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Sample records for 1990 91 heating season

  1. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  2. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  3. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1990/91

    SciTech Connect

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  4. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-06

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  5. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-06

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service's survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  6. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  7. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  8. Project Achieve, 1990-91. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    First-year outcomes of the 1990-91 Project Achieve in 32 New York City public high schools are presented in this paper. The program aimed to reduce the dropout rate and improve at-risk student performance by expanding proven initiatives and support services for school-based decision-making committees. This report, the first of a two-part study,…

  9. Focus on Law Studies, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Law Studies, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The fall 1990 issue includes essays that recapture some of the presentations and thinking of the 1990 American Bar Association annual conference on higher education, entitled "American Citizenship and the Constitution." The idea of community was a recurring theme of the conference, and is the focus of three essays included in the Fall 1990 issue:…

  10. Human Resources Development Plan, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carmelita; And Others

    This report details the human resources development activities undertaken at Cypress College (CC) using Assembly Bill 1725 funds. The report includes information on activities conducted during the 1989-90 school and those planned for the 1990-1991 school year, along with results from needs assessments and evaluation surveys. The plan is divided…

  11. Annual Report and Crime Summary, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Dept. of Safety and Security.

    Designed to meet the new mandate of the Federal Student Right-To-Know and the Campus Security Act, this first annual report of the Safety & Security Department (SSD) of Johnson County Community College presents an overview of the role and activities of the SSD and a summary of 1990-91 campus crime, providing comparison data for 1989-90 and…

  12. Bronson Settlement 1990-91. Report of the Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; Nieman, Ronald H.

    This monograph documents major events in the Cincinnati (Ohio) School District (CSD) in 1990-91 concerning the Bronson Settlement, which was the result of a racial segregation suit against the CSD (Mona Bronson, et al. v. Board of Education of the City of Cincinnati). The Bronson Settlement ordered changes in nine areas of the CSD. This report…

  13. Special Education Instructional Programs. Program Evaluation 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA. Dept. of Student Services.

    This 1990-91 program evaluation reports on the special education instructional programs of the Des Moines, Iowa, public schools which serve approximately 3,600 students daily and over 5,000 students per year with special education services as prescribed in their Individualized Education Plans. The three primary sources of program funding are: (1)…

  14. Roanoke College Student Conduct Code 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roanoke Coll., VA.

    This Roanoke College (Virginia) 1990-91 conduct code manual is intended for distribution to students. A reproduction of the Academic Integrity and Student Conduct Code Form which all students must sign leads off the document. A section detailing the student conduct code explains the delegation of authority within the institution and describes the…

  15. The Community & Technical Colleges of Connecticut Student Enrollment Statistics, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Community-Technical Coll., Hartford. Board of Trustees.

    Student enrollment data are provided for the 17 community and technical colleges (CTC) in Connecticut, focussing on academic year 1990-91. The report includes tables and graphs with information on full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment by general fund, extension fund, and combined fund; summer 1990 FTE enrollment; FTE enrollment for fall 1989 and…

  16. Schools and Staffing Survey: 1990-91 SASS Cross-Questionnaire Analysis. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Steven

    This study examines estimates of the same or similar variables in the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the 1991-92 Teacher Followup Survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for the National Center for Education Statistics. The SASS is a national survey of elementary and secondary schools, which consists of components…

  17. The New York City Adult Literacy Initiative. Final Report 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

    The New York City Adult Literacy Initiative served 54,568 adults in sponsored classes in fiscal 1990-91. The program is administered through six agencies, including the public schools, City University of New York, a community development agency, and three public library systems. The Literacy Assistance Center was established to provide technical…

  18. State of Alaska Student Financial Aid Programs. 1990-91 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    This report briefly summarizes Alaska student financial aid programs and participation levels for 1990-91. The programs described are the following: (1) Alaska Student Loan Program (program summary, loan award amounts, undergraduate loans, graduate loans, foreign study, loan repayments, default); (2) Alaska Family Education Loan Program…

  19. Publications Relating to the 1990-91 College Debate Topic. Subject Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

    This document contains a partially annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, government reports, and other documents relating to the 1990-91 college debate topic: Resolved: That the United States should substantially change its trade policy with China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. (DB)

  20. Technology Preparation Pilot Test. Year 2, School Year 1990-91. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; And Others

    An evaluation described Tech Prep prototypes as they were implemented in five different Indiana sites and assessed their effectiveness. Evaluation procedures included: (1) collection and analysis of data from students involved in Tech Prep for the first time in 1990-91 and students involved for the second year; (2) analysis of prototype project…

  1. Report on Fiscal and Compliance Accountability: Fiscal Year 1990-91. Report 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    A summary of the results of various California community college financial audits and reviews for fiscal year (FY) 1990-91 are presented in this report. Section I explains the scope, purpose, and procedures of annual financial and compliance audits which are conducted to evaluate financial statements, encourage sound fiscal management practices,…

  2. Comprehensive Planning Resource Document, 1990-91, for the Kern Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Lauraine

    This compilation of resources for district planning in 1990-91 provides an overview of demographic, personnel, financial, facilities, and curriculum issues for the Kern Community College District (California) and its member institutions, Bakersfield, Cerro Coso, and Porterville colleges. The 10 sections of the document cover: (1) General…

  3. Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant. Evaluation Findings, 1990-91. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Catherine; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's (AISD) Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant programs. Chapter 1 is a federally funded compensatory educational program that provided funding in 1990-91 to 25 AISD elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Chapter 1 Migrant is also a…

  4. The Research and Evaluation Agenda for the Austin Independent School District 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The proposed activities of the Office of Research and Evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District in 1990-91 are outlined. Evaluations and other major projects focus on: (1) externally funded projects; (2) systemwide achievement testing; and (3) systemwide evaluation. Twelve evaluations will assess the impact of programs and…

  5. Comparing BIA and Tribal Schools with Public Schools: A Look at the Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, D. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Uses data from 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey to compare Bureau of Indian Affairs/tribal schools to public schools with high and low Indian enrollment. Examines ethnicity and qualifications of principals and teachers, educator salaries, school problems, and teacher shortages. Indicates the continuing shortage of educators from local native…

  6. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  7. Fiscal Data Abstract, 1990-91. California Community Colleges. Fiscal and Business Services. Report No. 92-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    Using information received from California's community college districts, this report provides 1990-91 fiscal information and attendance records. Introductory comments indicate that the average daily attendance (ADA) of the colleges was 816,088 in 1990-91, compared to 772,485 the previous year; and that expenditures per ADA were $3,539 not…

  8. HISD Magnet Evaluation: Science, Math, and Computer Enrichment Programs, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Nanda D.; And Others

    Twenty-one magnet programs in the Houston Independent School District in Texas feature an enriched curriculum in science, math, and/or computers (science/math). Of these, 12 are elementary programs, 4 are middle school programs, and 5 are high school programs. In these programs, a total of 9,574 students were served during the 1990-91 school year:…

  9. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  10. Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

  11. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  12. Asian and Arabic Mediated Enrichment Resource and Instructional Career Awareness (Project AMERICA). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of the New York City Public Schools' Asian and Arabic Mediated Enrichment Resource and Instructional Career Awareness Program (Project AMERICA). During the 1990-91 school year, Project AMERICA operated at 2 high schools (Lafayette High School and Fort Hamilton High School) and served 408 Chinese-speaking Asian immigrant…

  13. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: How Are We Measuring Up? A Progress Report, School Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Compensatory Education and Support Services.

    This report measures how well Maryland educators are working together to provide a public education that meets the long- and short-term needs of homeless children and youth by providing environments that support their physical, social, and emotional growth. It outlines accomplishments for the 1990-91 school year, recommends ways of addressing…

  14. Career Awareness in Education (Project CARE), Community School District 10. 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of the New York City Public Schools' Career Awareness Resources in Education Project (Project CARE). During the 1990-91 school year, Project CARE operated at 4 schools serving 710 immigrant students of limited English proficiency in grades 6, 7, 8, and 9. The program provided instruction in English as a Second Language,…

  15. Characteristics of American Indian and Alaska Native Education: Results from the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, D. Michael; And Others

    This report summarizes findings of the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) with regard to schools that serve American Indian and Alaska Native students. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and federally recognized tribal organizations under BIA grants and contracts operate 149 elementary and secondary schools. In addition, 1,260 public…

  16. Teacher Morale in the Atlanta Public Schools: Spring 1990. Report No. 4, Volume 25, 11/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Lowrie A.

    A study was done of Atlanta (Georgia) public school teacher morale in May of 1990. About 40 percent of the teaching staff (1,520 teachers) voluntarily completed a 91-item questionnaire that contained subsets of questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory and three subscales of emotional exhaustion, departmentalization, and personal…

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. B Appendix B to Part 541—Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate,...

  18. QED Estimates of the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey: Deriving and Comparing QED School Estimates with CCD Estimates. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Albert; Scanlon, Brian R.

    This study examines the magnitude of the difference between estimates from the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) using a Common Core of Data (CCD) definition of a school and a Quality Education Data (QED) definition of a school. The 1990-91 SASS sample design allows for the development of school and administrator estimates using either…

  19. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  20. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    SciTech Connect

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  1. The Incidence of Spearing during a High School's 1975 and 1990 Football Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Jonathan F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the incidence of spearing between two high school football seasons, one before and one after a rule change banning spearing. Reviews of 18 game films of a New Jersey team from 1975 and 1990 indicated that, overall, the rule change did not have a favorable impact on the incidence of spearing. (SM)

  2. An Analysis of Developmental Students in Fall 1990. Report EA91-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Kay R.

    Drawing from studies conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) between 1989 and 1991, this report offers a profile of developmental students at PGCC and an analysis of the remedial education needs of fall 1990 first-time students. The first section of the report reviews findings from a number of statewide and institutional studies…

  3. Folksong in the Classroom. Volume XI, Numbers 1-3, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John W., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This volume of a journal on folksong for elementary and secondary teachers of history, literature, music, and the humanities contains three issues. The Fall 1990 issue is devoted to the songs of Newfoundland. The Winter 1991 issue features songs concerning mine, mill and tunnel workers in the years 1877-1932. The Spring 1991 issue focuses on songs…

  4. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Beasley, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    From 1953 to 1990, an estimated 0.56 to 1.18 curies of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The waste- water was discharged directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well prior to February 1984 and through unlined disposal ponds in 1984-90. The wastewater did not contain measurable concentrations of iodine-129 in 1989-90. Samples were collected from 51 wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer and 1 well that obtains water from a perched ground-water zone. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129 using an accelerator mass spectrometer which is two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than neutron- activation methods. Therefore, iodine-129 was detectable in samples from a larger number of wells distributed over a larger area than previously was possible. Ground-water flow velocities calculated using iodine-129 data are estimated to be at least 6 feet per day. These velocities compare favorably with those of 4 to 10 feet per day calculated from tritium data and tracer studies at wells down- gradient from the ICPP. In 1990-91, concentrations of iodine-129 in water samples from wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from less than 0.0000006+0.0000002 to 3.82.+0.19 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The mean concentration in water from 18 wells was 0.81+0.19 pCi/L as compared with 1.30+0.26 pCi/L in 1986. The decrease in the iodine-l29 concentrations from 1986 to 1990-91 chiefly was the result of a decrease in the amount of iodine-129 disposed of annually, and changes in disposal techniques.

  5. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tight sheathing producing a 3-inch-wide air space except that on ships powered with internal combustion... engines. 91.22 Section 91.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to...

  6. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tight sheathing producing a 3-inch-wide air space except that on ships powered with internal combustion... engines. 91.22 Section 91.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to...

  7. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tight sheathing producing a 3-inch-wide air space except that on ships powered with internal combustion... engines. 91.22 Section 91.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to...

  8. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tight sheathing producing a 3-inch-wide air space except that on ships powered with internal combustion... engines. 91.22 Section 91.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to...

  9. Thulium heat source: IR D project 91-031

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Newman, J.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-04-10

    The goal of the Thulium Heat Source study is to determine the performance capability and evaluate the safety and environmental aspects of a thulium-170 heat source. Our approach is to study parametrically the performance of thulium-170 heat source designs in the power range of 5--50 kW{sub th}. At least three heat source designs will be characterized in this power range and integrated with various power conversion subsystems to assess their performance, mass, and volume. We will determine shielding requirements, and consider the safety and environmental aspects of their use.

  10. Thulium heat source IR D Project 91-031

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Newman, J.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Thulium Heat Source study is to determine the performance capability and evaluate the safety and environmental aspects of a thulium-170 heat source. Thulium-170 has several attractive features, including the fact that it decays to a stable, chemically innocuous isotope in a relatively short time. A longer-range goal is to attract government funding for the development, fabrication, and demonstration testing in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) of one or more thulium isotope power (TIP) prototype systems. The approach is to study parametrically the performance of thulium-170 heat source designs in the power range of 5-50 kW{sub th}. At least three heat source designs will be characterized in this power range to assess their performance, mass, and volume. The authors will determine shielding requirements, and consider the safety and environmental aspects of their use.

  11. Approximate water-level changes in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1977-91 and 1990-91, and measured compaction, 1973-90, in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, Dana L.; Kasmarek, M.C.; Campodonico, Al

    1991-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that depict water-level changes and compaction of subsurface material in the Houston-Galveston region. The maps present approximate water-level changes in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1977-91 and 1990-91 (figs. 1-4). The location of borehole extensometers is shown in figure 5, and graphs present measured compation for 1973-90 (fig. 6).

  12. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage in mines

    SciTech Connect

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-07-01

    The solar assisted heat supply of building offers a great technical potential for the substitution of fossil energy sources. Central solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) supply 100 and more buildings and reach a solar fraction of 50% or more of the total load with far less specific heat costs [$/kWh{sub solar}] compared to small domestic hot water systems (DHW) for single-family houses. However, the construction of seasonal storage is too expensive. At the Ruhu University Bochum the use of mines for a seasonal storage of low temperature heat is examined in cooperation with industrial partners. The use of available storage volumes may lead to a decrease of investment costs. Additional geothermal heat gains can be obtained from the warm surrounding rock; therefore a high efficiency can be achieved.

  13. Ground-water resources and contamination at Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Kwajalein Island is the largest of the many low, sandy islets that form Kwajalein Atoll in the western North Pacific Ocean. Salinity and water-level surveys at exploratory monitoring wells in 1990 and 1991 delineated a freshwater lens nearly 40 feet thick floating on saltwater within the carbonate sand and gravel aquifer. A transition zone of mixture between the freshwater and saltwater is as thick as 90 feet. Maximum water-table height is only 1.5 feet above sea level. The freshwater lens thinned and thickened by 5 feet during the year-long field study in response to seasonal rainfall and pumping. Freshwater is produced by airstrip rain catchments and shallow, horizontal wells up to 1,400 feet long. Catchment and ground-water yields are roughly equal on average, but catchment is the principal source during the wet season, whereas the dry season requires sustained pumping. The salinity of pumped water has remained below drinking-water standards since wells were installed in 1971, except during the drought of 1983-84, the most severe drought in the rainfall record dating back to 1945. Wet-season rains at the end of the drought reduced salinity to low levels in just a few months. The operating history of the combined catchment/well water supply indicates that it is capable of producing at least 300,000 gallons per day in all but the driest years, and more in wet years. Several sites are contaminated by fuels, solvents, or metals, but most are at the periphery of the freshwater flow system where contaminants are carried toward the shore. However, three interior sites have greater potential to contaminate nearby water-supply wells.

  14. Solar heating with seasonal storage (SHSS) prefeasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    Large annual solar fractions are possible with full capacity of active thermal collectors for room heating and DHW with seasonal storage. Urban housing schematic designs studied with heat load ranges include: townhouses (100 units) and apartments (3,4,5, and 10 story). Performance and economics are predicted with Seasonal.EES software for Madison, WI. Annual solar fractions of 82% and 75% resulted for a 3-story 138 apartment complex with 3.5 BTU/ft{sup 2}{sup {minus}}FDD room heating and 21,600 liters/d DHW, with rooftop flat-plate liquid collectors (tauAlpha{sub n} = .88 and .76) (3620 m{sup 2}/38,965 ft{sup 2}), and insulated cylindrical water storage tank (8482m{sup 3}/2.24 milgals). Influence of solar heating with seasonal storage (SHSS)(aka CSHPSS) to cold-grey climate big city building/urban sustainable design is discussed.

  15. Recruiting Trends 1990-91: A Study of 549 Businesses, Industries, Governmental Agencies, and Educational Institutions Employing New College Graduates. 20th Anniversary Abridged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheetz, L. Patrick

    This summary of recruiting trends survey reviews the expectations of employers hiring new college graduates for the 1990-91 college labor market and is based on a national survey of 549 businesses, industries, service sector employers, government agencies, military services, and school districts. Survey questions focused on anticipated changes in…

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Assessing the Transfer Function: Tracking Down Transfer Students at Frederick Community College. A Report of the Transfer Tracking System and the Successful Transfer Survey, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, James M.

    During the 1990-91 academic year, Frederick Community College (FCC) in Maryland conducted a major research project to help determine the extent and effectiveness of the college's transfer function. In the study's first phase, a Transfer Tracking System (TTS) was developed by conducting a detailed audit of all transcript requests from FCC students.…

  18. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  19. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation. PMID:19131626

  20. The year 1990 marks end of Pluto-Charon mutual event season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.

    1991-01-01

    From late 1984 until late 1990, the orbit of Pluto's satellite Charon was sufficiently close to an edge-on configuration, as seen from Earth, to produce transit, occultation, and eclipse events involving the two objects. The systematic observation of these events, each of which offers a unique geometry of Pluto, Charon and shadow, has been used to directly measure several parameters of the system. With data now available from the entire mutual event season, reliable values for the radii of Pluto and Charon can be derived. Pluto's radius is 0.05860 plus or minus 0.00031, in units of Chiron's mean orbital radius, and Charon's radius is 0.03019 plus or minus 0.00066, in the same units.

  1. Agricultural Workers in Central California. Volume 1: In 1989; Volume 2: Phase II, 1990-91. California Agricultural Studies, 90-8 and 91-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew J.; And Others

    Two surveys developed profiles of seasonal agricultural workers and their working conditions in central California. In 1989, a random sample of 347 seasonal workers was interviewed. The sample was 30 percent female and 87 percent Mexican-born. Average age was 35 years and average educational attainment was 5.9 years. Most had parents, spouses, or…

  2. Establishment of tumor-associated immunity requires interaction of heat shock proteins with CD91.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu Jerry; Messmer, Michelle Nicole; Binder, Robert Julian

    2014-03-01

    Host antitumor adaptive immune responses are generated as a result of the body's immunosurveillance mechanisms. How the antitumor immune response is initially primed remains unclear, given that soluble tumor antigens generally are quantitatively insufficient for cross-priming and tumors generally lack the classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns to activate costimulation and initiate cross-priming. We explored the interaction of the tumor-derived heat shock proteins (HSP) with their common receptor (CD91) on antigen-presenting cells (APC) as a mechanism for host-priming of T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Using targeted genetic disruption of the interaction between HSPs and CD91, we demonstrated that specific ablation of CD91 in APCs prevented the establishment of antitumor immunity. The antitumor immunity was also inhibited when the transfer of tumor-derived HSPs to APCs was prevented using an endogenous inhibitor of CD91. Inhibition was manifested in a reduction of cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigenic peptides in the lymph nodes, providing a molecular basis for the observed immunity associated with tumor development. Our findings demonstrate that early in tumor development, the HSP-CD91 pathway is critical for the establishment of antitumor immunity. PMID:24778318

  3. Hydrology and relation of selected water-quality constituents to selected physical factors in Dakota County, Minnesota, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendinger, J.E.; Mitton, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Selected water-quality constituents were determined in water from 5 surface-water sites and 29 wells in Dakota County, Minnesota, to search for possible relations to selected physical factors, including waste-water discharge, agricultural land, Quaternary deposits, bedrock, soil-leaching potential, and water-table depth. All surface-water samples were from the Vermillion River Basin, whose hydrologic setting was studied to determine its relation to the ground-water flow in the surrounding surficial sand aquifer. Each site was sampled from 1 to 12 times during 1990- 91. A total of 198 samples were collected; selected samples were analyzed for major inorganic ions, nutrients, and triazine content. Physical factors within the area of land assumed to be contributing water to each sampling site were determined from existing mapped or digitized sources. Nitrate concentrations in ground water were related to agricultural land and soil-leaching potential. Nitrate concentrations were large (median 13.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) where the percentage of agricultural land in the contributing area was large (equal to or greater than 75 percent) and where the soils had a large soil-leaching potential. Nitrate concentrations were small (median 3.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) where the soils had a small soil-leaching potential, despite a large percentage of agricultural land. The statistical relation was not particularly strong, however: the null hypothesis that sites with different soil-leaching potentials had the same nitrate concentrations in ground water was rejected by the Kruskal-Wallis test at only the probability P = 0.15 level. Water-table depth was not an important factor in the relation between nitrate concentrations in ground water and agricultural land. Discharge from a waste-water treatment plant provided most of the downstream loading of nitrate into the Vermillion River mainstem. Triazines were found in small concentrations (less than 2 micrograms per

  4. Effect of heat treatments on oxidation kinetics in AZ91 and AM60 magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Barrena, M.I. Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Matesanz, L.; Soria, A.

