianna E.

    1999-01-01

    Eastern Bernalillo County is a historically rural, mountainous area east of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Historically, the primary economic activity consisted of subsistence farming and ranching and support of these activities from small communities. During the last 40 to 50 years, however, the area increasingly has become the site of residential developments. Homes in these developments typically are on 1- to 2-acre lots and are serviced by individual wells and septic systems. Between 1970 and 1990, the population of the area increased from about 4,000 to more than 12,000, and housing units increased from about 1,500 to more than 5,000. Results of analysis of water samples collected from 121 wells throughout eastern Bernalillo County in 1990 indicated that (1) total-nitrate concentrations in 10 samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national primary drinking-water regulation maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen; (2) total-nitrate concentrations may be related to the length of time an area has been undergoing development; and (3) large dissolved-chloride concentrations may result from geologic origins, such as interbedded salt deposits or upward movement of saline ground water along faults and fractures, as well as from domestic wastewater disposal. Ground water throughout eastern Bernalillo County was assessed to be highly susceptible to contamination by overlying domestic wastewater disposal because (1) soils in more than 95 percent of eastern Bernalillo County were determined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service to have severe limitations for use as septic-system absorption fields and (2) a fractured carbonate geologic terrane, which typically has large secondary permeability and limited sorption capacity, is at the surface or underlying unconsolidated material in 73 percent of the area. Ground-water-level rises following an episodal precipitation event during July 22-27, 1991

  8. Bovine oocytes show a higher tolerance to heat shock in the warm compared with the cold season of the year.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; López-Gatius, F; Andreu-Vázquez, C; López-Béjar, M

    2013-01-15

    Heat stress is especially harmful for bovine ovarian follicle development and oocyte competence. In this study, we assessed the effects of heat shock on oocyte maturation in oocytes collected during the cold (February-March; n = 114) or warm (May-June; n = 116) periods of the year. In both cases, cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured under control (38 °C) and heat shock conditions (41.5 °C, 18-21 h of maturation). For each oocyte, nuclear stage, cortical granule distribution and steroidogenic activity of cumulus cells were evaluated. Based on the odds ratio, heat-shocked oocytes were 26.83 times more likely to show an anomalous metaphase II morphology. When matured under heat shock conditions, oocytes obtained in both seasons were similarly affected in terms of nuclear maturation, whereas a seasonal effect was observed on cytoplasmic maturation. For oocytes collected during the cold season, the likelihood to show an anomalous maturation was 25.96 times higher when exposed to the heat treatment than when matured under control conditions. By contrast, oocytes collected during the warm season matured under control or heat shock did not show significant risk of showing an anomalous cytoplasmic maturation. Our findings indicate an increased rate of premature oocytes in response to heat shock as well as a higher tolerance to this stress of oocytes harvested in the warm season compared with those collected in the colder period.

  9. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=91

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1998-11-19

    Experimental data for all nuclei with mass A = 91 have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 15 December 1998, supersedes the 1990 evaluation by H.-W. Müller (Nuclear Data Sheets60, 835 1990)).

  11. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heating Season and Source Tracing in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenhui; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenji

    2013-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (IPM) is one of the principal pollutants in Beijing. Sand weather in spring and winter seasons partly because of regional airflow, in most cases it is results from autochthonic pollution, especially in heating season of winter. In this paper, the law of temporal spatial distribution of IPM and the relationship between IPM and influence factors were studied combing RS techniques with ground-based monitoring. The change of underlying surface which were obtained from high resolution Remote Sensing images in different periods was analyzed; the content of different diameter of particles were collected by ground observation instrument and chemical composition were analyzed; the relationship of distribution of IPM and underlying surface was studied using spatial analysis of GIS. The results indicate that the pollution distribution of IPM has a very close relation with underlying surface, man-made pollution sources, population density and meteorological factors.

  12. Post-burning regeneration of the Chaco seasonally dry forest: germination response of dominant species to experimental heat shock.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Díaz, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Plant species of the Chaco seasonally dry forest of central Argentina have presumably been under a low evolutionary pressure to develop specialized fire-response traits, such as heat-stimulated germination. Nevertheless, other historical factors such as seasonal drought and/or endozoochorus dispersal could have led some species to develop heat-tolerant seeds. Therefore, heat-tolerant germination should be more common than heat-stimulated or heat-sensitive germination. To test this, we exposed seeds of 26 dominant species from the Chaco region to a broad range of experimental heat treatments and incubated them for 30 days at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiod. We then scored the percent germination and classified them as heat-stimulated, heat-tolerant or heat-sensitive based on their germination following heat treatments relative to control. Seventeen species showed heat-tolerant germination, including all native graminoids. Seven species showed heat-stimulated germination, under the less-intense heat treatments. Only two species showed heat-sensitive germination. Endozoochory had no influence on germination responses. We suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, fire was not a major evolutionary force in the development of Chaco forests, and our results provide greater understanding of the potential response of Chaco plant communities in the face of increasingly frequent fires.

  13. Hot Dry Rock Heat Mining Geothermal Energy Development Program - Annual Report Fiscal Year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, David

    1991-01-01

    This was a year of significant accomplishment in the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Program. Most importantly, the design, construction, and installation of the surface plant for the Phase II system neared completion by the end of the year. Basic process design work has been completed, and all major components of the system except the gas/particle separator have been procured. For this component, previous design problems have been resolved, and purchase during the first half of FY91 is anticipated. Installation of the surface plant is well underway. The system will be completed and ready for operation by the end of FY91 under the current funding scenario. The operational schedule to be followed will then depend upon the program funding level. Our goal is to start long-term flow testing as soon as possible. Of equal importance, from the standpoint of the long-term viability of HDR technology, during this year, for the first time, it has been demonstrated in field testing that it should be possible to operate HDR reservoirs with water losses of 1-3%, or even less. Our experience in the deep, hot, Phase II reservoir at Fenton Hill is in sharp contrast to the significant water losses seen by Japanese and British scientists working in shallower, cooler, HDR reservoirs. Calculations and modeling based on field data have shown that water consumption declines with the log of time in a manner related to water storage in the reservoir. This work may be crucial in proving that HDR can be an economically viable means for producing energy, and that it is useful even in areas where water is in short supply. In addition, an engineering model was developed to predict and explain water consumption in HDR reservoirs under pressure, the collection and processing of seismic information was more highly automated, and the detection limits for reactive tracers were lowered to less than 1 part per billion. All of these developments will add greatly to our ability to conduct, analyze, and understand

  14. Research on the seasonal snow of the Arctic Slope. Annual progress report, June 1, 1990--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.S.

    1991-12-31

    This project deals with the seasonal snow on Alaska`s Arctic Slope. Although it is concentrated on snow of the R{sub 4}D project area, it is important to relate the snow cover of this area with the rest of the Arctic Slope. The goals include determination of the amount of precipitation which comes as snow, the wind transport of this snow and its depositional pattern as influenced by drifting, the physical properties of the snow, the physical processes which operate in it, the proportions of it which go into evaporation, infiltration and runoff, and the biological role of the snow cover.

  15. Impact of climatic factors on energy consumption during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, A. S.; Reshetar, O. A.; Belova, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    Global and regional climate changes produce a significant effect on energy production and consumption, especially on heating and air conditioning in residential, industrial, commercial, and office rooms. In Russia, with its contracting climate conditions, energy consumption varies a lot in different regions. Thus, we have to review the dynamics of energy consumption during the cold season individually for each region of the country. We analyzed the dynamics of duration and temperature of the heating season in Moscow region and completed a comparative study of heat energy consumption, actual and calculated based on the 'degreedays' concept, in the municipal economy of Moscow during the last decade. Based on the actual data analysis, we proved that conservation of energy resources in a large city relies not so much on a shortening of the heating period as on the growth of atmospheric air temperature in winter. The projected climate warming in the Moscow region in the nearest decades, along with measures of energy conservation, will promote a significant reduction in energy consumption of the municipal economy in winter. The results shown in this article were obtained in the process of preparing and implementing project no. 16-17-00114 by the Russian Science Foundation "Analysis of an impact of the regional climate change on the residential and commercial energy consumption of Russian megacities," within the main area of focus of the Russian Science Foundation, which is "Fundamental Research and Exploration in Main Topical Areas of Focus." The project was implemented within the framework of the scientific area of focus, which is "Reduction of the Risk and Mitigation of Consequences of Natural and Man-made Disasters" ("Studying Economical, Political, and Social Consequences of Global Climate Changes" problem).

  16. Total ozone seasonal and interannual variations in the principal air masses of the Northern Hemisphere in 1975-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karol, Igor L.; Klyagina, L. P.; Shalamyansky, A. M.; Jagovkina, S. V.

    1994-01-01

    The diurnally mean total ozone X from the Northern Hemisphere ground based 90 stations for 1975-1990 are averaged over the Arctic (bar X (sub A)) Intermediate (bar X (sub I)) and Tropical (bar X (sub T)) air mass areas, divided by the jet stream axes on the isobaric surfaces 300 and 200 mb. The mean square variations of the so averaged X are considerably smaller than of the X, averaged over the corresponding zonal belts. This property allows one to improve considerably the statistical significance of X trends and changes over various time periods, taking into account the time correlation of data for adjacent time intervals. Bar X (sub A), bar X (sub I), and bar X (sub T) trends are estimated over the periods of solar activity rise and fall in its 21st and rise in its 22nd 11 year cycles and over the periods of west and east phases of the known over the periods of west and east phases of the known quasibiennial oscillation (QBO). Solar activity variations affect mostly bar X (sub T), bar X (sub I) trends in summer months, while QBO phases influence the X changes mostly during the cold half year. X are lower in the west QBO phase and their trend is negative during almost all periods considered. The anthropogenic effects on the X is also estimated.

  17. An analysis of seasonal variability of satellite detected land surface temperatures and urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Q.

    This research intends to develop a diffusive UHI model and to compare it with UHIs based on impervious coverage as well as those based on population distribution using Indianapolis as a case study Land surface temperatures LSTs in the four seasons were extracted from thermal infrared data of Terra s ASTER imagery and calibrated with emissivity and other parameters Heat islands were modeled as a three-dimensional surface protruding from a planar surface of the surrounding non-urban land cover The complexity of urban heat islands were measured by fractal dimensions Spectral mixture analysis was applied to transform ASTER reflective bands into fraction images including high albedo low albedo green vegetation and soil with a constrained least-square solution Based on the result of the spectral unmixing impervious surface was calculated The spatial variability of texture in LST was found to be highly correlated with those in the fractions and in the population density surface It is suggested that these variables had a direct correspondence with the radiative thermal and moisture properties of the Earth s surface that determine LST and heat islands In order to develop a generalized model of urban heat islands that has a global application fractals and numerical modeling should be combined to develop a guiding framework

  18. Heat-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults: An Amplified Effect of the First Seasonal Heatwave

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Alexander; Wu, Ruiruo; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations. We compared the health risks of heatwaves using the proposed and four alternative definitions. 701 cases of HH in older residents of Boston area were examined using harmonic regression models, designed to capture the non-linear effects of ambient temperatures and heatwave episodes when the night-time temperature is above 65.5 °F for 3 consecutive nights. The overall relative risk of HH associated with a heatwave episode was 6.9 [95%CI:4.8–9.8]. The relative risk of HH associated with the first heatwave increases up to 13.3 [95%CI:7.4–24.0]. The risk declined to 3.7 [95%CI:2.4–5.8] for the subsequent heatwave. Four other commonly used heatwave definitions confirmed these findings. Public health actions have to target the first heatwave to maximize the impact of preventive measures. PMID:28074921

  19. Heat-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults: An Amplified Effect of the First Seasonal Heatwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Alexander; Wu, Ruiruo; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations. We compared the health risks of heatwaves using the proposed and four alternative definitions. 701 cases of HH in older residents of Boston area were examined using harmonic regression models, designed to capture the non-linear effects of ambient temperatures and heatwave episodes when the night-time temperature is above 65.5 °F for 3 consecutive nights. The overall relative risk of HH associated with a heatwave episode was 6.9 [95%CI:4.8–9.8]. The relative risk of HH associated with the first heatwave increases up to 13.3 [95%CI:7.4–24.0]. The risk declined to 3.7 [95%CI:2.4–5.8] for the subsequent heatwave. Four other commonly used heatwave definitions confirmed these findings. Public health actions have to target the first heatwave to maximize the impact of preventive measures.

  20. Seasonal cycle of the mixed layer, the seasonal thermocline and the upper-ocean heat storage rate in the Mediterranean Sea derived from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, L.; Testor, P.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Somot, S.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Estournel, C.; Lavigne, H.

    2015-03-01

    We present a Mediterranean climatology (1° × 1° × 12 months) of the mixed layer and of the seasonal thermocline, based on a comprehensive collection of temperature profiles spanning 44 years (1969-2012). The database includes more than 190,000 profiles, merging CTD, MBT/XBT, profiling floats, and gliders observations. This data set is first used to describe the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer depth and temperature, together with the seasonal thermocline depth and averaged temperature, on the whole Mediterranean on a monthly climatological basis. Our analysis discriminates several regions with coherent behaviors, in particular the deep water formation sites, characterized by significant differences in the winter mixing intensity. Heat Storage Rate (HSR) is calculated as the time rate of change of the heat content due to variations in the temperature integrated from the surface down to the base of the seasonal thermocline. For the first time the quantification of heat storage rate in the upper-ocean, based only on in situ oceanographic data, is made for the whole Mediterranean. The spatial and temporal variability of the HSR in the Mediterranean Sea and its link with dynamic structures like oceanic gyres are also discussed.

  1. Eddy heat and salt transports in the South China Sea and their seasonal modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Gan, Jianping; Xie, Qiang; Chu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dongxiao; Hou, Yijun

    2012-05-01

    This study describes characteristics of eddy (turbulent) heat and salt transports, in the basin-scale circulation as well as in the embedded mesoscale eddy found in the South China Sea (SCS). We first showed the features of turbulent heat and salt transports in mesoscale eddies using sea level anomaly (SLA) data, in situ hydrographic data, and 375 Argo profiles. We found that the transports were horizontally variable due to asymmetric distributions of temperature and salinity anomalies and that they were vertically correlated with the thermocline and halocline depths in the eddies. An existing barrier layer caused the halocline and eddy salt transport to be relatively shallow. We then analyzed the transports in the basin-scale circulation using an eddy diffusivity method and the sea surface height data, the Argo profiles, and the climatological hydrographic data. We found that relatively large poleward eddy heat transports occurred to the east of Vietnam (EOV) in summer and to the west of the Luzon Islands (WOL) in winter, while a large equatorward heat transport was located to the west of the Luzon Strait (WLS) in winter. The eddy salt transports were mostly similar to the heat transports but in the equatorward direction due to the fact that the mean salinity in the upper layer in the SCS tended to decrease toward the equator. Using a 21/2-layer reduced-gravity model, we conducted a baroclinic instability study and showed that the baroclinic instability was critical to the seasonal variation of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and thus the eddy transports. EOV, WLS, and WOL were regions with strong baroclinic instability, and, thus, with intensified eddy transports in the SCS. The combined effects of vertical velocity shear, latitude, and stratification determined the intensity of the baroclinic instability, which intensified the eddy transports EOV during summer and WLS and WOL during winter.

