Science.gov

Sample records for 1990-96 monitoring programme

  1. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  2. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  3. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring

  4. Design of an integrated monitoring programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bernes, C; Giege, B; Johansson, K; Larsson, J E

    1986-03-01

    A National Swedish Environmental Monitoring Programme, the PMK, has been designed for regular and permanent recording of environmental conditions and long-term changes in background regions, and for keeping track of the flux of pollutants in and between various media. Many of the projects involved deal with integrated monitoring of terrestrial and limnic ecosystems. This work is carried out in or near some 20 small watersheds, usually selected in national parks or nature reserves. The environmental factors monitored in these areas include concentrations of chemical substances in precipitation, soil, groundwater, surface water, and organisms, as well as biological parameters-such as the population size and reproductive capacity of certain species-that may indicate effects of environmental disturbances. The data from this programme can be used as a reference to environmental data acquired near pollution sources, and as a basis for measures against e.g. acid rain, heavy-metal pollution, and use of pesticides. The biological parameters may also reveal effects of yet unknown pollutants or other disturbances.

  5. Monitoring for the management of disease risk in animal translocation programmes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is best viewed as a component of some larger programme focused on science or conservation. The value of monitoring is determined by the extent to which it informs the parent process. Animal translocation programmes are typically designed to augment or establish viable animal populations without changing the local community in any detrimental way. Such programmes seek to minimize disease risk to local wild animals, to translocated animals, and in some cases to humans. Disease monitoring can inform translocation decisions by (1) providing information for state-dependent decisions, (2) assessing progress towards programme objectives, and (3) permitting learning in order to make better decisions in the future. Here we discuss specific decisions that can be informed by both pre-release and post-release disease monitoring programmes. We specify state variables and vital rates needed to inform these decisions. We then discuss monitoring data and analytic methods that can be used to estimate these state variables and vital rates. Our discussion is necessarily general, but hopefully provides a basis for tailoring disease monitoring approaches to specific translocation programmes.

  6. Developing and enhancing biodiversity monitoring programmes: a collaborative assessment of priorities.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Michael J O; Newson, Stuart E; Henderson, Ian G; Peyton, Jodey; Sutherland, William J; Noble, David G; Ball, Stuart G; Beckmann, Björn C; Biggs, Jeremy; Brereton, Tom; Bullock, David J; Buckland, Stephen T; Edwards, Mike; Eaton, Mark A; Harvey, Martin C; Hill, Mark O; Horlock, Martin; Hubble, David S; Julian, Angela M; Mackey, Edward C; Mann, Darren J; Marshall, Matthew J; Medlock, Jolyon M; O'Mahony, Elaine M; Pacheco, Marina; Porter, Keith; Prentice, Steve; Procter, Deborah A; Roy, Helen E; Southway, Sue E; Shortall, Chris R; Stewart, Alan J A; Wembridge, David E; Wright, Mark A; Roy, David B

    2015-06-01

    Biodiversity is changing at unprecedented rates, and it is increasingly important that these changes are quantified through monitoring programmes. Previous recommendations for developing or enhancing these programmes focus either on the end goals, that is the intended use of the data, or on how these goals are achieved, for example through volunteer involvement in citizen science, but not both. These recommendations are rarely prioritized.We used a collaborative approach, involving 52 experts in biodiversity monitoring in the UK, to develop a list of attributes of relevance to any biodiversity monitoring programme and to order these attributes by their priority. We also ranked the attributes according to their importance in monitoring biodiversity in the UK. Experts involved included data users, funders, programme organizers and participants in data collection. They covered expertise in a wide range of taxa.We developed a final list of 25 attributes of biodiversity monitoring schemes, ordered from the most elemental (those essential for monitoring schemes; e.g. articulate the objectives and gain sufficient participants) to the most aspirational (e.g. electronic data capture in the field, reporting change annually). This ordered list is a practical framework which can be used to support the development of monitoring programmes.People's ranking of attributes revealed a difference between those who considered attributes with benefits to end users to be most important (e.g. people from governmental organizations) and those who considered attributes with greatest benefit to participants to be most important (e.g. people involved with volunteer biological recording schemes). This reveals a distinction between focussing on aims and the pragmatism in achieving those aims. Synthesis and applications. The ordered list of attributes developed in this study will assist in prioritizing resources to develop biodiversity monitoring programmes (including citizen science). The

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators.

    PubMed

    Maleka, Elma Nelisiwe

    2017-12-01

    There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA). Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour. The selected

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  9. Monitoring and Stimulating Development of Integrated Professional Skills in University Study Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Marie; Ahlberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In Swedish higher education, quality assurance mainly focuses on course module outcomes. With this in mind we developed a qualitative method to monitor and stimulate progression of learning in two modularized engineering study programmes. A set of core professional values and skills were triangulated through interviews with students, teachers,…

  10. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pinior, B.; Brugger, K.; Köfer, J.; Schwermer, H.; Stockreiter, S.; Loitsch, A.; Rubel, F.

    2015-01-01

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006–2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. PMID:25841165

  11. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used.

  12. Interlock systems using programmable sequence controllers and a monitoring system of the Photon Factory beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satow, Yoshinori; Ito, Kenji; Kosuge, Takashi

    1989-07-01

    Fully utilizing programmable sequence controllers, interlock systems for the Photon Factory beamlines were newly designed and constructed for providing the reliable and versatile control logic that is required for beamline characteristics. The systems, accommodated with radiation safety and vacuum interlock logic as well as protection logic for various components against heat and radiation damage, are in operation on eight beamlines. A centralized monitoring system, to which all interlock systems for the beamlines are connected through optical fiber links, was constructed for simultaneously monitoring the operation status of the interlock systems. Individual operations of each interlock system are also controlled by the monitoring system. Log data collected by the monitoring system are summarized and analyzed in order to provide the necessary information for smooth and safe operation as well as for further improvements of the beamlines. The interlock and the monitoring systems are described along with operational remarks.

  13. Qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Gregory; Corliss, Daniel; Groenendijk, Remco; Carpaij, Rene; van Niftrik, Ton; Landie, Guillaume; Tamura, Takao; Pepin, Thomas; Waddell, James; Woods, Jerry; Robinson, Chris; Tian, Kehan; Johnson, Richard; Halle, Scott; Kim, Ryoung-Han; Mclellan, Erin; Kato, Hirokazu; Scaduto, Anthony; Maier, Carl; Colburn, Matt

    2011-04-01

    This paper will describe the development, qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator for optical lithography. FlexRay TM, a programmable illuminator based on a MEMs multi-mirror array that was developed for TWINSCAN XT:19x0i and TWINSCAN NXT series ASML immersion scanners, was first installed in January 2010 at Albany Nanotech, with subsequent tools installed in IBM's East Fishkill Manufacturing facility. After a brief overview of the concept and benefits of FlexRay, this paper will provide a comprehensive assessment of its reliability and imaging performance. A CD-based pupil qualification (CDPQ) procedure will be introduced and shown to be an efficient and effective way to monitor pupil performance. Various CDPQ and in-resist measurement results will be described, offering convincing evidence that FlexRay reliably generates high-quality pupils and is well suited for high volume manufacturing at lithography's leading edge.

  14. The RADMED monitoring programme as a tool for MSFD implementation: towards an ecosystem-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Jurado, J. L.; Balbín, R.; Alemany, F.; Amengual, B.; Aparicio-González, A.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Gazá, M.; Jansá, J.; Morillas-Kieffer, A.; Moyá, F.; Santiago, R.; Serra, M.; Vargas-Yáñez, M.

    2015-11-01

    In the western Mediterranean Sea, the RADMED monitoring programme is already conducting several of the evaluations required under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MFSD) along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The different aspects of the ecosystem that are regularly sampled under this monitoring programme are the physical environment and the chemical and biological variables of the water column, together with the planktonic communities, biomass and structure. Moreover, determinations of some anthropogenic stressors on the marine environment, such as contaminants and microplastics, are under development. Data are managed and stored at the Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) Data Centre that works under the SeaDataNet infrastructure, and are also stored in the IBAMar database. In combination with remote sensing data, they are used to address open questions on the ecosystems in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Participatory training in monitoring and evaluation for maternal and newborn health programmes.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jacqueline S; Marais, Debbi

    2014-10-29

    In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants' skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the 'real world'.

  16. Participatory Training in Monitoring and Evaluation for Maternal and Newborn Health Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jacqueline S.; Marais, Debbi

    2015-01-01

    In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants’ skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the ‘real world’. PMID:25716377

  17. On the strategic stability of monitoring: implications for cooperative wildlife programmes in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mesterton-Gibbons, M.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Game-theoretic modelling is used to study the design of an agreement among residents to conserve a wildlife resource, by not hunting animals illegally, when the community monitors its own behaviour. The analysis demonstrates that such an agreement may be very much costlier for a government to sustain if its incentive structure avoids the payment of monitoring fees, and instead relies on community benefits for conservation, with bonuses for reporting poachers. Conditions are identified for the agreement to be stable against both the temptation to avoid monitoring and the temptation to poach, either with guns or by snaring. In particular, the size of the community must exceed a critical value. Implications are discussed for community-based wildlife management programmes in Africa.

  18. A Programmable Resilient High-Mobility SDN+NFV Architecture for UAV Telemetry Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Kyle J. S.; Pezaros, Dimitrios P.; Denney, Ewen; Knudson, Matt D.

    2017-01-01

    With the explosive growth in UAV numbers forecast worldwide, a core concern is how to manage the ad-hoc network configuration required for mobility management. As UAVs migrate among ground control stations, associated network services, routing and operational control must also rapidly migrate to ensure a seamless transition. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and modular architecture which supports high mobility, resilience and flexibility through the application of SDN and NFV principles on top of the UAV infrastructure. By combining SDN programmability and Network Function Virtualization we can achieve resilient infrastructure migration of network services, such as network monitoring and anomaly detection, coupled with migrating UAVs to enable high mobility management. Our container-based monitoring and anomaly detection Network Functions (NFs) can be tuned to specific UAV models providing operators better insight during live, high-mobility deployments. We evaluate our architecture against telemetry from over 80flights from a scientific research UAV infrastructure.