    2011-10-15

    The effect of heat treatments on a non protective atmosphere (air) on the morphology and composition of the oxide in AM60 and AZ91 alloys has been evaluated. With the aim of evaluating the loss of alloying elements during heat treatment, a study of these alloys has been carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In order to determine the nature of the oxides the reaction products generated were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the nature and morphology of the oxides generated are related to the temperature and the time of the heating conditions applied. - Highlights: {yields} The effect of heat treatments on the oxide growth in Mg-Al alloys has been evaluated. {yields} The nature and morphology of the oxides have been characterized. {yields} These oxides are associated to the time and the temperature conditions.

  5. Establishment of tumor-associated immunity requires interaction of Heat Shock Proteins with CD91

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu Jerry; Messmer, Michelle Nicole; Binder, Robert Julian

    2014-01-01

    Host antitumor adaptive immune responses are generated as a result of the body’s immunosurveillance mechanisms. How the antitumor immune response is initially primed remains unclear, given that soluble tumor antigens generally are quantitatively insufficient for cross-priming and tumors lack the classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to activate costimulation and initiate cross-priming. We explored the interaction of the tumor-derived heat-shock proteins (HSP) with their common receptor (CD91) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) as a mechanism for host-priming of T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Using targeted genetic disruption of the interaction between HSPs and CD19, we demonstrated that specific ablation of CD91 in APCs prevented the establishment of antitumor immunity. The antitumor immunity was also inhibited when the transfer of tumor-derived HSPs to APCs was prevented using an endogenous inhibitor of CD91. Inhibition was manifested in a reduction of cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigenic peptides in the lymph nodes providing a molecular basis for the observed immunity associated with tumor development. Our findings demonstrate that early in tumor development, the HSP-CD91 pathway is critical for the establishment of antitumor immunity. PMID:24778318

  6. Follow-Up 91. Minnesota High School Follow-Up. Class of 1990--One Year Later. Trend Data: 1978-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedey, John M.

    A study examined the educational and employment activities of members of Minnesota's high school class of 1990. Data regarding 12,458 students (11,814 graduates, 356 dropouts, and 288 students school leavers not classified as dropouts) were collected from 90 high schools participating in the Minnesota Secondary School Follow-up System and from 926…

  7. Seasonality of the urban heat island effect: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a rigorous analysis of the drivers of seasonality in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Many studies report annual cycles in UHI intensity and have attributed those patterns to various hypotheses, including seasonal trends in wind and clouds, prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions, soil moisture, and day length. But to our knowledge, those hypotheses have never been tested, leaving a substantial gap in our basic understanding of the urban climate. We tested these and other hypotheses using two years of continuous temperature measurements from an array of 150 sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin USA, an urban area of 407,000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. This is one of the best replicated urban climate arrays ever deployed, which allowed us to characterize the UHI in rich spatial and temporal detail and rigorously assess the biophysical and synoptic drivers of its seasonal variation. UHI intensities were typically highest in summer and lowest in winter. Seasonal trends in wind speed and cloud cover generally tracked annual trends in UHI intensity, with the clearer, calmer conditions conducive to stronger UHIs more common in summer. This is consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal trends in wind, clouds, and anti-cyclonic conditions drive UHI seasonality. However, clear, calm summer nights still had higher UHI intensities than clear, calm winter nights, indicating that some background factor shifted baseline UHI intensities throughout the year. We found that regional vegetation and snow cover conditions set distinct seasonal baselines for UHI intensity, with nighttime intensities averaging 4°C in summer and 1°C in winter. Synoptic and biophysical factors that vary on shorter time scales (e.g. wind, clouds, soil moisture, relative humidity) modified daily UHI intensity around those baselines by 1-3°C but were not the primary drivers of UHI seasonality, contrary to the most common

  8. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  9. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  10. In-situ Phase transformation study in fine grained heat affected zone of Grade 91 steels

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Yu, Xinghua; Komizo, Prof. Y; Terasaki, Prof. H

    2014-01-01

    Creep strength-enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steels such as the 9 Cr steel [ASTM A387 Grade 91] are widely used as tubing and piping in the new generation of fossil fired power plants. Microstructures in the fine-grained heat affected zone (FGHAZ) may significantly reduce creep strength leading Type IV failures. Current research suggest that reducing pre-weld tempering temperature from 760 C (HTT) to 650 C (LTT) has the potential to double the creep life of these welds. To understand this improvement, time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) measurement with synchrotron radiation was used to characterize the microstructure evolution during fine grained heat-affected zone (HAZ) thermal cycling of grade 91 steel. The measurements showed both M23C6 (M=Fe, Cr) and MX (M=Nb, V; X=C,N) are present in the sample after the HTT condition. Near equilibrium fraction of M23C6 was measured in high temperature tempering condition (HTT, 760 C). However, the amount of M23C6 in LTT condition was very low since the diffraction peaks are close to the background. During simulated FGHAZ thermal cycling, the M23C6 partially dissolved in HTT sample. Interestingly, MX did not dissolve in both LTT and HTT samples. Hypothesis for correlation of M23C6 carbide distribution and pre-mature creep failure in FGHAZ will be made.

  11. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  12. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  13. Heavy metals in muscle, liver, and kidney from Finnish reindeer in 1990-91 and 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Rintala, R.; Venaelaeinen, E.R.; Hirvi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals were analyzed from reindeer by the Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute. The analyses were part of a larger project during the period 1990-1993, in which residues in vegetables, milk, berries, fish and reindeer were monitored. The main aim of the reindeer study was to investigate possible differences between the heavy metal contents of reindeer samples from northern, eastern, western and southern Lapland. Another objective of the study was also to clarify the environmental effects of industrial activities in the Kola Peninsula and in Tornio on the food products of Finnish Lapland. Analyses of organochlorine compounds from reindeer samples were also performed, but these results will be published later after a larger number of samples has been studied. Results of the reindeer analyses were also compared with previous reindeer and elk studies of the Finnish National Veterinary Institute (1980) and Neimi (1993) and with two Norwegian studies (roslie 1984 and 1986). 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Preparation and characterization of Fe-Al intermetallic layer on the surface of T91 heat-resistant steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zimu; Cao, Jianbo; Han, Fusheng

    2014-04-01

    A Fe-Al intermetallic layer was formed on the surface of T91 heat-resistant steel by a molten aluminum hot-dipping and heat diffusion treatment. It is shown that the layer was composed of Al, FeAl3 and Fe2Al5 phases in the as-dipped state while only Fe3Al phase retained after the heat treatment. The intermetallic layer exhibited typical columnar grain structure after the heat treatment, and the thickness of aluminizing layer was increased from 55 μm at 760 °C to around 100 μm at 1050 °C heat treatment. Such a phase composition and grain morphology are favorable for the oxidation and corrosion resistance of T91 steel.

  15. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with themore » differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.« less

  16. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with the differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.

  17. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  18. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historical (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County -King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis using a piece-wise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect that heat’s intensity has on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day versus a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages, all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect heat intensity has on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4 °C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly (less than 85) age groups experience significant risk for: nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, COPD and asthma hospitalizations. PMID:25719287

  19. Data on selected herbicides and two triazine metabolites in precipitation of the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goolsby, D.A.; Scribner, E.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Pomes, M.L.; Meyer, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    Weekly precipitation (rain and snow) samples were collected from 81 National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network sites in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States for the analysis of herbicides. In addition, five high- elevation background sites along the Rocky Mountains and in Alaska were sampled to provide data on herbicides in precipitation at sites far from the study area. The study began in March 1990 and continued through September 1991. The precipitation samples were shipped to the Central Analytical Laboratory operated by the Illinois State Water Survey for analyses of inorganic compounds. Subsamples of the precipitation were shipped to the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, for the analysis of 11 herbicides and 2 triazines metabolites. This report provides descriptions of the study area, sample-collection methods, laboratory methods, and quality assurance. The report also includes a compilation of herbicide concentration data from both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods. Laboratory analyses consisted of 6,230 samples that were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using alachlor and atrazine microtiter plates and 2,341 samples that were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Graphical and statistical comparisons of the two analytical methods are given in this report. Data from this study have been useful in determining the spatial and temporal distribution of herbicide concentrations and deposition in precipitation of over a 26-State area of the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. The data also provide evidence of long-range atmospheric transport of herbicides and triazine metabolites.

  20. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  1. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hot Impact Toughness of Various Zones of P91 Welded Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, C.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    The new generation super critical thermal power plants are required to operate at enhanced thermal efficiency of over 50% to reduce the fuel consumption and environmental pollution. Creep strength-enhanced ferritic steels, commonly known as Cr-Mo alloys such as P91 (X10CrMoVNb 9-1) are such material of choice for the next generation power plants. The operating requirement of these next generation power plants is that steam temperature of around 650 °C is maintained. For such high-temperature application, creep strength of material is the primary consideration together with adequate weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness. Present work deals with the effect of high service temperature on impact toughness of P91 (X10CrMoVNb 9-1) base material, weld fusion zone, and HAZ. The impact toughness of HAZ for conventional weld groove design and narrow weld groove design has been evaluated experimentally in as-welded and at different post-weld heat treatment conditions. Fractography of the impact toughness specimens of base metal, weld fusion zone, and HAZ was carried out using scanning electron microscope. The effects of heat treatment schemes on the percentage of element present at the fracture surface were also studied.

  2. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hot Impact Toughness of Various Zones of P91 Welded Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, C.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The new generation super critical thermal power plants are required to operate at enhanced thermal efficiency of over 50% to reduce the fuel consumption and environmental pollution. Creep strength-enhanced ferritic steels, commonly known as Cr-Mo alloys such as P91 (X10CrMoVNb 9-1) are such material of choice for the next generation power plants. The operating requirement of these next generation power plants is that steam temperature of around 650 °C is maintained. For such high-temperature application, creep strength of material is the primary consideration together with adequate weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness. Present work deals with the effect of high service temperature on impact toughness of P91 (X10CrMoVNb 9-1) base material, weld fusion zone, and HAZ. The impact toughness of HAZ for conventional weld groove design and narrow weld groove design has been evaluated experimentally in as-welded and at different post-weld heat treatment conditions. Fractography of the impact toughness specimens of base metal, weld fusion zone, and HAZ was carried out using scanning electron microscope. The effects of heat treatment schemes on the percentage of element present at the fracture surface were also studied.

  3. Ground-water resources and contamination at Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted on Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll to define the extent of the freshwater lenses and recharge zones and to asses potential contaminant migration from known sources of contamination. Rainfall, which is the sole natural source of freshwater, is strongly seasonal and occasional multi-year droughts are capable of disrupting the island's water supply. The supply of freshwater is produced by a joint system of rain catchments and shallow wells. From 1980-91, rain- catchment yield and ground-water withdrawal average 22,632 and 5,829 gallons per day, respectively. Maps were produced showing the areal extent of freshwater, the thickness of the freshwater lenses, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow, and contamination sites and potential migration pathways of contaminants. Sectional views of freshwater lens thicknesses and seasonal freshwater lens thickness changes were also constructed. The freshwater lens attains a maximum thickness of 23 feet beneath the central area of Roi where recharge is high. The estimated amount of water in the lenses with chloride concentrations less than 250 milligrams per liter underlying Roi and Namur is 226 million and 4.2 million gallons, respectively. The presence of thick vegetation on Namur increases evapotranspiration losses significantly producing a smaller freshwater lens. Freshwater thicknesses shrank and expanded in a seasonal cycle as much as 3 feet near withdrawal wells. The water table forms broad mounds beneath Roi and Namur and freshwater heads reach a maximum of 1.4 feet. Most known sites of contamination lie near the periphery of the island where ground-water flow patterns will carry contaminants away from the withdrawal wells toward the shore.

  4. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  5. Seasonal heat and freshwater cycles in the Arctic Ocean in CMIP5 coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Steele, Michael; Hakkinen, Sirpa

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the processes governing the seasonal response of the Arctic Ocean and sea ice to surface forcings as they appear in historical simulations of 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled climate models. In both models and observations, the seasonal heat budget is dominated by a local balance between net surface heating and storage in the heat content of the ocean and in melting/freezing of sea ice. Observations suggest ocean heat storage is more important than sea ice melt, while in most of these models, sea ice melt dominates. Seasonal horizontal heat flux divergence driven by the seasonal cycle of volume transport is only important locally. In models and observations, the dominant terms in the basin-average seasonal freshwater budget are the storages of freshwater between the ocean and sea ice, and the exchange between the two. The largest external source term is continental discharge in early summer, which is an order of magnitude smaller. The appearance of sea ice (extent and volume) and also ocean stratification in both the heat and freshwater budgets provides two links between the budgets and provides two mechanisms for feedback. One consequence of such an interaction is the fact that models with strong/weak seasonal surface heating also have strong/weak seasonal haline and temperature stratification.

  6. Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Steel Heavy Section Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Leijun

    2012-11-02

    This project will conduct a systematic metallurgical study on the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the creep rupture properties of P91 heavy section welds. The objective is to develop a technical guide for selecting PWHT parameters, and to predict expected creep-rupture life based on the selection of heat treatment parameters. The project consists of four interdependent tasks: Experimentally and numerically characterize the temperature fields of typical post-weld heat treatment procedures for various weld and joint configurations to be used in Gen IV systems. Characterize the microstructure of various regions, including the weld fusion zone, coarse-grain heat-affected zone, and fine-grain heat affected zone, in the welds that underwent the various welding and PWHT thermal histories. Conduct creep and creep-rupture testing of coupons extracted from actual and physically simulated welds. Establish the relationship among PWHT parameters, thermal histories, microstructure, creep, and creep-rupture properties.

  7. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability. PMID:27351357

  8. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  9. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds. Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled ``Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.`` which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. {times} 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. {times} 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  10. A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems. Progress report, September 25, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-01-04

    Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9{degrees}C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  11. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  12. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  13. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and...

  14. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  15. Seasonal changes in the atmospheric heat balance simulated by the GISS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.; Chow, S.; Helfand, H. M.; Quirk, W. J.; Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the ability of numerical general circulation models to simulate the atmosphere have focussed so far on simulations of the January climatology. These models generally present boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature, but this does not prevent testing their ability to simulate seasonal changes in atmospheric processes that accompany presented seasonal changes in boundary conditions. Experiments to simulate changes in the zonally averaged heat balance are discussed since many simplified models of climatic processes are based solely on this balance.

  16. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations.

  17. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations. PMID:25627826

  18. Effect of Groove Design and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of P91 Steel Weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, C.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The martensitic creep-resistant steel designated as ASTM A335 for plate and as P91 for pipe is primarily used for high-temperature and high-pressure applications in steam power plants due to its excellent high-temperature properties such as high creep strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and so on. However, in the case of welded joints of such steels, the presence of an inter-critical heat-affected zone (IC-HAZ) can cause the joint to have lower creep strength than the base metal. In the present study, the effect of post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) and weld groove designs on the overall microstructure and mechanical properties of P91 steel pipe welds produced by the gas tungsten arc welding process was studied. Various regions of welded joints were characterized in detail for hardness and metallographic and tensile properties. Sub-size tensile samples were also tested to evaluate the mechanical properties of the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) with respect to PWHT. After PWHT, a homogenous microstructure was observed in the HAZ and tensile test fracture samples revealed shifting of the fracture location from the IC-HAZ to the fine-grained heat-affected zone. Before PWHT, the conventional V-grooved welded joints exhibited higher tensile strength compared to the narrow-grooved joints. However, after PWHT, both narrow- and V-grooved joints exhibited similar strength. Fractography of the samples indicates the presence of carbide precipitates such as Cr23C6, VC, and NbC on the fracture surface.

  19. Effect of Groove Design and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of P91 Steel Weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, C.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    The martensitic creep-resistant steel designated as ASTM A335 for plate and as P91 for pipe is primarily used for high-temperature and high-pressure applications in steam power plants due to its excellent high-temperature properties such as high creep strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and so on. However, in the case of welded joints of such steels, the presence of an inter-critical heat-affected zone (IC-HAZ) can cause the joint to have lower creep strength than the base metal. In the present study, the effect of post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) and weld groove designs on the overall microstructure and mechanical properties of P91 steel pipe welds produced by the gas tungsten arc welding process was studied. Various regions of welded joints were characterized in detail for hardness and metallographic and tensile properties. Sub-size tensile samples were also tested to evaluate the mechanical properties of the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) with respect to PWHT. After PWHT, a homogenous microstructure was observed in the HAZ and tensile test fracture samples revealed shifting of the fracture location from the IC-HAZ to the fine-grained heat-affected zone. Before PWHT, the conventional V-grooved welded joints exhibited higher tensile strength compared to the narrow-grooved joints. However, after PWHT, both narrow- and V-grooved joints exhibited similar strength. Fractography of the samples indicates the presence of carbide precipitates such as Cr23C6, VC, and NbC on the fracture surface.

  20. Assessment of Negligible Creep, Off-Normal Welding and Heat Treatment of Gr91 Steel for Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Application

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Terry, Totemeier

    2006-10-01

    Two different topics of Grade 91 steel are investigated for Gen IV nuclear reactor pressure vessel application. On the first topic, negligible creep of Grade 91 is investigated with the motivation to design the reactor pressure vessel in negligible creep regime and eliminate costly surveillance programs during the reactor operation. Available negligible creep criteria and creep strain laws are reviewed, and new data needs are evaluated. It is concluded that modifications of the existing criteria and laws, together with their associated parameters, are needed before they can be reliably applied to Grade 91 for negligible creep prediction and reactor pressure vessel design. On the second topic, effects of off-normal welding and heat treatment on creep behavior of Grade 91 are studied with the motivation to better define the control over the parameters in welding and heat treatment procedures. The study is focused on off-normal austenitizing temperatures and improper cooling after welding but prior to post-weld heat treatment.

  1. Seasonal Cycles of Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Tong; Marotzke, Jochem

    1998-01-01

    A general circulation model of the Indian Ocean is fitted to monthly averaged climatological temperatures, salinities, and surface fluxes using the adjoint method. Interannual variability is minimized by penalizing the temporal drift from one seasonal cycle to another during a two-year integration. The resultant meridional overturning and heat transport display large seasonal variations, with maximum amplitudes of 18 and 22 (x 10(exp 6) cubic m/s) for the overturning and 1.8 and 1.4 (x 10(exp 15) W) for heat transport near 10 S and 10 N, respectively. A dynamical decomposition of the overturning and heat transport shows that the time-varying Ekman How plus its barotropic compensation can explain a large part of the seasonal variations in overturning and heat transport. The maximum variations at 10 deg N and 10 deg S are associated with monsoon reversal over the northern Indian Ocean and changes of the easterlies over the southern Indian Ocean. An external mode with variable topography has a moderate contribution where the Somali Current and the corresponding gyre reverse direction seasonally. Contribution front vertical shear (thermal wind and ageostrophic shear) is dominant near the southern boundary and large near the Somali Current latitudes. The dominant balance in the zonally integrated heat budget is between heat storage change and heat transport convergence except south of 15 S. Optimization with seasonal forcings improves estimates of sea surface temperatures, but the annual average overturning and heat transport are very similar to previous results with annual mean forcings. The annual average heat transport consists of roughly equal contributions from time-mean and time-varying fields of meridional velocities and temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean. indicating a significant rectification to the heat transport due to the time-varying fields. The time-mean and time-varying contributions are primarily due to the overturning and horizontal gyre

  2. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  3. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined. PMID:26347537

  4. Effect of Impurity Tin on the Creep Properties of a P91 Heat-Resistant Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.-H.; Xu, Y.-W.; Yang, H.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The creep properties of P91 steel specimens undoped and doped with 0.058 wt pct tin, which was normalized from 1328 K (1055 °C) and tempered at 1033 K (760 °C), were examined under different engineering stresses (150 to 210 MPa) and temperatures [873 K to 923 K (600 °C to 650 °C)]. The creep behavior followed the temperature-compensated power law and Monkman-Grant equations. In the temperature-compensated power law equation, the apparent activation energy and stress exponent for creep were approximately 541 kJ/mol and 12 for the undoped steel and 527 kJ/mol and 11 for the Sn-doped one, respectively. In the Monkman-Grant relation, the values of constants m and C were around 1.062 and 0.0672 for the undoped steel, and 1.012 and 0.0650 for the Sn-doped one, respectively. The 100 MPa stress creep lifetime at 873 K (600 °C) was estimated as 100641 hours for the undoped steel and 35290 hours for the Sn-doped steel, respectively. These indicated that Sn substantially deteriorated the creep properties of the steel. It was found that grain or subgrain boundary segregation of Sn could promote the nucleation of cavities or microcracks, thereby leading to the deterioration of the steel creep properties.