  2. Liquid temperature determination in a seasonal heat storage at joint operation with a solar collector and thermal energy consumer

    SciTech Connect

    Sivoraksha, V.E.; Zolotko, K.E.; Markov, V.L.; Petrov, B.E.; Lyagushyn, S.F.

    1998-07-01

    Usual solar thermal systems include a solar collector providing solar power conversion into the thermal form and a heat storage accumulating thermal energy, the great capacity of storage systems allows heating and hot water supply during the cold season. The joint operation of the solar collector and a seasonal heat storage has a cyclic mode day by day. The following operation scheme is analyzed in the paper: in night liquid (water) does not circulate; after sunrise the solar collector is warmed up and after its temperature reaching the temperature of water in the thermal energy storage TTS circulation is switched on and thermal power is transferred to the heat storage; after midday water temperature in the solar collector decreases and circulation stops when it becomes equal to the heat storage temperature. TTS increase results in the reduction of the duration of the joint operation of the solar collector and the energy storage and in the decrease of the heat power input. A functional connection between the daily input of power from the solar collector and an average temperature in the heat storage is of importance for technological calculations. The moments of the beginning and end of circulation and daily heat input from the solar collector are determined under the assumption of the sinusoidal law of solar radiation coming in the day-time. Then the heat balance equation is solved for the whole power system with taking into account power consumption and heat losses. The polynomial approximation for the dependence of heat input upon heat carrier temperature permits obtaining an analytical solution for the seasonal behavior of the liquid temperature in the thermal energy storage. The obtained dependence of TTS upon time allows calculation of this parameter with admissible accuracy at the stage of the project development proceeding from the performance of the solar collector and heat storage and from the averaged meteorological data.

  3. Measuring the heat loss in horses in different seasons by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Autio, Elena; Neste, Riitta; Airaksinen, Sanna; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to consider breed and cold tolerance in the housing and caring of horses. This study demonstrates differences in heat loss between horse types at low temperatures and examines rate of loss in different types during different seasons. Eighteen horses participated. Groups by type were light (L), warmblood (W), coldblood (C), and pony (P). A camera filmed thermographic images at 15 degrees C, 2 degrees C (all types), -8 degrees C (L, W, C), and -12 degrees C (P). The study calculated loss from the neck, trunk, and inner surfaces of front and hind legs. Loss was similar in all types at 15 degrees C. L, W, and C dissipated more heat at 2 degrees C than at 15 degrees C (p < .001) and from neck and trunk at -8 degrees C than at 2 degrees C (p < .05). P dissipated heat similarly at 2 degrees C and -12 degrees C. At 2 degrees C, loss was less from neck and trunk in C and P compared with L (p < .05). At -8 degrees C, loss in L and W was greater than in C (p < .05).

  4. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  5. Estimation of water velocity and heat flux in horizontal bypaths of the alluvial fan, using waveforms of seasonal variations in spring water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Onodera, S.; Kitaoka, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the alluvial fan, there are many palaeochannels which are composed of more permeabile media like gravel and sand, and many springs and wells on those have been useful for human life as well as ecosystem. These type of the springs have the different waveforms of the seasonal thermal variation from those of the river or air which is the thermal source. In detail, the phase shifting and amplitude declining are confirmed in springs. In this research, we examine to confirm the thermal waveforms in the river and springs and to estimate the horizontal bypass flow velocities in palaeochannels around the river in the alluvial fan. The study areas are Egawa springs in Tokushima Prefecture and Asahi river springs in Okayama prefecture of western Japan. On the Egawa springs, Koenuma(1939) and Arai and Yokohata(1990) had reported that the seasonal variation phase of the spring temperature was delayed about 2 months and the amplitude range was declined 10-15 degrees Celsius as compared with the Yoshino River. At the springs of Asahi River, the temperature data was collected 1 week interval. The temperature data of Egawa springs (Arai and Yokohata, 1990) and Asahi River springs was analyzed, assuming the subsurface water flow only through the bypath as the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation and heat flux from the ground surface depends on the temperature gradient between the aquifer and the upper layer. The analytical solution of this equation was verified by parameter fittings with the data. The Darcy velocity of subsurface flow was estimated about 1.7 m/day in Egawa springs and about 1.3 m/day in Asahi River springs. If the hydraulic gradient is 0.001, the hydraulic conductivity was estimated about 1.8 cm/s in the Egawa Spring. The value was similar to 1.5-3.3 cm/s by Murashimo et al. (1963). In the Asahi River springs, the hydraulic conductivity was also estimated to be about 1.5 cm/s, which was similar to Egawa Spring. The distribution of one

  6. Ocean Net Heat Flux Influences Seasonal to Interannual Patterns of Plankton Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tim J.; Allen, Icarus; Atkinson, Angus; Bruun, John T.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Pingree, Robin D.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the net heat flux (NHF) into the ocean have profound impacts on global climate. We analyse a long-term plankton time-series and show that the NHF is a critical indicator of ecosystem dynamics. We show that phytoplankton abundance and diversity patterns are tightly bounded by the switches between negative and positive NHF over an annual cycle. Zooplankton increase before the transition to positive NHF in the spring but are constrained by the negative NHF switch in autumn. By contrast bacterial diversity is decoupled from either NHF switch, but is inversely correlated (r = −0.920) with the magnitude of the NHF. We show that the NHF is a robust mechanistic tool for predicting climate change indicators such as spring phytoplankton bloom timing and length of the growing season. PMID:24918906

  7. Effect of storage thermal behavior in seasonal storage solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.

    1986-12-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed to investigate the effects of storage operational strategies (or, equivalently, stratification) on the performance of a seasonal storage solar heating system with a constructed water volume. The method is based on a relative comparison between a thermally stratified and well-mixed storage system representing probable extreme outcomes of the subsystem-to-storage loop control strategies. The effects are described in the form of performance reduction factors that describe maximum changes in the solar collector yield, storage losses, and solar fraction due to storage operational mode. The study indicates that the storage thermal behavior could in the worst case affect the yearly solar fraction by a factor of 1.8, but most likely a maximum value from 1.1 to 1.5 could be expected.

  8. Portfolio Assessment Handbook. 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas A. Edison State Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This handbook gives the adult student information to complete portfolios that are designed to help adult students earn college credits for outside experience. Portfolio assessment is a flexible and efficient way to earn college credit. Nearly any area of learning can be converted into credits as long as it is taught at a regionally accredited…

  9. Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

    The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

  10. Prekindergarten Program Description, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Nanda D.; And Others

    Characteristics of the Houston, Texas, Independent School District (HISD) prekindergarten program are reported. Implemented in 1985, and largely funded by the state, the program is offered to 4-year-old students who are classified as limited English proficient (LEP) or are from families with an income at or below the subsistence level.…

  11. Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

    The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

  12. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  13. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Kasurak, A.; Kelly, R. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Derksen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  14. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-06

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  15. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  16. Infrared measurements of HF and HCl total column abundances above Kitt Peak, 1977-1990: seasonal cycles, long-term increases, and comparisons with model calculations.

    PubMed

    Rinsland, C P; Levine, J S; Goldman, A; Sze, N D; Ko, M K; Johnson, D W

    1991-08-20

    Series of high-resolution (approximately 0.01 cm-1) solar absorption spectra recorded with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, 31.9 degrees N, 111.6 degrees W) have been analyzed to deduce total column amounts of HF on 93 different days and HCl on 35 different days between May 1977 and June 1990. The results are based on the analysis of the HF and H35Cl (1-0) vibration-rotation band R(1) lines which are located at 4038.9625 and 2925.8970 cm-1, respectively. All of the data were analyzed using a multilayer, nonlinear least squares spectral fitting procedure and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. The results indicate a rapid increase in total HF and a more gradual increase in total HCl with both trends superimposed on short-term variability. In addition, the total columns of both gases undergo a seasonal cycle with an early spring maximum and an early fall minimum, with peak-to-peak amplitudes equal to 25% for HF and 13% for HCl. In the case of HF, the changes over the 13 years of measurement are sufficiently large to determine that a better fit is obtained assuming a linear rather than an exponential increase with time. For HCl, linear and exponential models fit the data equally well. Referenced to calendar year 1981.0 and assuming a sinusoidal seasonal cycle superimposed on a linear total column increase with time, HF and HCl increase rates of (10.9 +/- 1.1)% yr-1 and (5.1 +/- 0.7)% yr-1 and total columns of (3.17 +/- 0.11) x 10(14) and (1.92 +/- 0.06) x 10(15) molecules cm-2 (2 sigma) are derived, respectively; the corresponding best fit mean exponential increase rates are equal to (7.6 +/- 0.6)% yr-1 and (4.2 +/- 0.5)% yr-1 (2 sigma). Over the 13-year observing period, the HF and HCl total columns increased by factors of 3.2 and 1.8, respectively. Based on HF and HCl total columns deduced from measurements on the same day, the HF/HCl total columns ratio increased from 0.14 in May 1977 to 0.23 in June 1990

  17. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  18. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  19. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  20. Comparing the diurnal and seasonal variabilities of atmospheric and surface urban heat islands based on the Beijing urban meteorological network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Jiang, Shaojing; Wang, Jiankai; Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lee, Xuhui

    2017-02-01

    This study compared the diurnal and seasonal cycles of atmospheric and surface urban heat islands (UHIs) based on hourly air temperatures (Ta) collected at 65 out of 262 stations in Beijing and land surface temperature (Ts) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer in the years 2013-2014. We found that the nighttime atmospheric and surface UHIs referenced to rural cropland stations exhibited significant seasonal cycles, with the highest in winter. However, the seasonal variations in the nighttime UHIs referenced to mountainous forest stations were negligible, because mountainous forests have a higher nighttime Ts in winter and a lower nighttime Ta in summer than rural croplands. Daytime surface UHIs showed strong seasonal cycles, with the highest in summer. The daytime atmospheric UHIs exhibited a similar but less seasonal cycle under clear-sky conditions, which was not apparent under cloudy-sky conditions. Atmospheric UHIs in urban parks were higher in daytime. Nighttime atmospheric UHIs are influenced by energy stored in urban materials during daytime and released during nighttime. The stronger anthropogenic heat release in winter causes atmospheric UHIs to increase with time during winter nights, but decrease with time during summer nights. The percentage of impervious surfaces is responsible for 49%-54% of the nighttime atmospheric UHI variability and 31%-38% of the daytime surface UHI variability. However, the nighttime surface UHI was nearly uncorrelated with the percentage of impervious surfaces around the urban stations.

  1. NLC-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, E.; Witt, G.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Noctilucent Clouds (NLC)-91 is a multinational rocket and radar program which will take place in Jul. - Aug. 1991 in northern Scandinavia and the Barents Sea. The main objective of the campaign is to determine with in situ experiments the dynamical, electrodynamical, physical, and chemical parameters of an NLC layer combined with ground based visible radar, lidar, and microwave experiments. The altitude resolution of ground based and in situ measurements in the cold mesopause region should be improved in NLC-91 compared to the previous campaigns below 100 m.

  2. Understanding Diurnality and Inter-Seasonality of a Sub-tropical Urban Heat Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Sarangi, Chandan; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand

    2016-12-01

    We quantify the spatial and temporal aspects of the urban heat-island (UHI) effect for Kanpur, a major city in the humid sub-tropical monsoon climate of the Gangetic basin. Fixed station measurements are used to investigate the diurnality and inter-seasonality in the urban-rural differences in surface temperature ({Δ } T_s ) and air temperature ({Δ } T_c ) separately. The extent of the spatial variations of the nighttime {Δ } T_c and {Δ } T_s is investigated through mobile campaigns and satellite remote sensing respectively. Nighttime {Δ } T_c values dominate during both the pre-monsoon (maximum of 3.6°C) and the monsoon (maximum of 2.0°C). However, the diurnality in {Δ } T_s is different, with higher daytime values during the pre-monsoon, but very little diurnality during the monsoon. The nighttime {Δ } T_s value is mainly associated with differences in the urban-rural incoming longwave radiative flux (r2=0.33 during the pre-monsoon; 0.65 during the monsoon), which, in turn, causes a difference in the outgoing longwave radiative flux. This difference may modulate the nighttime {Δ } T_c value as suggested by significant correlations (r2=0.68 for the pre-monsoon; 0.50 for the monsoon). The magnitude of {Δ } T_c may also be modulated by advection, as it is inversely related with the urban wind speed. A combination of in situ, remotely sensed, and model simulation data were used to show that the inter-seasonality in {Δ } T_s , and, to a lesser extent, in {Δ } T_c , may be related to the change in the land use of the rural site between the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. Results suggest that the degree of coupling of {Δ } T_s and {Δ } T_c may be a strong function of land use and land cover.