  19. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  20. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: insights from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Michael, Denna; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Njau, Prosper; Kajoka, Deborah; Lema, Levina; Zaba, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Routinely collected clinic data have the potential to provide much needed information on the uptake of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and to measure HIV prevalence in pregnant women. This article describes the methodological challenges associated with using such data, based on the experiences of researchers and programme implementers in Tanzania and drawing from other examples from East Africa. PMTCT data are routinely collected in maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in East Africa using paper-based registers corresponding to distinct services within the PMTCT service continuum. This format has inherent limitations with respect to maintaining and accurately recording unique identifiers that can link patients across the different clinics (antenatal, delivery, child), and also poses challenges when compiling aggregate data. Recent improvements to recording systems include assigning unique identifiers to HIV-positive pregnant women in MCH clinics, although this should ideally be extended to all pregnant women, and recording mother and infant identifiers alongside each other in registers. The use of 'health passports', as in Malawi, which maintains the same antenatal clinic identifier over time, also holds promise. Routine data hold tremendous potential for clinic-level patient management, surveillance, and evaluating PMTCT/MCH programmes. Linking clinic data to community research datasets can also provide population-level estimates of coverage with PMTCT services, currently a problematic but vital statistic for monitoring programme performance and negotiating donor funding. Enhancements to indexing and recording of routine PMTCT/MCH data are needed if we are to capitalise on this rich data source.

  1. Monitoring the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programmes: methods to estimate coverage.

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, J. Ties; Stanecki, Karen A.; Newell, Marie-Louise; Luo, Chewe; Beusenberg, Michel; Garnett, Geoff P.; Little, Kirsty; Calleja, Jesus Garcia; Crowley, Siobhan; Kim, Jim Yong; Zaniewski, Elizabeth; Walker, Neff; Stover, John; Ghys, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the data sources and methods used to estimate the number of people on, and coverage of, antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in low- and middle-income countries and to monitor the progress towards the "3 by 5" target set by WHO and UNAIDS. We include a review of the data sources used to estimate the coverage of ART programmes as well as the efforts made to avoid double counting and over-reporting. The methods used to estimate the number of people in need of ART are described and expanded with estimates of treatment needs for children, both for ART and for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. An estimated 6.5 million people were in need of treatment in low- and middle-income countries by the end of 2004, including 660,000 children under age 15 years. The mid-2005 estimate of 970,000 people receiving ART in low- and middle-income countries (with an uncertainty range 840,000-1,100,000) corresponds to a coverage of 15% of people in need of treatment. PMID:16501733

  2. Water-quality, water-level, and lake-bottom-sediment data collected from the defense fuel supply point and adjacent properties, Hanahan, South Carolina, 1990-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, M.D.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Robertson, J.F.; Bradley, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-year scientific investigation to determine the potential for biore-mediation of ground-water contamination and to monitor the effectiveness of an engineered bioremediation system located at the Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties in Hanahan, S.C., has culminated in the collection of abundant water-quality and water-level data.This report presents the analytical results of the study that monitored the changes in surface- and ground-water quality and water-table elevations in the study area from December 1990 to January 1996. This report also presents analytical results of lake-bottom sediments collected in the study area.

  3. Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, S.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Spötl, C.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-04-01

    Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany Sylvia Riechelmann (1), Andrea Schröder-Ritzrau (2), Christoph Spötl (3), Dana F.C. Riechelmann (4), Detlev K. Richter (1), Adrian Immenhauser (1) (1) Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany (2) Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (3) Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck, Institute for Geology and Palaeontology, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria (4) Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Geography, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 21, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Monitoring of cave environments is essential to understand the processes taking place in the soil, karst and cave zone and the interpretation of speleothem archives is increasingly based on monitoring data. A five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave (NW Germany) included monthly sampling of rain, soil and drip water. The delta18O ratios of the drip waters reflect the mean annual delta18O composition of rain water. The weak seasonal pattern in drip water delta18O composition is overlain by a trend to increasing values (approximately 0.3‰ in the monitoring period between 2007 and 2011). Up to the year 2009, rain water delta18O values show an increasing trend. In 2010, the lowest yearly mean delta18O ratio of rain water (-9.20‰) was observed, probably due to cool summer air temperatures and significant amounts of snow fall during winter months 2010. A decrease of the drip water delta18O in the future will expectedly allow to stack both data series and to identify time delay between rain water and drip water series and allow for the quantification of the approximate transfer time of rain water from soil surface into the cave. The Mg2+-concentration of one drip site correlates positively with drip rate. High Mg2+-concentrations occur especially after dry periods (low

  4. Observations from the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, M. L.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Fausto, R. S.; van As, D.; Forsberg, R.; Skourup, H.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Kristensen, S. S.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Petersen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) is as an on-going effort initiated in 2007 to monitor changes in the mass budget of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The aim of the programme is to quantify the mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet and track changes in the extent of the glaciers, ice caps and ice sheet margin. Specifically, PROMICE aims to estimate the mass loss derived from three fundamentally different sources: Surface melt water runoff from the ice sheet margin Iceberg production Mass loss of individual glaciers and ice caps surrounding the ice sheet The first is observed by a network of automatic weather stations (AWS) on the ice sheet margin measuring ice ablation as well as meteorological parameters. The second is determined by establishing a so-called 'flux gate' along the entire ice sheet margin and keeping track of the ice passing through this gate. The flux gate is obtained from airborne surveys of ice sheet surface elevation and thickness. The volume of the ice passing through the gate is derived from maps of the surface velocity of the ice sheet, produced from satellite radar. The third is investigated through regular mapping of area and elevation of the approximately 20.000 individual glaciers and ice caps in Greenland. Mapping is carried out using recent satellite imagery as well as aerial ortho-photos. Within PROMICE data sets from these activities are collected. They include observations from the network of currently about 20 AWS on the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Airborne surveys, yielding surface elevation and ice depth along the entire margin of the Greenland ice sheet carried out in 2007 and 2011. A map of all Greenland ice masses, based on the highest detail aero-photogrammetric maps produced from mid-80's aerial photographs. Real-time data from the PROMICE AWS network is shown at the web site www.promice.org and the data is freely available for download. Data from the airborne surveys and mapping activities are

  5. Monitoring and enforcement of the salt iodization programme in Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran: a successful experience.

    PubMed

    Kousha, A; Hakimi, S; Soleimanzadeh, G; Hashemnia, N; Farhadgeibi, H

    2010-05-01

    After a successful programme to prevent iodine deficiency disorders in the Islamic Republic of Iran in the 1990s and early 2000s, evidence emerged that urine iodine levels in the population were falling. This paper reviews efforts to monitor and enforce the iodization of salt production and shows the resulting improvements in iodization levels of factory table Salt and in urine iodine concentrations of primary-school children in East Azerbaijan province. Reaching targets for elimination of iodine deficiency disorders requires efficient monitoring of the population's iodine levels combined with monitoring of the iodine content of table salt and enforcement of iodization regulations.

  6. How does the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme support statistical consistent nitrate trend analyses in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Lærke; Sørensen, Brian; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of performing nitrate trend analyses in oxic groundwater is to document the effect of regulation of Danish agriculture on N pollution. The design of the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme is presented and discussed in relation to performance of statistical consistence nitrate trend analyses. Three types of data are crucial. Firstly, long and continuous time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 from Denmark Statistics is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge age determination are performed in order to allow linking of the first two dataset. Recent results published in Hansen et al. (2011 & 2012) will be presented. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg/l. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N

  7. Allometric equations for integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Jucker, Tommaso; Caspersen, John; Chave, Jérôme; Antin, Cécile; Barbier, Nicolas; Bongers, Frans; Dalponte, Michele; van Ewijk, Karin Y; Forrester, David I; Haeni, Matthias; Higgins, Steven I; Holdaway, Robert J; Iida, Yoshiko; Lorimer, Craig; Marshall, Peter L; Momo, Stéphane; Moncrieff, Glenn R; Ploton, Pierre; Poorter, Lourens; Rahman, Kassim Abd; Schlund, Michael; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sterck, Frank J; Trugman, Anna T; Usoltsev, Vladimir A; Vanderwel, Mark C; Waldner, Peter; Wedeux, Beatrice M M; Wirth, Christian; Wöll, Hannsjörg; Woods, Murray; Xiang, Wenhua; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Coomes, David A

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing is revolutionizing the way we study forests, and recent technological advances mean we are now able - for the first time - to identify and measure the crown dimensions of individual trees from airborne imagery. Yet to make full use of these data for quantifying forest carbon stocks and dynamics, a new generation of allometric tools which have tree height and crown size at their centre are needed. Here, we compile a global database of 108753 trees for which stem diameter, height and crown diameter have all been measured, including 2395 trees harvested to measure aboveground biomass. Using this database, we develop general allometric models for estimating both the diameter and aboveground biomass of trees from attributes which can be remotely sensed - specifically height and crown diameter. We show that tree height and crown diameter jointly quantify the aboveground biomass of individual trees and find that a single equation predicts stem diameter from these two variables across the world's forests. These new allometric models provide an intuitive way of integrating remote sensing imagery into large-scale forest monitoring programmes and will be of key importance for parameterizing the next generation of dynamic vegetation models.