  5. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  6. The role of atmospheric heat transport in the seasonal carbon dioxide cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, James R.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out numerical experiments with a general circulations model (GCM) and energy balance model of the martian atmosphere to define the importance of heat transported to the polar regions in determining the amount of CO2 condensed on the surface during the fall and winter seasons and the amount sublimated during the spring and summer seasons. In so doing, we performed both sensitivity experiments, in which the dust opacity was varied over the full range of its observed values, and annual simulations, in which the dust opacity varied continuously with seasonal data, in accord with measurements taken at the Viking landers. Dust opacity represents the key variable for determining the contribution of atmospheric heat advection to the energy budget in the polar regions. The amount of heat advected to the winter polar regions increases monotonically as the dust opacity at low and middle latitudes increases. However, the increase is sharpest between optical depths of 0 and 1 tends to level off at still higher optical depths. Heat advection is more important at times of CO2 condensation than CO2 sublimation, since the temperature gradients are much steeper in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Because dust opacity is much higher during northern winter than during southern winter, atmospheric heat advection reduces the amount of CO2 that condenses in the north by a much larger factor than it does in the south.

  7. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  8. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  9. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  10. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

  11. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  12. Employment Placement Data of 1990-91 Occupational Graduates at Minnesota's Twin City Area Community Colleges. Metro Pilot Study Report #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kenneth E.; Flermoen, Cynthia

    In 1991, followup studies of the employment and educational status of 1990-1991 occupational program graduates were conducted by the seven community colleges in the Twin Cities metro area of Minnesota: Anoka-Ramsey, Cambridge Center, Inver Hills, Lakewood, Minneapolis, North Hennepin, and Normandale. While the colleges used different questionnaire…

  13. Annual Conference Journal NABE '90-'91. Proceedings of the National Association for Bilingual Education Conferences (Tucson, Arizona, 1990; Washington, D.C., 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malave, Lilliam M., Ed.

    Papers from the 1990 and 1991 conferences of the National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) are presented, including: "Beyond Socially Naive Bilingual Education: The Effects of Schooling and Ethnolinguistic Vitality of the Community on Additive and Subtractive Bilingualism" (Rodriguez Landry, Real Allard); "Descubriendo la lectura: An…

  14. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  15. Seasonal variations of physiological responses to heat of subtropical and temperate natives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihzuka, H.; Hori, S.; Akamatsu, T.

    1986-06-01

    In an attempt to compare the physiological responses of subtropical natives to heat with those of temperate natives, seasonal variations in physiological responses to heat were observed in young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa, subtropical zone (group O) and young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland, temperate zone, but moved to Okinawa in less than two years (group M). In both seasons, group O showed less sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat, lower rise in rectal temperature and less increase in heart rate during heat exposure than group M. In both groups, greater sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat and lower rise in rectal temperature in summer than in winter were observed. Seasonal differences in Na concentration in sweat, rise in rectal temperature and increase in heart rate for group O were smaller than those for group M. It was assumed the efficiency of sweat for cooling the body for group O was better than that for group M, and heat tolerance for group O was superior to that for group M.

  16. Seasonal adjustment of solar heat gain independent of coat coloration in a desert mammal.

    PubMed

    Walsberg, G E; Weaver, T; Wolf, B O

    1997-01-01

    Despite the apparent importance of solar radiation as a source of heat for free-living animals, there exists no substantial body of empirical data describing physiological responses to solar radiation under the range of convective conditions likely to occur in nature. We therefore quantified effects of simulated solar radiation and wind on metabolic heat production in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus. This diurnal mammal inhabits the Sonoran Desert and seasonally replaces its pelage in a fashion in which it retains constant external appearance but incorporates optical and structural changes that are thought to significantly alter heat-transfer properties of the coat. At a given wind speed, the presence of 950 W m-2 of simulated solar radiation reduces metabolic heat production by 15% (at a wind speed of 4 m s-1) to 37% (at a wind speed of 0.25 m s-1). Independent of effects of irradiance, metabolic heat production significantly increases with wind speed such that as wind speed is increased from 0.25 m s-1 to 4.0 m s-1, metabolic heat production is elevated by 66% (sunlight absent) or 88% (sunlight present). Previous analyses demonstrated that when exposed to identical radiative and convective environments rock squirrels with summer pelages accrue solar heat loads 33%-71% lower than those experienced by animals with winter coats. This reduction of solar heat gain during the extremely hot Sonoran Desert summer apparently constitutes a previously unappreciated mode of thermal adaptation by seasonal adjustment of radiative heat gain without changes in the animal's appearance. PMID:9231387

  17. Seasonal and interannual variation in water vapor and heat fluxes in a West Siberian continental bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, K.; Hiyama, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Inoue, G.

    2003-10-01

    The seasonal and interannual variation in the energy fluxes of a West Siberian continental bog were measured from April to October in 1999 and 2000 using the eddy covariance method. The energy balance closure rate (=[sensible + latent heat fluxes]/[available energy]) ranged from ˜0.8 to 0.9 and showed a better energy balance and less scattering using the soil heat flux estimated from an area-averaged soil thermal parameter rather than from a plot-based measurement. The net radiation (Rn) increased drastically after snowmelt because the surface albedo (a) dropped from its highest value to its lowest value over the course of the snowmelt. The snowmelt water raised the water table (zwt) to its highest level; it then gradually decreased. The seasonal and interannual variation in a, which ranged from 0.09-0.19, depended on zwt, because surface wetness was closely related to zwt through the capillary uptake of Sphagnum moss. The seasonal variation in the latent heat flux (lE) was similar to that in Rn. The largest lE was observed in the middle of June, and was ˜120 Wm-2 (4.2 mm d-1) in both years. Conversely, the sensible heat flux (H) did not show an obvious seasonal pattern and was lower than lE during the growing season. The Bowen ratio (Br) in the early growing season was 0.57 and 0.60, and the values in the peak growing season were 0.65 and 0.78, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The lower Br was related to the higher zwt; specifically, it was due to the wetter surface conditions. An interannual comparison of the monthly mean atmospheric water vapor deficit (δe) and lE showed a significant relationship with a higher lE observed in the year with a higher δe. Therefore in the bog studied the interannual variation in the water vapor flux was controlled mainly by zwt and δe.

  18. Seasonal variation of the upper ocean responding to surface heating in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunjeong; Noh, Yign; Qiu, Bo; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variations of the upper ocean, such as mixed layer depth (MLD) and sea surface temperature (SST), responding to the atmospheric forcing in the North Pacific (10°N-50°N), are investigated by analyzing the Argo and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1 data. The OAFlux data are also used for comparison. During the early heating period in the high-latitude ocean north of 30°N, where a seasonal thermocline is formed above the deep mixed layer under strong surface heating, the MLD h is found to be scaled as h∝>(Lλ>)1/2, where L is the Monin-Obukhov length scale and λ is the Ekman length scale. On the other hand, in the low-latitude ocean south of 30°N, where the preexisting MLD is shallow and surface heating is weak, h is found to be scaled by λ. It is found that a large amount of heat flux across the MLD occurs, especially in the high-latitude ocean during the late heating period, in which h is small. It suggests the contribution by turbulent mixing across the MLD in addition to radiation penetration, and the eddy diffusivity in the high-latitude ocean is estimated as Kv ˜ 10-4-10-3 m2 s-1. The heat budget of the mixed layer reveals that the contribution from the ocean heat transport is much smaller than the surface heat flux in the high-latitude ocean except in the Kuroshio region, but it is sometimes comparable in the low-latitude ocean.

  19. Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Kanda, M.

    2004-11-01

    Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime had little seasonal variation, irrespective of significant seasonal change of net all-wave radiation Rn. 2) The latent heat flux in the summer daytime was large despite the small areal fraction of natural coverage (trees and bare soil). The estimated local latent heat flux per unit natural coverage was 2 times the available energy (Rn - G), which indicates that the “oasis effect” was significant. 3) The CO2 flux was always upward throughout the year and the magnitude was larger in winter, mainly because of an increase of fossil fuel consumption. The annual total CO2 flux was 6 times the downward CO2 flux at a typical temperate deciduous forest.


  20. Latent Heating Retrievals Using the TRMM Precipitation Radar: A Multi-Seasonal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, S.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle and is a primary heat source for the atmosphere. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied by rainfall, modulates the large-scale circulations of the tropics and in turn can impact midlatitude weather. This latent heat release is a consequence of phase changes between vapor, liquid, and solid water. Present largescale weather and climate models can simulate latent heat release only crudely, thus reducing their confidence in predictions on both global and regional scales. This paper represents the first attempt to use NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall information to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to October 2000. The Goddard Convective-Stratiform. Heating (CSH) algorithm and TRMM precipitation radar data are used for this study. We will examine and compare the latent heating structures between 1997-1998 (winter) ENSO and 1998-2000 (non-ENSO). We will also examine over the tropics. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental; Indian oceans vs west Pacific; Africa vs S. America) will be also examined and compared. In addition, we will examine the relationship between latent heating (max heating level) and SST. The period of interest also coincides with several TRMM field campaigns that recently occurred over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and in the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed Q1 budgets from these experiments could provide a means of validating the retrieved profiles of latent heating from the CSH algorithm.

  1. The effect of ocean heat flux on seasonal ice growth in Young Sound (Northeast Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sergei; Dmitrenko, Igor; Babb, David; Rysgaard, Søren; Barber, David

    2015-07-01

    The seasonal ice cover plays an important role in the climate system limiting the exchange of heat and momentum across the air-water interface. Among other factors, sea ice is sensitive to the ocean heat flux. In this study, we use in situ oceanographic, sea ice, and meteorological data collected during winter 2013/2014 in Young Sound (YS) fjord in Northeast Greenland to estimate the ocean heat flux to the landfast ice cover. During the preceding ice-free summer, incident solar radiation caused sea surface temperatures of up to 5-6°C. Subsequently, this heat was transferred down to the intermediate depths, but returned to the surface and retarded ice growth throughout winter. Two different approaches were used to estimate the ocean heat fluxes; (i) a residual method based on a 1-D thermodynamic ice growth model and (ii) a bulk parameterization using friction velocities and available heat content of water beneath the ice. The average heat flux in the inner YS varied from 13 W m-2 in October-December to less than 2 W m-2 in January-May. An average heat flux of 9 W m-2 was calculated for the outer YS. Moreover, we show that the upward heat flux in the outer fjord is strongly modulated by surface outflow, which produced two maxima in heat flux (up to 18-24 W m-2) during 26 December to 27 January and from 11 February to 14 March. By May 2014, the upward ocean heat flux reduced the landfast ice thickness by 18% and 24% in the inner and outer YS, respectively.

  2. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. PMID:26787477

  3. Seasonal variations in heat and carbon dioxide fluxes observed over a reed wetland in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jia, Qingyu; Liu, Jingmiao

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in sensible heat flux (Hs), latent heat flux (LE), and CO2 flux (Fc) during 2006 over a reed wetland ecosystem in Northeast China, as well as their relationships with environmental factors, were investigated based on micrometeorological observations and turbulence data, measured using the eddy covariance technique. The results showed that the LE values were significantly larger (>400 W m-2) in summer (June, July, and August) than those in other seasons because of the summertime abundant precipitation and strong evapotranspiration, whereas the Hs values were smaller (<100 W m-2) in summer but larger in spring (>300 W m-2) and autumn (>200 W m-2). The cumulative evapotranspiration in 2006 was 577.1 mm that was mostly controlled by radiation at surface throughout the whole year but also limited by water supply during the non-growing season. Most of the Fc values ranged between -1.0 mg m-2 s-1 (sometimes close to -2.0 mg m-2 s-1) during daytime and 0.3 mg m-2 s-1 at night during the growing season (May to September) but varied around zero in the non-growing season, and the CO2 mass concentration was in the range of 600-800 mg m-3. Monthly cumulative CO2 flux for the growing season was negatively largest in July (-520 mg m-2 month-1) and smallest in May (-65 mg m-2 month-1), making this reed wetland a net CO2 sink in 2006. The daytime CO2 flux in the growing season was positively correlated with atmospheric stability |z/L| under unstable condition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed, but depended less on air temperature, relative humidity and soil water content on a several-day time scale. However, over a longer time scale, a comparison of March-April conditions during 2005 and 2006 suggested that cooler conditions can result in reduced CO2 production before the growing season.

  4. Seasonal patterns of heat loss in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Erin M; McLellan, William A; Westgate, Andrew J; Wells, Randall S; Blum, James E; Pabst, D Ann

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated patterns of heat loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, where water temperatures vary seasonally from 11 to 33 degrees C. Simultaneous measurements of heat flux (HF) and skin surface temperature were collected at the body wall and appendages of dolphins during health-monitoring events in summer (June 2002-2004) and winter (February 2003-2005). Integument thickness was measured and whole body conductance (W/m(2) degrees C) was estimated using HF and colonic temperature measurements. Across seasons, HF values were similar at the appendages, but their distribution differed significantly at the flipper and fluke. In summer, these appendages displayed uniformly high values, while in winter they most frequently displayed very low HF values with a few high HF values. In winter, blubber thickness was significantly greater and estimated conductance significantly lower, than in summer. These results suggest that dolphins attempt to conserve heat in winter. In winter, though, HF values across the body wall were similar to (flank) or greater than (caudal keel) summer values. It is likely that higher winter HF values are due to the steep temperature gradient between the body core and colder winter water, which may limit the dolphin's ability to decrease heat loss across the body wall. PMID:18183404

  5. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  6. Variation of daily warm season mortality as a function of micro-urban heat islands

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, A; Goldberg, M S; Plante, C; Fournier, M; Baudouin, Y; Kosatsky, T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little attention has been paid to how heat-related health effects vary with the micro-urban variation of outdoor temperatures. This study explored whether people located in micro-urban heat islands are at higher risk of mortality during hot summer days. Methods: Data used included (1) daily mortality for Montreal (Canada) for June–August 1990–2003, (2) daily mean ambient outdoor temperatures at the local international airport and (3) two thermal surface images (Landsat satellites, infrared wavelengths). A city-wide temperature versus daily mortality function was established on the basis of a case-crossover design; this function was stratified according to the surface temperature at decedents’ place of death. Results: The risk of death on warm summer days in areas with higher surface temperatures was greater than in areas with lower surface temperatures. Conclusions: This study suggests that measures aimed at reducing the temperature in micro-urban heat islands (eg, urban greening activities) may reduce the health impact of hot temperatures. Further studies are needed to document the variation of heat-related risks within cities and to evaluate the health benefits of measures aimed at reducing the temperature in micro-urban heat islands. PMID:19366997

  7. Thermion: Verification of a thermionic heat pipe in microgravity. Final Report, 1990 - 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The design and development is examined of a small excore heat pipe thermionic space nuclear reactor power system (SEHPTR). The need was identified for an in-space flight demonstration of a solar powered, thermionic heat pipe element. A demonstration would examine its performance and verify its operation in microgravity. The design of a microsatellite based technology demonstration experiment is proposed to measure the effects of microgravity on the performance of an integrated thermionic heat pipe device in low earth orbit. The specific objectives are to verify the operation of the liquid metal heat pipe and the cesium reservior in the space environment. Two design configurations are described; THERMION-I and THERMION-II. THERMION-I is designed for a long lifetime study of the operations of the thermionic heat pipe element in low earth orbit. Heat input to the element is furnished by a large mirror which collects solar energy and focuses it into a cavity containing the heat pipe device. THERMION-II is a much simpler device which is used for short term operation. This experiment remains attached to the Delta II second stage and uses energy from 500 lb of alkaline batteries to supply heat energy to the heat pipe device.

  8. Vulnerability to extreme heat by socio-demographic characteristics and area green space among the elderly in Michigan, 1990-2007

    PubMed Central

    Gronlund, Carina J.; Berrocal, Veronica J.; White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Conlon, Kathryn C.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined how individual and area socio-demographic characteristics independently modified the extreme heat (EH)-mortality association among elderly residents of 8 Michigan cities, May-September, 1990-2007. Methods In a time-stratified case-crossover design, we regressed cause-specific mortality against EH (indicator for 4-day mean, minimum, maximum or apparent temperature above 97th or 99th percentiles). We examined effect modification with interactions between EH and personal marital status, age, race, sex and education and ZIP-code percent “non-green space” (National Land Cover Dataset), age, race, income, education, living alone, and housing age (U.S. Census). Results In models including multiple effect modifiers, the odds of cardiovascular mortality during EH (99th percentile threshold) vs. non-EH were higher among non-married individuals (1.21, 95% CI = 1.14-1.28 vs. 0.98, 95% CI = 0.90-1.07 among married individuals) and individuals in ZIP codes with high (91%) non-green space (1.17, 95% CI = 1.06-1.29 vs. 0.98, 95% CI = 0.89-1.07 among individuals in ZIP codes with low (39%) non-green space). Results suggested that housing age may also be an effect modifier. For the EH-respiratory mortality association, the results were inconsistent between temperature metrics and percentile thresholds of EH but largely insignificant. Conclusions Green space, housing and social isolation may independently enhance elderly peoples’ heat-related cardiovascular mortality vulnerability. Local adaptation efforts should target areas and populations at greater risk. PMID:25460667

  9. A heating season comparison test of two solar air heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thacher, E.F.; Wen, C.

    1987-06-01

    An outdoor, comparison performance test of two solar air-heating systems was performed between December 1, 1985 and May 17, 1986, near Potsdam, in northern New York. Each system was installed in a small test cell and operated in the direct heating mode. An identical third test cell served as a control. Infiltration air was blown into the cells at 0.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The solar fractions obtained were low, ranging from 0.116 to0.213, with the north cell's fraction somewhat lower than the south cell's. The average solar fraction of both cells in each control range increased as the temperature control range widened. Simulation of the experiment in Albany, Buffalo, Potsdam, and Syracusae using TRNSYS gave solar fractions of similar magnitudes and the same trend. An economic analysis comparing the solar systems to five different conventional energy sources showed no payback during the 20-year term of the analysis.

  10. Interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the western North Pacific summer climate around the late 1970s and early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Dong, Buwen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying predictability and the corresponding sources for the western North Pacific (WNP) summer climate in the case of non-stationary teleconnections during recent decades benefits for further improvements of long-range prediction on the WNP and East Asian summers. In the past few decades, pronounced increases on the summer sea surface temperature (SST) and associated interannual variability are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific around the late 1970s and over the Maritime Continent and western-central Pacific around the early 1990s. These increases are associated with significant enhancements of the interannual variability for the lower-tropospheric wind over the WNP. In this study, we further assess interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the WNP summer anomalies, using May-start retrospective forecasts from the ENSEMBLES multi-model project in the period 1960-2005. It is found that prediction of the WNP summer anomalies exhibits an interdecadal shift with higher prediction skills since the late 1970s, particularly after the early 1990s. Improvements of the prediction skills for SSTs after the late 1970s are mainly found around tropical Indian Ocean and the WNP. The better prediction of the WNP after the late 1970s may arise mainly from the improvement of the SST prediction around the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. The close teleconnections between the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and WNP summer variability work both in the model predictions and observations. After the early 1990s, on the other hand, the improvements are detected mainly around the South China Sea and Philippines for the lower-tropospheric zonal wind and precipitation anomalies, associating with a better description of the SST anomalies around the Maritime Continent. A dipole SST pattern over the Maritime Continent and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean is closely related to the WNP summer anomalies after the early 1990s. This teleconnection mode is quite

  11. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=91

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1998-11-19

    Experimental data for all nuclei with mass A = 91 have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 15 December 1998, supersedes the 1990 evaluation by H.-W. Müller (Nuclear Data Sheets60, 835 1990)).

  12. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

  13. Research on the seasonal snow of the Arctic Slope. Annual progress report, June 1, 1990--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.S.

    1991-12-31

    This project deals with the seasonal snow on Alaska`s Arctic Slope. Although it is concentrated on snow of the R{sub 4}D project area, it is important to relate the snow cover of this area with the rest of the Arctic Slope. The goals include determination of the amount of precipitation which comes as snow, the wind transport of this snow and its depositional pattern as influenced by drifting, the physical properties of the snow, the physical processes which operate in it, the proportions of it which go into evaporation, infiltration and runoff, and the biological role of the snow cover.