  3. Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

  4. Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Wall, Jennifer C; Culpepper, Tyler; Nieves, Carmelo; Rowe, Cassie C; Burns, Alyssa M; Rusch, Carley T; Federico, Ashton; Ukhanova, Maria; Waugh, Sheldon; Mai, Volker; Christman, Mary C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi

    2017-03-01

    Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life is often reduced during seasonal allergies. The Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MRQLQ) is a validated tool used to measure quality of life in people experiencing allergies (0 = not troubled to 6 = extremely troubled). Probiotics may improve quality of life during allergy season by increasing the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inducing tolerance.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether consuming Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and B. longum MM-2 compared with placebo would result in beneficial effects on MRQLQ scores throughout allergy season in individuals who typically experience seasonal allergies. Secondary outcomes included changes in immune markers as part of a potential mechanism for changes in MRQLQ scores.Design: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized clinical trial, 173 participants (mean ± SEM: age 27 ± 1 y) who self-identified as having seasonal allergies received either a probiotic (2 capsules/d, 1.5 billion colony-forming units/capsule) or placebo during spring allergy season for 8 wk. MRQLQ scores were collected weekly throughout the study. Fasting blood samples were taken from a subgroup (placebo, n = 37; probiotic, n = 35) at baseline and week 6 (predicted peak of pollen) to determine serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E concentrations and Treg percentages.Results: The probiotic group reported an improvement in the MRQLQ global score from baseline to pollen peak (-0.68 ± 0.13) when compared with the placebo group (-0.19 ± 0.14; P = 0.0092). Both serum total IgE and the percentage of Tregs increased from baseline to week 6, but changes were not different between groups.Conclusions: This combination probiotic improved rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life during allergy season for healthy individuals with self-reported seasonal allergies; however, the associated mechanism is still

  5. Seasonal effects of heat shock on bacterial populations, including artificial Vibrio parahaemolyticus exposure, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Aagesen, Alisha M; Häse, Claudia C

    2014-04-01

    During the warmer summer months, oysters are conditioned to spawn, resulting in massive physiological efforts for gamete production. Moreover, the higher temperatures during the summer typically result in increased bacteria populations in oysters. We hypothesized that these animals are under multiple stresses that lead to possible immune system impairments during the summer months that can possibly lead to death. Here we show that in the summer and the fall animals exposed to a short heat stress respond similarly, resulting in a general trend of more bacteria being found in heat shocked animals than their non-heat shocked counterparts. We also show that naturally occurring bacterial populations are effected by a heat shock. In addition, oysters artificially contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were also affected by a heat shock. Heat shocked animals contained higher concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus in their tissues and hemolymph than control animals and this was consistent for animals examined during summer and fall. Finally, oyster hemocyte interactions with V. parahaemolyticus differed based on the time of the year. Overall, these findings demonstrate that seasonal changes and/or a short heat shock is sufficient to impact bacterial retention, particularly V. parahaemolyticus, in oysters and this line of research might lead to important considerations for animal harvesting procedures.

  6. Seasonal infertility in sows: a five year field study to analyze the relative roles of heat stress and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Auvigne, Vincent; Leneveu, Philippe; Jehannin, Christophe; Peltoniemi, Olli; Sallé, Elisabeth

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relative roles of high temperature and photoperiod as environmental factors of seasonal infertility in swine. The results of five years (2003-2007) of ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis carried out in 266 indoor farms were analyzed. For all farms, the data covered the entire study period. The farms were situated in four French regions. The data of 22,773 batches and 610,117 sows were included. Seasonal infertility was defined as the relative difference between the fertility rate in 'summer' (inseminations in weeks 25-42) and 'winter' (inseminations in weeks 1-18 of the same year). In each region, two meteorological variables were defined, based on the data of a reference weather station: the number of hot days (maximum temperature >or= 25 degrees C) and tropical days (maximum temperature >or= 32 degrees C and minimum temperature >or= 18 degrees C). The mean fertility was 85%. The median seasonal infertility was 2.8% and more than 7.1% for a quarter of farms. Seasonal infertility did not vary with areas or baseline fertility (defined for each studied farm as the average winter fertility over five years). Seasonal infertility differed with the year (p<0.001). Seasonal infertility was significantly higher during 2003 than in the other four years, which did not differ among each other. In the four regions, 2003 was the year with the highest number of hot days and 2007 with the least. Our study strengthens the hypothesis of a prominent role of photoperiod in seasonal infertility and of an additional role of heat stress the hottest years.

  7. Body temperature null distributions in reptiles with nonzero heat capacity: seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Elsey, Ruth M; Trosclair, Phillip L

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of body temperature may increase fitness of animals by ensuring that biochemical and physiological processes proceed at an optimal rate. The validity of current methods of testing whether or not thermoregulation in reptiles occurs is often limited to very small species that have near zero heat capacity. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows estimation of body temperature null distributions of large reptiles and to investigate seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Continuous body temperature records of wild alligators were obtained from implanted dataloggers in winter (n=7, mass range: 1.6-53.6 kg) and summer (n=7, mass range: 1.9-54.5 kg). Body temperature null distributions were calculated by randomising behavioural postures, thereby randomly altering relative animal surface areas exposed to different avenues of heat transfer. Core body temperatures were predicted by calculations of transient heat transfer by conduction and blood flow. Alligator body temperatures follow regular oscillations during the day. Occasionally, body temperature steadied during the day to fall within a relatively narrow range. Rather than indicating shuttling thermoregulation, however, this pattern could be predicted from random movements. Average daily body temperature increases with body mass in winter but not in summer. Daily amplitudes of body temperature decrease with increasing body mass in summer but not in winter. These patterns result from differential exposure to heat transfer mechanisms at different seasons. In summer, alligators are significantly cooler than predictions for a randomly moving animal, and the reverse is the case in winter. Theoretical predictions show, however, that alligators can be warmer in winter if they maximised their sun exposure. We concluded that alligators may not rely exclusively on regulation of body temperature but that they may also acclimatise biochemically to seasonally

  8. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates.

    PubMed

    Real, António C; Borges, José; Cabral, J Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  9. Time and space variability of freshwater content, heat content and seasonal ice melt in the Arctic Ocean from 1991 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, M.; Rudels, B.; Marnela, M.; Wisotzki, A.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean have recently been reported. The upper ocean has been freshening and pulses of warm Atlantic Water have been observed to spread into the Arctic Ocean. Although these changes have been intensively studied, salinity and temperature variations have less frequently been considered together. Here hydrographic observations, obtained by icebreaker expeditions conducted between 1991 and 2011, are analyzed and discussed. Five different water masses in the upper 1000 m of the water column are examined in five sub-basins of the Arctic Ocean. This allows for studying the variations of the distributions of the freshwater and heat contents in the Arctic Ocean not only in time but also laterally and vertically. In addition, the seasonal ice melt contribution is separated from the permanent, winter, freshwater content of the Polar Mixed Layer. Because the positions of the icebreaker stations vary between the years, the icebreaker observations are at each specific point in space and time compared with the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology to separate the effects of space and time variability on the observations. The hydrographic melt water estimate is discussed and compared with the potential ice melt induced by atmospheric heat input estimated from the ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. After a period of increased salinity in the upper ocean during the 1990s, both the Polar Mixed Layer and the upper halocline have been freshening. The increase in freshwater content in the Polar Mixed Layer is primarily driven by a decrease in salinity, not by changes in Polar Mixed Layer depth, whereas the freshwater is accumulating in the upper halocline mainly through the increasing thickness of the halocline. This is especially evident in the Northern Canada Basin, where the most substantial freshening is observed. The warming, and to some extent also the increase in salinity, of the Atlantic Water during the early 1990s extended

  10. Impact of the seasonal cycle on the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic volume and heat transport under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic ocean circulation is projected to change considerably with future climate change. Here, we investigate whether changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the meridional heat transport (OHT) result in changes in their decadal predictability. In MPI-ESM-LR, we generate two hindcast ensembles with 20 start dates and 10 ensemble members per start date for (i) the present climate state in the CMIP5 historical simulation extended with RCP4.5 starting in 1995 and (ii) a future climate state in RCP4.5 starting in 2045. These two hindcast ensembles are compared against the historical simulation and RCP4.5 as control simulation, respectively, using the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and the Brier skill score (BSS) decomposition in combination with reliability diagrams. The analysis is performed for yearly means and multiyear seasonal means of the AMOC and the OHT. Our results show a decrease in predictability of the AMOC and the OHT from the present climate state to the future climate state in RCP4.5. Both, changes in the AMOC and the OHT decadal predictability are largest at latitudes where the mean seasonal cycle of both AMOC and OHT is projected to change. For example around 25°N, the AMOC shows a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.5 Sv and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead times from up to 10 years to 2 years in the ACC. For the OHT, we find a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.1 PW and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead time from up to 4 years to 2 years in the ACC around 25°N. Similarly, the BSS and reliability diagrams show a reduction in skill from the present climate state to the future climate state. For multiyear seasonal means, summer months dominate the predictability in the present and future climate. Even though the changes in the decadal predictability of AMOC and OHT are small in general, their

  11. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H. (Editor); Anderson, E. E. (Editor); Simoneau, R. J. (Editor); Chan, C. K. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  12. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. H.; Anderson, E. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Chan, C. K.; Pepper, D. W.

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  13. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  14. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  15. A heat wave during leaf expansion severely reduces productivity and modifies seasonal growth patterns in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Stangler, Dominik Florian; Hamann, Andreas; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-10-13

    A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period. We evaluated both growth phenology (onset, cessation, duration of radial growth, time of maximum daily growth rate) and productivity (monthly and seasonal average growth rates, maximum daily growth rate, tree-ring width) and tested for differences and interactions among species and years. Productivity of sugar maple was drastically compromised by a 3-day spring heat wave in 2010 as indicated by low growth rates, very early growth cessation and a lagged growth onset in the following year. Sugar maple also responded more sensitively than yellow birch to a prolonged drought period in July 2012, but final tree-ring width was not significantly reduced due to positive responses to above-average temperatures in the preceding spring. We conclude that sugar maple, a species that currently dominates northern hardwood forests, is vulnerable to heat wave disturbances during leaf expansion, which might occur more frequently under anticipated climate change.

  16. Climate-vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  17. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  18. All Season-DX Cooling and Gas Heating. GCS3 Series - Horizontal and Down-Flo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    The Lennox single package all-season rooftop unit and mounting frame is described in detail. This piece of equipment is designed primarily for rooftop installation with bottom handling of conditioned air. In addition, an installation with end handling of conditioned air makes possible three air distribution patterns. Areas discussed are--(1) unit…

  19. Field evaluation of green and red leaf lettuce genotypes in the Imperial, San Joaquin, and Salinas Valleys of California for heat tolerance and extension of the growing seasons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming poses serious threats and challenges to the production of leafy vegetables. Being a cool-season crop, lettuce is vulnerable to heat-stress. To adapt to climate change, this study was conducted to evaluate the performance of leaf lettuce genotypes for heat tolerance by growing them in ...

  20. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  1. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E).

  2. Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Liu, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation, which constitutes ˜ 70 % of the total amount of freshwater consumed by the human population, is significantly impacting land-atmosphere fluxes. In this study, using the improved Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) with an active crop model, two high-resolution (˜ 1 km) simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat (LH), sensible heat (SH), and carbon fluxes (or net ecosystem exchange, NEE) from land to atmosphere in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The model output and measurements from remote sensing demonstrated the capacity of the developed models to reproduce ecological and hydrological processes. The results revealed that the effects of irrigation on LH and SH are strongest during summer, with a LH increase of ˜ 100 W m-2 and a SH decrease of ˜ 60 W m-2 over intensely irrigated areas. However, the reactions are much weaker during spring and autumn when there is much less irrigation. When the irrigation rate is below 5 mm day-1, the LH generally increases, whereas the SH decreases with growing irrigation rates. However, when the irrigation threshold is in excess of 5 mm day-1, there is no accrued effect of irrigation on the LH and SH. Irrigation produces opposite effects to the NEE during spring and summer. During the spring, irrigation yields more discharged carbon from the land to the atmosphere, increasing the NEE value by 0.4-0.8 gC m-2 day-1, while the summer irrigation favors crop fixing of carbon from atmospheric CO2, decreasing the NEE value by ˜ 0.8 gC m-2 day-1. The repercussions of irrigation on land-atmosphere fluxes are not solely linked to the irrigation amount, and other parameters (especially the temperature) also control the effects of irrigation on LH, SH, and NEE.

  3. Annual and seasonal trends of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days in coastal regions of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Khan, Shamsuddin

    2011-06-01

    The present study utilizes daily maximum and minimum values of temperature for a period of 37 years from 1970-2006 in five coastal cities for the estimation of monthly and annual totals of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days at base temperatures of 18°C and 24°C, 18°C and 20°C, 7°C, and 13°C, respectively. Increasing trends were observed in case of annual total cooling degree-days (CDD) and industrial degree-days over the period of study at all base temperatures. Furthermore, well-defined seasonal trends were seen with increasing values from January to July and then decreasing towards the end of the year. The heating degree-days (HDD) analysis indicated slight heating during January to March and in December. The annual total HDD showed decreasing trends at both base temperatures. It is worth mentioning that the rate of increase of annual CDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan with an exception at Yanbo, where it was higher than at Al-Wejh. On the other hand, the rate of decrease of annual HDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan. The seasonal and annual values of cooling degree-days were found to be comparable with corresponding values for stations like international airports in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Musqat, and Cairo with similar types of climatic conditions.

  4. Advanced Solid-State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) data sets from the 1990 field season: A unique look at two forested ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Charles L.; Irons, James; Dabney, Phillip; Peterson, David L.; Williams, Darrel L.; Johnson, Lee F.; Ranson, K. Jon

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Solid-state Array Spectrometer (ASAS) is a pointable imaging spectrometer which uses a solid-state array to acquire imagery of terrestrial targets in 29 spectral bands from .4 to .8 microns. Performance and calibration of the instrument are described. The ASAS data sets obtained in 1990 provide a unique look at forest canopies from two different forest regions of the North America continent under varying temporal, spectral, and bidirectional conditions. These data sets will be used to study such parameters as the albedo of forest canopies, the dynamics of scene radiation due to factors such as canopy architecture, moisture stress, leaf chemistry, topography, and understory composition.

  5. Scaffolding Classroom Discourse in an Election Year: Keeping a Cool Mood in a Heated Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; May, Laura A.; Stenhouse, Vera L.; Meyers, Laura E.; Holbrook, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Certainly, teaching about politics can be daunting, especially as the political climate in the United States becomes increasingly partisan as a result of heated political rhetoric amplified through a variety of media outlets. However, elementary teachers can help students develop the respectful dispositions they will need as young adults living in…

  6. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates.

  7. Automatic control of electric thermal storage (heat) under real-time pricing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.; Bohn, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time pricing (RTP) can be used by electric utilities as a control signal for responsive demand-side management (DSM) programs. Electric thermal storage (ETS) systems in buildings provide the inherent flexibility needed to take advantage of variations in prices. Under RTP, optimal performance for ETS operations is achieved under market conditions where reductions in customers` costs coincide with the lowering of the cost of service for electric utilities. The RTP signal conveys the time-varying actual marginal cost of the electric service to customers. The RTP rate is a combination of various cost components, including marginal generation fuel and maintenance costs, marginal costs of transmission and distribution losses, and marginal quality of supply and transmission costs. This report describes the results of an experiment in automatic control of heat storage systems under RTP during the winter seasons of 1989--90 and 1990--91.