  8. Antidoping programme and biological monitoring before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baume, Norbert; Jan, Nicolas; Emery, Caroline; Mandanis, Béatrice; Schweizer, Carine; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Marclay, François; Nicoli, Raul; Perrenoud, Laurent; Robinson, Neil; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial

    2015-01-01

    Background The FIFA has implemented an important antidoping programme for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Aim To perform the analyses before and during the World Cup with biological monitoring of blood and urine samples. Methods All qualified players from the 32 teams participating in the World Cup were tested out-of-competition. During the World Cup, 2–8 players per match were tested. Over 1000 samples were collected in total and analysed in the WADA accredited Laboratory of Lausanne. Results The quality of the analyses was at the required level as described in the WADA technical documents. The urinary steroid profiles of the players were stable and consistent with previously published papers on football players. During the competition, amphetamine was detected in a sample collected on a player who had a therapeutic use exemption for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The blood passport data showed no significant difference in haemoglobin values between out-of-competition and postmatch samples. Conclusions Logistical issues linked to biological samples collection, and the overseas shipment during the World Cup did not impair the quality of the analyses, especially when used as the biological passport of football players. PMID:25878079

  9. Seroepidemiology: an underused tool for designing and monitoring vaccination programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Felicity T; Hanson, Matt

    2016-09-01

    Seroepidemiology, the use of data on the prevalence of bio-markers of infection or vaccination, is a potentially powerful tool to understand the epidemiology of infection before vaccination and to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programmes. Global and national burden of disease estimates for hepatitis B and rubella are based almost exclusively on serological data. Seroepidemiology has helped in the design of measles, poliomyelitis and rubella elimination programmes, by informing estimates of the required population immunity thresholds for elimination. It contributes to monitoring of these programmes by identifying population immunity gaps and evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns. Seroepidemiological data have also helped to identify contributing factors to resurgences of diphtheria, Haemophilus Influenzae type B and pertussis. When there is no confounding by antibodies induced by natural infection (as is the case for tetanus and hepatitis B vaccines), seroprevalence data provide a composite picture of vaccination coverage and effectiveness, although they cannot reliably indicate the number of doses of vaccine received. Despite these potential uses, technological, time and cost constraints have limited the widespread application of this tool in low-income countries. The use of venous blood samples makes it difficult to obtain high participation rates in surveys, but the performance of assays based on less invasive samples such as dried blood spots or oral fluid has varied greatly. Waning antibody levels after vaccination may mean that seroprevalence underestimates immunity. This, together with variation in assay sensitivity and specificity and the common need to take account of antibody induced by natural infection, means that relatively sophisticated statistical analysis of data is required. Nonetheless, advances in assays on minimally invasive samples may enhance the feasibility of including serology in large survey programmes in low

  10. Risk assessment and monitoring programme of nitrates through vegetables in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Quijano, Leyre; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; McAllister, Claudia; Torres, Concepción; Pardo, Olga

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine current levels of nitrate in vegetables marketed in the Region of Valencia (Spain) and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. A total of 533 samples of seven vegetable species were studied. Nitrate levels were derived from the Valencia Region monitoring programme carried out from 2009 to 2013 and food consumption levels were taken from the first Valencia Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. The exposure was estimated using a probabilistic approach and two scenarios were assumed for left-censored data: the lower-bound scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification) were set to zero and the upper-bound scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the limit of quantification value. The exposure of the Valencia consumers to nitrate through the consumption of vegetable products appears to be relatively low. In the adult population (16-95 years) the P99.9 was 3.13 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 3.15 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. On the other hand, for young people (6-15 years) the P99.9 of the exposure was 4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 4.40 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. The risk characterisation indicates that, under the upper bound scenario, 0.79% of adults and 1.39% of young people can exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake of nitrate. This percentage could join the vegetable extreme consumers (such as vegetarians) of vegetables. Overall, the estimated exposures to nitrate from vegetables are unlikely to result in appreciable health risks.

  11. Framework for monitoring equity in access and health systems issues in antiretroviral therapy Programmes in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalanda, Boniface; Makwiza, Ireen; Kemp, Julia

    2007-03-01

    Universal provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART), while feasible, is expensive. In light of this limitation, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has launched the 3 × 5 initiative, to provide ART to 3 million people by the end of the year 2005. In Southern Africa, large-scale provision of ART will likely be achieved through fragile public health systems. ART programmes should therefore be developed and expanded in ways that will not aggravate inequities or result in the inappropriate withdrawal of resources from other health interventions or from other parts of the health system. This paper, proposes a framework for monitoring equity in access and health systems issues in ART programmes in Southern Africa. It proposes that an equity monitoring system should comprise seven thematic areas. These thematic areas encompass a national monitoring system which extends beyond one agency or single data collection method. Together with monitoring of targets in terms of numbers treated, there should also be monitoring of health systems impacts and issues in ART expansion, with reporting both nationally and to a regional body.

  12. The HIV prevention cascade: integrating theories of epidemiological, behavioural, and social science into programme design and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hallett, Timothy B; Johnson, Saul; Kapiga, Saidi; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Dallabetta, Gina; Garnett, Geoff P

    2016-07-01

    Theories of epidemiology, health behaviour, and social science have changed the understanding of HIV prevention in the past three decades. The HIV prevention cascade is emerging as a new approach to guide the design and monitoring of HIV prevention programmes in a way that integrates these multiple perspectives. This approach recognises that translating the efficacy of direct mechanisms that mediate HIV prevention (including prevention products, procedures, and risk-reduction behaviours) into population-level effects requires interventions that increase coverage. An HIV prevention cascade approach suggests that high coverage can be achieved by targeting three key components: demand-side interventions that improve risk perception and awareness and acceptability of prevention approaches; supply-side interventions that make prevention products and procedures more accessible and available; and adherence interventions that support ongoing adoption of prevention behaviours, including those that do and do not involve prevention products. Programmes need to develop delivery platforms that ensure these interventions reach target populations, to shape the policy environment so that it facilitates implementation at scale with high quality and intensity, and to monitor the programme with indicators along the cascade.

  13. Filling the observational void: Scientific value and quantitative validation of hydrometeorological data from a community-based monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David; Forsythe, Nathan; Parkin, Geoff; Gowing, John

    2016-07-01

    This study shows how community-based hydrometeorological monitoring programmes can provide reliable high-quality measurements comparable to formal observations. Time series of daily rainfall, river stage and groundwater levels obtained by a local community in Dangila woreda, northwest Ethiopia, have passed accepted quality control standards and have been statistically validated against formal sources. In a region of low-density and declining formal hydrometeorological monitoring networks, a situation shared by much of the developing world, community-based monitoring can fill the observational void providing improved spatial and temporal characterisation of rainfall, river flow and groundwater levels. Such time series data are invaluable in water resource assessment and management, particularly where, as shown here, gridded rainfall datasets provide gross under or over estimations of rainfall and where groundwater level data are non-existent. Discussions with the local community during workshops held at the setup of the monitoring programme and since have demonstrated that the community have become engaged in the project and have benefited from a greater hydrological knowledge and sense of ownership of their resources. This increased understanding and empowerment is at the relevant scale required for effective community-based participatory management of shallow groundwater and river catchments.

  14. FAO UN-REDD- INPE Joint Programme on Forest Monitoring Systems based on RS and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD MRV Team

    2010-12-01

    Capacity Development and Training for National Forest Monitoring Systems for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) REDD+, which stands for ’Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries’ - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD+ and to implement a future REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD+ processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes. It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD+, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. FAO and INPE (Brazilian Space Agency) have joint forces through a MoU signed last year in Copenhagen. A major joint programme has been agreed upon to set

  15. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  16. Safety evaluation of phytosterol-esters. Part 9: Results of a European post-launch monitoring programme.

    PubMed

    Lea, L J; Hepburn, P A

    2006-08-01

    Phytosterol-esters were developed by Unilever as a cholesterol lowering novel food ingredient for use initially in vegetable oil spreads. In addition to an extensive package of safety studies and clinical studies a programme of post-launch monitoring (PLM) was developed. PLM was used to address the following questions: (a) Is the product use as predicted/recommended? (b) Are the known effects as predicted? (c) Does the product cause unexpected health effects? The overall conclusions from the PLM programme were: the product is being bought by the target population but intakes are less than the original assumptions made in the risk assessment; long-term use of phytosterol-ester enriched spreads results in a reduction in the serum levels of the most lipophilic carotenoids but at current levels of intake this is unlikely to result in reductions in carotenoids that are of biological significance; evaluation of health related consumer complaints have not indicated any unexpected health effects associated with the use of the product in the marketplace. As part of the European approval under Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 on Novel Foods and Food Ingredients the results of the PLM programme had to be submitted to the European Commission (EC) and reviewed by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF). They concluded that the study provided valuable information, which complemented the pre-market safety evaluation studies, and that the EC mandatory requirement had been met.

  17. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors’ involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes. PMID:25175291

  18. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors' involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes.

  19. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; McClarty, Leigh M; Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.

  20. The F-GAMMA programme: multi-frequency study of active galactic nuclei in the Fermi era. Programme description and the first 2.5 years of monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Zensus, J. A.; Nestoras, I.; Marchili, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Karamanavis, V.; Ungerechts, H.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S. S.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Myserlis, I.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Sievers, A.; Sohn, B. W.

    2016-11-01

    Context. To fully exploit the scientific potential of the Fermi mission for the physics of active galactic nuclei (AGN), we initiated the F-GAMMA programme. Between 2007 and 2015 the F-GAMMA was the prime provider of complementary multi-frequency monitoring in the radio regime. Aims: We quantify the radio variability of γ-ray blazars. We investigate its dependence on source class and examine whether the radio variability is related to the γ-ray loudness. Finally, we assess the validity of a putative correlation between the two bands. Methods: The F-GAMMA performed monthly monitoring of a sample of about 60 sources at up to twelve radio frequencies between 2.64 and 228.39 GHz. We perform a time series analysis on the first 2.5-yr data set to obtain variability parameters. A maximum likelihood analysis is used to assess the significance of a correlation between radio and γ-ray fluxes. Results: We present light curves and spectra (coherent within ten days) obtained with the Effelsberg 100 m and IRAM 30 m telescopes. All sources are variable across all frequency bands with amplitudes increasing with frequency up to rest frame frequencies of around 60-80 GHz as expected by shock-in-jet models. Compared to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) show systematically lower variability amplitudes, brightness temperatures, and Doppler factors at lower frequencies, while the difference vanishes towards higher ones. The time scales appear similar for the two classes. The distribution of spectral indices appears flatter or more inverted at higher frequencies for BL Lacs. Evolving synchrotron self-absorbed components can naturally account for the observed spectral variability. We find that the Fermi-detected sources show larger variability amplitudes, brightness temperatures, and Doppler factors than non-detected ones. Flux densities at 86.2 and 142.3 GHz correlate with 1 GeV fluxes at a significance level better than 3σ, implying that γ rays are

  1. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy.

  2. The indicators used to monitor the progress of the Population Development Programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gouws, N B

    1990-07-01

    The main goal of the Population Development Programme in South Africa is to ensure a balance between resources and population size. Secondary objectives include improving the quality of life for all sectors of society, accelerating development, integrating family planning with development programs, and fostering community involvement with the program. The program has identified education, manpower training, primary health care, the economy, and housing as areas of primary importance to address in seeking to realize program goals. The rate of infant mortality, life expectancy at birth, teen pregnancy, personal per capital income, literacy, children not attending school, and room density were then identified and quantified as indicators of progressin these areas. The importance of each indicator and its influence on fertility is discussed in turn.