  14. Estimated discharge and chemical-constituent loading from the upper Floridan aquifer to the lower St John's River, northeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    aquifer to the St. Johns River within the lower St. Johns River drainage basin, based on the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in September 1990, was estimated to be 86 cubic feet per second. Total estimated ground-water discharge to the lower St. Johns River in September 1991, when heads in the Upper Floridan aquifer averaged about 4 feet higher than in 1990, was 133 cubic feet per second. The load of dissolved-solids that discharged from the Upper Floridan aquifer into the lower St. Johns River on the basis of September 1990 heads is estimated to be 47,000 tons per year. Estimated chloride and sulfate loads are 18,000 and 9,500 tons per year, respectively. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate loads discharging into the lower St. Johns River are estimated to be 81,000, 39,000, and 15,000 tons per year, respectively, on the basis of September 1991 heads.

  15. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  17. Post-burning regeneration of the Chaco seasonally dry forest: germination response of dominant species to experimental heat shock.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Díaz, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Plant species of the Chaco seasonally dry forest of central Argentina have presumably been under a low evolutionary pressure to develop specialized fire-response traits, such as heat-stimulated germination. Nevertheless, other historical factors such as seasonal drought and/or endozoochorus dispersal could have led some species to develop heat-tolerant seeds. Therefore, heat-tolerant germination should be more common than heat-stimulated or heat-sensitive germination. To test this, we exposed seeds of 26 dominant species from the Chaco region to a broad range of experimental heat treatments and incubated them for 30 days at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiod. We then scored the percent germination and classified them as heat-stimulated, heat-tolerant or heat-sensitive based on their germination following heat treatments relative to control. Seventeen species showed heat-tolerant germination, including all native graminoids. Seven species showed heat-stimulated germination, under the less-intense heat treatments. Only two species showed heat-sensitive germination. Endozoochory had no influence on germination responses. We suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, fire was not a major evolutionary force in the development of Chaco forests, and our results provide greater understanding of the potential response of Chaco plant communities in the face of increasingly frequent fires. PMID:25421096

  18. Development of low cost components for residential heating technology. Final report, January 1990-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, R.; Loria, B.

    1993-01-19

    A conceptual vent isolation device based on a venturi ejector design was evaluated for use on residential heating appliances. The design was tested on a forced warm air furnace of an upflow configuration and found to perform the required venting function, but only at air supply pressures which were in excess of design limitations. Over 60 different pieces of information for 108 warm air furnace models, 100 boiler models, and 54 direct heating equipment models were collected and assembled in three matrixes. The information relates to construction and performances details for each model reviewed.

  19. Hot Dry Rock Heat Mining Geothermal Energy Development Program - Annual Report Fiscal Year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, David

    1991-01-01

    This was a year of significant accomplishment in the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Program. Most importantly, the design, construction, and installation of the surface plant for the Phase II system neared completion by the end of the year. Basic process design work has been completed, and all major components of the system except the gas/particle separator have been procured. For this component, previous design problems have been resolved, and purchase during the first half of FY91 is anticipated. Installation of the surface plant is well underway. The system will be completed and ready for operation by the end of FY91 under the current funding scenario. The operational schedule to be followed will then depend upon the program funding level. Our goal is to start long-term flow testing as soon as possible. Of equal importance, from the standpoint of the long-term viability of HDR technology, during this year, for the first time, it has been demonstrated in field testing that it should be possible to operate HDR reservoirs with water losses of 1-3%, or even less. Our experience in the deep, hot, Phase II reservoir at Fenton Hill is in sharp contrast to the significant water losses seen by Japanese and British scientists working in shallower, cooler, HDR reservoirs. Calculations and modeling based on field data have shown that water consumption declines with the log of time in a manner related to water storage in the reservoir. This work may be crucial in proving that HDR can be an economically viable means for producing energy, and that it is useful even in areas where water is in short supply. In addition, an engineering model was developed to predict and explain water consumption in HDR reservoirs under pressure, the collection and processing of seismic information was more highly automated, and the detection limits for reactive tracers were lowered to less than 1 part per billion. All of these developments will add greatly to our ability to conduct, analyze, and understand

  20. Seasonal and spatial variations of zooplankton in the central and southeastern Bering Sea during the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youngshil; Kim, Suam; Lee, Wonchoel

    2006-05-01

    Hydrographic and plankton surveys were conducted over the basin and slope of the southeastern Bering Sea during April, June/July and September of 1994 and in June/July 1995, and seasonal and spatial variations of zooplankton community were investigated in relation to the oceanographic conditions. In July 1994, sea surface temperature (SST) ranged 5.3-8.7 °C, and the thermocline was between 30 and 50 m. In July 1995, however, SST was warmer (7.3-12.4 °C), and the thermocline was shallower (20-30 m). The thermal front at the shelf was also stronger in July 1995 than in July 1994. Surface salinity was higher in 1994 than 1995. A total of 17 taxonomic groups of zooplankton were identified from the plankton samples. In 1994, the highest density was observed in September. Copepods were the major taxon during all surveys. While some taxa such as euphausiids, ostracods, and Neocalanus spp. were most abundant in spring, others such as Calanus spp., Metridia pacifica, chaetognaths, and pteropods were most abundant in September. Adults and late-stage copepodites of Eucalanus bungii were abundant in spring, and were replaced by 1st-3rd stages of copepodites in summer. Zooplankton density was ca. 4 times higher in 1995 than in 1994, in part because of warm water temperature.

  1. Creep Deformation, Rupture Analysis, Heat Treatment and Residual Stress Measurement of Monolithic and Welded Grade 91 Steel for Power Plant Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Triratna

    Modified 9Cr-1 Mo (Grade 91) steel is currently considered as a candidate material for reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) and reactor internals for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), and in fossil-fuel fired power plants at higher temperatures and stresses. The tensile creep behavior of Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600°C to 750°C and stresses between 35 MPa and 350 MPa. Heat treatment of Grade 91 steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times. Moreover, Thermo-Ca1c(TM) calculation was used to predict the precipitate stability and their evolution, and construct carbon isopleths of Grade 91 steel. Residual stress distribution across gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) in Grade 91 steel was measured by the time-of-flight neutron diffraction using the Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress (SMARTS) diffractometer at Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA. Analysis of creep results yielded stress exponents of ˜9-11 in the higher stress regime and ˜1 in the lower stress regime. The creep behavior of Grade 91 steel was described by the modified Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relation. The rate-controlling creep deformation mechanism in the high stress regime was identified as the edge dislocation climb with a stress exponent of n = 5. On the other hand, the deformation mechanism in the Newtonian viscous creep regime (n = 1) was identified as the Nabarro-Herring creep. Creep rupture data were analyzed in terms of Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. Creep damage tolerance factor and stress exponent were used to identify the cause of creep damage. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the failure mechanisms. Fracture mechanism map for Grade 91 steel was developed based on the available material parameters and experimental observations. The microstructural

  2. Evaluation of alternative materials for condensing heat exchangers. Final report, August 1989-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Hindin, B.

    1990-09-24

    Ten different materials have been evaluated for their corrosion performance in a heat exchanger simulator that reproduces the environment encountered in a gas fired condensing furnace. These materials were a sol-gel enamel, thermally sprayed coatings of Alloys 314 and C-276, three thermally conducting polymer cements, two polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) coatings, a fluoropolymer/graphite fiber composite, and an impervious graphite. After the two-month test, only the PPS coatings and the impervious graphite survived, and the other materials failed either due to physical or chemical degradation. The impervious graphite exhibited unacceptable corrosion rates of up to 3 mpy, whereas the PPS coatings experienced some hardening. However, a properly applied PPS coating, on either aluminum or a carbon steel substrate, is considered to be a promising substitute for expensive super stainless steels that are presently used for the heat transfer surfaces in the secondary heat exchanger of condensing furnaces. It is recommended that the PPS coatings be more completely evaluated over extended periods using typical condensing furnaces.

  3. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  4. Ocean Net Heat Flux Influences Seasonal to Interannual Patterns of Plankton Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tim J.; Allen, Icarus; Atkinson, Angus; Bruun, John T.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Pingree, Robin D.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the net heat flux (NHF) into the ocean have profound impacts on global climate. We analyse a long-term plankton time-series and show that the NHF is a critical indicator of ecosystem dynamics. We show that phytoplankton abundance and diversity patterns are tightly bounded by the switches between negative and positive NHF over an annual cycle. Zooplankton increase before the transition to positive NHF in the spring but are constrained by the negative NHF switch in autumn. By contrast bacterial diversity is decoupled from either NHF switch, but is inversely correlated (r = −0.920) with the magnitude of the NHF. We show that the NHF is a robust mechanistic tool for predicting climate change indicators such as spring phytoplankton bloom timing and length of the growing season. PMID:24918906

  5. Coupled Water Flow and Heat Transport in Seasonally Frozen Soils with Snow Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kelleners, T.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model is developed to calculate coupled water flow and heat transport in seasonally frozen soil and snow. Separate equations are used to describe both unsaturated and saturated soil water flow. The effect of dissolved ions on soil water freezing point depression is included by combining an expression for osmotic head with the Clapeyron equation and the van Genuchten soil water retention function. The coupled water flow and heat transport equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm and Picard iteration. Ice pressure is always assumed zero and frost heave is neglected. The new model is tested using data from an existing laboratory soil column freezing experiment and an ongoing field experiment in a high-elevation rangeland soil. A dimensionless impedance factor describing the effect of ice pore blocking on soil hydraulic conductivity is treated as a calibration parameter for both cases. Calculated values of total water content for the laboratory soil column freezing experiment compare well with measured values, especially during the early stages of the experiment, as is also found by others. Modeling statistics for the rangeland field experiment show varied performance for soil water content and excellent performance for soil temperature, in accordance with earlier results with an older version of the model.

  6. Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

    The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

  7. CACD Journal, Volume 11, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CACD Journal, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Along with messages from the editor and CACD's president, this issue offers: (1) "The New Guidance: A Systems Approach to Pupil Personnel Programs" (Johnson and Johnson); (2) "Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs" (Kemp and Verlinde); (3) "An Update on Stress Management" (Weiner); (4) "Campus-based Volunteerism: Moving Into a 'You-and-Me'…

  8. Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

    The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

  9. Prekindergarten Program Description, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Nanda D.; And Others

    Characteristics of the Houston, Texas, Independent School District (HISD) prekindergarten program are reported. Implemented in 1985, and largely funded by the state, the program is offered to 4-year-old students who are classified as limited English proficient (LEP) or are from families with an income at or below the subsistence level.…

  10. Staff Development Resources, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Instructional Technology.

    This staff development resource guide provides listings of instructional television and radio broadcasts related to major areas of the Total Teaching Act in South Carolina's Program for Effective Teaching (PET). Television program topics include: administration; adult education; the arts; career education; certificate-renewal credit courses;…

  11. Seasonal thermal signatures of heat transfer by water exchange in an underground vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Morat, Pierre; Yoshino, Toshio; Sano, Osam; Utada, Hisashi; Gensane, Olivier; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2004-07-01

    The temperature of a 10-point vertical profile at the rock-atmosphere interface has been monitored since 2000 September in an underground vault at Aburatsubo, Japan, where resistivity variations have been reported in association with earthquakes. The non-ventilated vault is characterized by an annual temperature variation of about 1.2 °C peak to peak, compatible with thermal diffusion in the surrounding tuff rock, and by a long-term temperature increase of about 0.1 °C per year, possibly due to a local or global climate change. Owing to a careful relative calibration of the 10 thermistors used in this experiment, these data establish that the ceiling temperature is higher than the floor temperature by 0.04 to 0.28 °C. Transient temperature variations are observed in association with human presence or with typhoons, with a characteristic spatial pattern revealing structural heterogeneity. Variations with periods ranging from 1 day to 1 week, with an amplitude two time larger and a phase advance on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from November to May. Variations with periods larger than 1 week, with an amplitude two times smaller and a phase lag on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from June to October. These cycles are linked to the sign of the seasonal heat flux. We propose an interpretation in which heat transfer in the cavity is dominated by diffusion of water vapour from June to October (heat flux downwards, summer regime) and by convective water transport from November to May (heat flux upwards, winter regime). The water flow inferred from this model can be used to predict the water saturation of the rock as a function of time. Because of a permanent radiative heat flux from top to bottom, the upward water flow in the winter regime is larger than the downward water flow in the summer regime, resulting in a slow depletion of water from the rock below the cavity. This unbalanced water flow could contribute to an observed

  12. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  13. Energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat flux during the warm season at FLUXNET sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kell B.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Aubinet, Marc; Berbigier, Paul; Bernhofer, Christian; Dolman, Han; Falge, Eva; Field, Chris; Goldstein, Allen; Granier, Andre; Grelle, Achim; Halldor, Thorgeirsson; Hollinger, Dave; Katul, Gabriel; Law, B. E.; Lindroth, Anders; Meyers, Tilden; Moncrieff, John; Monson, Russ; Oechel, Walter; Tenhunen, John; Valentini, Riccardo; Verma, Shashi; Vesala, Timo; Wofsy, Steve

    2002-12-01

    The warm season (mid-June through late August) partitioning between sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux, or the Bowen ratio (β = H/LE), was investigated at 27 sites over 66 site years within the international network of eddy covariance sites (FLUXNET). Variability in β across ecosystems and climates was analyzed by quantifying general climatic and surface characteristics that control flux partitioning. The climatic control on β was quantified using the climatological resistance (Ri), which is proportional to the ratio of vapor pressure deficit (difference between saturation vapor pressure and atmospheric vapor pressure) to net radiation (large values of Ri decrease β). The control of flux partitioning by the vegetation and underlying surface was quantified by computing the surface resistance to water vapor transport (Rc, with large values tending to increase β). There was a considerable range in flux partitioning characteristics (Rc, Ri and β) among sites, but it was possible to define some general differences between vegetation types and climates. Deciduous forest sites and the agricultural site had the lowest values of Rc and β (0.25-0.50). Coniferous forests typically had a larger Rc and higher β (typically between 0.50 and 1.00 but also much larger). However, there was notable variability in Rc and Ri between coniferous site years, most notably differences between oceanic and continental climates and sites with a distinct dry summer season (Mediterranean climate). Sites with Mediterranean climates generally had the highest net radiation, Rc, Ri, and β. There was considerable variability in β between grassland site years, primarily the result of interannual differences in soil water content and Rc.

  14. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  15. Small-angle polarized neutron scattering study of the mesostructure of phase precipitates in the steel P91 after heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runov, V. V.; Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Runova, M. K.; Sumin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the analysis of the mesostructure of phase precipitates formed in the steel P91 during heat treatment in the temperature range of 600-820°C after quenching at 1050°C for 30 min. Measurements have been performed by the small-angle polarized neutron scattering (SAPNS) method with the separation of nuclear-magnetic interference scattering. The characteristic sizes of the phases precipitated during heat treatment have been determined to be in the range of 150-450 Å. It has been demonstrated that the method is highly effective for solving problems of this class, which is based on the possibility to separate and investigate nuclear-magnetic contrast scattering against the background of the total nuclear and magnetic small-angle scattering.

  16. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat–health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe. PMID:26861369

  17. Urban heat island by means of city clusters: a statistical assessment of size influence and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, influence factors of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect have been intensively investigated and further broadened through a variety of studies around the world. Briefly, compared to non-built surroundings, built-up areas of cities differ considerably in albedo, thermal capacity, roughness, etc. which can significantly modify the surface energy budget and make downtown areas of cities hotter than their vicinities. Most previous studies were built upon a limited number of cities, and suffered from inconsistency and instability with regard to the urban-rural definition, which hinders the inter-comparison between results. To overcome this limitation in the number of considered cities, we perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) intensity by means of land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. After defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover based on CORINE data, we determine a boundary around the urban cluster of approximately equal area to the cluster area. SUHI intensity is thus defined as the difference between the mean temperature in the cluster and that of the surroundings. We investigate the relationships of the SUHI intensity, respectively with the cluster size and with the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the SUHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a pronounced seasonality of the SUHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. Characterizing the shape by means of Fourier series approximation and consequential work of clustering, we identify apparent regional patterns which suggest a climatological basis for the heterogeneity of UHI.

  18. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  19. Vertical characteristics of PM2.5 during the heating season in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Zhang, Yu-fen; Han, Su-qin; Wu, Jian-hui; Bi, Xiao-hui; Shi, Guo-liang; Wang, Jiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zi-ying; Liu, Jing-le; Feng, Yin-chang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected at four heights (10m, 40m, 120m and 220m) at a meteorological tower in the daytime and nighttime during the heating season in Tianjin, China. The vertical variation and diurnal variability of the concentrations of PM2.5 and main chemical compositions were analyzed in clear days and heavy pollution days. Generally, mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the chemical compositions showed a decreasing trend with increasing height, while mass percentages of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and OC showed an increasing trend with increasing height. Concentrations of ion species and carbon compound in PM2.5 samples in the daytime were higher than those collected at night, which was due to intense human activities and suitable meteorological condition in the daytime. The ratios of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) and OC/EC were also considered, and we have observed that their levels on heavy pollution days were higher than those on clear days. In addition, source apportionments were identified quantitatively using the CMB-iteration model. The results indicated that contributions of secondary ion species increased with increasing height, while contributions of other pollutant sources decreased, and contributions of vehicle exhaust were relatively high on clear days. PMID:25863506

  20. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  1. Reactive force field development for magnesium chloride hydrates and its application for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; van Duin, Adri C T; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-06-21

    MgCl2 hydrates are considered as high-potential candidates for seasonal heat storage materials. These materials have high storage capacity and fast dehydration kinetics. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis may occur. Hydrolysis is an irreversible reaction, which produces HCl gas thus affecting the durability of heat storage systems. In this study, we present the parameterization of a reactive force field (ReaxFF) for MgCl2 hydrates to study the dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O. The ReaxFF parameters have been derived by training against quantum mechanics data obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations consisting of bond dissociation curves, angle bending curves, reaction enthalpies, and equation of state. A single-parameter search algorithm in combination with a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm is successfully used for this ReaxFF parameterization. The newly developed force field is validated by examining the elastic properties of MgCl2 hydrates and the proton transfer reaction barrier, which is important for the hydrolysis reaction. The bulk moduli of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O obtained from ReaxFF are in close agreement with the bulk moduli obtained from DFT. A barrier of 20.24 kcal mol(-1) for the proton transfer in MgCl2·2H2O is obtained, which is in good agreement with the barrier (19.55 kcal mol(-1)) obtained from DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations using the newly developed ReaxFF on 2D-periodic slabs of MgCl2·H2O and MgCl2·2H2O show that the dehydration rate increases more rapidly with temperature in MgCl2·H2O than in MgCl2·2H2O, in the temperature range 300-500 K. The onset temperature of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter in seasonal heat storage systems, is observed at 340 K for MgCl2·H2O, which is in agreement with experiments. The HCl formation is not observed for MgCl2·2H2O. The diffusion coefficient of H2O through MgCl2·H2O is lower than through MgCl2·2H2O, and can

  2. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  3. Impact of the seasonal cycle on the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic volume and heat transport under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic ocean circulation is projected to change considerably with future climate change. Here, we investigate whether changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the meridional heat transport (OHT) result in changes in their decadal predictability. In MPI-ESM-LR, we generate two hindcast ensembles with 20 start dates and 10 ensemble members per start date for (i) the present climate state in the CMIP5 historical simulation extended with RCP4.5 starting in 1995 and (ii) a future climate state in RCP4.5 starting in 2045. These two hindcast ensembles are compared against the historical simulation and RCP4.5 as control simulation, respectively, using the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and the Brier skill score (BSS) decomposition in combination with reliability diagrams. The analysis is performed for yearly means and multiyear seasonal means of the AMOC and the OHT. Our results show a decrease in predictability of the AMOC and the OHT from the present climate state to the future climate state in RCP4.5. Both, changes in the AMOC and the OHT decadal predictability are largest at latitudes where the mean seasonal cycle of both AMOC and OHT is projected to change. For example around 25°N, the AMOC shows a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.5 Sv and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead times from up to 10 years to 2 years in the ACC. For the OHT, we find a reduction in the seasonal amplitude of about 0.1 PW and a shift of up to 5 months in concert with a reduction in predictable lead time from up to 4 years to 2 years in the ACC around 25°N. Similarly, the BSS and reliability diagrams show a reduction in skill from the present climate state to the future climate state. For multiyear seasonal means, summer months dominate the predictability in the present and future climate. Even though the changes in the decadal predictability of AMOC and OHT are small in general, their

  4. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, António C.; Borges, José; Cabral, J. Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V.