  8. Infrared measurements of HF and HCl total column abundances above Kitt Peak, 1977-1990 - Seasonal cycles, long-term increases, and comparisons with model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Levine, J. S.; Goldman, A.; Sze, N. D.; Ko, M. K. W.; Johnson, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total column measurements, their estimated long-term rates of increase, seasonal cycles, and variability, deduced from the analysis of a set of high-resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at Kitt Peak. The Kitt Peak observations and methods of analysis are described, the results are presented and compared with previously reported measurements and trends. The data is analyzed by using a multilayer nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. Model-calculated hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns obtained with a two-dimensional model are discussed, and the model results are compared with the measured hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns, seasonal cycles, and trends. It is pointed out that the observed trends of both molecules are in satisfactory agreement with the model results calculated from emission histories and photooxidation rates for the source molecules.

  9. South Pacific convergence zone and global scale circulations (Jul. 1987 - Jul. 1991). Observational and modeling studies of heat, moisture, precipitation, and global-scale circulation patterns (Jul. 1990 - Jul. 1993)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Dayton G.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1991-01-01

    Several research projects were worked on between August 1990 and May 1991. Topics covered included observational and modeling studies of relationships between tropical heat sources and subtropical jet streams, the intraseasonal (30 to 60 day) oscillation near the equator, and precipitation over tropical oceans. Current research activities and plans for the coming year are outlined.

  10. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  11. Warm-season diurnal circulations and heat extremes over the northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew C.

    Summer synoptic circulations over the northwest U.S., and their interactions with regional terrain, land/water contrasts, and surface heating, give rise to a variety of fascinating meteorological phenomena, many of which have yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how projected future warming associated with increased greenhouse gases will modify these important features. The work herein seeks to ameliorate this with a comprehensive examination of two important aspects of northwest U.S. summer weather and climate: diurnal circulations and changes to the conditions associated with extreme temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. To simulate regional diurnal circulations, GFS model output was obtained for July and August 2009-2011. These data were categorized into hour of the day, composited, and the resulting files were used to initialize and provide boundary conditions to a WRF (version 3.5) model run. It was shown that, when compared to observations, this WRF run sufficiently simulates average diurnal variability. Using this simulation, the diurnal circulations of the region were described, including several important wind features within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Snoqualmie Pass, and the Columbia River Gorge. Also, regional nocturnal low-level wind maxima are described, including one over the northern Willamette valley and another over the high plateau of eastern Oregon. Recent work by the authors has elucidated the physical mechanisms that drive heat extremes over the northwest U.S., including the necessity of a ridge aloft, with associated subsidence and advection warming. Also, easterly flow is crucial for keeping the marine air at bay, and producing downslope flow and adiabatic warming on the western slopes of regional north-south terrain barriers. Given the rising temperatures projected under anthropogenic global warming, how are these conditions, and associated low-level temperature distributions, projected to change? As a

  12. Registered Nursing Alumni Surveys, 1990-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    Since 1990, California's College of the Canyons (CoC) has conducted annual surveys of graduates from its Registered Nursing (RN) program. Between 1990 and 1994, surveys were sent to 193 RN graduates, with completed questionnaires received from 124 alumni. An analysis of responses for each year revealed the following: (1) 91.7% of the respondents…

  13. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  14. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  15. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods.

  16. 40 CFR 80.91 - Individual baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the same number of decimal places as the corresponding fuel parameter listed in paragraph (c)(5) of... in 1990 ps = total number of different grades of season s gasoline produced by the refinery in 1990... ngs = total number of season s samples of grade g gasoline Xgis = parameter value of grade g...

  17. 40 CFR 80.91 - Individual baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the same number of decimal places as the corresponding fuel parameter listed in paragraph (c)(5) of... in 1990 ps = total number of different grades of season s gasoline produced by the refinery in 1990... ngs = total number of season s samples of grade g gasoline Xgis = parameter value of grade g...

  18. 40 CFR 80.91 - Individual baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the same number of decimal places as the corresponding fuel parameter listed in paragraph (c)(5) of... in 1990 ps = total number of different grades of season s gasoline produced by the refinery in 1990... ngs = total number of season s samples of grade g gasoline Xgis = parameter value of grade g...

  19. Growth of high {Tc} superconducting fibers using a miniaturized laser-heated float zone process. Progress report, November 6, 1990--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Feigelson, R.S.; Route, R.K.; DeMattei, R.C.

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the progress made on the project ``Growth of High {Tc} Superconducting Fibers Using a Miniaturized Laser-Heated Float Zone Process`` during the 14 month period from Nov. 6, 1990 to Dec. 31, 1991. The studies during this period focused primarily on phase diagram studies, phase relations in the calcium aluminate system and on Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BSCCO). Some work was also done on the Advanced Fiber Growing Station. Because of the complicated phase relationships found in the incongruently melting BSCCO system, the incongruently melting CA{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase of the calcium oxide-aluminum oxide system was studied as a model material. The data obtained was in agreement with well known solidification theory. Fibers grown from calcium oxide rich sources contained calcium oxide nodules which transported from the melting source interface to the growth interface, while those grown from aluminum oxide rich sources contained continuous inclusions of a divorced eutectic. The melt compositions were also found to follow theoretical predictions. The agreement of this data with the phase diagram and solidification theory demonstrates that phase equilibrium information can be extracted from fiber growth experiments. BSCCO feed rods were made from 12 different compositions. Fibers were grown from these rods and the melts were abruptly quenched which preserves the as-grown 2212 fiber, a glassy frozen melt and the source. A future study of these sections will reveal the phase relationships that exist in the BSCCO system. Melt temperature gradients of 500--1,000 C/cm were measured near the interface in these experiments. During this reporting period, work continued on the mechanical components of the Advanced Fiber Growth Station.

  20. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  1. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  2. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA.

  3. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  4. Spinoff, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, James J.

    1990-01-01

    This publication is intended to foster the aim of the NASA Technology Utilization Program by heightening awareness of the NASA technology available for transfer and its potential for benefits realized by secondary applications. Spinoff 1990 is organized in three main sections. Section 1 outlines NASA's mainline effort, the major programs that generate new technology and therefore replenish and expand the bank of knowledge available for transfer. Section 2 contains a representative sampling of spinoff products that resulted from secondary application of technology originally developed to meet mainline goals. Section 3 describes the various mechanisms NASA employs to stimulate technology transfer and lists, in an appendix, contact sources for further information about the Technology Utilization Program.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum-localized small heat shock protein that accumulates in mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.) during seasonal cold acclimation is responsive to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Kanno, Yuri; Seo, Mitsunori; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2010-04-01

    With seasonal changes, several proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fraction in the bark of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.). Results of partial amino acid sequence analysis in our previous study suggested that one of these proteins is the ER-localized small heat shock protein (sHSP), designated 20-kD winter-accumulating protein (WAP20). In the present study, molecular and biochemical properties of WAP20 were investigated in detail. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA has the predicted signal sequence to the ER, retention signal to the ER and two consensus regions conserved in sHSPs. Recombinant WAP20 expressed in Escherichia coli also showed typical biochemical features of sHSPs, including the formation of a high-molecular-mass complex between 200 and 300 kD under native conditions, promotion of the renaturation of chemically denaturated citrate synthase and prevention of heat stress-induced aggregation of the enzyme. Transcript levels of WAP20 in the bark tissue were seasonally changed, showing high expression levels from mid-October to mid-December, and the transcript levels were additionally increased and decreased by cold treatment and warm treatment, respectively. WAP20 transcripts were detected abundantly in bark tissue rather than xylem and winter bud tissues during seasonal cold acclimation. The bark tissue specificity of WAP20 accumulation was also observed by exogenous application of phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in de-acclimated twigs, whereas WAP20 transcripts were increased in all of these tissues by heat shock treatment at 37 degrees C in summer twigs. The results suggest that ABA may be involved in the expression of the WAP20 gene in bark tissue of the mulberry tree during seasonal cold acclimation.

  6. Changes in the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic meridional heat transport in a RCP 8.5 climate projection in MPI-ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna

    2017-02-01

    We investigate changes in the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Ocean meridional heat transport (OHT) in a climate projection experiment with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Specifically, we compare a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) RCP 8.5 climate change scenario, covering the simulation period from 2005 to 2300, to a historical simulation, covering the simulation period from 1850 to 2005. In RCP 8.5, the OHT declines by 30-50 % in comparison to the historical simulation in the North Atlantic by the end of the 23rd century. The decline in the OHT is accompanied by a change in the seasonal cycle of the total OHT and its components. We decompose the OHT into overturning and gyre component. For the OHT seasonal cycle, we find a northward shift of 5° and latitude-dependent shifts between 1 and 6 months that are mainly associated with changes in the meridional velocity field. We find that the changes in the OHT seasonal cycle predominantly result from changes in the wind-driven surface circulation, which projects onto the overturning component of the OHT in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic. This leads in turn to latitude-dependent shifts between 1 and 6 months in the overturning component. In comparison to the historical simulation, in the subpolar North Atlantic, in RCP 8.5 we find a reduction of the North Atlantic Deep Water formation and changes in the gyre heat transport result in a strongly weakened seasonal cycle with a weakened amplitude by the end of the 23rd century.

  7. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  8. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  9. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  10. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  11. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  12. Aerosol and Trace Gas Sources in Northern China: Changes in Concentrations Before and After the Official "Heating Season" Help Characterize Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Marufu, L. T.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, Z.; Stehr, J. W.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.

    2006-05-01

    In March 2005, as a part of the project EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment), in-situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties were made at Xianghe, a rural surface site about 70 km east-southeast, generally downwind, of Beijing metropolitan area. CO, SO2, NO/NOy, O3, aerosol absorption coefficient, and aerosol scattering coefficients were determined simultaneously using the University of Maryland light aircraft instrument package. Pollutant ratios have been calculated to characterize the emission sources around the site. A dramatic drop in the NOy/CO ratio found around March 13/14 suggesting a sudden shutoff of a large fraction of the high- temperature combustion sources in the region. This observed change in concentrations occurred simultaneously with the transition from "heating season" to "non-heating season" in Northern China. Over the course of just a few days (around March 15), all boilers used to provide heat for cities and towns in this region are shut down in accordance with a governmental guideline. Most of these boilers operate with coal, and by using ratios of NOy/CO, SO2/CO, aerosol scattering/CO, and aerosol absorption/CO during and after the "heating season", emissions from these small to medium sized coal-fired boilers can be characterized. Results indicate that these residential and small-scale industrial heaters are a major source of NOy and SO2. Besides elevating the regional atmospheric pollutant level, the trace gases and aerosols emitted also have potential effects in other aspects such as the biogeochemical cycle of N and the agricultural production in this region.

  13. Project Aprendizaje. 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Public Schools' Project Aprendizaje, which served disadvantaged, immigrant, Spanish-speaking high school students at Seward Park High School in Manhattan. The Project enrolled 290 students in grades 9 through 12, 93.1 percent of whom were eligible for the Free Lunch Program. The Project provided students of…

  14. Chapter 2 Formula: Evaluation Report 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Kristen M.

    Chapter 2 Formula provides federal funds to the states through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by P.L. 100-297 in 1988. Chapter 2 funds can support one or more programs that do the following: meet the educational needs of students with special needs (at-risk and high-cost students); acquire curricular…

  15. North Sea oil and gas directory, 1990/91

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book looks at companies involved in U.K. and European offshore activity. Listings include exploration and production companies, drilling contractors, project management contractors, manufacturers, suppliers and service contractors. company names, addresses, telephone, fax, telex numbers and contact are provided in each listing. In addition, a products and services guide with its own index, and official organizations section and a listing of upcoming conferences and exhibitions is provided. From A to Z, this directory lists 17,064 names at 7083 locations.

  16. Research activities of Forestry Canada, 1990-91. Annual publication

    SciTech Connect

    Plexman, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This document is an overview of current research and development activity in each of the regional establishments and national institutes. It provides a concise tabular summary of projects listed within key activity groups, together with the budget and person years assigned to each.

  17. Open Doors 1990/91: Report on International Educational Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zikopoulos, Marianthi, Ed.; And Others

    This six-part report presents statistical data on worldwide trends in student mobility and migration, national origin, sources of financial support, fields of study, enrollments, and rates of growth. Part I explores the nature of student migration worldwide and presents data on the overall numbers of students going abroad and the extent to which…

  18. 1990-91 Bulletin of Information for TOEFL and TSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is the United States/Canada edition of the information bulletin for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the Test of Spoken English (TSE). The bulletin provides information and registration forms necessary for taking the TOEFL or TSE. The purpose of the TOEFL is to evaluate the North American English proficiency of…

  19. Annual Review of Environmental Education: 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Stephen R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this annual publication is to report, evaluate, encourage, and help guide progress in Environmental Education (EE) in the United Kingdom and to provide information on important initiatives and comparative international developments. Issues and priorities are identified with an emphasis on current EE philosophy rather than practice…

  20. HISD After-School Opportunities Programs Description 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Nanda D.; And Others

    This report describes after-school programs available in the Houston (Texas) Independent School District (HISD). Fifty-nine sites offer either after-school child care or instruction to elementary school students in the HISD. Magnet's Extended Instructional Day program is the largest and the Houston Committee for Private Sector Initiatives'…

  1. HISD Magnet School Program Description 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Nanda D.; And Others

    This paper describes magnet school programs offering a special or enhanced curricula to attract an ethnically diverse population at all grade levels in the Houston (Texas) Independent School District (HISD). Researchers collected data through interviews, site visits, brochures, campus programs summaries, and an analysis of the Student Master File.…

  2. The 1990-91 Educational Software Preview Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Anita, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to help educators locate microcomputer software programs they may want to preview for students in grades K-12, this guide lists commercially available microcomputer software programs that have been favorably reviewed by members of the Educational Software Evaluation Consortium. Programs are arranged alphabetically by title within…

  3. FLESNews, Volume 4, Numbers 2-4, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    Issues 2-4 of this volume of the newsletter concerning foreign language instruction in elementary schools (FLES) contain articles on theory, classroom practice, instructional materials, class activities, and professional news, including conferences and information on public policy at the federal level. Articles in these issues include the…

  4. An Evaluation of the Alternative Schools 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the seven alternative schools in the Houston (Texas) Independent School District by describing the students who were served by the programs, and by assessing the effectiveness of the programs in improving student academic performance and attendance. The following schools provide education to at-risk…