  3. A wearable, low-power, health-monitoring instrumentation based on a Programmable System-on-Chip.

    PubMed

    Massot, Bertrand; Gehin, Claudine; Nocua, Ronald; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Improvement in quality and efficiency of health and medicine, at home and in hospital, has become of paramount importance. The solution of this problem would require the continuous monitoring of several key patient parameters, including the assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity using non-invasive sensors, providing information for emotional, sensorial, cognitive and physiological analysis of the patient. Recent advances in embedded systems, microelectronics, sensors and wireless networking enable the design of wearable systems capable of such advanced health monitoring. The subject of this article is an ambulatory system comprising a small wrist device connected to several sensors for the detection of the autonomic nervous system activity. It affords monitoring of skin resistance, skin temperature and heart activity. It is also capable of recording the data on a removable media or sending it to computer via a wireless communication. The wrist device is based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) from Cypress: PSoCs are mixed-signal arrays, with dynamic, configurable digital and analogical blocks and an 8-bit Microcontroller unit (MCU) core on a single chip. In this paper we present first of all the hardware and software architecture of the device, and then results obtained from initial experiments.

  4. Management, Planning, and Monitoring Population Education Programmes. Abstract-Bibliography Series 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This document abstracts and reviews 32 publications that describe population education programs developed for Asia and the Pacific region. The documents are grouped under three sections: (1) management; (2) planning; and (3) monitoring/evaluation. Section 1 consists of 12 selected titles that deal with management of population education programs.…

  5. Atmospheric monitoring of organic pollutants in the Arctic under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP): 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Kallenborn, Roland; Breivik, Knut; Su, Yushan; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Thorlacius, Johanna M; Leppänen, Sirkka; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Manø, Stein; Patton, Gregory W; Stern, Gary; Sverko, Ed; Fellin, Phil

    2010-07-01

    Continuous and comparable atmospheric monitoring programs to study the transport and occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of remote regions is essential to better understand the global movement of these chemicals and to evaluate the effectiveness of international control measures. Key results from four main Arctic research stations, Alert (Canada), Pallas (Finland), Storhofdi (Iceland) and Zeppelin (Svalbard/Norway), where long-term monitoring have been carried out since the early 1990s, are summarized. We have also included a discussion of main results from various Arctic satellite stations in Canada, Russia, US (Alaska) and Greenland which have been operational for shorter time periods. Using the Digital Filtration temporal trend development technique, it was found that while some POPs showed more or less consistent declines during the 1990s, this reduction is less apparent in recent years at some sites. In contrast, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were still found to be increasing by 2005 at Alert with doubling times of 3.5 years in the case of deca-BDE. Levels and patterns of most POPs in Arctic air are also showing spatial variability, which is typically explained by differences in proximity to suspected key source regions and long-range atmospheric transport potentials. Furthermore, increase in worldwide usage of certain pesticides, e.g. chlorothalonil and quintozene, which are contaminated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB), may result in an increase in Arctic air concentration of HCB. The results combined also indicate that both temporal and spatial patterns of POPs in Arctic air may be affected by various processes driven by climate change, such as reduced ice cover, increasing seawater temperatures and an increase in biomass burning in boreal regions as exemplified by the data from the Zeppelin and Alert stations. Further research and continued air monitoring are needed to better understand these processes and its future

  6. Sustainable microbial water quality monitoring programme design using phage-lysis and multivariate techniques.

    PubMed

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane

    2011-11-15

    Contamination of surface waters is a pervasive threat to human health, hence, the need to better understand the sources and spatio-temporal variations of contaminants within river catchments. River catchment managers are required to sustainably monitor and manage the quality of surface waters. Catchment managers therefore need cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring and management designs to proactively protect public health and aquatic ecosystems. Multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were used to investigate spatio-temporal variations of water quality, main polluting chemophysical and microbial parameters, faecal micro-organisms sources, and to establish 'sentry' sampling sites in the Ouse River catchment, southeast England, UK. 350 river water samples were analysed for fourteen chemophysical and microbial water quality parameters in conjunction with the novel human-specific phages of Bacteroides GB-124 (Bacteroides GB-124). Annual, autumn, spring, summer, and winter principal components (PCs) explained approximately 54%, 75%, 62%, 48%, and 60%, respectively, of the total variance present in the datasets. Significant loadings of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and human-specific Bacteroides GB-124 were observed in all datasets. Cluster analysis successfully grouped sampling sites into five clusters. Importantly, multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were useful in determining the sources and spatial extent of water contamination in the catchment. Though human faecal contamination was significant during dry periods, the main source of contamination was non-human. Bacteroides GB-124 could potentially be used for catchment routine microbial water quality monitoring. For a cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring design, E. coli or intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and Bacteroides GB-124 should be monitored all-year round in this river catchment.

  7. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  8. Monitoring markers of muscle damage during a 3 week periodized drop-jump exercise programme.

    PubMed

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Snieckus, Audrius; Masiulis, Nerijus; Aagaard, Per; Dargeviciute, Gintare; Brazaitis, Marius

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks of stretch-shortening exercise with a progressively increasing load and continued modulation of various key training variables. Eight healthy untrained men performed a drop-jump programme involving a progressive increase in load impact with respect to the number of jumps performed, drop (platform) height, squat depth amplitude, and addition of weights. Maximal concentric and isometric knee extensor strength were assessed immediately before and 10 min after each training session. Voluntary and 100 Hz-stimulation-evoked torque decreased acutely after each training session relative to pre-exercise values (P < 0.05) but recovered before the subsequent training session. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity increased from 162.2 ± 56.2 IU · l(-1) to 284.3 ± 116.3 IU · l(-1) at 48 h after the first training session (P < 0.05) and remained marginally elevated throughout the training period. The present results indicate that detrimental muscle damage can be avoided with drop-jump training even with the gradual introduction of more demanding exercise induced by increasing the volume, intensity, and muscle stretch amplitude. These findings suggest that the human neuromuscular system is highly adaptable to progressively varied loading demands during stretch-shortening exercise training.

  9. A wirelessly programmable actuation and sensing system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, James; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks promise to deliver low cost, low power and massively distributed systems for structural health monitoring. A key component of these systems, particularly when sampling rates are high, is the capability to process data within the network. Although progress has been made towards this vision, it remains a difficult task to develop and program 'smart' wireless sensing applications. In this paper we present a system which allows data acquisition and computational tasks to be specified in Python, a high level programming language, and executed within the sensor network. Key features of this system include the ability to execute custom application code without firmware updates, to run multiple users' requests concurrently and to conserve power through adjustable sleep settings. Specific examples of sensor node tasks are given to demonstrate the features of this system in the context of structural health monitoring. The system comprises of individual firmware for nodes in the wireless sensor network, and a gateway server and web application through which users can remotely submit their requests.

  10. Monitoring of Sedimentary Fluxes in Cold Environments: The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-05-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G. / A.I.G.) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017) is addressing this existing key knowledge gap. The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried out at each of the ca. 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by program, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, permafrost scientists and glaciologists. SEDIBUD has developed manuals and protocols (SEDIFLUX Manual) with a key set of primary surface process monitoring and research data requirements to incorporate results from these diverse projects and allow coordinated quantitative analysis across the program. Defined SEDIBUD key tasks for the coming years include (i) The continued generation and compilation of comparable longer-term datasets on contemporary sedimentary fluxes and sediment yields from SEDIBUD key test sites worldwide, (ii) The continued extension of the SEDIBUD metadata database with these datasets, (iii) The testing of defined SEDIBUD hypotheses (available

  11. Local media monitoring in process evaluation. Experiences from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Camilla Maria; Bjärås, Gunilla; Tillgren, Per; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2007-01-01

    We present a rationale and approach for longitudinal analyses of media coverage and content, and illustrate how media monitoring can be used in process evaluations. Within a community-based diabetes prevention project, the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program, we analyzed the frequency, prominence, and framing of physical activity in local newspapers of three intervention and two control municipalities. In total, 2,128 stories and advertisements related to physical activity were identified between the years 1997 and 2002. Although stories about physical activity were relatively few (n = 224), they were prominently located in all five local newspapers. Physical activity was framed rather similarly in the municipalities. Health aspects, however, were expressed to a greater extent in stories in two of the intervention municipalities. A limited portion (14%) of the articles could be linked directly to the program. It is not possible to assess to what extent the program has had a disseminating effect on the newspapers' health-related content in general, due to weaknesses of the process tracking system and limitations of the study design. Implications for the design is that an evaluative framework should be preplanned and include data collection about media relationships, media's interest in public health, media coverage prior to the program and coverage in other media for comparisons of general trends in the reporting. The material and the current database, however, provide a good basis for quantitative content analysis and qualitative discourse analysis to yield information on the type, frequency, and content of health reporting in local newspapers.

  12. Critical assessment of the use of growth monitoring for identifying high risk children in primary health care programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Briend, A.; Bari, A.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether change in weight was a more useful index than weight for age in assessing the risk of dying among malnourished children. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Rural community in Bangladesh being served by international health organisation. PARTICIPANTS--1011 Children aged under 5, of whom 66 died. END POINT--Efficient screening method for identifying malnourished children at risk of dying. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Weight was measured every month. Weight for age and monthly change in weight averaged over one and three months were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity curves were used to compare the values of these two variables in identifying children with a high risk of dying. Weight for age was more sensitive than change in weight at all levels of specificity. Changes in weight, however, were independently related to the risk of dying even when intercurrent diseases and low weight for age were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS--For identifying children with a high risk of dying weight for age is a more efficient screening tool than a recent change in weight. Growth monitoring as currently recommended for primary health care programmes in developing countries does not seem to be the most effective approach in identifying children in need of urgent help. PMID:2503147

  13. Assessment of potential nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and set-up of an environmental monitoring programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the project is to identify and differentiate the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources present and their impact on the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. The present investigation represents a new study, which, beside the traditional hydrochemical analyses (main ions and nutrients), introduces stable isotopes of nitrate, the stable isotope signature of boron and the stable isotopes of water. The analysis of stable isotopes in the nitrate molecule will be used to differentiate between nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizer), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes will be used to identify the impact of domestic wastewater on the aquatic system. The stable isotopes of the water molecule are useful tracers to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water and the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface water. Moreover, this study represents a very new innovative approach for the investigation of the complex hydrogeochemical processes at the mixing interface between sea and fresh water. In addition to the analytical part, the monitoring programme will also include remote sensing techniques. Remotely sensed data from the satellites Landsat 1 MSS, Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ will be analysed and processed. This analysis is to assess the multi-temporal and spatial evolution of most superficial algae flora activity and the water temperature of the Lagoon as main indicators of eutrophication and, additionally, to identify the main environmental and morphological changes of the Lagoon since the beginning of the seventies.