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  5. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  6. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  7. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  8. The seasonal variation of the Hough modes of the tidal components of ozone heating evaluated from Aura/MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Smith, Anne; Jiang, Guoying; Yuan, Wei; Gao, Hong

    The global distribution of atmospheric ozone from Aug. 2004 to Dec. 2008 observed by Aura/MLS is used to calculate the variation of the ozone heating rate with the local time. The heating rates are calculated using the Strobel/Zhu parameterized model. The harmonic components of the heating rate, which include the daily mean, the 24-hour, the 12-hour, the 8-hour and the 6-hour periodicities are calculated. Each harmonic component of the heating is then decomposed into Hough modes. And the annual (AO), semiannual (SAO), and quasi-biennial (QBO) periodicities of each Hough mode are presented. The results show that, for the diurnal component, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the symmetric (1,-2), (1,1) and (1,-4) modes. The largest propagating mode (1,1) and the largest trapped mode (1,-2) have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The forcing of the propagating (1,1) mode by ozone heating is larger during solstices than during equinoxes. The strongest annual vari-ation takes place in the (1,-1) mode. For the semi-diurnal and ter-diurnal components, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the several initial symmetric modes, such as, (2,2), (2,4), (2,6), (3,3), and (3,5). These modes have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The strongest annual variation takes place in the asymmetric modes, such as, (2,3), (2,5), (2,7), (3,4), (3,6), and (3,8). New parameterizations of these components of the heating rate, which covers the vertical range from 10 km to 70 km, are developed based on the seasonal variations in each Hough mode.

  9. Climate–vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  10. All Season-DX Cooling and Gas Heating. GCS3 Series - Horizontal and Down-Flo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    The Lennox single package all-season rooftop unit and mounting frame is described in detail. This piece of equipment is designed primarily for rooftop installation with bottom handling of conditioned air. In addition, an installation with end handling of conditioned air makes possible three air distribution patterns. Areas discussed are--(1) unit…

  11. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  12. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  13. Preliminary design study of a central solar heating plant with seasonal storage at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, D. S.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1991-04-01

    This report documents the design development and selection of the final preliminary design of a Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) for the University of Massachusetts in Amherst (UMass). The effort has been performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at UMass under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. Phase 1 of this project was directed at site selection for the CSHPSS project and was reported earlier. This report focuses on the Phase 2 development of the site conditions and analytical study of project design, performance, and cost. The UMass site presents an excellent opportunity of a CSHPSS project in terms of land availability for a large collector array, a 100 foot deep deposit of soft, saturated clay for seasonal thermal energy storage, and appropriate low temperature heating loads. The project under study represents the first implementation of this solar technology in the United States and results from the International Energy Agency collaboration on CSHPSS since 1979. The preliminary design calls for a large 10,000 m(exp 2) parabolic trough collector array, 70,000 m(exp 3) storage volume in clay with heat transfer through 900 boreholes. Design optimization is based on computer simulations using MINSUN and TRNSYS. The design is expected to provide 95 percent of the 3500 MWh heating and hot water load. A project cost of $3.12 million (plus $240,000 for HVAC load retrofit) is estimated, which provides an annualized cost of $66.2/MWh per unit solar energy delivered. The project will proceed into an engineering phase in Spring 1991.

  14. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. H.; Anderson, E. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Chan, C. K.; Pepper, D. W.

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  15. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H. (Editor); Anderson, E. E. (Editor); Simoneau, R. J. (Editor); Chan, C. K. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  16. The efficiency of night insulation using aerogel-filled polycarbonate panels during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberger, Kathleen

    Energy is the basis for modern life. All modern technology from a simple coffee maker to massive industrial facilities is powered by energy. While the demand for energy is increasing, our planet is suffering from the consequences of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore, the world is looking at clean energy and solar power to minimize this effect on our environment. However, saving energy is extremely important even for clean energy. The more we save the less we have to generate. Heat retention in buildings is one step towards achieving passive heating. Therefore, efforts are made to prevent heat from escaping buildings through the glass during cold nights. Movable insulation is a way to increase the insulation value of the glass to reduce heat loss towards the outdoor. This thesis examines the performance of the aerogel-filled polycarbonate movable panels in the Ecohawks building, a building located on the west campus of The University of Kansas. Onsite tests were performed using air and surface temperature sensors to determine the effectiveness of the system. Computer simulations were run by Therm 7.2 simulation software to explore alternative design options. A cost analysis was also performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing movable insulation to reduce the heating bills during winter. Results showed that sealed movable insulation reduces heat loss through the glazing by 67.5%. Replacing aerogel with XPS panels reduces this percentage to 64.3%. However, it reduces the cost of the insulation material by 98%.

  17. Fluctuations in annual cycles and inter-seasonal memory in West Africa: rainfall, soil moisture and heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, B.; Louvet, S.; Roucou, P.

    2007-01-01

    Annual cycle and inter-seasonal persistence of surface-atmosphere water and heat fluxes are analyzed at a 5-day time step over the West African Monsoon (WAM) through observational precipitation estimates (CMAP), model datasets (NCEP/DOE level 2 reanalyses) and a Soil Water Index (SWI) from the ERS scatterometer. Coherent fluctuations (30-90 days) distinct from supra-synoptic variability (10-25 day periods) are first detected in the WAM precipitation and heat fluxes over the period 1979-2001. During all the northward excursion of the WAM rain band, a succession of four active phases (abrupt rainfall increases) occurs. They are centered in the first days of March, mid-April, the second half of May and from the last week of June to mid-July (the Sahelian onset). A simple statistical approach shows that the Spring to Summer installation of the monsoon tends to be sensitive to these short periods. Other analyses suggest the existence of lagged relationship between rainfall amounts registered in successive Fall, Spring (active periods) and Summer (top of the rainy season) implying land surface conditions. The spatial extension of the generated soil moisture anomalies reaches one maximum in March, mainly at the Guinean latitudes and over the Sahelian belt where the signal can persist until the next monsoon onset. Typically after abnormal wet conditions in September-October two signals are observed: (1) more marked fluctuations in Spring with less (more) Sahelian rainfall in May (June and after) at the Sahelian-Sudanian latitudes; (2) wetter rainy seasons along the Guinean coast (in Spring and Summer with an advance in the mean date of the ‘little dry season’). The reverse arises after abnormal dry conditions in autumn.

  18. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E). PMID:25518559

  19. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  20. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  1. Annual and seasonal trends of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days in coastal regions of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Khan, Shamsuddin

    2011-06-01

    The present study utilizes daily maximum and minimum values of temperature for a period of 37 years from 1970-2006 in five coastal cities for the estimation of monthly and annual totals of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days at base temperatures of 18°C and 24°C, 18°C and 20°C, 7°C, and 13°C, respectively. Increasing trends were observed in case of annual total cooling degree-days (CDD) and industrial degree-days over the period of study at all base temperatures. Furthermore, well-defined seasonal trends were seen with increasing values from January to July and then decreasing towards the end of the year. The heating degree-days (HDD) analysis indicated slight heating during January to March and in December. The annual total HDD showed decreasing trends at both base temperatures. It is worth mentioning that the rate of increase of annual CDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan with an exception at Yanbo, where it was higher than at Al-Wejh. On the other hand, the rate of decrease of annual HDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan. The seasonal and annual values of cooling degree-days were found to be comparable with corresponding values for stations like international airports in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Musqat, and Cairo with similar types of climatic conditions.

  2. Chemical composition of aerosol particles and light extinction apportionment before and during the heating season in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Du, Wei; Sun, Chengzhu; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts into characterization of the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution in the megacity of Beijing, the response of aerosol composition and optical properties to coal combustion emissions in the heating season remain poorly understood. Here we conducted a 3 month real-time measurement of submicron aerosol (PM1) composition by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor and particle light extinction by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction monitor in Beijing, China, from 1 October to 31 December 2012. The average (±σ) PM1 concentration was 82.4 (±73.1) µg/m3 during the heating period (HP, 15 November to 31 December), which was nearly 50% higher than that before HP (1 October to 14 November). While nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed relatively small changes, organics, sulfate, and chloride were observed to have significant increases during HP, indicating the dominant impacts of coal combustion sources on these three species. The relative humidity-dependent composition further illustrated an important role of aqueous-phase processing for the sulfate enhancement during HP. We also observed great increases of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA) during HP, which was attributed to higher emissions at lower temperatures and coal combustion emissions, respectively. The relationship between light extinction and chemical composition was investigated using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed that the largest contributors to particle extinction were ammonium nitrate (32%) and ammonium sulfate (28%) before and during HP, respectively. In addition, the contributions of SOA and primary OA to particle light extinction were quantified. The results showed that the OA extinction was mainly caused by SOA before HP and by SOA and CCOA during HP, yet with small contributions from HOA and cooking aerosol for the entire study period. Our results elucidate substantial changes of aerosol

  3. Advanced Solid-State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) data sets from the 1990 field season: A unique look at two forested ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Charles L.; Irons, James; Dabney, Phillip; Peterson, David L.; Williams, Darrel L.; Johnson, Lee F.; Ranson, K. Jon

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Solid-state Array Spectrometer (ASAS) is a pointable imaging spectrometer which uses a solid-state array to acquire imagery of terrestrial targets in 29 spectral bands from .4 to .8 microns. Performance and calibration of the instrument are described. The ASAS data sets obtained in 1990 provide a unique look at forest canopies from two different forest regions of the North America continent under varying temporal, spectral, and bidirectional conditions. These data sets will be used to study such parameters as the albedo of forest canopies, the dynamics of scene radiation due to factors such as canopy architecture, moisture stress, leaf chemistry, topography, and understory composition.

  4. Infrared measurements of HF and HCl total column abundances above Kitt Peak, 1977-1990 - Seasonal cycles, long-term increases, and comparisons with model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Levine, J. S.; Goldman, A.; Sze, N. D.; Ko, M. K. W.; Johnson, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total column measurements, their estimated long-term rates of increase, seasonal cycles, and variability, deduced from the analysis of a set of high-resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at Kitt Peak. The Kitt Peak observations and methods of analysis are described, the results are presented and compared with previously reported measurements and trends. The data is analyzed by using a multilayer nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. Model-calculated hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns obtained with a two-dimensional model are discussed, and the model results are compared with the measured hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns, seasonal cycles, and trends. It is pointed out that the observed trends of both molecules are in satisfactory agreement with the model results calculated from emission histories and photooxidation rates for the source molecules.

  5. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  6. Scaffolding Classroom Discourse in an Election Year: Keeping a Cool Mood in a Heated Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; May, Laura A.; Stenhouse, Vera L.; Meyers, Laura E.; Holbrook, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Certainly, teaching about politics can be daunting, especially as the political climate in the United States becomes increasingly partisan as a result of heated political rhetoric amplified through a variety of media outlets. However, elementary teachers can help students develop the respectful dispositions they will need as young adults living in…

  7. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates. PMID:27000955

  8. Automatic control of electric thermal storage (heat) under real-time pricing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.; Bohn, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time pricing (RTP) can be used by electric utilities as a control signal for responsive demand-side management (DSM) programs. Electric thermal storage (ETS) systems in buildings provide the inherent flexibility needed to take advantage of variations in prices. Under RTP, optimal performance for ETS operations is achieved under market conditions where reductions in customers` costs coincide with the lowering of the cost of service for electric utilities. The RTP signal conveys the time-varying actual marginal cost of the electric service to customers. The RTP rate is a combination of various cost components, including marginal generation fuel and maintenance costs, marginal costs of transmission and distribution losses, and marginal quality of supply and transmission costs. This report describes the results of an experiment in automatic control of heat storage systems under RTP during the winter seasons of 1989--90 and 1990--91.

  9. Diurnal and seasonal variability of surface urban heat island phenomena in Warsaw (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawuć, Lech; Struzewska, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of urbanization is an important environmental and social issue that modern society has to face. According to current estimates half of world's population lives in urban areas. It is expected that urban population will grow in the future. Urbanization and subsequent release of anthropogenic heat pollution lead to formation of an urban heat island (UHI). Development of UHI is a highly non-linear process (Kato et al., 2007) that depends on a number of factors such as magnitude of the anthropogenic heat flux, the texture of the city, local geophysical conditions and mesoscale meteorology (Sailor and Lu, 2004 after Narumi et al., 2003). We will present analyses of the magnitude and spatial extend of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) in the capital of Poland, Warsaw. SUHI characteristics will be identified based on the Land Surface Temperature (LST) product derived for MODIS observations, which will be collected for time-series for April 2009 (34 acquisitions) and November 2011 (33 acquisitions). We will present maps of SUHI for morning, evening and night hours, for April and November separately. Several locations representing different types of land cover will be selected in order to analyze the temporal variability and amplitude of surface temperature in various parts of the city. In addition, air temperature from six automatic stations, maintained by Voivodeship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection, for periods coincident with satellite observations will be collected. Air and land temperature comparisons will be performed in order to investigate correspondence between surface UHI and air UHI. Impact of the synoptic conditions will be also discussed, with a particular caution for those terms when effect of UHI will be the strongest.

  10. Seasonal patterns of surface wind stress and heat flux over the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winant, Clinton D.; Dorman, Clive E.

    1997-03-01

    Patterns of wind stress and heat flux between the atmosphere and the ocean over the Southern California Bight are described based on observations from buoys and ships. During the winter, the wind stress is spatially homogeneous and temporally variable, with strong events corresponding to low-pressure systems sweeping through the area. During the summer, spatial patterns are more persistent, with large gradients. Inshore of a line running approximately between Point Conception and Ensenada, Mexico, winds are weak. Offshore wind speeds are comparable in magnitude to those found over the continental shelf north of Point Conception. The boundary is the location of maximum wind stress curl, and the spatial resolution afforded by California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI) observations suggests maximum wind stress curls over 3 times larger than the values proposed by Nelson [1977]. Net heat flux estimates derived from the CalCOFI measurements are somewhat larger than the values proposed by Nelson and Husby [1983], due to differences in latent heat flux estimates. Possible mechanisms responsible for the spring-summer spatial structure in the wind and the relationship between these gradients and the properties of the underlying ocean are discussed.

  11. Investigating the effects of JP-8 use in heating plant boilers. Final report, June 1990-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, L.B.; Shaaban, A.H.; Mayfield, H.T.

    1991-12-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the operational and environmental effects associated with burning aviation fuel JP-8 in traditional heating plant boilers. JP-8 was compared to 2 fuel oil and diesel fuel in small-scale testing at tyndall AFB FL and diesel fuel in full-scale testing at McClellan AFB CA. System performance was evaluated with respect to the boilers' thermal efficiencies, fuel pump and burner pump performance, and environmentally significant combustion products. The operational performance of JP-8, in comparison with DF-2 and fuel oil, was satisfactory, with fuel to steam conversion ranging from 7 percent less with JP-8 to performance that exceeded that of 2 fuel oil and DF-2. The calculated theoretical drop in heat output when switching from DF-2 or 2 fuel oil to JP-8 is approximately 10 percent, based on the energy value of the fuels. Stack emissions showed a significant drop in SOx with JP-8, and lower values of NOx and particulate. There was negligible difference between the organic measurements among the full-scale test conditions. The research conducted in support of this effort was designed to provide guidance to the base civil engineer and the boiler operator to allow safe, efficient, and environmentally clean operation of existing systems with JP-8.

  12. The satellite-determined thermal structure of heat low during Indian south-west monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Desai, Pranav S.

    One of the important climatic features of the south-west (SW) monsoon period in the Indian subcontinent is the appearance of a shallow heat low centred around Pakistan region. The details of this system are not easy to observe, as the region lies mostly over a desert area. However, satellite soundings provide a frequent and synoptic view of the system. We have undertaken a study of the properties of this system through lower level and upper level thermal structure around the region using NOAA temperature soundings. The results for the months of April, May and June in the year 1982 are presented here. The temperature changes in the region are studied in relation to the date of the onset of SW-monsoon and its activity in the Indian sub-continent.

  13. Warm-season diurnal circulations and heat extremes over the northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew C.

    Summer synoptic circulations over the northwest U.S., and their interactions with regional terrain, land/water contrasts, and surface heating, give rise to a variety of fascinating meteorological phenomena, many of which have yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how projected future warming associated with increased greenhouse gases will modify these important features. The work herein seeks to ameliorate this with a comprehensive examination of two important aspects of northwest U.S. summer weather and climate: diurnal circulations and changes to the conditions associated with extreme temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. To simulate regional diurnal circulations, GFS model output was obtained for July and August 2009-2011. These data were categorized into hour of the day, composited, and the resulting files were used to initialize and provide boundary conditions to a WRF (version 3.5) model run. It was shown that, when compared to observations, this WRF run sufficiently simulates average diurnal variability. Using this simulation, the diurnal circulations of the region were described, including several important wind features within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Snoqualmie Pass, and the Columbia River Gorge. Also, regional nocturnal low-level wind maxima are described, including one over the northern Willamette valley and another over the high plateau of eastern Oregon. Recent work by the authors has elucidated the physical mechanisms that drive heat extremes over the northwest U.S., including the necessity of a ridge aloft, with associated subsidence and advection warming. Also, easterly flow is crucial for keeping the marine air at bay, and producing downslope flow and adiabatic warming on the western slopes of regional north-south terrain barriers. Given the rising temperatures projected under anthropogenic global warming, how are these conditions, and associated low-level temperature distributions, projected to change? As a

  14. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  15. Investigations of Dust Radiative Heating Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains During the Pre- Monsoon Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, R.; Hsu, C.; Tsay, S.; Lau, W.; Kafatos, M.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite and ground observations show maximum column aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) during the pre-monsoon period (April-May-June) caused by wind-blown dust storms that originate in deserts around the Arabian Peninsula. High dust loading significantly affects aerosol optical properties and the radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere and surface. The frequency of dust storms over IGP peaks during May and long- term satellite data show strong positive trend in the aerosol loading over desert regions around the IGP. We use multi-satellite and ground observations obtained from MODIS, CERES, AIRS and AERONET data along with radiative transfer simulations to calculate the radiative forcing due to dust aerosols and analyze changes in temperature profiles caused by the heating associated with dust aerosols over the IGP during the pre-monsoon period. Long-term analysis of the mid-tropospheric temperature obtained from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) data indicates a significant upward trend over the IGP. This positive trend is found to be highest in May with an increase of ~2.0º C in the last 25 years. In addition, higher values of temperature were found in the AIRS profile data on heavy dust loading days compared to low dust environment. This effect was particularly observed in the mid-troposphere from AIRS data. Radiative transfer model simulations combined with inputs from ground measurements of aerosol optical properties from AERONET data and CERES fluxes in conjunction with Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) modeled values of aerosol properties are used to estimate the radiative heating associated with dust aerosols.

  16. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  17. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  18. 40 CFR 80.91 - Individual baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the same number of decimal places as the corresponding fuel parameter listed in paragraph (c)(5) of... in 1990 ps = total number of different grades of season s gasoline produced by the refinery in 1990... ngs = total number of season s samples of grade g gasoline Xgis = parameter value of grade g...

  19. 40 CFR 80.91 - Individual baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the same number of decimal places as the corresponding fuel parameter listed in paragraph (c)(5) of... in 1990 ps = total number of different grades of season s gasoline produced by the refinery in 1990... ngs = total number of season s samples of grade g gasoline Xgis = parameter value of grade g...

  20. 40 CFR 80.91 - Individual baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the same number of decimal places as the corresponding fuel parameter listed in paragraph (c)(5) of... in 1990 ps = total number of different grades of season s gasoline produced by the refinery in 1990... ngs = total number of season s samples of grade g gasoline Xgis = parameter value of grade g...

  1. Heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes at the first Vietnamese eddy covariance site in tropical seasonal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskaya, Olga; Anichkin, Alexandr; Avilov, Vitaly; Duy Dinh, Ba; Luu Do, Phong; Novichonok, Artem; Huan Tran, Cong; Kurbatova, Juliya

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange is one of important issue concerning the understanfing of ecosystem functioning in conditions of global climate change. In this study the first results of eddy covariance observations in semievergreen tropical seasonal forest in Southern Vietnam, Cat Tien national park (N 11°27', E 107°24', 134 m a.s.l.), in 2011-2012 are presented. Three characteristic months (December, March, September) were chosen for comparing of fluxes in different meteorological conditions. According to Keppen-Geiger climate classification Southern Vietnam has tropical monsoon climate with dry-warm...hot winter and rainy-warm summer. December, the month of the first part of dry period, had lowest (24.0°?) average canopy temperature, not so big precipitation rate (49.8 mm) and medium soil moisture content (25 %vol.). March was the hottest month (26.9°?) in the end of dry period with both lowest precipitation (24.1 mm) and soil moisture content (15 %vol.). September was the peak of rainy season (607.6 mm of rain per month) with flooding of vast areas in Cat Tien and highest soil moisture content (38 %vol.). Highest radiation sums were recorded in March (426.0 MJ m-2 mon-1). December and September sums (336.7 and 342.1 MJ m-2 mon-1) were not so high due to increased hade of sunlight in the first case and cloudiness in the second case. Sensible heat flux (H) rate rose sharply in the second half of dry season (from about 35 MJ m-2 mon-1 in December and September to 155.4 MJ m-2 mon-1 in March). Evapotranspiration (LE) dominated considerably in the heat expenditures during all the year (216.7...271.6 MJ m-2 mon-1). Bowen ratio (H/LE) varied from 0.13 in September to 0.71 in March. For the whole period of observation, the tropical forest was a slight carbon sink from the atmosphere (calculation included u*-correction with threshold of 0.4 m s-1, which appreciably heighten NEE value). Highest rate of CO2 absorption was observed in

  2. Seasonal sensitivity of the eddy-driven jet to tropospheric heating in an idealized atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Marie C.