  5. Seasonal variation in expression pattern of genes under HSP70 : Seasonal variation in expression pattern of genes under HSP70 family in heat- and cold-adapted goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dipak; Upadhyay, Ramesh C; Chaudhary, Umesh B; Kumar, Ravindra; Singh, Sohanvir; Ashutosh; G, Jagan Mohanarao; Polley, Shamik; Mukherjee, Ayan; Das, Tapan K; De, Sachinandan

    2014-05-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of the most abundant and best characterized heat shock protein family that consists of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress, and plays crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and to quantify their expression pattern in heat- and cold-adapted Indian goats (Capra hircus) with respect to different seasons. Five HSP70 gene homologues to HSPA8, HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPA1L, and HSPA2 were identified by gene-specific primers. The cDNA sequences showed high similarity to other mammals, and proteins have an estimated molecular weight of around 70 kDa. The expression of HSP70 genes was observed during summer and winter. During summer, the higher expression of HSPA8, HSPA6, and HSPA1A was observed, whereas the expression levels of HSPA1L and HSPA2 were found to be lower. It was also observed that the expression of HSPA1A and HSPA8 was higher during winter in both heat- and cold-adapted goats but downregulates in case of other HSPs. Therefore, both heat and cold stress induced the overexpression of HSP70 genes. An interesting finding that emerged from the study is the higher expression of HSP70 genes in cold-adapted goats during summer and in heat-adapted goats during winter. Altogether, the results indicate that the expression pattern of HSP70 genes is species- and breed-specific, most likely due to variations in thermal tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  6. Climate change-related temperature impacts on warm season heat mortality: a proof-of-concept methodology using BenMAP.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, A Scott; Fann, Neal; Fulcher, Charles; Dolwick, Patrick; Hubbell, Bryan; Bierwagen, Britta; Morefield, Philip

    2011-02-15

    Climate change is anticipated to raise overall temperatures and is likely to increase heat-related human health morbidity and mortality risks. The objective of this work was to develop a proof-of-concept approach for estimating excess heat-related premature deaths in the continental United States resulting from potential changes in future temperature using the BenMAP model. In this approach we adapt the methods and tools that the US Environmental Protection Agency uses to assess air pollution health impacts by incorporating temperature modeling and heat mortality health impact functions. This new method demonstrates the ability to apply the existing temperature-health literature to quantify prospective changes in climate-sensitive heat-related mortality. We compared estimates of future temperature with and without climate change and applied heat-mortality health functions to estimate relative changes in heat-related premature mortality. Using the A1B emissions scenario, we applied the GISS-II global circulation model downscaled to 36-km using MM5 and formatted using the Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor. For averaged temperatures derived from the 5 years 2048-2052 relative to 1999-2003 we estimated for the warm season May-September a national U.S. estimate of annual incidence of heat-related mortality to be 3700-3800 from all causes, 3500 from cardiovascular disease, and 21 000-27 000 from nonaccidental death, applying various health impact functions. Our estimates of mortality, produced to validate the application of a new methodology, suggest the importance of quantifying heat impacts in economic assessments of climate change.

  7. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  8. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  9. Bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system in the ice melt season derived from concentration-temperature relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2008-06-01

    The bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system (Kb) in the ice melt season is estimated by a new method at 18 areas that cover much of the Antarctic seasonal ice zone. The method is based on a model in which ice melting is caused only by heat input through open water and is treated in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system. Kb is estimated by fitting a convergent curve derived from the model to an observed ice concentration-temperature plot (CT-plot). Estimated Kb is 1.15 ± 0.72 × 10-4 m s-1 on average. If Kb can be expressed by the product of the heat transfer coefficient (ch) and the friction velocity (uτ), ch is 0.0113 ± 0.0055. This value is about two times larger than that estimated at the ice bottom. The relationship between Kb and the geostrophic wind speed (Uw), which is roughly proportional to uτ, shows a significant positive correlation, as expected. Further, Kb seems more likely to be proportional to the square or cube of Uw rather than a linear relationship. Since Kb estimated from our method is associated with ice melting in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system, this relationship likely indicates both the mixing process of heat in the upper ocean (proportional to uτ3) and the local heat transfer process at the ice-ocean interface (proportional to uτ).

  10. 10 CFR 431.91 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.91 Purpose and scope. This subpart specifies test procedures and energy conservation standards for certain commercial air conditioners and heat pumps,...

  11. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  12. 14 CFR 91.615-91.699 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 91.615-91.699 Section 91.615-91.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft §§ 91.615-91.699...

  13. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  14. Potential seasonal ecological challenge of heat strain among Australian Aboriginal people practicing traditional subsistence methods: a computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-11-01

    It has been largely accepted that Australian Aboriginal people practicing hunting and gathering traditionally underused their objective economic possibilities by working short hours relative to nonhunter-gatherer populations. However, the possibility that their subsistence quest might have been limited by potential heat strain has not been considered for Australian hunter-gatherers. In this article the influence of work and heat load on the potential for heat strain among adult male Australian Aboriginal people is modelled. The possibility that the short working day of Arnhem Land adults reported in the literature might reflect ecologically limited work scheduling by way of potential heat strain is examined. Three climatic regions of the North of Western Australia and the Northern Territory were identified, using data available from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Data from the months of January, April, July, and October were used with the United States Army Heat Strain Model, along with assumptions with respect to work load and time scheduling. Predictive modelling indicates that a late start to the working day could carry considerable risks of potential heat strain during the summer, when humidity and maximum daily temperature are highest for all three climatic regions, but especially in the tropical coastal region. While extended work times may have been needed to acquire adequate food under traditional conditions, work output could have been limited by potential heat strain under some conditions likely to have prevailed.

  15. Expression profiling of major heat shock protein genes during different seasons in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  16. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; Zhang, Minghua; Schumacher, Courtney; Upton, Hannah; Jensen, Michael P.; Johnson, Karen L.; Wang, Meng; Ahlgrimm, Maike; Feng, Zhe; Minnis, Patrick; Thieman, Mandana

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wet season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia - i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems - is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.

  17. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; ...

    2016-11-16

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wetmore » season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia – i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems – is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.« less

  18. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  19. Seasonal gonadal development and age-related maturity patterns of introduced pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758) in a heated thermal reservoir and an adjacent river reach.

    PubMed

    Valente, E; Masson, G; Maul, A; Fox, M G; Meyer, A; Pihan, J C

    2016-05-01

    Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0.73, P<0.001). GSI of females in the reservoir increased with the stage at maturity, but GSI was not significantly correlated with total length, age or growth rate of the individual. All sampled individuals of both sexes were mature at age 1 in the heated reservoir, whereas 48% of age 1 males and 57% of age 1 females were not mature in the river. GSI patterns suggest that males in the reservoir adopted one of two reproductive strategies (nesters or cuckolders), whereas no small males with large enough testes to be considered cuckolders were apparent in the river. The warm thermal regime of Mirgenbach Reservoir led to precocial maturity, early season reproduction, and the greater prevalence of apparent cuckolder males than would normally occur in this climatic zone.

  20. Aerial surveys of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas, 1990. Final report, Oct-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.E.; Clarke, J.T.

    1991-06-01

    In keeping with the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), the Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) and the Endangered Species Act (1973), the OCS Lands Act Amendments (1978) established a management policy that included studies in OCS lease sale areas to ascertain potential environmental impacts of oil and gas development on OCS marine coastal environments. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is the agency responsible for these studies and for the leasing of submerged Federal lands. The report summarizes the 1990 investigations of the distribution, abundance, migration, behavior and habitat relationships of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas (hereafter, study area); 1990 was the second of a three year (1989-91) study. The Bering Sea stock of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) was the principal species studied, with incidental sightings of all other marine mammals routinely recorded. The 1990 season was compromised by circumstances that restricted the availability of the survey aircraft (Grumman Goose, model G21G) to the period 26 October - 7 November; opportunistic surveys were flown in the study area from 3-25 October. In 1990, there were 14 sightings of 19 bowheads from 9-29 October; 5 whales, including 2 calves, were seen north of the study area. One gray whale, 110 belukhas and 53 polar bears were also seen. Over nine survey seasons (1982-90), there were 240 sightings of 520 bowhead whales and 148 sightings of 398 gray whales.

  1. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  2. Wet-season Dormancy Release in Seed Banks of a Tropical Leguminous Shrub is Determined by Wet Heat

    PubMed Central

    VAN KLINKEN, RIEKS D.; FLACK, LLOYD K.; PETTIT, WILLIAM

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hard-seeded (physical) dormancy is common among plants, yet mechanisms for dormancy release are poorly understood, especially in the tropics. The following questions are asked: (a) whether dormancy release in seed banks of the tropical shrub Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpiniaceae) is determined by wet heat (incubation under wet, warm to hot, conditions); and (b) whether its effect is modified by microclimate. • Methods A seed burial trial was conducted in the wet–dry tropics (northern Australia) to compare dormancy release across different habitats (open, artificial cover, ground cover and canopy cover), burial depths (0, 3 and 20 cm) and burial durations (2, 6 and 14 weeks). Results were compared with predictions using a laboratory-derived relationship between wet heat and dormancy release, and microclimate data collected during the trial. • Key Results Wet heat (defined as the soil temperature above which seeds were exposed to field capacity or higher for a cumulative total of 24 h) was 43·6 °C in the 0 cm open treatment, and decreased with increasing shade and depth to 29·5 °C at 20 cm under canopy cover. The dormancy release model showed that wet heat was a good predictor of the proportion of seeds remaining dormant. Furthermore, dormancy release was particularly sensitive to wet heat across the temperature range encountered across treatments. This resulted in a 16-fold difference in dormancy levels between open (<5 % of seeds still dormant) and covered (82 %) microhabitats. • Conclusions These results demonstrate that wet heat is the principal dormancy release mechanism for P. aculeata when conditions are hot and wet. They also highlight the potential importance of microclimate in driving the population dynamics of such species. PMID:16891334

  3. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; López-Baca, M A; Vicente, R; Mejía, A; Álvarez, F D; Correa-Calderón, A; Meza-Herrera, C A; Mellado, M; Guerra-Liera, J E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  4. Observational and modeling studies of heat, moisture, precipitation and global-scale circulation patterns. Final technical report, 20 July 1990-19 January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    This research grant was a revised version of an original proposal. The period of the grant was for three years with a six-month no-cost extension; thus, it was from 20 July 1990 to 19 January 1994. The objectives of the grant were to identify periods and locations of active convection centers, primarily over the Southern Hemisphere tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans; determine reasons for any periodic behavior found in the first objective; identify cases where subtropical jets over the South Pacific persisted for several days and examine the influences of tropical versus extra-tropical mechanisms in maintaining them; obtain estimates of precipitation by Q[sub 1] and Q[sub 2] budgets, including the importance of terms in each of the respective budgets, and compare these estimates to those obtained by other methods; and diagnose the distributions of moisture and precipitable water over the North Atlantic Ocean using routine analyses and satellite microwave data. To accomplish these objectives, the authors used grant funds to purchase several data sets, including the Global Precipitation Climate Project (GPCP) observations of station precipitation, ECMWF WCRP/TOGA archive two analyses for January 1985 - December 1990, ECMWF WMO analyses for January 1980 - December 1987, and OLR data for July 1974 - December 1991. They already had some SSM/I data and GLA analyses from a previous grant. In addition, to improve their computing power, they also used grant funds to purchase an IBM PS/2 with accessories, a NEC laser jet printer, and a microcomputer system for word processing.

  5. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  6. Selected hydrologic data for farmland treated with sewage sludge near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johncox, David A.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, studied the ground-water-quality effects of the application of anaerobic digested municipal sewage sludge at agronomic rates to farmland near Platteville. Beginning in the fall of 1985, the sludge was injected annually into the sandy farmland in a 1-square-mile area. Generally, water-quality samples were collected from observation wells two or three times during each irrigation season from 1985 through 1990 and once each winter or late spring from 1987 through early 1991. Water levels were measured, and water-quality, soil and soil-moisture samples, and precipitation data were collected at selected sites throughout the study area. This report presents the data collected during 1985-91 from observation wells, irrigation wells, domestic wells, and other selected sites in the study area.

  7. Seasonal influence on heat-resistant proteolytic capacity of Pseudomonas lundensis and Pseudomonas fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Heylen, Kim; Messens, Winy; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Vos, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Herman, Lieve; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Psychrotolerant bacteria and their heat-resistant proteases play a major role in the spoilage of UHT-processed dairy products. Summer and winter raw milk samples were screened for the presence of such bacteria. One hundred and three proteolytic psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated, characterized by API tests, rep-PCR fingerprint analysis and evaluated for heat-resistant protease production. Twenty-nine strains (representing 79% of the complete collection) were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. A seasonal inter- and intra-species influence on milk spoilage capacity (e.g. growth rate and/or protease production) was demonstrated. Moreover, this polyphasic approach led to the identification of Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas lundensis (representing 53% of all isolates) as predominant producers of heat-resistant proteases in raw milk. The role of Pseudomonas fluorescens, historically reported as important milk spoiler, could not unequivocally be established. The use of more reliable identification techniques and further revision of the taxonomy of P. fluorescens will probably result in a different perspective on its role in the milk spoilage issue.

  8. 1990-1991 Marketing Plan. Year II: Planning To Meet the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcott, Frances; And Others

    In Maryland, Catonsville Community College's (CCC) 1990-91 marketing plan deals with the community's perceptions of the institution and strategies to improve CCC's image. Both the 1989-90 and 1990-91 plans targeted the same markets for special recruitment strategies; i.e., high school graduates with transfer plans, part-time adult students,…

  9. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  10. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  11. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  12. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  13. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  14. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  15. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  16. 14 CFR 91.162-91.165 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 91.162-91.165 Section 91.162-91.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules §§...

  17. 14 CFR 91.423-91.499 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 91.423-91.499 Section 91.423-91.499 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive...

  18. 14 CFR 91.423-91.499 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 91.423-91.499 Section 91.423-91.499 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive...

  19. 14 CFR 91.423-91.499 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 91.423-91.499 Section 91.423-91.499 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive...

  20. 14 CFR 91.423-91.499 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 91.423-91.499 Section 91.423-91.499 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive...

  1. 14 CFR 91.423-91.499 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 91.423-91.499 Section 91.423-91.499 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive...

  2. Winter fuels report: Week ending October 19, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-25

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on the US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 pm on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB).

  3. Winter fuels report, week ending October 5, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage, for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). See page ii for details. 12 tabs.