  14. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM) consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum) and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax) and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion rate for P. falciparum

  15. Air quality management in the WHO European Region--results of a quality assurance and control programme on air quality monitoring (1994-2004).

    PubMed

    Mücke, Hans-Guido

    2008-07-01

    Since the last decade the WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control, Berlin, Germany, operates a quality assurance and control (QA/QC) programme on air quality monitoring in the WHO European Region. As main activity Intercomparison workshops have been established for air monitoring network laboratories on a regular basis to harmonise air quality measurements, analysis and calibration techniques. 36 air hygiene laboratories of public health and environmental institutions of 24 countries participated in twelve Intercomparisons between 1994 and 2004. The majority was carried out for NO, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). The results were predominantly satisfactory for automatic methods. The results of manual methods were mainly in a good, and for several concentration levels partly very good accordance with the data obtained by the monitors.

  16. A field programmable gate array-based reconfigurable smart-sensor network for wireless monitoring of new generation computer numerically controlled machines.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node.

  17. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: a pre-post evaluation in five districts.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than -2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions.

  18. A practical approach to improve safety and management in chemotherapy units based on the PROCHE - programme for optimisation of the chemotherapy network monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Scotté, Florian; Oudard, Stéphane; Aboudagga, Hail; Elaidi, Reza; Bonan, Brigitte

    2013-02-01

    The PROCHE (PRogramme d'Optimisation du circuit CHimiothErapie [Programme for optimisation of the chemotherapy network]) initiative is an innovative oncology-monitoring program designed to reduce patient waiting time and chemotherapy wastage, ultimately improving patient care. Laboratory test results and side effects data were collected for patients in the PROCHE monitoring program group 2d prior to scheduled chemotherapy visits, allowing oncologists to confirm or delay each patient's chemotherapy. Data from 1037 patients entered in the PROCHE program were compared with 513 control patients, who had been treated according to previous typical hospital procedures. Results demonstrated significant reductions in mean hospital stay i.e. decreased it by 66 min and drug wastage decreased from 6% to 2% (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.21-0.59, P<0.0001), and a significant increase in bed occupancy rates with the PROCHE initiative (all P<0.0001 vs. controls). The incidence of pain and severity of fatigue were also reduced. In conclusion, the PROCHE initiative resulted in improved patient quality of care and reduced chemotherapy toxicities, and improved hospital and pharmacy productivity. These encouraging preliminary results warrant further study.

  19. Monitoring programme revision highlights long-term salinity changes in selected South African rivers and the value of comprehensive long-term data sets.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, H; Silberbauer, M J; Hohls, B C

    2009-07-01

    Determination of data adequacy for detection of long-term salinity changes was an important task in the revision of the South African National Chemical Monitoring Programme (NCMP). The NCMP has been running for more than 30 years with several hundred active monitoring sites. Twenty-five sites on major rivers had sufficient continuous data for the estimation of salinity changes over a 25-year period and statistically significant upward or downward trends occurred at 17 of the 25 sites. Most sites were too far apart for detailed analysis of whole river systems, though an upward trend is apparent in the Lower Orange River and a downward trend in the Great Fish River. Salinity in the Tugela River remained stable, well below the 70 mS m( - 1) guideline for drinking water. The results underline the importance of long-term data sets for assessing and managing aquatic systems and provide the impetus to continue building and maintaining long-term sampling programmes.

  20. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Broeg, Katja; Dizer, Halim; von Westernhagen, Hein; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    Immunological biomarkers that reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in coastal marine habitats were sought in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from five locations in the German Bight with different anthropogenic impacts. During a 2-year period of sampling, innate immune responses were monitored from a total of 331 individual flounder of a body length of 18 to 25 cm. From the fish, plasma lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leucocytes were analysed and implemented as part of an integrated biological effects monitoring programme. As the measurements of the parameters applied here varied within wide ranges at some locations, spatial differences could not always be established, but some general trends could be drawn: plasma lysozyme activity was decreased in flounder contaminated with DDT adducts and some PCBs, while cellular functions such as phagocytosis and respiratory burst were stimulated by some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Correlation analysis also revealed connections not only between the parameters applied here and some contaminants but also with some biochemical parameters used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring: in flounder with decreased integrity of hepatocyte lysosomal membranes, immune functions also were impaired, and plasma lysozyme as well as phagocytosis activity of head kidney cells were impaired when the activity of cytochrome P450 1A was induced. The data presented here indicate that innate immune responses may be useful parameters to monitor cellular functions in a battery of biomarkers of different levels of biological organisation.

  1. A methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation under the REDD+ programme based on remote sensing techniques and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Sanchez, Martin Enrique

    In this thesis, a methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation based on remote sensing techniques and field data, as part of the REDD+ programme, is presented. The framework intends to support the implementation of a national Monitoring, Verification and Report (MRV) system in developing countries. The framework proposed an operational definition of forest degradation and a set of indicators, namely Canopy Cover (CC), Aboveground Biomass (AGB) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP), derived from remote sensing data. The applicability of the framework is tested in a sub-deciduous tropical forest in the Southeast of Mexico. The results from the application of the methodological framework showed that the higher rates of forest degradation, 1596-2865 ha˙year-1, occur in areas with high population density. Estimations of aboveground biomass in these degraded areas span from 1 to 24 Mg˙ha-1, with a rate of carbon fixation ranging from 130 to 246 gC˙m2˙year. The results also showed that 43 % of the forests of the study area remain with no evident signs of degradation, as detected by the indicators selected, during the period evaluated. The integration of the different elements conforming the methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation enabled the identification of areas that maintain a stable condition and areas that change over the period evaluated. The methodology outlined in this thesis also allows for the identification of the temporal and spatial distributions of forest degradation based on the indicators selected, and it is expected to serve as the basis for operations of the REDD+ programme with the appropriate adaptations to the area in turn.

  2. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  3. Effects of an educational compliance enhancement programme and therapeutic drug monitoring on treatment adherence in depressed patients managed by general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Akerblad, Ann-Charlotte; Bengtsson, Finn; Ekselius, Lisa; von Knorring, Lars

    2003-11-01

    Medication non-adherence is a major obstacle in the treatment of affective disorders. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate two different interventions to improve adherence to antidepressant drugs. Secondary objectives included response to treatment, relation between adherence and response, patient satisfaction and tolerability. A randomized controlled design was used to assess the effect of a patient educational compliance enhancing programme (CP) and therapeutic drug monitoring in 1031 major depressed patients treated with sertraline for 24 weeks and managed by their general practitioner. Adherence was measured by questioning, measurable serum levels of sertraline and desmethylsertraline, appointments kept and a composite index including all three methods. Treatment adherence was found in 37-70% of patients, depending on the method used. Neither of the interventions resulted in a significant increase in adherence rate. However, significantly more patients in the CP group had responded at week 24 compared to patients in the control group. Overall, significantly more adherent patients responded to treatment compared to non-adherent patients, regardless of method used to determine adherence. This large study demonstrates that treatment response increases when using an educational compliance programme and that a strong relationship between treatment adherence and response exists.

  4. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  5. Implementation of an Electronic Monitoring and Evaluation System for the Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Cape Winelands District, South Africa: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, Cornelius J.; Struthers, Helen E.; McIntyre, James A.; Hurter, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Background A pragmatic three-tiered approach to monitor the world’s largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme was adopted by the South African National Department of Health in 2010. With the rapid expansion of the programme, the limitations of the paper-based register (tier 1) were the catalyst for implementation of the stand-alone electronic register (tier 2), which offers simple digitisation of the paper-based register. This article engages with theory on implementation to identify and contextualise enabling and constraining factors for implementation of the electronic register, to describe experiences and use of the register, and to make recommendations for implementation in similar settings where standardisation of ART monitoring and evaluation has not been achieved. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the roll-out of the register. This comprised twenty in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of stakeholders at facility, sub-district, and district levels of the health system. Facility-level participants were selected across five sub-districts, including one facility per sub-district. Responses were coded and analysed using a thematic approach. An implementation science framework guided interpretation of the data. Results & Discussion We identified the following seven themes: 1) ease of implementation, 2) perceived value of an electronic M&E system, 3) importance of stakeholder engagement, 4) influence of a data champion, 5) operational and logistical factors, 6) workload and role clarity, and 7) importance of integrating the electronic register with routine facility monitoring and evaluation. Interpreting our findings through an implementation theory enabled us to construct the scaffolding for implementation across the five facility-settings. This approach illustrated that implementation was not a linear process but occurred at two nodes: at the adoption of the register for roll-out, and at implementation at facility-level. Conclusion In

  6. Differential sensitivity of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in response to oestrogenic chemical exposure: an issue for design and interpretation of monitoring and research programmes.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M F; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Katsiadaki, I; Lyons, B; Scott, A P

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted as an initial investigation of 'differential response' in one of the main sentinel organisms used for monitoring programmes in United Kingdom estuaries, the flounder Platichthys flesus. It has been hypothesised that monitoring using species with a wide geographical spread and limited migration, such as flounder, might result in the comparison of different genetic stocks and certainly of populations with differing early life stage contaminant exposure histories. Furthermore, it is probable that these pre-exposure and genetic differences could manifest themselves in an ability to respond differently to contaminant exposure, so-called 'differential response'. It is important that the extent and nature of this response is understood, if we want to be able to fully interpret the monitoring data from such programmes. During this study, flounder were collected from four separate sources; wild caught fish from the estuaries of the Rivers Alde, Mersey and Tyne, and farmed flounder from Port Erin Farm, Isle of Man. Under controlled laboratory conditions, groups of fish from each source were exposed to water-borne concentrations of the synthetic oestrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) at a nominal concentration of 50 ng/l. Plasma was taken from each male fish after 6 and 10 days exposure and analysed for the presence of vitellogenin (VTG) using an ELISA technique. Significant levels of VTG induction were evident in fish from all sources after both 6 and 10 days exposure. Flounder from the Mersey were the only fish with significantly elevated initial background levels of VTG (day 0) and this appeared to be reflected in that these specimens showed the highest induction response after day 6. However, after day 10, fish from all other sites had a slightly higher mean VTG than those from the Mersey which showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower mean plasma VTG. It is suggested that other differential responses may have been masked by the use of a high dose of EE2

  7. Gen-2 RFID compatible, zero down-time, programmable mechanical strain-monitors and mechanical impact detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabartty, Shantanu; Feng, Tao; Aono, Kenji

    2013-04-01

    A key challenge in structural health monitoring (SHM) sensors embedded inside civil structures is that elec- tronics need to operate continuously such that mechanical events of interest can be detected and appropriately analyzed. Continuous operation however requires a continuous source of energy which cannot be guaranteed using conventional energy scavenging techniques. The paper describes a hybrid energy scavenging SHM sensor which experiences zero down-time in monitoring mechanical events of interest. At the core of the proposed sensor is an analog floating-gate storage technology that can be precisely programmed at nano-watt and pico- watt power levels. This facilitates self-powered, non-volatile data logging of the mechanical events of interest by scavenging energy directly from the mechanical events itself. Remote retrieval of the stored data is achieved using a commercial off-the-shelf Gen-2 radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader which periodically reads an electronic product code (EPC) that encapsulates the sensor data. The Gen-2 interface also facilitates in simultaneous remote access to multiple sensors and also facilitates in determining the range and orientation of the sensor. The architecture of the sensor is based on a token-ring topology which enables sensor channels to be dynamically added or deleted through software control.