    A dry dynamical core is used to investigate the seasonal sensitivity of the circulation to two idealized thermal forcings--a tropical upper tropospheric forcing, and a polar lower tropospheric forcing. The circulation is modified using a set of perpetual simulations to simulate each month of the year, while the thermal forcings are held constant. The circu- lation responses to tropical warming and polar warming are studied separately, and then the response to the simultaneously applied forcings is analyzed. Finally, the seasonality of the internal variability of the circulation is explored as a possible mechanism to explain the seasonality of the responses. The primary results of these experiments are: 1) There is a seasonal sensitivity in the circulation response to both the tropical and polar forcings. 2) The jet position response to each forcing is greatest in the transition seasons, and the jet speed response exhibits a seasonal sensitivity to both forcings although the seasonal sensi- tivities are not the same. 3) The circulation response is nonlinear in the transition seasons, but approximately linear in the summer and winter months. 4) The internal variability of the unforced circulation exhibits a seasonal sensitivity that may partly explain the seasonal sensitivity of the forced response. The seasonality of the internal variability of daily MERRA reanalysis data is compared to that of the model, demonstrating that the broad conclusions drawn from this idealized modeling study may be useful for understanding the jet response to anthropogenic forcing.

  3. Effects of Heating Season on Residential Indoor and Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Particulate Matter in an Urban Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM)2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n=334) living in New York City’s Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into Σ8PAHsemivolatile (MW 178–206), and Σ8PAHnonvolatile (MW 228–278)), Abs, and PM2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater Σ8PAHnonvolatile (p<0.001) and Abs (p<0.05), and lower levels of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of Σ8PAHnonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, Σ8PAHnonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration (p<0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends. PMID:20938487

  4. Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM) 2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5-6 year old children ( n = 334) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into ∑ 8PAH semivolatile (MW 178-206), and ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile (MW 228-278)), Abs, and PM 2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile ( p < 0.001) and Abs ( p < 0.05), and lower levels of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration ( p < 0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends.

  5. Time series decomposition of remotely sensed land surface temperature and investigation of trends and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jinling; Zhan, Wenfeng; Chen, Yunhao; Wang, Mengjie; Wang, Jinfei

    2016-03-01

    Previous time series methods have difficulties in simultaneous characterization of seasonal, gradual, and abrupt changes of remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST). This study proposed a model to decompose LST time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components. The trend component indicates long-term climate change and land development and is described as a piecewise linear function with iterative breakpoint detection. The seasonal component illustrates annual insolation variations and is modeled as a sinusoidal function on the detrended data. This model is able to separate the seasonal variation in LST from the long-term (including gradual and abrupt) change. Model application to nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/LST time series during 2000-2012 over Beijing yielded an overall root-mean-square error of 1.62 K between the combination of the decomposed trend and seasonal components and the actual MODIS/LSTs. LST decreased (~ -0.086 K/yr, p < 0.1) in 53% of the study area, whereas it increased with breakpoints in 2009 (~0.084 K/yr before and ~0.245 K/yr after 2009) between the fifth and sixth ring roads. The decreasing trend was stronger over croplands than over urban lands (p < 0.05), resulting in an increasing trend in surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII, 0.022 ± 0.006 K/yr). This was mainly attributed to the trends in urban-rural differences in rainfall and albedo. The SUHII demonstrated a concave seasonal variation primarily due to the seasonal variations of urban-rural differences in temperature cooling rate (related to canyon structure, vegetation, and soil moisture) and surface heat dissipation (affected by humidity and wind).

  6. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite. PMID:26314033

  7. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engineering practice (see § 91.117). (1) The manufacturer determines, for each engine family, the number of... then vacuum leak check the system per § 91.324(a). If necessary, allow the heated sample line,...

  8. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engineering practice (see § 91.117). (1) The manufacturer determines, for each engine family, the number of... then vacuum leak check the system per § 91.324(a). If necessary, allow the heated sample line,...

  9. Seasonal cycle of oceanic mixed layer and upper-ocean heat fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea from in-situ observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpert, Loïc; Testor, Pierre; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Estournel, Claude; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    Heat fluxes across the ocean-atmosphere interface play a crucial role in the upper turbulent mixing. The depth reached by this turbulent mixing is indicated by an homogenization of seawater properties in the surface layer, and is defined as the Mixed Layer Depth (MLD). The thickness of the mixed layer determines also the heat content of the layer that directly interacts with the atmosphere. The seasonal variability of these air-sea fluxes is crucial in the calculation of heat budget. An improvement in the estimate of these fluxes is needed for a better understanding of the Mediterranean ocean circulation and climate, in particular in Regional Climate Models. There are few estimations of surface heat fluxes based on oceanic observations in the Mediterranean, and none of them are based on mixed layer observations. So, we proposed here new estimations of these upper-ocean heat fluxes based on mixed layer. We present high resolution Mediterranean climatology (0.5°) of the mean MLD based on a comprehensive collection of temperature profiles of last 43 years (1969-2012). The database includes more than 150,000 profiles, merging CTD, XBT, ARGO Profiling floats, and gliders observations. This dataset is first used to describe the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer depth on the whole Mediterranean on a monthly climatological basis. Our analysis discriminates several regions with coherent behaviors, in particular the deep water formation sites, characterized by significant differences in the winter mixing intensity. Heat storage rates (HSR) were calculated as the time rate of change of the heat content integrated from the surface down to a specific depth that is defined as the MLD plus an integration constant. Monthly climatology of net heat flux (NHF) from ERA-Interim reanalysis was balanced by the 1°x1° resolution heat storage rate climatology. Local heat budget balance and seasonal variability in the horizontal heat flux are then discussed by taking into account

  10. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  11. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  12. Seasonal Acclimatization in Summer versus Winter to Changes in the Sweating Response during Passive Heating in Korean Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sweating response during passive heating (partial submersion up to the umbilical line in 42±0.5℃ water, 30 min) after summer and winter seasonal acclimatization (SA). Testing was performed in July during the summer, 2011 [summer-SA; temp, 25.6±1.8℃; relative humidity (RH), 82.1±8.2%] and in January during the winter, 2012 (winter-SA; temp, -2.7±2.9℃; RH, 65.0±13.1%) in Cheonan (126°52'N, 33.38'E), Republic of Korea. All experiments were carried out in an automated climatic chamber (temp, 25.0±0.5℃: RH, 60.0±3.0%). Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.4±2.5 years; height, 175.0±5.9 cm; weight, 65.3±6.1 kg) participated in the study. Local sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA (p< 0.001). Local sweat volume, whole body sweat volume, and evaporative loss volume decreased significantly after winter-SA compared to those after summer-SA (p<0.001). Changes in basal metabolic rate increased significantly after winter-SA (p< 0.001), and tympanic temperature and mean body temperature were significantly lower after summer-SA (p<0.05). In conclusion, central sudomotor acitivity becomes sensitive to summer-SA and blunt to winter-SA in Rebubic of Korea. These results suggest that the body adjusts its temperature by economically controlling the sweating rate but does not lower the thermal dissipation rate through a more effective evaporation scheme after summer-SA than that after winter-SA. PMID:25605991

  13. Growth of high {Tc} superconducting fibers using a miniaturized laser-heated float zone process. Progress report, November 6, 1990--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Feigelson, R.S.; Route, R.K.; DeMattei, R.C.

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the progress made on the project ``Growth of High {Tc} Superconducting Fibers Using a Miniaturized Laser-Heated Float Zone Process`` during the 14 month period from Nov. 6, 1990 to Dec. 31, 1991. The studies during this period focused primarily on phase diagram studies, phase relations in the calcium aluminate system and on Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BSCCO). Some work was also done on the Advanced Fiber Growing Station. Because of the complicated phase relationships found in the incongruently melting BSCCO system, the incongruently melting CA{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase of the calcium oxide-aluminum oxide system was studied as a model material. The data obtained was in agreement with well known solidification theory. Fibers grown from calcium oxide rich sources contained calcium oxide nodules which transported from the melting source interface to the growth interface, while those grown from aluminum oxide rich sources contained continuous inclusions of a divorced eutectic. The melt compositions were also found to follow theoretical predictions. The agreement of this data with the phase diagram and solidification theory demonstrates that phase equilibrium information can be extracted from fiber growth experiments. BSCCO feed rods were made from 12 different compositions. Fibers were grown from these rods and the melts were abruptly quenched which preserves the as-grown 2212 fiber, a glassy frozen melt and the source. A future study of these sections will reveal the phase relationships that exist in the BSCCO system. Melt temperature gradients of 500--1,000 C/cm were measured near the interface in these experiments. During this reporting period, work continued on the mechanical components of the Advanced Fiber Growth Station.

  14. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S., III; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  15. 14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. 91.877 Section 91.877 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... November 5, 1990, shall submit an annual report to the FAA, Office of Environment and Energy, on...

  16. Warming and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s: Implications for Heat and Freshwater Budgets, Circulation Changes, and Sea Level Rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. C.; Purkey, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean heat uptake is a large contributor to global sea level rise. Salinity variability can make large local contributions. Ocean temperature and salinity changes are also closely linked to changes in air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum, as well as ocean circulation. Furthermore, since the oceans have absorbed the bulk of the energy gained by the climate system over the last few decades, analyses of ocean heat content changes, including their spatial and temporal variability, aid understanding and predicting climate change. Deep ocean heat content and salinity changes are difficult to assess because changes are small and data are sparse. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic measurements, including temperature and salinity, during coast-to-coast trans-ocean expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, a subset of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of what is now known as GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). While the data analyzed were collected between 1980 and 2010, the average times of the first and last data used to estimate trends given here are 1992 and 2005. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, the water warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 °C per decade below 4000 m, decreasing northward, for instance to approximately 0.002 °C per decade in the abyssal North Pacific. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 °C per decade on average. For comparison, the global average warming rate of the sea surface is about 0.3 °C per decade from 1992 to 2005. The deep warming implies that cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern

  17. Spinoff, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, James J.

    1990-01-01

    This publication is intended to foster the aim of the NASA Technology Utilization Program by heightening awareness of the NASA technology available for transfer and its potential for benefits realized by secondary applications. Spinoff 1990 is organized in three main sections. Section 1 outlines NASA's mainline effort, the major programs that generate new technology and therefore replenish and expand the bank of knowledge available for transfer. Section 2 contains a representative sampling of spinoff products that resulted from secondary application of technology originally developed to meet mainline goals. Section 3 describes the various mechanisms NASA employs to stimulate technology transfer and lists, in an appendix, contact sources for further information about the Technology Utilization Program.

  18. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  19. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  20. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  1. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  2. 21 CFR 640.91 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.91 Processing. (a) Date... °C or colder. (e) Heat treatment. Heating of the final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human... concentration of the product. (g) Incubation. All final containers of Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) shall...

  3. Health Services, Student Services Department: Program Evaluation. 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeschke, Thomas; And Others

    This document evaluates the Des Moines Public Schools health services and education program, which utilizes the professional expertise of school nurses throughout the district. The program promotes success in the learning process for students (including those with complex health care needs, conditions, and disabilities), employees, and the…

  4. Lehigh Valley Chamber Network Project 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce, PA.

    The Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce (Pennsylvania) developed a model network of nine Lehigh Valley Chambers of Commerce and two literacy coalitions to improve the literacy levels of a two-county area work force. A literacy coordinator conducted the following activities: (1) publicized program provider information; (2) encouraged company-based…

  5. Salaries Scheduled for Higher Education Faculty, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report presents results of the annual College and University Faculty Salary Policies survey sent to 1,611 public institutions of higher education (895 responded) in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The results provide information on faculty salary schedules, including the minimum and maximum scheduled salaries for each rank and/or…

  6. Chapter 2 Formula: Evaluation Report 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Kristen M.

    Chapter 2 Formula provides federal funds to the states through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by P.L. 100-297 in 1988. Chapter 2 funds can support one or more programs that do the following: meet the educational needs of students with special needs (at-risk and high-cost students); acquire curricular…

  7. FLESNews, Volume 4, Numbers 2-4, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    Issues 2-4 of this volume of the newsletter concerning foreign language instruction in elementary schools (FLES) contain articles on theory, classroom practice, instructional materials, class activities, and professional news, including conferences and information on public policy at the federal level. Articles in these issues include the…

  8. Community College of Rhode Island: Annual Report, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abood, Nancy V.; And Others

    This annual report on the students, programs, faculty and staff, and finances of the Community College of Rhode Island includes both a narrative highlighting major changes and accomplishments, and a statistical presentation. The narrative section of the report begins with the president's message, followed by information on the following points of…

  9. School Improvement Research Series V, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This packet of seven research-based articles on school improvement summarizes research on educating urban minority youth, discusses discipline and monitoring student progress, and describes four programs for improving elementary school mathematics and reading instruction. "Educating Urban Minority Youth: Research on Effective Practices" (K.…

  10. American Woman 1990-91: A Status Report. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rix, Sara E., Ed.

    This volume provides an overview of how U.S. women and their families are faring. The contents include statistical information and articles on women's issues and documents the progress for and by women. The topics covered include: (1) African American families in the United States; (2) women and affordable housing; (3) child care; (4) gender…

  11. Project Aprendizaje. 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Public Schools' Project Aprendizaje, which served disadvantaged, immigrant, Spanish-speaking high school students at Seward Park High School in Manhattan. The Project enrolled 290 students in grades 9 through 12, 93.1 percent of whom were eligible for the Free Lunch Program. The Project provided students of…

  12. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change. PMID:23417331

  13. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  14. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  15. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  16. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  17. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  18. The Annual Research Report, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Wald, Stephen C.

    An overview of Minnesota's Arrowhead Community College Region's (ACCR's) comprehensive student outcomes program is provided in this annual research report, reviewing activities and data for the 1990-91 academic year. First, introductory material discusses the national movement to measure institutional effectiveness, ACCR's efforts to assess both…

  19. Seasonal gonadal development and age-related maturity patterns of introduced pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758) in a heated thermal reservoir and an adjacent river reach.

    PubMed

    Valente, E; Masson, G; Maul, A; Fox, M G; Meyer, A; Pihan, J C

    2016-05-01

    Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0.73, P<0.001). GSI of females in the reservoir increased with the stage at maturity, but GSI was not significantly correlated with total length, age or growth rate of the individual. All sampled individuals of both sexes were mature at age 1 in the heated reservoir, whereas 48% of age 1 males and 57% of age 1 females were not mature in the river. GSI patterns suggest that males in the reservoir adopted one of two reproductive strategies (nesters or cuckolders), whereas no small males with large enough testes to be considered cuckolders were apparent in the river. The warm thermal regime of Mirgenbach Reservoir led to precocial maturity, early season reproduction, and the greater prevalence of apparent cuckolder males than would normally occur in this climatic zone. PMID:27157335

  20. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  1. Aerial surveys of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas, 1990. Final report, Oct-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.E.; Clarke, J.T.

    1991-06-01

    In keeping with the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), the Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) and the Endangered Species Act (1973), the OCS Lands Act Amendments (1978) established a management policy that included studies in OCS lease sale areas to ascertain potential environmental impacts of oil and gas development on OCS marine coastal environments. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is the agency responsible for these studies and for the leasing of submerged Federal lands. The report summarizes the 1990 investigations of the distribution, abundance, migration, behavior and habitat relationships of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas (hereafter, study area); 1990 was the second of a three year (1989-91) study. The Bering Sea stock of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) was the principal species studied, with incidental sightings of all other marine mammals routinely recorded. The 1990 season was compromised by circumstances that restricted the availability of the survey aircraft (Grumman Goose, model G21G) to the period 26 October - 7 November; opportunistic surveys were flown in the study area from 3-25 October. In 1990, there were 14 sightings of 19 bowheads from 9-29 October; 5 whales, including 2 calves, were seen north of the study area. One gray whale, 110 belukhas and 53 polar bears were also seen. Over nine survey seasons (1982-90), there were 240 sightings of 520 bowhead whales and 148 sightings of 398 gray whales.

  2. Dona Ana Branch Community College Annual Report, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Dona Ana Branch Community Coll.

    During 1990-91, New Mexico State University's (NMSU's) Dona Ana Branch Community College (DABCC) continued to feel the effects of its fourth year of rapidly increasing enrollments. The defeat of bond issues that would have funded facility expansions resulted in critical space shortages. The 27% increase in headcount enrollments between spring 1990

  3. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    This annual report describes the goals and activities of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs for fiscal year 1990-91. The commission is made up of seven tribal representatives, two non-Indians, and six ex-officio members from state government. In October 1990, the commission held a 2-day Indian Town Hall in Phoenix (Arizona) on the future of…

  4. The Development of Urban Heat Islands in the Southeast Region of the United States in the Winter Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Jan

    The study of the urban heat island has gained increased importance due to its relation to global warming. The effect of urbanization and land use changes in general on thermometer readings can bias long-term records resulting in a false global warming signal. Therefore, understanding the urban heat island phenomenon is important for an assessment of the global warming magnitude. A modeling approach has been chosen since it can overcome some restrictions of "conventional" methods (in situ and satellite observations), such as limited spatial and temporal resolution and topography effects. Models can provide better resolution and extend our understanding of the underlying physics of urban heat island development. In order to demonstrate this concept, the city of Atlanta was selected for numerical simulation under clear sky conditions on 6-7 and 25-26 February 1988. A mesoscale model developed by Pielke (1974) was employed in the numerical simulation. The first step was determination of the soil thermal inertia and moisture availability using AVHRR satellite-derived skin surface temperatures in a technique developed by Carlson et al. (1981). The thermal inertia exhibited elevated values over the city in both cases. The moisture availability field showed a larger degree of variability. The case of 25-26 February 1988 exhibited lower values of moisture availability in the city as compared to the rural surroundings, which is considered to be a typical situation. However, the case of 6-7 February 1988 showed extremely high moisture availability in the city. A possible explanation can be found in the cumulative rainfall, which shows a positive correlation between 14 -day cumulative rainfall amount and the moisture availability. A technique proposed by Hjelmfelt (1982) was used to simulate the urban effect. The urban heat island itself was investigated in terms of the skin surface and 2-m height temperatures. The horizontal and temporal evolution of these variables was

  5. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; López-Baca, M A; Vicente, R; Mejía, A; Álvarez, F D; Correa-Calderón, A; Meza-Herrera, C A; Mellado, M; Guerra-Liera, J E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress. PMID:26715136

  6. Estimating seasonal crop ET using calendar and heat unit based crop coefficients in the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network utilizes a heat unit-based approach (growing degree day concept) in the timing of various crop growth stages along with crop coefficients for computation of crop water use with the newly standardized ASCE/EWRI reference evapotranspiration (E...

  7. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  8. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  9. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  10. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  11. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  12. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  13. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  14. 40 CFR 60.91 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.91... Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Hot mix asphalt facility means any facility, as described in § 60.90, used to manufacture hot mix asphalt by heating and drying aggregate and mixing with...

  15. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  16. Heating Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from heating equipment, such as the furnace, fireplace, wood stove, or portable heater. • Only use heating equipment ... into the room and burn only dry, seasoned wood. Allow ashes to cool before disposing in a ...

  17. 14 CFR 91.162-91.165 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 91.162-91.165 Section 91.162-91.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules §§...

  18. 14 CFR 91.162-91.165 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 91.162-91.165 Section 91.162-91.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules §§...