  4. Cross-Presentation of the Oncofetal Tumor Antigen 5T4 from Irradiated Prostate Cancer Cells--A Key Role for Heat-Shock Protein 70 and Receptor CD91.

    PubMed

    Salimu, Josephine; Spary, Lisa K; Al-Taei, Saly; Clayton, Aled; Mason, Malcolm D; Staffurth, John; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2015-06-01

    Immune responses contribute to the success of radiotherapy of solid tumors; however, the mechanism of triggering CD8(+) T-cell responses is poorly understood. Antigen cross-presentation from tumor cells by dendritic cells (DC) is a likely dominant mechanism to achieve CD8(+) T-cell stimulation. We established a cross-presentation model in which DCs present a naturally expressed oncofetal tumor antigen (5T4) from irradiated DU145 prostate cancer cells to 5T4-specific T cells. The aim was to establish which immunogenic signals are important in radiation-induced cross-presentation. Radiation (12 Gy) caused G2-M cell-cycle arrest and cell death, increased cellular 5T4 levels, high-mobility protein group-B1 (HMGB1) release, and surface calreticulin and heat-shock protein-70 (Hsp70) expression in DU145 cells. DCs phagocytosed irradiated tumor cells efficiently, followed by upregulation of CD86 on phagocytic DCs. CD8(+) 5T4-specific T cells, stimulated with these DCs, proliferated and produced IFNγ. Inhibition of HMGB1 or the TRIF/MyD88 pathway only had a partial effect on T-cell stimulation. Unlike previous investigators, we found no evidence that DCs carrying Asp299Gly Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) single-nucleotide polymorphism had impaired ability to cross-present tumor antigen. However, pretreatment of tumor cells with Hsp70 inhibitors resulted in a highly statistically significant and robust prevention of antigen cross-presentation and CD86 upregulation on DCs cocultured with irradiated tumor cells. Blocking the Hsp70 receptor CD91 also abolished cross-presentation. Together, the results from our study demonstrate that irradiation induces immunologically relevant changes in tumor cells, which can trigger CD8(+) T-cell responses via a predominantly Hsp70-dependent antigen cross-presentation process.

  5. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  6. 10 CFR 431.91 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 431.91 Section 431.91 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... procedures and energy conservation standards for certain commercial air conditioners and heat pumps,...

  7. 10 CFR 431.91 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 431.91 Section 431.91 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... procedures and energy conservation standards for certain commercial air conditioners and heat pumps,...

  8. 10 CFR 431.91 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 431.91 Section 431.91 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... procedures and energy conservation standards for certain commercial air conditioners and heat pumps,...

  9. 10 CFR 431.91 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 431.91 Section 431.91 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... procedures and energy conservation standards for certain commercial air conditioners and heat pumps,...

  10. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  11. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  12. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  13. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  14. Streamflow, water-temperature, and specific-conductance data for selected streams draining into Lake Fryxell, lower Taylor Valley, Victoria Land, Antarctica, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul; McKnight, Diane M.; Harnish, R.A.; Gartner, J.W.; Andrews, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990-91 and 1991-92 field seasons in Antarctica, streamflow, water-temperature, and specific-conductance data were collected on the major streams draining into Lake Fryxell. Lake Fryxell is a permanently ice-covered, closed-basin lake with 13 tributary streams. Continuous streamflow data were collected at eight sites, and periodic streamflow measurements were made at three sites. Continuous water-temperature and specific- conductance data were collected at seven sites, and periodic water-temperature and specific-conductance data were collected at all sites. Streamflow for all streams measured ranged from 0 to 0.651 cubic meter per second. Water temperatures for all streams measured ranged from 0 to 14.3 degrees Celsius. Specific conductance for all streams measured ranged from 11 to 491 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. It is probable that stream- flow in the Lake Fryxell Basin during 1990-92 was greater than average. Examination of the 22-year streamflow record in the Onyx River in the Wright Valley revealed that in 1990 streamflow began earlier than for any previous year recorded and that the peak streamflow of record was exceeded. Similar high-flow conditions occurred during the 1991-92 field season. Thus, the data collected on streams draining into Lake Fryxell during 1990-92 are representative of greater than average stream- flow conditions.

  15. 1990 NACUBO Endowment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    The 1990 Endowment Study of America's colleges and universities covered a broad variety of endowment issues of concern to trustees and administrators. The survey was mailed to 450 institutions and 369 institutions (82%) responded. Results of the study showed that 367 institutions had endowment assets totaling $60.1 billion. For fiscal year 1990,…

  16. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conformance with Specifications 91.207; 91.120; 91.509; 91.1307. (2) SAE material. The following table sets... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and Systems-Power Measurements and Declarations 91.104, 91.115; 91.118; 91.207; 91.1307. SAE J1930 June...

  17. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conformance with Specifications 91.207; 91.120; 91.509; 91.1307. (2) SAE material. The following table sets... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and Systems-Power Measurements and Declarations 91.104, 91.115; 91.118; 91.207; 91.1307. SAE J1930 June...

  18. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    water and heat balance components as well as land surface temperature and moisture area-distributed over the territory of interest have been resulted from the model calculations for the years 2009-2013 vegetation seasons. These calculations have been carried out utilizing satellite-derived estimates of the vegetation characteristics, LST and precipitation. E and W calculation errors have not exceeded the standard values.

  19. Technical report: Marine mammals study number 6. Mortality of sea otter weanlings in eastern and western Prince William Sound, Alaska during the winter of 1990-91. Marine mammal study 6-18. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rotterman, L.M.; Monnett, C.

    1995-05-01

    Sixty-four dependent sea otters Eastern Prince William Sound (EPWS): n = 24; Western Prince William Sound (WPWS), the oil spill area: n = 401 were captured, examined, instrumented with radio-transmitters, and monitored in Prince William Sound between September 1990 and July 15, 1991. While the absolute timing of instrumentation was similar for pups in EPWS and the oil spill area, pups in the oil spill area weighed significantly less at the time of capture than their counterparts in EPWS. Most pups in EPWS became independent of their mothers in October, whereas mother-pup separation typically occurred in November and December in the oil spill area. Most mortality in EPWS occurred during November and December of 1990, whereas most mortality in the oil spill area occurred during January 1991. Survival rates of weanlings over their first winter (analyses consider data until May 1, 1991) were significantly higher in EPWS (the control) than in the oil spill region.

  20. Considering Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the traditional way that the four seasons are taught is culturally biased and does not reflect the actual seasons in many parts of the United States and other nations. Suggests that early childhood programs should take into account the diversity of seasonal transitions. (MDM)

  1. Semi empirical hardness predictive model for AZ91 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, N. H. A.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Zaidi, A. M. A.; Ahmad, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    AZ91 nanocomposite was exposed to several heat treatment processes and the effect of precipitation hardening on hardness was studied as a function of time and temperature. The investigation shows the significant of time and temperature are the main role in the precipitation hardening process of the nanocomposite. Kinetics study show a deceptive activation energy of 21 kJ/mol of the AZ91 nanocomposite. A relationship was derived to predict the maximum hardness at given time and temperature.

  2. Knotts Environmental Science Magnet Elementary School: 1988-1989, 1989-1990, 1990-1991. Summative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seever, Margaret

    This report presents a summative evaluation of the first 3 years of the program of Knotts Environmental Science School in the Kansas City School District, Missouri. The school, which serves students in kindergarten through grade 5, began operation in 1988. The report focuses on the enrollment goals; the implementation of the program; the 1990-91

  3. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  4. National health expenditures, 1990

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1990, health expenditures as a share of gross national product rose to 12.2 percent, up from 11.6 percent in 1989. This dramatic increase is the second largest increase in the past three decades. The national health expenditure estimates presented in this article document rapidly rising health care costs and provide a context for understanding the health care financing crisis facing the Nation today. The 1990 national health expenditures incorporate the most recently available data. They differ from historical estimates presented in the preceding article. The length of time and complicated process of producing projections required use of 1989 national health expenditures—data available prior to the completion of the 1990 estimates presented here. PMID:10114934

  5. Notes on Linguistics, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Linguistics, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of "Notes on Linguistics" published during 1990. Articles in the four issues include: "The Indians Do Say Ugh-Ugh" (Howard W. Law); "Constraints of Relevance, A Key to Particle Typology" (Regina Blass); "Whatever Happened to Me? (An Objective Case Study)" (Aretta…

  6. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1990. Articles in number 1 deal with student teachers and include: "Student Teaching: Smoothing Out the Rough Spots" (Susan B. Argyle and Fred C. Feitler); "A Partnership for Urban Student…

  7. Tectonophysics 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical models of global and regional plate tectonics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Sections are devoted to global and national study programs, deformation at plate boundaries, mantle structure and processes, earth materials science, earthquake hazards, and global warming and borehole temperatures. Also included is a selective bibliography. 56 refs.

  8. Current Programme 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This report includes descriptions of 105 projects in 42 countries that are financed and supported by the Bernard van Leer Foundation. Projects profiled are those with a duration of 1-5 years which were operationally active at the end of January, 1990. Each project is described in terms of: (1) the sponsoring institution, that is, the institution…

  9. Research and technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, P. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The annual report of the Marshall Space Flight Center for 1990 is presented. Brief summaries of research are presented for work in the fields of transportation systems, space systems, data systems, microgravity science, astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics, magnetospheric physics, atomic physics, aeronomy, Earth science and applications, propulsion technology, materials and processes, structures and dynamics, automated systems, space systems, and avionics.

  10. Mathematics Objectives. 1990 Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports on the status and progress of educational achievement in the United States. Based on its surveys, "The Nation's Report Card" provides comprehensive information about what students in the United States can do in various subject areas. The framework for the 1990 mathematics…

  11. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  12. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  13. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  14. NSF 1990 Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.

    The National Science Foundation has released its Fiscal Year 1990 Current Plan, making expected cuts in some of the activities it supports. These cuts come on the heels of the reduction of grant and cooperative agreement increments by 2% from their originally committed amounts.NSF started with the budget request for FY 1990, subtracted the amounts cut by Congress, Gramm-Rudman-Hollings sequestration, and the across-the-board reductions for the war on drugs, and then calculated an overall funding increase of 8% over FY 1989. Funding for research and related activities was “particularly hard hit,” NSF said, and will increase by only 5%. The increase is 6% when the amount for academic research facilities is included. (That amount would have been lower had not money been reallocated into academic research facilities that was to have been used to build 10-12 new science and technology centers.)

  15. Seasonal and annual survival of adult Pacific brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David H.; Rexstad, Eric A.; Sedinger, James S.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Dawe, Neil K.

    1997-01-01

    Declining mid-winter counts of Pacific brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and reduced numbers of nesting birds on their main breeding grounds prompted us to assess factors that may be limiting recovery of this population. We estimated seasonal and annual survival rates of adult brant in 1986-93 from resightings of leg-banded birds. Brant were banded at a major colony on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska (Y-K Delta) in 1986-92, and resighted there in 1987-93 as well as at major fall and spring migration and wintering areas in 1990-93. Seasonal survival was the same for males and females. Mean monthly survival rate was lowest (P ≤ 0.05) in late spring migration (15 Apr-1 Jun), the period of greatest subsistence harvest on the breeding grounds, and highest in winter (1 Jan-1 Mar), the period of greatest sport harvest. Annual survival rate did not vary among years (F = 0.51; 5, 718 df; P = 0.91) and averaged 0.840 (SE = 0.031) from 1986 to 1993. Subsistence harvest has contributed to low population levels of Pacific brant.

  16. Index to Army Times 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    CHAMPUS to revise health-care rules. Army Times; Mar. 26, 1990; 50(33): p. 9. CHAMPUS- - CHIROPRACTIC TREATMENT Chiropractic coverage tested. Army Times...FORCES--PANAMA--AMERICAN INVASION, 1989-1990 Women’s action investigated. Army Times; Feb. 5, 1990; 50(26): p. 10. WOMEN IN THE ARMED FORCES-- PREGNANCY ... Pregnancy a growing problem in early outs. Army Times; Sept. 3, 1990; 51(4): p. 10. WOMEN IN THE ARMED FORCES--RECRUITING, ENLISTMENT, ETC. No special

  17. PAC91 - PROPERTIES AND COEFFICIENTS 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The two principal functions of PAC91 are to provide a means of generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constant data and to supply a means of fitting these functions to empirical equations by using a least-squares fit. The coefficients obtained from the fit may then be used to generate a library of thermodynamic data in a uniform and easy-to-use format for use in other computer codes. Several large compilations of selected or calculated thermodynamic data currently exist. Nevertheless, there is a continuing need for additional calculations due to the discovery of new species, the revision of existing molecular constant data and structural parameters, the need for data at temperatures other than those already published, the availability of new or revised heats of formation, dissociation or transition, and the revision of fundamental constants or atomic weights. Calculations may also be needed to compare the results of assuming various possible forms of the partition function. In addition, there is often a preference for thermodynamic data in functional rather than tabular form. In order to satisfy these needs, the PAC91 program can perform any combination of the following: (1) calculate thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy) for any set of 1 to 202 temperatures, (2) obtain a least-squares fit of the first three of these functions (either individually, two at a time, or all three simultaneously) for up to eight temperature intervals, and (3) calculate, as a function of temperature, heats of formation and equilibrium constants from assigned reference elements. The thermodynamic functions for ideal gases may be calculated from molecular constant data using one of several partition function variations provided by the program. For monatomic gases, one of three partition function cutoff techniques may be selected by the user, and unobserved but predicted electronic energy levels may be included by the program

  18. Effect of seasonal variation on some physical properties and heat stability of milk subjected to ultra-high temperature and in-container sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biye; Grandison, Alistair S; Lewis, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Heat stability was evaluated in bulk raw milk, collected throughout the year and subjected to ultra-high temperature (UHT) or in-container sterilisation, with and without added calcium chloride (2mM), disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP, 10mM) and trisodium citrate (TSC, 10mM). More sediment was observed following in-container sterilisation (0.24%) compared with UHT (0.19%). Adding CaCl2 made the milk more unstable to UHT than to in-container sterilisation, while adding DSHP and TSC made the milk more unstable during in-container sterilisation than to UHT processing, although TSC addition increased the sediment formed by UHT processing. Better heat stability was observed in autumn and winter than in spring and summer following UHT. However, following in-container sterilisation, samples with added stabilising salts showed significantly improved heat stability in autumn, whereas with added CaCl2, the best heat stability was observed in spring. No correlation was found between urea and heat stability.