  8. Assessment of global reporting of adverse drug reactions for anti-malarials, including artemisinin-based combination therapy, to the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In spite of enhanced control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem causing close to a million deaths annually. With support from several donors, large amounts of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are being deployed in endemic countries raising safety concerns as little is known about the use of ACT in several of the settings where they are deployed. This project was undertaken to profile the provenance of the pharmacovigilance reporting of all anti-malarials, including ACT to the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR) database (Vigibase™) over the past 40 years. Methods The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) provided anonymized extracts of Vigibase™ covering the period 1968-2008. All countries in the programme were clustered according to their malaria control phase and income status. The number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) of anti-malarials was analyzed according to those clusters. Results From 1968 to 2008, 21,312 ICSRs suspecting anti-malarials were received from 64 countries. Low-income countries, that are also malaria-endemic (categorized as priority 1 countries) submitted only 1.2% of the ICSRs. Only 60 out of 21,312 ICSRs were related to ACT, 51 of which were coming from four sub-Saharan African countries. Although very few ICSRs involved artemisinin-based compounds, many of the adverse events reported were potentially serious. Conclusions This paper illustrates the low reporting of ADRs to anti-malarials in general and ACT in particular. Most reports were submitted by non-endemic and/or high-income countries. Given the current mix of large donor funding, the insufficient information on safety of these drugs, increasing availability of ACT and artemisinin-based monotherapies in public and private sector channels, associated potential for inappropriate use and finally a pipeline of more than 10 new novel anti-malarials in various stages of development, the

  9. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Alberto, G

    2011-02-01

    The activity of (210)Po and (210)Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759±277 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg(-1) dry weight), and 45±19 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that (210)Po and (210)Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210±75 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Po and 10±4 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of

  10. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus.

  11. Norwegian monitoring programme on the inorganic and organic contaminants in fish caught in the Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea and North Sea, 1994-2001.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, K; Lundebye, A-K; Heggstad, K; Berntssen, M H G; Boe, B

    2004-04-01

    The results from part of a monitoring programme of contaminant levels in fish and other seafood products initiated by the Directorate of Fisheries in Norway in 1994 are presented. Concentrations of 22 elements (four are presented here: As, Cd, Hg and Pb) and HCB, HCH, PCB 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156, 180, pp-DDD, p-DDE, p-DDT, sum DDT and (137)Cs were determined in 17 species of fish caught in three sampling locations: the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea. The fish species analysed in the survey were limited to species of commercial importance for Norway with catching volumes of at least 10,000 metric tons year(-1). The survey started in 1994 and is expected to continue beyond 2010. The analyses were carried out on 25 individual fish from each species and each sampling location, and the locations were representative of commercial fishing grounds for the species in question. The concentrations of contaminants found were considerably lower than the maximum levels permissible in fish set by CODEX and the European Union for contaminants in seafood products.

  12. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  13. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  14. Comparing a paper based monitoring and evaluation system to a mHealth system to support the national community health worker programme, South Africa: an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an attempt to address a complex disease burden, including improving progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, South Africa recently introduced a re-engineered Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy, which has led to the development of a national community health worker (CHW) programme. The present study explored the development of a cell phone-based and paper-based monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to support the work of the CHWs. Methods One sub-district in the North West province was identified for the evaluation. One outreach team comprising ten CHWs maintained both the paper forms and mHealth system to record household data on community-based services. A comparative analysis was done to calculate the correspondence between the paper and phone records. A focus group discussion was conducted with the CHWs. Clinical referrals, data accuracy and supervised visits were compared and analysed for the paper and phone systems. Results Compared to the mHealth system where data accuracy was assured, 40% of the CHWs showed a consistently high level (>90% correspondence) of data transfer accuracy on paper. Overall, there was an improvement over time, and by the fifth month, all CHWs achieved a correspondence of 90% or above between phone and paper data. The most common error that occurred was summing the total number of visits and/or activities across the five household activity indicators. Few supervised home visits were recorded in either system and there was no evidence of the team leader following up on the automatic notifications received on their cell phones. Conclusions The evaluation emphasizes the need for regular supervision for both systems and rigorous and ongoing assessments of data quality for the paper system. Formalization of a mHealth M&E system for PHC outreach teams delivering community based services could offer greater accuracy of M&E and enhance supervision systems for CHWs. PMID:25106499

  15. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  16. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  17. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  18. Diplomatic and operational adaptations to global health programmes in post-conflict settings: contributions of monitoring and evaluation systems to health sector development and 'nation-building' in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Hatfield, Amanda; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Durrani, Bilal Aurang Zeb; Bekele, Yonas; Khan, Usma; White, Karen; Myrick, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems are an essential element of functioning and accountable global health programmes. In post-conflict settings, the role of M&E systems is also critical to ensure that health services are being delivered to those populations and regions most in need. Given the inherent challenges of health service delivery in such environments, a range of both diplomatic and operational adaptations to M&E procedures are necessary. Using the '12 components' of a functioning M&E system as a conceptual and analytical framework, we observed and reviewed the key challenges to M&E systems in South Sudan as part of a broader review of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) activities supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Based on additional interview-based reviews and analyses of M&E activities, a list of adaptations to standardized M&E procedures in response to post-conflict environmental challenges was developed. The study concludes that development and implementation of M&E systems in post-conflict environments requires extensive adaptations to conventional procedures. Flexible and adaptable as well as 'diplomatically sensitized' M&E systems are considered to be essential to the successful completion of M&E-related activities, and may also contribute to broader international relations, 'nation-building', and peace-keeping goals.

  19. How to improve communication for the safe use of medicines?: Discussions on social marketing and patient-tailored approaches at the annual meetings of the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Priya; Harrison-Woolrych, Mira

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, the annual meetings of national centres participating in the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring have increasingly included discussions on how to improve communication between national pharmacovigilance centres, patients, healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public, with the aim of promoting the safe use of medicines. At the most recent meetings, working groups were dedicated to discuss possible applications and implementation of social marketing and patient-tailored approaches. This article provides the history and a summary of the recent discussions and recommendations to support progress in this respect at national and global level. Recommendations are made to investigate and pilot these approaches in small-scale projects at national pharmacovigilance centres. Applying elements from the social marketing and patient-tailored approaches to support behaviours of safe medicines use in patients and healthcare professionals should give the pharmacovigilance community new tools to achieve their goal to minimize risks with medicines and improve patient safety.

  20. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  1. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    programme management process. Programme managers should lead this developmental process, ensuring that evaluation methods produce the information they need to monitor and improve their programmes at reasonable cost. PMID:8062394

  2. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E.; Huda, Tanvir M.; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  3. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  4. Antibiotic resistance monitoring: the Spanish programme. The VAV Network. Red de Vigilancia de Resistencias Antibióticas en Bacterias de Origen Veterinario.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L; Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C

    2000-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a problem in modern public health and antimicrobial use and especially misuse, the most important selecting force for bacterial antibiotic resistance. As this resistance must be monitored we have designed the Spanish network 'Red de Vigilancia de Resistencias Antibióticas en Bacterias de Origen Veterinario'. This network covers the three critical points of veterinary responsibility, bacteria from sick animals, bacteria from healthy animals and bacteria from food animals. Key bacteria, antimicrobials and animal species have been defined for each of these groups along with laboratory methods for testing antimicrobial susceptibility and for data analysis and reporting. Surveillance of sick animals was first implemented using Escherichia coli as the sentinel bacterium. Surveillance of E. coli and Enterococcus faecium from healthy pigs was implemented in 1998. In July 1999, data collection on Salmonella spp. was initiated in poultry slaughterhouses. Additionally, the prevalence of vancomycin resistant E. faecium was also monitored. This network has specific topics of interest related to methods of determining resistance, analysis and reporting of data, methods of use for veterinary practitioners and collaboration with public health authorities.

  5. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India

    PubMed Central

    Piot, Bram; Navin, Deepa; Krishnan, Nattu; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Sharma, Vivek; Marjara, Pritpal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites. Methods The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used for the assessment of the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of condoms in target areas in four states and along selected national highways in India, as part of Avahan, the India AIDS initiative. Results A significant general increase in condom availability was observed in the intervention area between 2005 and 2008. High coverage rates were gradually achieved through an extensive network of pharmacies and particularly of non-traditional outlets, whereas traditional outlets were instrumental in providing large volumes of condoms. Conclusion LQAS is seen as a valuable tool for the routine monitoring of the geographical coverage and of the quality of delivery systems of condoms and of health products and services in general. With a relatively small sample size, easy data collection procedures and simple analytical methods, it was possible to inform decision-makers regularly on progress towards coverage targets. PMID:20167732

  6. Water Resource Monitoring Based n EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze River Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathias; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  7. Water Resource Monitoring Based on EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze Middle Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathais; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  8. Financial planning and management of health programmes in India.

    PubMed

    Handa, K L

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with the financial planning and control of health programmes in India. The techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and of performance budgeting are highly useful aids to management for implementation of monitoring and review of performance of the programmes are also essential for gauging the progress.