  19. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  20. Physiological and performance adaptations to an in-season soccer camp in the heat: associations with heart rate and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Voss, S C; Nybo, L; Mohr, M; Racinais, S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between adaptive responses to an in-season soccer training camp in the heat and changes in submaximal exercising heart rate (HRex, 5-min run at 9  km/h), postexercise HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV). Fifteen well-trained but non-heat-acclimatized male adult players performed a training week in Qatar (34.6 ± 1.9°C wet bulb globe temperature). HRex, HRR, HRV (i.e. the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability measured from Poincaré plots SD1, a vagal-related index), creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma volume (PV) changes, and post-5-min run rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at six occasions in temperate environmental conditions (22°C). Players also performed the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in the same environmental conditions (22°C), both at the beginning and at the end of the training week. Throughout the intervention, HRex and HRV showed decreasing (P < 0.001) and increasing (P < 0.001) trends, respectively, while HRR remained unaffected (P = 0.84). Changes in HRex [-0.52, 90% confidence limits (-0.64; -0.38), P < 0.001] and SD1 [0.35 (0.19; 0.49), P < 0.001] were correlated with those in PV. There was no change in RPE (P = 0.92), while CK varied according to training contents (P < 0.001), without association with HR-derived measures. Yo-Yo IR1 performance increased by 7 ± 9% (P = 0.009), which was correlated with changes in HRex [-0.64 (-0.84; -0.28), P = 0.01]. In conclusion, we found that an in-season soccer training camp in the heat can significantly improve PV and soccer-specific physical performance; both of which are associated with changes in HRex during a 5-min submaximal run. PMID:22092960

  1. Cross-Presentation of the Oncofetal Tumor Antigen 5T4 from Irradiated Prostate Cancer Cells--A Key Role for Heat-Shock Protein 70 and Receptor CD91.

    PubMed

    Salimu, Josephine; Spary, Lisa K; Al-Taei, Saly; Clayton, Aled; Mason, Malcolm D; Staffurth, John; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2015-06-01

    Immune responses contribute to the success of radiotherapy of solid tumors; however, the mechanism of triggering CD8(+) T-cell responses is poorly understood. Antigen cross-presentation from tumor cells by dendritic cells (DC) is a likely dominant mechanism to achieve CD8(+) T-cell stimulation. We established a cross-presentation model in which DCs present a naturally expressed oncofetal tumor antigen (5T4) from irradiated DU145 prostate cancer cells to 5T4-specific T cells. The aim was to establish which immunogenic signals are important in radiation-induced cross-presentation. Radiation (12 Gy) caused G2-M cell-cycle arrest and cell death, increased cellular 5T4 levels, high-mobility protein group-B1 (HMGB1) release, and surface calreticulin and heat-shock protein-70 (Hsp70) expression in DU145 cells. DCs phagocytosed irradiated tumor cells efficiently, followed by upregulation of CD86 on phagocytic DCs. CD8(+) 5T4-specific T cells, stimulated with these DCs, proliferated and produced IFNγ. Inhibition of HMGB1 or the TRIF/MyD88 pathway only had a partial effect on T-cell stimulation. Unlike previous investigators, we found no evidence that DCs carrying Asp299Gly Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) single-nucleotide polymorphism had impaired ability to cross-present tumor antigen. However, pretreatment of tumor cells with Hsp70 inhibitors resulted in a highly statistically significant and robust prevention of antigen cross-presentation and CD86 upregulation on DCs cocultured with irradiated tumor cells. Blocking the Hsp70 receptor CD91 also abolished cross-presentation. Together, the results from our study demonstrate that irradiation induces immunologically relevant changes in tumor cells, which can trigger CD8(+) T-cell responses via a predominantly Hsp70-dependent antigen cross-presentation process. PMID:25678582

  2. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  3. 14 CFR 91.703 - Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Rules of the Air) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and with §§ 91.117(c), 91.127, 91... International Civil Aviation, Ninth Edition—July 1990, with Amendments through Amendment 32 effective February.... In addition, Annex 2 may be purchased from the International Civil Aviation Organization...

  4. 14 CFR 91.703 - Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Rules of the Air) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and with §§ 91.117(c), 91.127, 91... 2 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Ninth Edition—July 1990, with Amendments... International Civil Aviation Organization (Attention: Distribution Officer), P.O. Box 400, Succursale, Place...

  5. 14 CFR 91.703 - Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Rules of the Air) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and with §§ 91.117(c), 91.127, 91... 2 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Ninth Edition—July 1990, with Amendments... International Civil Aviation Organization (Attention: Distribution Officer), P.O. Box 400, Succursale, Place...

  6. 14 CFR 91.703 - Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Rules of the Air) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and with §§ 91.117(c), 91.127, 91... 2 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Ninth Edition—July 1990, with Amendments... International Civil Aviation Organization (Attention: Distribution Officer), P.O. Box 400, Succursale, Place...

  7. 14 CFR 91.703 - Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Rules of the Air) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and with §§ 91.117(c), 91.127, 91... 2 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Ninth Edition—July 1990, with Amendments... International Civil Aviation Organization (Attention: Distribution Officer), P.O. Box 400, Succursale, Place...

  8. Winter fuels report, week ending December 28, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-04

    This report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD), I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 34 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Winter fuels report, week ending December 21, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD), I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 34 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Winter fuels report: Week ending October 19, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-25

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on the US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 pm on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB).

  11. Streamflow, water-temperature, and specific-conductance data for selected streams draining into Lake Fryxell, lower Taylor Valley, Victoria Land, Antarctica, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul; McKnight, Diane M.; Harnish, R.A.; Gartner, J.W.; Andrews, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990-91 and 1991-92 field seasons in Antarctica, streamflow, water-temperature, and specific-conductance data were collected on the major streams draining into Lake Fryxell. Lake Fryxell is a permanently ice-covered, closed-basin lake with 13 tributary streams. Continuous streamflow data were collected at eight sites, and periodic streamflow measurements were made at three sites. Continuous water-temperature and specific- conductance data were collected at seven sites, and periodic water-temperature and specific-conductance data were collected at all sites. Streamflow for all streams measured ranged from 0 to 0.651 cubic meter per second. Water temperatures for all streams measured ranged from 0 to 14.3 degrees Celsius. Specific conductance for all streams measured ranged from 11 to 491 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. It is probable that stream- flow in the Lake Fryxell Basin during 1990-92 was greater than average. Examination of the 22-year streamflow record in the Onyx River in the Wright Valley revealed that in 1990 streamflow began earlier than for any previous year recorded and that the peak streamflow of record was exceeded. Similar high-flow conditions occurred during the 1991-92 field season. Thus, the data collected on streams draining into Lake Fryxell during 1990-92 are representative of greater than average stream- flow conditions.

  12. Case study of a tropical-extratropical interaction and associated heat low development during the AMMA SOP 2006 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; Pohle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical Extra-tropical Interactions (TEIs) are often observed in association with an upper-level subtropical trough that penetrates into the tropics and, therefore, interacts with the tropical circulation. As a visible sign, a mid- to upper-level cloud band at the eastern flank of the trough and its related Subtropical Jet, named Tropical Plume (TP), is identifiable in infrared satellite imagery. McGuirk et al. (1987) gave a definition of Tropical Plumes and described the cloud bands as a northern hemisphere winter time phenomena. Previous studies identified TPs throughout the year with being rare in the June-mid- September period. Results of convection dynamics influenced/caused by TEIs during a pre-monsoon season event between 19 and 30 May 2006 will be presented. This case is characterized by two different investigation regions affected by TEI: During the first half of the event high precipitation amounts south-east of the cloud band over Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, and Ivory Coast are observed caused by thermal forcing and dynamical maintenance by trough related good upper-level outflow conditions due to ageostrophic acceleration towards the trough and low inertial stability, or even inertial instability. This presentation is focused on the second half of this TEI event, which is characterized by the development of a pronounced heat low (HL) south-east of the upper-level trough over tropical West Africa, followed by convection south-east of the low pressure centre. A modified form of the pressure tendency equation (PTE) used by Knippertz and Fink (2008) is a diagnostic tool to investigate, which processes cause pressure drop near the Mali-Burkina Faso border by using both, the operational ECMWF Analysis and the AMMA EU re-analysis. The latter contains additionally the diabatic heating tendencies. Therefore, all terms of the PTE were calculated and will be discussed.

  13. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  14. Decadal and seasonal dependence of ENSO prediction skill

    SciTech Connect

    Balmaseda, M.A.; Davey, M.K.; Anderson, D.L.T.

    1995-11-01

    When forecasting sea surface temperature (SST) in the Equatorial Pacific on a timescale of several seasons, most prediction schemes have a spring barrier; that is, they have skill scores that are substantially lower when predicting northern spring and summer conditions compared to autumn and winter. This feature is investigated by examining predictions during the 1970s and the 1980s, using a dynamic ocean model of intermediate complexity coupled to a statistical atmosphere. Results show that predictions initialized during the 1970s exhibit the typical prominent skill decay in spring, whereas the seasonal dependence in those predictions initialized during the 1980s is rather small. Similar changes in seasonal dependence are also found in predictions based on simple persistence of observed SST anomalies. This decadal change in the spring barrier is related to decadal variations found in the seasonal phase locking of the SST anomalies, which is largely determined by the timing of El Nino events. The spring barrier was strong in the 1970s, when El Nino was strongly phaselocked to the annual cycle. An analysis of observed SST anomalies from 1900 to 1990 shows several changes in behavior on a decadal scale, with the largest change being from the 1970s to the 1980s. The seasonal dependence of model heat content predictions is investigated and found to be similar to that for SST, except that it shows a winter barrier rather than the spring barrier evident in SST. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  15. 1990 NACUBO Endowment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    The 1990 Endowment Study of America's colleges and universities covered a broad variety of endowment issues of concern to trustees and administrators. The survey was mailed to 450 institutions and 369 institutions (82%) responded. Results of the study showed that 367 institutions had endowment assets totaling $60.1 billion. For fiscal year 1990,…

  16. Campus Views 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Scot L.

    In 1986, and again in 1990, faculty and classified staff opinion surveys were conducted at Glendale Community College in California. The survey consisted of 136 questions divided into 6 sections: job satisfaction, personal information, working environment, campus management, educational goals, and student services. Results from the 1990 survey…

  17. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  18. Technical report: Marine mammals study number 6. Mortality of sea otter weanlings in eastern and western Prince William Sound, Alaska during the winter of 1990-91. Marine mammal study 6-18. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rotterman, L.M.; Monnett, C.

    1995-05-01

    Sixty-four dependent sea otters Eastern Prince William Sound (EPWS): n = 24; Western Prince William Sound (WPWS), the oil spill area: n = 401 were captured, examined, instrumented with radio-transmitters, and monitored in Prince William Sound between September 1990 and July 15, 1991. While the absolute timing of instrumentation was similar for pups in EPWS and the oil spill area, pups in the oil spill area weighed significantly less at the time of capture than their counterparts in EPWS. Most pups in EPWS became independent of their mothers in October, whereas mother-pup separation typically occurred in November and December in the oil spill area. Most mortality in EPWS occurred during November and December of 1990, whereas most mortality in the oil spill area occurred during January 1991. Survival rates of weanlings over their first winter (analyses consider data until May 1, 1991) were significantly higher in EPWS (the control) than in the oil spill region.

  19. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  20. Semi empirical hardness predictive model for AZ91 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, N. H. A.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Zaidi, A. M. A.; Ahmad, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    AZ91 nanocomposite was exposed to several heat treatment processes and the effect of precipitation hardening on hardness was studied as a function of time and temperature. The investigation shows the significant of time and temperature are the main role in the precipitation hardening process of the nanocomposite. Kinetics study show a deceptive activation energy of 21 kJ/mol of the AZ91 nanocomposite. A relationship was derived to predict the maximum hardness at given time and temperature.

  1. MAINE WEIRS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight.

  2. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  3. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season. PMID:21562167

  4. National health expenditures, 1990

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1990, health expenditures as a share of gross national product rose to 12.2 percent, up from 11.6 percent in 1989. This dramatic increase is the second largest increase in the past three decades. The national health expenditure estimates presented in this article document rapidly rising health care costs and provide a context for understanding the health care financing crisis facing the Nation today. The 1990 national health expenditures incorporate the most recently available data. They differ from historical estimates presented in the preceding article. The length of time and complicated process of producing projections required use of 1989 national health expenditures—data available prior to the completion of the 1990 estimates presented here. PMID:10114934

  5. Evaluation of solar flares and electron precipitation by nitrate distribution in Antarctica. Annual report, 1 Nov 90-31 Oct 91

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.; Zeller, E.J.

    1991-10-31

    Most of the time devoted to project research was spent in Antarctica. A firm core was drilled by hand to a depth of 29 meters at Windless Bight on the Ross Ice Shelf. The main result is that all of the major peaks identified as resulting from ionization caused by SPEs that were found in the 1988-89 core could also be identified in the analytical sequence from the 1990-91 core. Following the Antarctic field season, a set of snow samples were obtained that had been collected by the International Trans-Antarctica Expedition. The analysis of these samples showed nitrate flux that correlates closely with known spatial distribution of electron precipitation in the south polar region. A new apparatus has been build for field analysis on a continuous basis of nitrate and conductivity in a melt derived from the vertical melting of ice cores.

  6. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1990. Articles in number 1 deal with student teachers and include: "Student Teaching: Smoothing Out the Rough Spots" (Susan B. Argyle and Fred C. Feitler); "A Partnership for Urban Student Teaching" (Jerome T.…

  7. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  8. Tectonophysics 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical models of global and regional plate tectonics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Sections are devoted to global and national study programs, deformation at plate boundaries, mantle structure and processes, earth materials science, earthquake hazards, and global warming and borehole temperatures. Also included is a selective bibliography. 56 refs.

  9. Research and technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, P. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The annual report of the Marshall Space Flight Center for 1990 is presented. Brief summaries of research are presented for work in the fields of transportation systems, space systems, data systems, microgravity science, astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics, magnetospheric physics, atomic physics, aeronomy, Earth science and applications, propulsion technology, materials and processes, structures and dynamics, automated systems, space systems, and avionics.

  10. US energy flow, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1991-06-01

    Energy consumption in the US changed only slightly in 1990. Transportation used was close to 1988 and 1989 levels. Improvements in automobile efficiency were compensated by an increase in the number of miles driven. A larger energy use in the industrial sector was offset by decreases in the residential/commercial sector. Energy use in the latter sector was influenced by a relatively mild, nation-wide summer and winter. All end-use sectors were affected by the high fuel prices related to the Kuwait-Iraq war in the last half of the year and by an attendant economic downturn. Electrical use rose slightly and thus deviated from the 3-4% annual increases recorded in the previous decade. Nuclear energy's contribution to electrical generation increased to almost 21%, and capacity factors reached 66%, an all time high in the US. Renewable sources of energy apart from hydroelectric power showed negligible growth. Domestic natural gas and coal production rose, and oil production continued its steady decline. As oil constitutes 41% of US energy consumption, failing domestic production has been augmented by imports. Collectively energy imports constituted two-thirds of the US trade deficit in 1990. The ratio between energy consumption and GNP declined slightly in 1990 as it has for almost every year since 1972. The Services'' component of the GNP increased in 1990 and the Goods'' and Structures'' components declined in keeping with an even longer trend. 29 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Notes on Linguistics, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Linguistics, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of "Notes on Linguistics" published during 1990. Articles in the four issues include: "The Indians Do Say Ugh-Ugh" (Howard W. Law); "Constraints of Relevance, A Key to Particle Typology" (Regina Blass); "Whatever Happened to Me? (An Objective Case Study)" (Aretta Loving); "Stop Me and Buy One (For $5...)"…

  12. Information Transfer in 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Roger W.

    Results of a recent study of potential demand for electronic information transfer services in 1970-1990 are presented. Projections are made for new services such as electronic mail, remote library browsing, checkless society transactions, video telephone and others, as well as conventional services such as telephone, telegraph and network program…

  13. PAC91 - PROPERTIES AND COEFFICIENTS 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The two principal functions of PAC91 are to provide a means of generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constant data and to supply a means of fitting these functions to empirical equations by using a least-squares fit. The coefficients obtained from the fit may then be used to generate a library of thermodynamic data in a uniform and easy-to-use format for use in other computer codes. Several large compilations of selected or calculated thermodynamic data currently exist. Nevertheless, there is a continuing need for additional calculations due to the discovery of new species, the revision of existing molecular constant data and structural parameters, the need for data at temperatures other than those already published, the availability of new or revised heats of formation, dissociation or transition, and the revision of fundamental constants or atomic weights. Calculations may also be needed to compare the results of assuming various possible forms of the partition function. In addition, there is often a preference for thermodynamic data in functional rather than tabular form. In order to satisfy these needs, the PAC91 program can perform any combination of the following: (1) calculate thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy) for any set of 1 to 202 temperatures, (2) obtain a least-squares fit of the first three of these functions (either individually, two at a time, or all three simultaneously) for up to eight temperature intervals, and (3) calculate, as a function of temperature, heats of formation and equilibrium constants from assigned reference elements. The thermodynamic functions for ideal gases may be calculated from molecular constant data using one of several partition function variations provided by the program. For monatomic gases, one of three partition function cutoff techniques may be selected by the user, and unobserved but predicted electronic energy levels may be included by the program

  14. Estimating seasonal changes of land cover, surface wetness and latent heat flux of wet polygonal tundra (Samoylov Island, Lena-Delta, Siberia) with high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral CHRIS Proba satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation cover, land cover and surface wetness are few of the many factors exerting control on the partitioning of energy to latent, sensible and ground heat flux. Spatial estimates of these factors can be inferred from remote sensing data. The fractionated polygonal tundra landscape of Samoylov Island of wet and dry surfaces induces strong spatial variations of resistance to evapotranspiration. The development of low-centered ice-wedge polygons results in a prominent microrelief that is the most important factor for small-scale differences in vegetation type and near surface soil moisture. Depressed polygon centers alternate with elevated polygon rims with elevation differences of up to 0.5 m over a few meters distance. In the depressed polygon centers, drainage is strongly impeded due to the underlying permafrost resulting in water-saturated soils or small ponds. A process-based understanding of the surface energy balance, however, needs to consider both the temporal and the spatial variations of the surface. In the course of the summer season, the surface wetness changes significantly since the water table falls about 5 cm below the surface. This change in surface wetness is likely to be associated with changing evapotranspiration rates. We consider the effect of seasonal changes in land cover, vegetation cover and surface wetness on latent heat flux by investigating a time-series of high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral satellite imagery and comparing them to ground-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent heat flux. Two sets of aerial images from August 15 and September 11, 2008 in the VNIR provide detailed information of the polygonal landscape with a resolution of 0.3m. CHRIS Proba imagery provides hyperspectral data with 18 spectral bands in the VNIR range (400 - 1050 nm) and a resolution of 17 m. Acquisition dates are June 21, July 23 and September 10, 2008. Daily point-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent

  15. Housing Characteristics, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-14

    This report on energy consumption in the residential sector covers the following topics: housing trends 1980--1990, new housing trends, availability and usage of natural gas by households, changes in appliance usage (refrigerators, entertainment appliances, cooking appliances, convenience appliances), age of major household appliances and equipment, household energy conservation activities, demand-side management programs, and a portrait of households using solar or wood as a source of energy.

  16. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  17. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  18. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  19. Inter-individual and seasonal weight variation in rural Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, C

    1995-04-01

    Changes in body weight were examined for non-pregnant women in rural Nepal, using 183 anthropometric measures between the early winter and monsoon seasons in 1982, 1982-83, 1990-91 and 1993. The women gained weight when work loads decreased after the monsoon, but despite substantial changes in total energy expenditure, which were out of phase with changes in food intake, seasonal changes were small, averaging only up to 2.6% of initial body weight. There were notable differences between individual women, changes in body weight ranging from -5.6 kg to 4.8 kg. Weight change was examined with respect to lactation status, age, body mass index, mid upper arm circumference and skinfolds as well as total energy expenditure and intake. Nonlactating women, very thin women and women aged under 25 years gained more weight than their counterparts, both before and after the monsoon. Data for a sub-sample in 1982-83 indicated that women who maintained high physical activity levels throughout the year were less prone to weight loss than women whose activity fluctuated between seasons. Initial energy reserves, age-related maturation factors, levels of physical activity and energy intake combine to produce the notable inter-individual variation in body weight changes observed in this population. PMID:7738083

  20. Chemistry and Materials Science, 1990--1991. [Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sugihara, T.T.; Bruner, J.M.; McElroy, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    This 2-year (FY 1990-91) contains 49 technical articles in ten sections: research sampler, metals and alloys, energetic materials, chemistry and physics of advanced materials, bonding and reactions at surfaces and interfaces, superconductivity, energy R and D, waste processing and management, characterization and analysis, and facilities and instrumentation. Two more sections list department personnel, their publications etc., consultants, and summary of department budgets. The articles are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  1. Annual Research Briefs, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulent Research (CTR) are included. It is intended primarily as a contractor report to NASA, Ames Research Center. In addition, numerous CTR Manuscript Reports were published last year. The purpose of the CTR Manuscript Series is to expedite the dissemination of research results by the CTR staff. The CTR is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flow; its objectives are to produce advances in physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control.