  19. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale.

  20. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  1. Annual Research Briefs, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulent Research (CTR) are included. It is intended primarily as a contractor report to NASA, Ames Research Center. In addition, numerous CTR Manuscript Reports were published last year. The purpose of the CTR Manuscript Series is to expedite the dissemination of research results by the CTR staff. The CTR is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flow; its objectives are to produce advances in physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control.

  2. Project Summaries, 1989 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Student designs summarized here include two undergraduate space designs and five graduate space designs from fall 1989, plus four undergraduate space designs and four undergraduate aircraft designs from spring 1990. Progress in a number of programs is described. The Geostationary Satellite Servicing Facility, the Lunar Farside Observatory and Science Base, the Texas Educational Satellite, an asteroid rendezvous vehicle, a Titan probe, a subsystems commonality assessment for lunar/Mars landers, a nuclear-thermal rocket propelled Earth-Mars vehicle, and a comprehensive orbital debris management program are among the topics discussed.

  3. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  4. Geophysics News 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    The last two years have witnessed many major geophysical events such as the Loma Prieta earthquake, new insights into plate motions, new seismic and mid-ocean ridge observational programs, and new views of a distant planet. AGU's Public Information Committee, chaired by Debra Knopman of the U.S. Geological Survey, was asked by the American Institute of Physics to prepare a series of articles on the major topics in geophysics for publication in Physics News in 1990. Several of those papers did appear in the AIP publication. In the absence of a comparable publication devoted solely to a summary of news in geophysics, AGU is publishing the 20 articles solicited by the Public Information Committee as a booklet, Geophysics News 1990, that is being distributed to the media. The articles are also being published in Eos starting with this issue and continuing for the next several weeks. The topics covered in these articles range from the world's deepest rocks to the powerful blast waves from major solar flares.

  5. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  6. Final Report: Cooling Seasonal Energy and Peak Demand Impacts of Improved Duct Insulation on Fixed-Capacity (SEER 13) and Variable-Capacity (SEER 22) Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Withers, C.; Cummings, J.; Nigusse, B.

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of full variable-capacity, central, ducted air-conditioning (AC) and heat pump units has come on the market, and they promise to deliver increased cooling (and heating) efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40% to 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying “on” for up to twice as many hours per day compared to fixed-capacity systems of the same nominal capacity. The heating and cooling capacity is varied by adjusting the indoor fan air flow rate, compressor, and refrigerant flow rate as well as the outdoor unit fan air flow rate. Note that two-stage AC or heat pump systems were not evaluated in this research effort. The term dwell is used to refer to the amount of time distributed air spends inside ductwork during space-conditioning cycles. Longer run times mean greater dwell time and therefore greater exposure to conductive gains and losses.

  7. Final Report: Cooling Seasonal Energy and Peak Demand Impacts of Improved Duct Insulation on Fixed-Capacity (SEER 13) and Variable-Capacity (SEER 22) Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    C. Withers; Cummings, J.; Nigusse, B.

    2016-09-08

    A new generation of full variable-capacity, central, ducted air-conditioning (AC) and heat pump units has come on the market, and they promise to deliver increased cooling (and heating) efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40% to 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying “on” for up to twice as many hours per day compared to fixed-capacity systems of the same nominal capacity. The heating and cooling capacity is varied by adjusting the indoor fan air flow rate, compressor, and refrigerant flow rate as well as the outdoor unit fan air flow rate. Note that two-stage AC or heat pump systems were not evaluated in this research effort. The term dwell is used to refer to the amount of time distributed air spends inside ductwork during space-conditioning cycles. Longer run times mean greater dwell time and therefore greater exposure to conductive gains and losses.

  8. Monthly energy review, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    US total energy consumption in July 1990 was 6.7 quadrillion Btu Petroleum products accounted for 42 percent of the energy consumed in July 1990, while coal accounted for 26 percent and natural gas accounted for 19 percent. Residential and commercial sector consumption was 2.3 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector accounted for 35 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Industrial sector consumption was 2.4 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The industrial sector accounted for 36 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Transportation sector consumption of energy was 1.9 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 1 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector consumed 29 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Electric utility consumption of energy totaled 2.8 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. Coal contributed 53 percent of the energy consumed by electric utilities in July 1990, while nuclear electric power contributed 21 percent; natural gas, 12 percent; hydroelectric power, 9 percent; petroleum, 5 percent; and wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy, about 1 percent.

  9. Chemistry and Materials Science, 1990--1991. [Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sugihara, T.T.; Bruner, J.M.; McElroy, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    This 2-year (FY 1990-91) contains 49 technical articles in ten sections: research sampler, metals and alloys, energetic materials, chemistry and physics of advanced materials, bonding and reactions at surfaces and interfaces, superconductivity, energy R and D, waste processing and management, characterization and analysis, and facilities and instrumentation. Two more sections list department personnel, their publications etc., consultants, and summary of department budgets. The articles are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  10. Research and technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These accomplishments exemplify the Center's varied and highly productive research efforts for 1990. The activities addressed are under the directories of: (1) aerospace systems which contains aircraft technology, full-scale aerodynamics research, information sciences, aerospace human factors research, and flight systems and simulation research divisions; (2) Dryden flight research facility which contains research engineering division; (3) aerophysics which contains aerodynamics, fluid dynamics, and thermosciences divisions; and (4) space research which contains advanced life support, space projects, earth system science, life science, and space science divisions, and search for extraterrestrial intelligence and space life sciences payloads offices.

  11. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  12. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  13. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R&D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  14. Changes In The Heating Degree-days In Norway Due Toglobal Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaugen, T. E.; Tveito, O. E.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.

    A continuous spatial representation of temperature improves the possibility topro- duce maps of temperature-dependent variables. A temperature scenario for the period 2021-2050 is obtained for Norway from the Max-Planck-Institute? AOGCM, GSDIO ECHAM4/OPEC 3. This is done by an ?empirical downscaling method? which in- volves the use of empirical links between large-scale fields and local variables to de- duce estimates of the local variables. The analysis is obtained at forty-six sites in Norway. Spatial representation of the anomalies of temperature in the scenario period compared to the normal period (1961-1990) is obtained with the use of spatial interpo- lation in a GIS. The temperature scenario indicates that we will have a warmer climate in Norway in the future, especially during the winter season. The heating degree-days (HDD) is defined as the accumulated Celsius degrees be- tween the daily mean temperature and a threshold temperature. For Scandinavian countries, this threshold temperature is 17 Celsius degrees. The HDD is found to be a good estimate of accumulated cold. It is therefore a useful index for heating energy consumption within the heating season, and thus to power production planning. As a consequence of the increasing temperatures, the length of the heating season and the HDD within this season will decrease in Norway in the future. The calculations of the heating season and the HDD is estimated at grid level with the use of a GIS. The spatial representation of the heating season and the HDD can then easily be plotted. Local information of the variables being analysed can be withdrawn from the spatial grid in a GIS. The variable is prepared for further spatial analysis. It may also be used as an input to decision making systems.

  15. College Student Experiences Questionnaire: Norms for the Third Edition, 1990. Part One: Tentative Norms for the 1990s. Part Two: Comparable Responses from the 1980s. Part Three: Bibliography [and] Psychometric Supplement to the CSEQ, Third Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, C. Robert; Swayze, Susan

    This document presents tentative 1990-91 norms for the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ).The norms are based on student (n=20,513) questionnaires which gathered data from 18 doctoral universities, 21 general liberal arts colleges, 19 comprehensive colleges and universities, and 5 highly selective liberal arts colleges. Data are…

  16. Thermal energy storage technical progress report, April 1990--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s TES program from April 1990 to March 1992 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, direct contact ice making, latent heat storage plasterboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

  17. Thermal energy storage technical progress report, April 1990--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TES program from April 1990 to March 1992 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, direct contact ice making, latent heat storage plasterboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

  18. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    During 1990, the amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in Mississippi was about 3,600 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, 91 percent, or 3,300 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from freshwater sources. Of the total freshwater withdrawals, about 82 percent, or 2,700 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from ground-water sources. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi in 1990 for eight categories of use were as follows: irrigation, 1,900 Mgal/d; thermoelectric power, 700 Mgal/d; aquaculture, 400 Mgal/d; public supply, 320 Mgal/d; industrial and mining, 270 Mgal/d; domestic, 33 Mgal/d; commercial, 16 Mgal/d; and livestock, 16 Mgal/d. Overall, total withdrawals increased by 20 percent from 1985 to 1990, although the total population decreased about 2 percent. During the same period, total freshwater withdrawals increased by about 17 percent. Total saline with- drawals increased by about 60 percent from 1985 due to an increase in salin withdrawals for thermo- electric power generation. Total fresh and saline surface-water withdrawals decreased by about 6 percent from 1985, due to decrease in surface-water withdrawals for irrigation. Fresh ground-water withdrawals in Mississippi increased by about 33 percent, primarily due to an increase in irrigation. Since 1960, total ground- and surface-water with- drawals increased 70 percent for the same period. Irrigation had the greatest increase in with- drawals since 1960, with a 269 percent increase. Public supply had the second greatest, with a 178 percent increase.

  19. FY 91 Annual Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    In line with the Federal Oil Research Program to maximize the economic producibility of the domestic oil resource, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) presents this FY91 Annual Research Plan. NIPER is organized into two research departments -- Energy Production Research (EPR) and Fuels Research (FR). Projects in EPR deal with various aspects of enhanced oil recovery and include reservoir characterization, chemical flooding, gas injection, steam injection, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and the environmental concerns related to these processes. Projects in FR consider the impact of heavy oil and alternative fuels on the processing and end-use of fuels. Projects are briefly described.

  20. STS-91 Day 03 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-91 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi, and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin prepare for docking with the Mir Space Station and a reunion with U.S. Astronaut Andy Thomas, who is about to conclude his more-than-four-month mission to the Russian outpost. After the docking the two crews open the entry hatch and greet each other. The astronauts and cosmonauts transfer supplies from the shuttle to Mir.

  1. Universal Child Immunization by 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandl, P. E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume endeavors to highlight the deeper significance and broader implications for development theory, policy and practice of the realization of the movement toward universal child immunization by 1990 (UCI-1990). Simultaneously, the volume collects and analyzes the most significant findings and experiences of the movement since 1984.…

  2. Development Achievements for Fiscal 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Joseph G.

    This document presents the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 report of Kansas' Pittsburg State University's (PSU) development program. The report addresses the annual fund, the campaign for distinction, the PSU foundation, and development plans for FY 1991. It includes an overview of FY 1990 activities and an executive summary. Among the findings presented…

  3. Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; García-Mozo, H; Vázquez, L; Ruiz, L; de la Guardia, C Díaz; Trigo, M M

    2005-01-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Andalusia, in southern Spain. A thermal model has been developed for forecasting the start of the olive tree pollen season at five localities in Andalusia: Cordoba, Priego, Jaen, Granada and Malaga using airborne pollen and meteorological data from 1982 to 2001. Threshold temperatures varied between 5 degrees C and 12.5 degrees C depending on bio-geographical characteristics. The external validity of the results was tested using the data for the year 2002 as an independent variable and it confirmed the model's accuracy with only a few days difference from predicted values. All the localities had increasingly earlier start dates during the study period. This could confirm that olive flower phenology can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the effects of climate fluctuations in the Mediterranean area. The theoretical impact of the predicted climatic warming on the olive's flowering phenology at the end of the century is also proposed by applying Regional Climate Model data. A general advance, from 1 to 3 weeks could be expected, although this advance will be more pronounced in mid-altitude inland areas.

  4. Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, C.; García-Mozo, H.; Vázquez, L.; Ruiz, L.; Guardia, C. Díaz; Trigo, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Andalusia, in southern Spain. A thermal model has been developed for forecasting the start of the olive tree pollen season at five localities in Andalusia: Cordoba, Priego, Jaen, Granada and Malaga using airborne pollen and meteorological data from 1982 to 2001. Threshold temperatures varied between 5°C and 12.5°C depending on bio-geographical characteristics. The external validity of the results was tested using the data for the year 2002 as an independent variable and it confirmed the model’s accuracy with only a few days difference from predicted values. All the localities had increasingly earlier start dates during the study period. This could confirm that olive flower phenology can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the effects of climate fluctuations in the Mediterranean area. The theoretical impact of the predicted climatic warming on the olive’s flowering phenology at the end of the century is also proposed by applying Regional Climate Model data. A general advance, from 1 to 3 weeks could be expected, although this advance will be more pronounced in mid-altitude inland areas.

  5. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. SOLTECH 91: Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traugott, W.; Hewett, R.; Menicucci, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric program at SOLTECH91. The SOLTECH91 national solar energy conference was held at Burlingame, California during the period March 26 to 29, 1991. The Solar Energy Research Institute manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: solar industrial program and thermal electric program overviews; current and near-term solar industrial applications; solar detoxification of organics in water; and solar thermal electric systems. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  7. SOLTECH 91: Proceedings, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traugott, W.; Hewett, R.; Menicucci, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program at SOLTECH91. The SOLTECH91 national solar energy conference was held in Burlingame, California during the period March 26 to 29, 1991. The Solar Energy Research Institute manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews; (2) Current and Near-Term Solar Industrial Applications; Solar Detoxification of Organics in Water; and Solar Thermal Electric Systems. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. Compendium of Dental Residents’ Research Projects and Literature Reviews - 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    AL-SR-1991-0001 AD-A236 272 COMPENDIUM OF DENTAL RESIDENTS’ RESEARCH PROJECTS AND LITERATURE REVIEWS 1990 CDTIC JNO 6INSi3 Samuel P. Davis...USAF Dental Investigation Service Armstrong Laboratory Human Systems Division (AFSC) 91-01146 Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5000 .,....,,.,,.l. ltfl 91...L, / 041 4li NOTICES This interim special report was submitted by personnel of the Dental Investigation Service, Clinical Sciences Division

  9. 10 CFR 36.91 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Violations. 36.91 Section 36.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Enforcement § 36.91 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1)...

  10. 10 CFR 36.91 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations. 36.91 Section 36.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Enforcement § 36.91 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1)...

  11. 10 CFR 36.91 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations. 36.91 Section 36.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Enforcement § 36.91 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1)...

  12. 10 CFR 36.91 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations. 36.91 Section 36.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Enforcement § 36.91 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1)...

  13. 10 CFR 36.91 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations. 36.91 Section 36.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Enforcement § 36.91 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1)...