  9. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  10. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  11. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  12. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETARY SAMPLES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE SELECTED ION MONITORING MODE USING A TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMABLE LARGE VOLUME INJECTOR WITH PRE-SEPARATION COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of a temperature-programmable pre-separation column in the gas chromatographic injection port permits determination of a wide range of semi-volatile pesticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, and anilines in fatty composite dietary samples while reduci...

  13. Reactivity measurement using a programmable logic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Bobek, L.M.; Miraglia, P.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The application of digital systems for measuring reactor dynamics has been used at experimental and research reactors for almost 30 yr. At the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) nuclear reactor facility (NRF), a recent modernization effort included the installation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and an operator interface terminal (OIT). The PLC systems are increasingly being used to replace relay-based monitoring and control systems at nuclear power plants. At WPI, the PLC and OIT provide a digital reactor monitoring system that is remote from the reactor`s analog control instrumentation. The NRF staff has programmed the monitoring system for several reactor-related applications, including reactivity measurement.

  14. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  15. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  16. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  17. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  18. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  19. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  20. Making programmable BMS safe and reliable

    SciTech Connect

    Cusimano, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Burner management systems ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and prevent explosions. This article describes how programmable control systems can be every bit as safe and reliable as hardwired or standard programmable logic controller-based designs. High-pressure boilers are required by regulatory agencies and insurance companies alike to be equipped with a burner management system (BMS) to ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and to prevent explosions. These systems work in parallel with, but independently of, the combustion and feedwater control systems that start up, monitor, and shut down burners and furnaces. Safety and reliability are the fundamental requirements of a BMS. Programmable control system for BMS applications are now available that incorporate high safety and reliability into traditional microprocessor-based designs. With one of these control systems, a qualified systems engineer applying relevant standards, such as the National Fire Protection Assn (NFPA) 85 series, can design and implement a superior BMS.

  1. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. Dieter; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    EUMETSAT is providing space based observations for operational meteorology and climate monitoring. The observations are measured by geostationary and sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellites in the frame of mandatory programmes. In the frame of optional programmes further observations for altimetry and oceanography are collected and disseminated. In the frame of third party programmes, EUMETSAT makes available data from other agencies' satellites to the user community. Since summer 2015 MSG-4 complements the current operational fleet of operational geostationary spacecraft, Meteosat-7, which is the last satellite of the first generation and the three satellites of the Second Generation of Meteosat, Meteosat-8, Meteosat-9 and Meteosat-10. MSG-4 became Meteosat-11 and was stored in orbit after successful commissioning. Two satellites of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) provide data from sunsynchronous polar orbit. Metop-B, the second of a series of three satellites, launched in September 2012 and Metop-A, the first of the series, in orbit since October 2006 provide operational services. The satellites belong to the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) with the US. EUMETSAT's first optional programme continues to provide data from the Jason-2 satellite since summer 2008. As follow on the Jason-3 satellite was launched in January 2016 and is currently in commissioning. To assure continuity development of Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) is ongoing. The EPS-SG programme was fully approved in summer 2015. In the frame of the Copernicus Programme (formerly GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security)) EUMETSAT will operate the marine part of the Sentinel-3 satellite. It was launched in February 2016 and is currently under commissioning.

  2. Techniques for Sea Ice Characteristics Extraction and Sea Ice Monitoring Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data in the Bohai Sea-Dragon 3 Programme Final Report (2012-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of Dragon-3 programme (ID: 10501) are to develop methods for classification sea ice types and retrieving ice thickness based on multi-sensor data. In this final results paper, we give a briefly introduction for our research work and mainly results. Key words: the Bohai Sea ice, Sea ice, optical and

  3. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  4. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  5. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  6. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  7. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  8. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  9. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  10. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  11. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  12. Attainments and limitations of an early childhood programme in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J; Trujillo, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    The Growth and Development Monitoring Programme is a longstanding early childhood social intervention in Colombia. The programme's goal is the prevention and early identification of problems affecting children's health and nutrition. To achieve this aim, the programme's basic strategy is to educate parents about the overall health care of infants. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of this programme on children's nutrition and health status and maternal child-care practices. To address potential selection bias, we employ quasi-experimental techniques. This article uses data from the Demographic Health Survey of 2010. The evidence suggests that the programme improved immunization status and the likelihood of health care for acute respiratory infection or fever. As expected, the programme has a greater impact on children from among the poorest people in the country. In the most advanced regions and for the beneficiaries of private health care, the effects of the programme have tended to be negligible. In this sense, our central policy recommendation is to optimize the programme for the poorest households in the country.

  13. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  14. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  15. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  16. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  17. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  18. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  19. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  20. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  1. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  2. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  3. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  4. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  5. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  6. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  7. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  8. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  9. PATHway: Decision Support in Exercise Programmes for Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Filos, Dimitris; Triantafyllidis, Andreas; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Buys, Roselien; Cornelissen, Véronique; Budts, Werner; Walsh, Deirdre; Woods, Catherine; Moran, Kieran; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation is important for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to improve health outcomes and quality of life. However, adherence to current exercise programmes in cardiac rehabilitation is limited. We present the design and development of a Decision Support System (DSS) for telerehabilitation, aiming to enhance exercise programmes for CVD patients through ensuring their safety, personalising the programme according to their needs and performance, and motivating them toward meeting their physical activity goals. The DSS processes data originated from a Microsoft Kinect camera, a blood pressure monitor, a heart rate sensor and questionnaires, in order to generate a highly individualised exercise programme and improve patient adherence. Initial results within the EU-funded PATHway project show the potential of our approach.

  10. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  11. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  12. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    PubMed

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  13. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  14. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  15. Classroom Leadership: The Effect of a School Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2009-01-01

    Using a cohort longitudinal design, this study examined pupils' perceptions of their teachers' classroom leadership, both before and after implementation of the Respect programme. Pupils in Grades 5-10 (age 11-16) in four Norwegian schools reported their perceptions of their teachers' emotional support, academic support, and monitoring five times…

  16. Audit of the Bloodhound Education Programme, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straw, Suzanne; Jeffes, Jennifer; Dawson, Anneka; Lord, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned by the "Bloodhound Education Programme" (BEP) to conduct an audit of its activities throughout 2012 and early 2013. The audit included: telephone consultations with a range of stakeholders; analysis of monitoring and internal evaluation data; and attendance at two…

  17. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  18. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  19. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  20. Roles of laboratories and laboratory systems in effective tuberculosis programmes.

    PubMed

    Ridderhof, John C; van Deun, Armand; Kam, Kai Man; Narayanan, P R; Aziz, Mohamed Abdul

    2007-05-01

    Laboratories and laboratory networks are a fundamental component of tuberculosis (TB) control, providing testing for diagnosis, surveillance and treatment monitoring at every level of the health-care system. New initiatives and resources to strengthen laboratory capacity and implement rapid and new diagnostic tests for TB will require recognition that laboratories are systems that require quality standards, appropriate human resources, and attention to safety in addition to supplies and equipment. To prepare the laboratory networks for new diagnostics and expanded capacity, we need to focus efforts on strengthening quality management systems (QMS) through additional resources for external quality assessment programmes for microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular diagnostics. QMS should also promote development of accreditation programmes to ensure adherence to standards to improve both the quality and credibility of the laboratory system within TB programmes. Corresponding attention must be given to addressing human resources at every level of the laboratory, with special consideration being given to new programmes for laboratory management and leadership skills. Strengthening laboratory networks will also involve setting up partnerships between TB programmes and those seeking to control other diseases in order to pool resources and to promote advocacy for quality standards, to develop strategies to integrate laboratories functions and to extend control programme activities to the private sector. Improving the laboratory system will assure that increased resources, in the form of supplies, equipment and facilities, will be invested in networks that are capable of providing effective testing to meet the goals of the Global Plan to Stop TB.

  1. Developments in veterinary herd health programmes on dairy farms: a review.

    PubMed

    Noordhuizen, J P; Wentink, G H

    2001-11-01

    This review article addresses some major developments in herd health programmes for dairy farms over the last decades. It focuses particularly on herd health and production management programmes that use protocols and monitoring activities. The article further emphasizes the need for merging herd health programmes with quantitative epidemiological principles and methods. Subsequently, this article points to the latest developments regarding quality assurance in the dairy sector and some quality management methods. Quality should be regarded in its broadest sense. The importance of integrating veterinary herd health programmes and quality (risk) management support at a dairy farm level is stressed. Examples are provided.

  2. Hepatitis B immunisation programmes in European Union, Norway and Iceland: where we were in 2009?

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Lopalco, Pierluigi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Giambi, Cristina; Johansen, Kari; Dematte, Luca; Salmaso, Stefania; Stefanoff, Pawel; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2010-06-17

    In January 2009 25 European Union (EU) Member States (MSs), Norway and Iceland, participated in a survey seeking information on national hepatitis B vaccination programmes. Details of vaccination policy, schedule, population groups targeted for vaccination, programme funding, vaccine coverage and methods of monitoring of vaccine coverage were obtained. Twenty (74%) countries reported that they have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, in addition to immunisation of at risk groups; seven (26%) countries recommend HBV for high risk groups only (with some inter-country variation on groups considered at high risk). Among countries without universal hepatitis B vaccination programmes, the major factor for non-introduction is low disease endemicity.

  3. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  4. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  5. Shape-programmable macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Schafmeister, Christian E; Brown, Zachary Z; Gupta, Sharad

    2008-10-01

    Proteins catalyze specific chemical reactions and carry out highly selective molecular recognition because they adopt well-defined three-dimensional structures and position chemically reactive functional groups in specific constellations. Proteins attain these well-defined structures through the complex process of protein folding. We seek to emulate these protein functions by constructing macromolecules that are easier to engineer by avoiding folding altogether. Toward that goal, we have developed an approach for the synthesis of macromolecules with programmable shapes. As described in this Account, we have constructed synthetic building blocks called bis-amino acids that we then couple through pairs of amide bonds to create water-soluble, spiroladder oligomers (bis-peptides) with well-defined three-dimensional structures. Bis-peptides use the conformational preferences of fused rings, stereochemistry, and strong covalent bonds to define their shape, unlike natural proteins and synthetic foldamers, which depend on noncovalent interactions and an unpredictable folding process to attain structure. Using these bis-amino acid monomers, we have built and characterized a number of bis-peptide nanostructures. We also constructed a molecular actuator that undergoes a large change in conformation under the control of metal exchange; the first application of bis-peptides. We are currently developing further approaches to functionalize bis-peptides as scaffolds to present well-defined constellations of functional groups. Such macromolecules could facilitate multifunctional catalysis and molecular recognition and lead to nanoscale molecular devices.