  2. Spacecraft tables 1957 - 1990.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, J.

    This book presents a record of all space launches of all space-active countries from 1957 to 1990. In each case, the name and number designation, launch date, reentry date (when applicable) are given. Launches are organized by country, and by type of mission. If known, the purpose of the mission is indicated. The countries represented include the U.S., U.S.S.R., Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, Pakistan, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom. Among organizations covered are NASA, Amsat, Intelsat, ESA, Interkosmos, NATO, Inmarsat, Entelsat, Arabsat.

  3. Project Summaries, 1989 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Student designs summarized here include two undergraduate space designs and five graduate space designs from fall 1989, plus four undergraduate space designs and four undergraduate aircraft designs from spring 1990. Progress in a number of programs is described. The Geostationary Satellite Servicing Facility, the Lunar Farside Observatory and Science Base, the Texas Educational Satellite, an asteroid rendezvous vehicle, a Titan probe, a subsystems commonality assessment for lunar/Mars landers, a nuclear-thermal rocket propelled Earth-Mars vehicle, and a comprehensive orbital debris management program are among the topics discussed.

  4. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  5. Monthly energy review, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    US total energy consumption in July 1990 was 6.7 quadrillion Btu Petroleum products accounted for 42 percent of the energy consumed in July 1990, while coal accounted for 26 percent and natural gas accounted for 19 percent. Residential and commercial sector consumption was 2.3 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector accounted for 35 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Industrial sector consumption was 2.4 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The industrial sector accounted for 36 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Transportation sector consumption of energy was 1.9 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 1 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector consumed 29 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Electric utility consumption of energy totaled 2.8 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. Coal contributed 53 percent of the energy consumed by electric utilities in July 1990, while nuclear electric power contributed 21 percent; natural gas, 12 percent; hydroelectric power, 9 percent; petroleum, 5 percent; and wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy, about 1 percent.

  6. College Student Experiences Questionnaire: Norms for the Third Edition, 1990. Part One: Tentative Norms for the 1990s. Part Two: Comparable Responses from the 1980s. Part Three: Bibliography [and] Psychometric Supplement to the CSEQ, Third Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, C. Robert; Swayze, Susan

    This document presents tentative 1990-91 norms for the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ).The norms are based on student (n=20,513) questionnaires which gathered data from 18 doctoral universities, 21 general liberal arts colleges, 19 comprehensive colleges and universities, and 5 highly selective liberal arts colleges. Data are…

  7. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  8. Research and technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These accomplishments exemplify the Center's varied and highly productive research efforts for 1990. The activities addressed are under the directories of: (1) aerospace systems which contains aircraft technology, full-scale aerodynamics research, information sciences, aerospace human factors research, and flight systems and simulation research divisions; (2) Dryden flight research facility which contains research engineering division; (3) aerophysics which contains aerodynamics, fluid dynamics, and thermosciences divisions; and (4) space research which contains advanced life support, space projects, earth system science, life science, and space science divisions, and search for extraterrestrial intelligence and space life sciences payloads offices.

  9. STS-91 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-91 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi, and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin focus on science investigations and participate in several special interviews and phone calls. Following yesterday's undocking with the Russian Mir space station, crew members are given a couple of hours off duty during the day to provide a brief rest break from the hectic pace of their flight.

  10. FY 91 Annual Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    In line with the Federal Oil Research Program to maximize the economic producibility of the domestic oil resource, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) presents this FY91 Annual Research Plan. NIPER is organized into two research departments -- Energy Production Research (EPR) and Fuels Research (FR). Projects in EPR deal with various aspects of enhanced oil recovery and include reservoir characterization, chemical flooding, gas injection, steam injection, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and the environmental concerns related to these processes. Projects in FR consider the impact of heavy oil and alternative fuels on the processing and end-use of fuels. Projects are briefly described.

  11. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R&D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  12. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  13. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...

  14. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a... manufacturers in trading. These credits must be used in the same averaging set as generated. (b) Credits...

  15. 24 CFR 91.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 91.1 Section 91.1 Housing... CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS General § 91.1 Purpose. (a) Overall goals. (1) The overall goal of the community planning and development programs covered by this part...

  16. 24 CFR 91.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 91.1 Section 91.1 Housing... CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS General § 91.1 Purpose. (a) Overall goals. (1) The overall goal of the community planning and development programs covered by this part...

  17. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultation; states. 91.110 Section 91.110 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Citizen Participation and Consultation § 91.110 Consultation;...

  18. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit calculation. 91.1307 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1307 Credit calculation. For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive or...

  19. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Credit calculation. 91.1307 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1307 Credit calculation. For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive or...

  20. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit calculation. 91.1307 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1307 Credit calculation. For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive or...

  1. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit calculation. 91.1307 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1307 Credit calculation. For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive or...

  2. 28 CFR 2.91 - Supervision responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision responsibility. 2.91 Section 2.91 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF....91 Supervision responsibility. (a) Pursuant to D.C. Code 24-133(c), the District of Columbia...

  3. 46 CFR 91.60-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 91.60-1 Section 91.60-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-1...

  4. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.121 Altimeter settings. (a) Each person operating...

  5. 40 CFR 405.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 405.91 Section 405.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.91 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of...

  6. 25 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or...

  7. 25 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or...

  8. 25 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or...

  9. 25 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or...

  10. 25 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or...

  11. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  12. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  13. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  14. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  15. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  16. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  17. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning. The Corporation shall establish, maintain, and be prepared to follow a written emergency plan....

  18. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  19. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  20. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  1. 10 CFR 110.91 - Commission consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission consultations. 110.91 Section 110.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.91 Commission consultations. The Commission...

  2. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  3. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  4. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  5. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  6. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  7. 7 CFR 91.3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority. 91.3 Section 91.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Administration § 91.3 Authority. The Deputy Administrator is charged with...

  8. 28 CFR 91.23 - Grant authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant authority. 91.23 Section 91.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.23 Grant authority. (a) The Assistant Attorney General may make grants...

  9. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  10. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  11. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... required to submit a nonhousing Community Development Plan; however, if the consortium includes...

  12. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  13. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  14. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... required to submit a nonhousing Community Development Plan; however, if the consortium includes...

  15. 24 CFR 91.420 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action plan. 91.420 Section 91.420... Plan § 91.420 Action plan. (a) Form application. The action plan for the consortium must include a...) Description of resources and activities. The action plan must describe the resources to be used and...

  16. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... required to submit a nonhousing Community Development Plan; however, if the consortium includes...

  17. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  18. 46 CFR 91.20-10 - Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plans. 91.20-10 Section 91.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... Initial Inspection § 91.20-10 Plans. (a) Before application for inspection is made, and before construction is started, the owner or builder shall have plans approved by the Commandant indicating...

  19. 24 CFR 91.420 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Action plan. 91.420 Section 91.420... Plan § 91.420 Action plan. (a) Form application. The action plan for the consortium must include a...) Description of resources and activities. The action plan must describe the resources to be used and...

  20. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  1. 40 CFR 91.602 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 91.602 Section 91.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.602...

  2. 40 CFR 91.602 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 91.602 Section 91.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.602...

  3. 40 CFR 91.607 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures. 91.607 Section 91.607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.607...

  4. 40 CFR 91.602 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 91.602 Section 91.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.602...

  5. 40 CFR 91.602 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 91.602 Section 91.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.602...

  6. 40 CFR 91.606 - Sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Sample selection. 91.606 Section 91.606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.606...

  7. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  8. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  9. 9 CFR 91.20 - General construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General construction. 91.20 Section 91... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.20 General construction. A variety of construction materials such as wood, metal plate, or pipe may be used for stalls, crates, or...

  10. 9 CFR 91.20 - General construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General construction. 91.20 Section 91... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.20 General construction. A variety of construction materials such as wood, metal plate, or pipe may be used for stalls, crates, or...

  11. 9 CFR 91.20 - General construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General construction. 91.20 Section 91... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.20 General construction. A variety of construction materials such as wood, metal plate, or pipe may be used for stalls, crates, or...

  12. 45 CFR 91.41 - Compliance reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance reviews. 91.41 Section 91.41 Public..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.41 Compliance reviews. (a) HHS may conduct compliance reviews and pre-award reviews or use other similar procedures that will permit it to investigate and...

  13. 49 CFR 91.11 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards. 91.11 Section 91.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.11 Standards. (a) To minimize the burden of implementing this part on the United States, on...

  14. 49 CFR 91.11 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards. 91.11 Section 91.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.11 Standards. (a) To minimize the burden of implementing this part on the United States, on...

  15. 49 CFR 91.11 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards. 91.11 Section 91.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.11 Standards. (a) To minimize the burden of implementing this part on the United States, on...

  16. 49 CFR 91.11 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards. 91.11 Section 91.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.11 Standards. (a) To minimize the burden of implementing this part on the United States, on...

  17. 7 CFR 91.21 - Protecting samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protecting samples. 91.21 Section 91.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.21 Protecting samples. Laboratory personnel shall...

  18. 7 CFR 91.21 - Protecting samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protecting samples. 91.21 Section 91.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.21 Protecting samples. Laboratory personnel shall...

  19. 7 CFR 91.21 - Protecting samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protecting samples. 91.21 Section 91.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.21 Protecting samples. Laboratory personnel shall...

  20. 7 CFR 91.21 - Protecting samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protecting samples. 91.21 Section 91.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.21 Protecting samples. Laboratory personnel shall...

  1. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  2. 28 CFR 91.23 - Grant authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant authority. 91.23 Section 91.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.23 Grant authority. (a) The Assistant Attorney General may make grants...

  3. 28 CFR 91.24 - Grant distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant distribution. 91.24 Section 91.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.24 Grant distribution. (a) From the amounts appropriated under section...

  4. 28 CFR 91.23 - Grant authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant authority. 91.23 Section 91.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Correctional Facilities on Tribal Lands § 91.23 Grant authority. (a) The Assistant Attorney General may make grants...

  5. 10 CFR 71.91 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records. 71.91 Section 71.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.91 Records. (a) Each licensee shall maintain, for a period of 3 years after shipment, a record of each shipment of licensed material...

  6. 10 CFR 71.91 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records. 71.91 Section 71.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.91 Records. (a) Each licensee shall maintain, for a period of 3 years after shipment, a record of each shipment of licensed material...

  7. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  8. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading. (a) A marine engine manufacturer...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.91 - Housekeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housekeeping. 1918.91 Section 1918.91 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.91 Housekeeping....

  10. 14 CFR 91.15 - Dropping objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dropping objects. 91.15 Section 91.15... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.15 Dropping objects. No pilot in command of a civil aircraft may allow any object to be dropped from that aircraft in...

  11. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  12. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  13. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  14. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  15. 45 CFR 91.34 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements. 91.34 Section 91.34... Recipients § 91.34 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Keep records in a form and containing information which HHS determines may be necessary to ascertain whether the recipient is complying with the...

  16. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  17. 24 CFR 91.215 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.215 Section 91.215 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Local Governments; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.215 Strategic plan....

  18. 50 CFR 18.91 - Director's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Director's decision. 18.91 Section 18.91... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.91 Director's... receiving written comments on the recommended decision has passed, the Director shall make a final...

  19. 50 CFR 18.91 - Director's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Director's decision. 18.91 Section 18.91... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.91 Director's... receiving written comments on the recommended decision has passed, the Director shall make a final...

  20. 50 CFR 18.91 - Director's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Director's decision. 18.91 Section 18.91... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.91 Director's... receiving written comments on the recommended decision has passed, the Director shall make a final...

  1. 50 CFR 18.91 - Director's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Director's decision. 18.91 Section 18.91... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.91 Director's... receiving written comments on the recommended decision has passed, the Director shall make a final...

  2. 50 CFR 18.91 - Director's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Director's decision. 18.91 Section 18.91... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.91 Director's... receiving written comments on the recommended decision has passed, the Director shall make a final...

  3. 17 CFR 10.91 - Summary disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Summary disposition. 10.91 Section 10.91 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.91 Summary disposition. (a) Filing of motions, answers. Any party who believes that there is no genuine...

  4. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  5. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  6. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  7. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  8. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  9. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  10. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  11. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  12. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling....

  13. 40 CFR 91.1305 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banking. 91.1305 Section 91.1305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1305...

  14. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive...

  15. 40 CFR 91.1103 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Prohibited acts. 91.1103 Section 91.1103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Prohibited Acts and General Enforcement Provisions § 91.1103 Prohibited acts. (a) The...

  16. 45 CFR 91.34 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information requirements. 91.34 Section 91.34... BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Duties of HHS Recipients § 91.34 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Keep records in a form and...

  17. 45 CFR 91.34 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information requirements. 91.34 Section 91.34... BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Duties of HHS Recipients § 91.34 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Keep records in a form and...

  18. 45 CFR 91.34 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information requirements. 91.34 Section 91.34... BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Duties of HHS Recipients § 91.34 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Keep records in a form and...

  19. 24 CFR 91.420 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action plan. 91.420 Section 91.420... Plan § 91.420 Action plan. (a) Form application. The action plan for the consortium must include a...) Description of resources and activities. The action plan must describe the resources to be used and...

  20. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan... addressing underserved needs. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2506-0117)...

  1. 40 CFR 141.91 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 141.91 Section 141.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.91...

  2. 40 CFR 141.91 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 141.91 Section 141.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.91...

  3. 40 CFR 141.91 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 141.91 Section 141.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.91...

  4. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a...

  5. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such...

  6. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1049 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personnel. 91.1049 Section 91.1049 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1049 Personnel. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1049 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personnel. 91.1049 Section 91.1049 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1049 Personnel. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 91.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 91.402 Section 91.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.402 Definitions....

  10. 40 CFR 91.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 91.302 Section 91.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.302 Definitions....

  11. 40 CFR 91.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 91.202 Section 91.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.202...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Housekeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Housekeeping. 1915.91 Section 1915.91 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.91 Housekeeping. The provisions of...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Housekeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housekeeping. 1915.91 Section 1915.91 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.91 Housekeeping. The provisions of...

  14. 49 CFR 9.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 9.1 Section 9.1 Transportation Office of... LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 9.1 Purpose. (a) This part sets forth procedures governing the testimony of an... provide testimony or produce records concerning information acquired in the course of performing...

  15. 31 CFR 91.1 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority. 91.1 Section 91.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.1 Authority. The regulations in this part...

  16. 31 CFR 91.10 - Photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographs. 91.10 Section 91.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.10 Photographs. The taking of photographs...

  17. 31 CFR 91.7 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 91.7 Section 91.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.7 Gambling. (a) Participating in games for money or...

  18. 31 CFR 91.6 - Nuisances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuisances. 91.6 Section 91.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.6 Nuisances. The use of loud, abusive, or...

  19. 31 CFR 91.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 91.2 Section 91.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.2 Applicability. The regulations in this...

  20. 31 CFR 91.3 - Recording presence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recording presence. 91.3 Section 91.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.3 Recording presence. Except as...

  1. 28 CFR 91.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 91.55 Section 91.55 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.55 Categorical exclusions....

  2. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  3. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  4. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2...

  5. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.4...

  6. 45 CFR 96.91 - Audit requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assurance required by section 675(c)(9) of the Reconciliation Act (42 U.S.C. 9904(c)(9)) to conform to the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit requirement. 96.91 Section 96.91 Public... Block Grants § 96.91 Audit requirement. Pursuant to section 1745(b) of the Reconciliation Act (31...

  7. 40 CFR 91.507 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedures. 91.507 Section 91.507... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91.507 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  8. 40 CFR 91.507 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures. 91.507 Section 91.507... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91.507 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  9. 28 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES General § 91.2 Definitions. (a) Violent offender. (b) Serious drug offense means an offense involving manufacturing, distributing, or possessing with intent...

  10. 28 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 91.2 Section 91.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES General § 91.2 Definitions. (a) Violent offender. (b) Serious drug offense means an offense involving manufacturing, distributing, or possessing with intent...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1113 - Maintenance recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance recordkeeping. 91.1113 Section 91.1113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations Program Management § 91.1113 Maintenance recordkeeping. Each fractional ownership program...

  12. 14 CFR 91.405 - Maintenance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance required. 91.405 Section 91.405... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 91.405 Maintenance required. Each owner or operator of an aircraft— (a) Shall...

  13. 19 CFR 122.91 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application. 122.91 Section 122.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transportation in Bond and Merchandise in Transit § 122.91 Application. This...

  14. 46 CFR 91.60-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 91.60-1 Section 91.60-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-1...

  15. 47 CFR 9.1 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purposes. 9.1 Section 9.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.1... applicable to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol service providers, and to ensure that...

  16. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  17. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  18. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  19. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  20. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  1. 5 CFR 9.1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition. 9.1 Section 9.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES WORKFORCE INFORMATION (RULE IX) § 9.1 Definition. As used in this rule, 'Executive agency' means an Executive department, a Government corporation, and an independent establishment,...

  2. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  3. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  4. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  5. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  6. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  7. 38 CFR 18b.91 - Improper conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improper conduct. 18b.91 Section 18b.91 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PRACTICE... Standards of Practice § 18b.91 Improper conduct. With respect to any proceeding it is improper for...

  8. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  9. 19 CFR 181.91 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability. 181.91 Section 181.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.91 Applicability....

  10. 19 CFR 181.91 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability. 181.91 Section 181.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.91 Applicability....

  11. 19 CFR 181.91 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability. 181.91 Section 181.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.91 Applicability....

  12. 19 CFR 181.91 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability. 181.91 Section 181.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.91 Applicability....

  13. 31 CFR 10.91 - Saving provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE General Provisions § 10.91 Saving provision. Any proceeding instituted under this part prior to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saving provision. 10.91 Section 10.91... available will not be affected by these revisions. Any proceeding under this part based on conduct...

  14. 40 CFR 405.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 405.91 Section 405.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.91...

  15. 40 CFR 405.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 405.91 Section 405.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.91...

  16. 40 CFR 405.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 405.91 Section 405.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.91...

  17. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that...

  18. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that...

  1. 12 CFR 545.91 - Home office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Home office. 545.91 Section 545.91 Banks and... § 545.91 Home office. (a) All operations of a Federal savings association (“you”) are subject to direction from the home office. (b) You must notify the appropriate OTS Regional Office if the...

  2. 12 CFR 545.91 - Home office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Home office. 545.91 Section 545.91 Banks and... § 545.91 Home office. (a) All operations of a Federal savings association (“you”) are subject to direction from the home office. (b) You must notify the appropriate OTS Regional Office if the...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1027 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recordkeeping. 91.1027 Section 91.1027 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1027 Recordkeeping....

  4. 14 CFR 431.91 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General. 431.91 Section 431.91 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Environmental Review § 431.91 General. An applicant shall provide the FAA...

  5. 49 CFR 91.11 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 91.11 Section 91.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.11 Standards. (a) To minimize the burden of implementing this part on the United States, on...

  6. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.121 Altimeter settings. (a) Each person operating...

  7. 14 CFR 91.121 - Altimeter settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Altimeter settings. 91.121 Section 91.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.121 Altimeter settings. (a) Each person operating...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1107 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recurrent training. 91.1107 Section 91.1107... Management § 91.1107 Recurrent training. (a) Each program manager must ensure that each crewmember receives recurrent training and is adequately trained and currently proficient for the type aircraft and...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that all... annual recurrent training and are competent to perform those duties....

  10. 45 CFR 91.44 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigation. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) HHS will investigate...

  11. 45 CFR 91.44 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 Investigation. (a) Informal investigation. (1) HHS will investigate...

  12. 49 CFR 91.3 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigations. 91.3 Section 91.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.3 Investigations. The Assistant Secretary for Policy, Plans and International Affairs...

  13. 49 CFR 91.3 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigations. 91.3 Section 91.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.3 Investigations. The Assistant Secretary for Policy, Plans and International Affairs...

  14. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning. The Corporation shall establish, maintain, and be prepared to follow a written emergency plan....

  15. 40 CFR 91.507 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures. 91.507 Section 91.507... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91.507 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  16. 40 CFR 91.507 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test procedures. 91.507 Section 91.507... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91.507 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  17. 40 CFR 91.507 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedures. 91.507 Section 91.507... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program § 91.507 Test procedures. (a)(1) For marine SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed...

  18. 40 CFR 440.91 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 440.91 Section 440.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.91...

  19. 40 CFR 440.91 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 440.91 Section 440.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.91...

  20. 40 CFR 440.91 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 440.91 Section 440.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.91...