  14. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  15. 28 CFR 91.23 - Grant authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant authority. 91.23 Section 91.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.23 Grant authority. (a) The Assistant Attorney General may make grants...

  16. 28 CFR 91.23 - Grant authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant authority. 91.23 Section 91.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.23 Grant authority. (a) The Assistant Attorney General may make grants...

  17. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  18. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  19. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  20. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  1. 24 CFR 91.425 - Certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifications. 91.425 Section 91... Plan § 91.425 Certifications. (a) Consortium certifications—(1) General—(i) Affirmatively furthering... program. (iii) Anti-lobbying. The consortium must submit a certification with regard to compliance...

  2. 40 CFR 91.108 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 91.108 Section 91.108... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.108 Certification. (a) If, after a review of the manufacturer's submitted application, or with respect to...

  3. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.21 Ventilation. Each underdeck... mechanical ventilation that will furnish a complete change of air in each compartment every 2 minutes...

  4. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.21 Ventilation. Each underdeck... mechanical ventilation that will furnish a complete change of air in each compartment every 2 minutes...

  5. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.21 Ventilation. Each underdeck... mechanical ventilation that will furnish a complete change of air in each compartment every 2 minutes...

  6. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  7. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  8. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  9. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  10. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that all employees who are responsible for maintenance related to program aircraft undergo appropriate initial...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1113 - Maintenance recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance recordkeeping. 91.1113 Section 91.1113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations Program Management § 91.1113 Maintenance recordkeeping. Each fractional ownership program...

  13. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning... Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Public Law 99-499, or other State...

  14. 45 CFR 91.34 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements. 91.34 Section 91.34... Recipients § 91.34 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Keep records in a form and containing information which HHS determines may be necessary to ascertain whether the recipient is complying with the...

  15. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.312 Analytical...

  16. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. The Director of the Federal Register...

  17. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. The Director of the Federal Register...

  18. 50 CFR 27.91 - Field trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Field trials. 27.91 Section 27.91 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.91 Field trials. The conducting or operation of field trials for dogs on national wildlife refuges is prohibited except as may...

  19. 50 CFR 27.91 - Field trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Field trials. 27.91 Section 27.91 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.91 Field trials. The conducting or operation of field trials for dogs on national wildlife refuges is prohibited except as may...

  20. 50 CFR 27.91 - Field trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Field trials. 27.91 Section 27.91 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.91 Field trials. The conducting or operation of field trials for dogs on national wildlife refuges is prohibited except as may...

  1. 50 CFR 27.91 - Field trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Field trials. 27.91 Section 27.91 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.91 Field trials. The conducting or operation of field trials for dogs on national wildlife refuges is prohibited except as may...

  2. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  3. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  4. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  5. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  6. 45 CFR 96.91 - Audit requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audit requirement. 96.91 Section 96.91 Public... Block Grants § 96.91 Audit requirement. Pursuant to section 1745(b) of the Reconciliation Act (31 U.S.C. 1243 note) an audit is required with respect to the 2-year period beginning on October 1, 1981,...

  7. 45 CFR 96.91 - Audit requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit requirement. 96.91 Section 96.91 Public... Block Grants § 96.91 Audit requirement. Pursuant to section 1745(b) of the Reconciliation Act (31 U.S.C. 1243 note) an audit is required with respect to the 2-year period beginning on October 1, 1981,...

  8. 50 CFR 18.91 - Director's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Director's decision. 18.91 Section 18.91 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.91...

  9. 45 CFR 91.44 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Investigation. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) HHS will investigate...

  10. 49 CFR 91.3 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigations. 91.3 Section 91.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.3 Investigations. The Assistant Secretary for Policy, Plans and International Affairs...

  11. 49 CFR 91.3 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Investigations. 91.3 Section 91.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.3 Investigations. The Assistant Secretary for Policy, Plans and International Affairs...

  12. 49 CFR 91.3 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigations. 91.3 Section 91.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.3 Investigations. The Assistant Secretary for Policy, Plans and International Affairs...

  13. 45 CFR 91.44 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) HHS will investigate...

  14. 45 CFR 91.44 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigation. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) HHS will investigate...

  15. 45 CFR 91.44 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Investigation. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) HHS will investigate...

  16. 45 CFR 91.44 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) HHS will investigate...

  17. 49 CFR 91.3 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigations. 91.3 Section 91.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.3 Investigations. The Assistant Secretary for Policy, Plans and International Affairs...

  18. 49 CFR 91.3 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Investigations. 91.3 Section 91.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.3 Investigations. The Assistant Secretary for Policy, Plans and International Affairs...

  19. 40 CFR 91.507 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures. 91.507 Section 91.507... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91.507 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  20. 40 CFR 91.604 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 91.604 Section 91.604... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.604 Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart....

  1. 40 CFR 91.1101 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 91.1101 Section 91.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Prohibited Acts and General Enforcement Provisions § 91.1101 Applicability. The requirements...

  2. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated...

  3. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such...

  4. 50 CFR 300.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 300.91 Section 300.91... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.91 Definitions. In addition to the terms defined in.... If a term is defined differently in § 300.2, the Act, or the Treaty, the definition in this...

  5. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning. The Corporation shall establish, maintain, and be prepared to follow a written emergency plan....

  6. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning. The Corporation shall establish, maintain, and be prepared to follow a written emergency plan....

  7. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning. The Corporation shall establish, maintain, and be prepared to follow a written emergency plan....

  8. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning. The Corporation shall establish, maintain, and be prepared to follow a written emergency plan....

  9. 9 CFR 91.30 - Defective fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defective fittings. 91.30 Section 91... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.30 Defective fittings. If previously used fittings aboard an ocean vessel are employed, any portion thereof found by the inspector to...

  10. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  11. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  12. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  13. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  14. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  15. 28 CFR 91.23 - Grant authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant authority. 91.23 Section 91.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.23 Grant authority. (a) The Assistant Attorney General may make grants...

  16. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  17. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  18. 40 CFR 91.507 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test procedures. 91.507 Section 91.507... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91.507 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  19. 40 CFR 91.607 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test procedures. 91.607 Section 91.607... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.607 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  20. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test conditions. 91.311 Section 91.311... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the test engine throughout the...

  1. 40 CFR 91.604 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 91.604 Section 91.604... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.604 Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart....

  2. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  3. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  4. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  5. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  6. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  7. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. (a) The Director publishes a special...

  8. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. (a) The Director publishes a special...

  9. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. (a) The Director publishes a special...

  10. 45 CFR 96.91 - Audit requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit requirement. 96.91 Section 96.91 Public... Block Grants § 96.91 Audit requirement. Pursuant to section 1745(b) of the Reconciliation Act (31 U.S.C. 1243 note) an audit is required with respect to the 2-year period beginning on October 1, 1981,...

  11. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of...

  12. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of...

  13. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base... specifications for operations to or from airports in the contiguous United States on any one day selected by...

  14. 7 CFR 91.42 - Billing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Billing. 91.42 Section 91.42 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Fees and Charges § 91.42 Billing. (a) Each billing cycle will end on the 25th... Financial Information System (FFIS) on the 1st day, following the end of the billing cycle in...

  15. 7 CFR 91.42 - Billing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Billing. 91.42 Section 91.42 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Fees and Charges § 91.42 Billing. (a) Each billing cycle will end on the 25th... Financial Information System (FFIS) on the 1st day, following the end of the billing cycle in...

  16. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving...

  17. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving...

  18. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving...

  19. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving...

  20. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... addressing underserved needs. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2506-0117)...

  1. 40 CFR 405.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 405.91 Section 405.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.91...

  2. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  3. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  4. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  5. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  6. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  7. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  8. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  9. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  10. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  11. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  12. 28 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES General § 91.2 Definitions... facilities) and job skills programs, educational programs, a pre-release prisoner assessment to provide...

  13. 12 CFR 545.91 - Home office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Home office. 545.91 Section 545.91 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS § 545.91 Home office. (a) All operations of a Federal savings association (“you”) are subject...

  14. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  15. 7 CFR 91.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 91.7 Section 91.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Application for Services § 91.7 Nondiscrimination. All services...

  16. 45 CFR 9.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 9.1 Section 9.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.1 Purpose. To enhance the availability of DHHS scientific research and study facilities to academic...

  17. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  18. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  19. 24 CFR 91.420 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Action plan. 91.420 Section 91.420... Plan § 91.420 Action plan. (a) Form application. The action plan for the consortium must include a...) Description of resources and activities. The action plan must describe the resources to be used and...

  20. 24 CFR 91.420 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action plan. 91.420 Section 91.420... Plan § 91.420 Action plan. (a) Form application. The action plan for the consortium must include a...) Description of resources and activities. The action plan must describe the resources to be used and...

  1. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... required to submit a nonhousing Community Development Plan; however, if the consortium includes...

  2. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... required to submit a nonhousing Community Development Plan; however, if the consortium includes...

  3. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  4. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  10. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling. (a) Participating in games for money or...

  11. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  12. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  13. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  14. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  15. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  16. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  17. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  18. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  19. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  20. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  1. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  2. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  3. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  4. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  5. 45 CFR 9.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 9.1 Section 9.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.1 Purpose. To enhance the availability of DHHS scientific...

  6. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving...

  7. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  8. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  9. 40 CFR 141.91 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 141.91 Section 141.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.91...

  10. 40 CFR 141.91 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 141.91 Section 141.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.91...

  11. 40 CFR 141.91 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 141.91 Section 141.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.91...

  12. 18 CFR 9.1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing. 9.1 Section 9.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY Application for Transfer of License § 9.1 Filing....

  13. 18 CFR 9.1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing. 9.1 Section 9.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY Application for Transfer of License § 9.1 Filing....

  14. 18 CFR 9.1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing. 9.1 Section 9.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY Application for Transfer of License § 9.1 Filing....

  15. 18 CFR 9.1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing. 9.1 Section 9.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY Application for Transfer of License § 9.1 Filing....

  16. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... required to submit a nonhousing Community Development Plan; however, if the consortium includes...

  17. 24 CFR 91.320 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Action plan. 91.320 Section 91.320... Consolidated Plan § 91.320 Action plan. The action plan must include the following: (a) Standard Form 424; (b) A concise executive summary that includes the objectives and outcomes identified in the plan as...

  18. 24 CFR 91.220 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Action plan. 91.220 Section 91.220... Consolidated Plan § 91.220 Action plan. The action plan must include the following: (a) Standard Form 424; (b) A concise executive summary that includes the objectives and outcomes identified in the plan as...

  19. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  20. 24 CFR 91.315 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.315 Section 91... Consolidated Plan § 91.315 Strategic plan. (a) General. For the categories described in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this section, the consolidated plan must do the following: (1) Indicate the...

  1. 24 CFR 91.15 - Submission date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission date. 91.15 Section 91.15 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS General § 91.15 Submission date....

  2. 24 CFR 91.20 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions. 91.20 Section 91.20 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS General § 91.20 Exceptions. The...

  3. 24 CFR 91.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability. 91.2 Section 91.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS General § 91.2 Applicability. (a)...

  4. 5 CFR 9.1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition. 9.1 Section 9.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES WORKFORCE INFORMATION (RULE IX) § 9.1 Definition. As used in this rule, 'Executive agency' means an Executive department, a Government...

  5. 31 CFR 91.6 - Nuisances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuisances. 91.6 Section 91.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.6 Nuisances. The use of loud, abusive, or...

  6. 31 CFR 91.1 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority. 91.1 Section 91.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.1 Authority. The regulations in this part...

  7. 31 CFR 91.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 91.2 Section 91.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.2 Applicability. The regulations in this...

  8. 31 CFR 91.3 - Recording presence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recording presence. 91.3 Section 91.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.3 Recording presence. Except as...

  9. 31 CFR 91.10 - Photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographs. 91.10 Section 91.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.10 Photographs. The taking of photographs...

  10. 10 CFR 110.91 - Commission consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission consultations. 110.91 Section 110.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.91 Commission consultations. The Commission...

  11. 14 CFR 91.417 - Maintenance records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance records. 91.417 Section 91.417... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 91.417 Maintenance records. (a) Except for work performed in accordance with §§...

  12. 14 CFR 91.405 - Maintenance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance required. 91.405 Section 91.405... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 91.405 Maintenance required. Each owner or operator of an aircraft— (a) Shall...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1113 - Maintenance recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance recordkeeping. 91.1113 Section 91.1113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations Program Management § 91.1113 Maintenance recordkeeping. Each fractional ownership program...

  14. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1107 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recurrent training. 91.1107 Section 91.1107... Management § 91.1107 Recurrent training. (a) Each program manager must ensure that each crewmember receives recurrent training and is adequately trained and currently proficient for the type aircraft and...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that all... annual recurrent training and are competent to perform those duties....

  17. 40 CFR 440.91 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 440.91 Section 440.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.91...

  18. Chinese Opportunities in Career Education (Project CHOICE). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Public Schools' Chinese Opportunities in Career Education Program (Project CHOICE), which served economically disadvantaged Chinese American high school students of limited English proficiency. The project operated at two Manhattan high schools and served 523 students, of whom 94.6 percent were eligible for…

  19. ITV Resources in the Defined Minimum Program, 1990-91 Curriculum Guide. ITV Across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Instructional Technology.

    This guide is intended for use by superintendents, district directors of instruction, curriculum writers, principals, and teachers identifying instructional television resources that will aid their schools in meeting specific instructional requirements of the Defined Minimum Program and objectives of the Basic Skills Assessment Program. Suggested…

  20. METRA rail car cost-containment study. Final report, 1990-91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Study/Program was directed to consideration of procurement and operation issues which could affect the total cost of ownership for the METRA BiLevel Cars which are planned for purchase in the near future. The issues addressed were organized in two parts: (1) Technical items such as Car Definition, Car Specifications, Car Cost Projections, Car(Procurement) Work Breakdown Structure, Standardization, Off-the-shelf Hardware, Energy Savings, and Handicapped Accessibility Requirements. (2) Non-Technical items included Contract Terms and Conditions, Project Management, Contract Types, Order Size, Chicago Area Assembly, Financing Alternatives, Life-Cycle Costing, Reliability and Maintainability with many of the above discussed in detail with existing rail car builders. The most significant findings included major savings to be derived in procurement through innovative financing and application of modern management methods, plus operational savings available from system-wide use of thorough maintenance and reliability provisions in planning, tracking and evaluation of car repair operations.