  6. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  7. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  8. Rotating Desk for Collaboration by Two Computer Programmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, John Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A special-purpose desk has been designed to facilitate collaboration by two computer programmers sharing one desktop computer or computer terminal. The impetus for the design is a trend toward what is known in the software industry as extreme programming an approach intended to ensure high quality without sacrificing the quantity of computer code produced. Programmers working in pairs is a major feature of extreme programming. The present desk design minimizes the stress of the collaborative work environment. It supports both quality and work flow by making it unnecessary for programmers to get in each other s way. The desk (see figure) includes a rotating platform that supports a computer video monitor, keyboard, and mouse. The desk enables one programmer to work on the keyboard for any amount of time and then the other programmer to take over without breaking the train of thought. The rotating platform is supported by a turntable bearing that, in turn, is supported by a weighted base. The platform contains weights to improve its balance. The base includes a stand for a computer, and is shaped and dimensioned to provide adequate foot clearance for both users. The platform includes an adjustable stand for the monitor, a surface for the keyboard and mouse, and spaces for work papers, drinks, and snacks. The heights of the monitor, keyboard, and mouse are set to minimize stress. The platform can be rotated through an angle of 40 to give either user a straight-on view of the monitor and full access to the keyboard and mouse. Magnetic latches keep the platform preferentially at either of the two extremes of rotation. To switch between users, one simply grabs the edge of the platform and pulls it around. The magnetic latch is easily released, allowing the platform to rotate freely to the position of the other user

  9. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  10. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  11. Introducing a new monitoring manual for home fortification and strengthening capacity to monitor nutrition interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D.; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lack of monitoring capacity is a key barrier for nutrition interventions and limits programme management, decision making and programme effectiveness in many low-income and middle-income countries. A 2011 global assessment reported lack of monitoring capacity was the top barrier for home fortification interventions, such as micronutrient powders or lipid-based nutrient supplements. A Manual for Developing and Implementing Monitoring Systems for Home Fortification Interventions was recently disseminated. It is comprehensive and describes monitoring concepts and frameworks and includes monitoring tools and worksheets. The monitoring manual describes the steps of developing and implementing a monitoring system for home fortification interventions, including identifying and engaging stakeholders; developing a programme description including logic model and logical framework; refining the purpose of the monitoring system, identifying users and their monitoring needs; describing the design of the monitoring system; developing indicators; describing the core components of a comprehensive monitoring plan; and considering factors related to stage of programme development, sustainability and scale up. A fictional home fortification example is used throughout the monitoring manual to illustrate these steps. The monitoring manual is a useful tool to support the development and implementation of home fortification intervention monitoring systems. In the context of systematic capacity gaps to design, implement and monitor nutrition interventions in many low-income and middle-income countries, the dissemination of new tools, such as monitoring manuals may have limited impact without additional attention to strengthening other individual, organisational and systems levels capacities. PMID:24784541

  12. Introducing a new monitoring manual for home fortification and strengthening capacity to monitor nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Lack of monitoring capacity is a key barrier for nutrition interventions and limits programme management, decision making and programme effectiveness in many low-income and middle-income countries. A 2011 global assessment reported lack of monitoring capacity was the top barrier for home fortification interventions, such as micronutrient powders or lipid-based nutrient supplements. A Manual for Developing and Implementing Monitoring Systems for Home Fortification Interventions was recently disseminated. It is comprehensive and describes monitoring concepts and frameworks and includes monitoring tools and worksheets. The monitoring manual describes the steps of developing and implementing a monitoring system for home fortification interventions, including identifying and engaging stakeholders; developing a programme description including logic model and logical framework; refining the purpose of the monitoring system, identifying users and their monitoring needs; describing the design of the monitoring system; developing indicators; describing the core components of a comprehensive monitoring plan; and considering factors related to stage of programme development, sustainability and scale up. A fictional home fortification example is used throughout the monitoring manual to illustrate these steps. The monitoring manual is a useful tool to support the development and implementation of home fortification intervention monitoring systems. In the context of systematic capacity gaps to design, implement and monitor nutrition interventions in many low-income and middle-income countries, the dissemination of new tools, such as monitoring manuals may have limited impact without additional attention to strengthening other individual, organisational and systems levels capacities.

  13. Programmable control means for providing safe and controlled medication infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An implantable programmable infusion pump (IPIP) is disclosed and generally includes: a fluid reservoir filled with selected medication; a pump for causing a precise volumetric dosage of medication to be withdrawn from the reservoir and delivered to the appropriate site within the body; and, a control means for actuating the pump in a safe and programmable manner. The control means includes a microprocessor, a permanent memory containing a series of fixed software instructions, and a memory for storing prescription schedules, dosage limits and other data. The microprocessor actuates the pump in accordance with programmable prescription parameters and dosage limits stored in the memory. A communication link allows the control means to be remotely programmed. The control means incorporates a running integral dosage limit and other safety features which prevent an inadvertent or intentional medication overdose. The control means also monitors the pump and fluid handling system and provides an alert if any improper or potentially unsafe operation is detected.

  14. Technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    St John, T J; Cassata, J R; Blake, P K; Wallace, W H; Minniti, R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) quality programme. The Navy has been formally monitoring personnel for occupational exposure to ionising radiation since at least 1946. The current system, the DT-702/PD, is the Harshaw 8840 holder and 8841 card. New card and holder checks are performed to verify that the correct LiF elements and holder filters are in the correct location and are of the correct composition. Element correction coefficient (ECC) magnitude and repeatability are also verified. Several quality assurance parameters are checked by a specially designed shipping machine. Calibration cards are used to calibrate each reader and quality control cards are inserted throughout a group of field cards to verify reader operation during the read process. The success of the programme is measured by annual proficiency tests administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Programme and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories.

  15. The United Nations programme on space applications: priority thematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held in 1999 with efforts to identify world wide benefits of developing space science and technology, particularly in the developing nations. One of the main vehicles to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III is the United Nations Programme on Space Applications of the Office for Outer Space Affairs at UN Headquarters in Vienna. Following a process of prioritization by Member States, the Programme focus its activities on (i) knowledge-based themes as space law and basic space science, (ii) application-based themes as disaster management, natural resources management, environmental monitoring, tele-health, and (iii) enabling technologies such as remote sensing satellites, communications satellites, global navigation satellite systems, and small satellites. Current activities of the Programme will be reviewed. Further information available at http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/sapidx.html

  16. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  17. ESA's Living Planet Programme: The Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA's) Living Planet Programme marks the beginning of a new chapter in European led Earth Observation, based on focussed science user-driven missions. The Earth Explorer missions seek to advance the understanding of complex Earth system processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Each of the Explorer missions is adapted to address a specific scientific problem whilst at the same time building on the heritage of, and the experience gained from a decade of successful continuous scientific obervations made by the larger ERS-1, and -2 and Envisat missions. The Living Planet Programme's Explorer line of smaller and focused missions is also complemented by a parallel line of applications-driven Earth Watch missions address mature operational applications and the provision of services. Specifically, the science-driven Explorer missions are designed to further the demonstration of new satellite-based observing techniques that will allow us to develop our knowledge of the Earth system. Four new missions are currently under development, that will soon begin a sequence of launches beginning in 2004 with CryoSat. Several new mission concepts are also undergoing detailed study, with subsequent consideration for approval. The existing approved missions seek to measure: climate-induced changes in polar terrestrial and sea ice masses; a high resolution Earth gravity field; vertical wind vector profiles; and soil moisture and ocean salinity. Mission concepts under study address a broad array of Earth processes from Earth's magnetic field through stratospheric chemistry to terrestrial vegetation. The Explorers employ a wide array of technologies such as lidars for the sensing of clouds, winds, water vapour and other atmospheric constituents; radars for ice and ocean topography, land and ocean monitoring, cloud profiling and rain monitoring; passive instruments covering the UV through far infrared, including

  18. French space programmes related to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

    The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

  19. Owl: Next Generation System Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M; White, B S; McKee, S A; Lee, H S; Jeitner, J

    2005-02-16

    As microarchitectural and system complexity grows, comprehending system behavior becomes increasingly difficult, and often requires obtaining and sifting through voluminous event traces or coordinating results from multiple, non-localized sources. Owl is a proposed framework that overcomes limitations faced by traditional performance counters and monitoring facilities in dealing with such complexity by pervasively deploying programmable monitoring elements throughout a system. The design exploits reconfigurable or programmable logic to realize hardware monitors located at event sources, such as memory buses. These monitors run and writeback results autonomously with respect to the CPU, mitigating the system impact of interrupt-driven monitoring or the need to communicate irrelevant events to higher levels of the system. The monitors are designed to snoop any kind of system transaction, e.g., within the core, on a bus, across the wire, or within I/O devices.

  20. Establishing a workplace antiretroviral therapy programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, S; Grant, A D; Day, J H; Pemba, L; Chaisson, R E; Kruger, P; Martin, D; Wood, R; Brink, B; Churchyard, G J

    2007-01-01

    Ways to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low income settings are being sought. We describe an HIV care programme including ART in an industrial setting in South Africa. The programme uses guidelines derived from local and international best practice. The training component aims to build capacity among health care staff. Nurses and doctors are supported by experienced HIV clinicians through telephone consultation and site visits. Patients undergo a three-stage counselling procedure prior to starting ART. Drug regimens and monitoring are standardised and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (isoniazid and cotrimoxazole) is offered routinely. Laboratory and pharmacy services, using named-patient dispensing, are centralized. The programme is designed to ensure that data on clinical and economic outcomes will be available for programme evaluation. Between November 2002-December 2004, ART delivery has been established at 70 ART workplace ART sites. The sites range from 200 to 12000 employees, and from small occupational health clinics and general practitioner rooms to larger hospital clinics. During this period, 2456 patients began ART. Of those on treatment for at least three months, 1728 (78%) have been retained on the programme and only 38 (1.7%) patients have failed the first-line ART regimen. This model for delivery of ART is feasible and successful in an industrial setting. The model may be generalizable to other employment health services in settings of high HIV prevalence, and as a model for implementing ART in other types of health-care settings.

  1. A situation analysis of the menstrual regulation programme in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Syeda Nahid Mukith; Moni, Dipu

    2004-11-01

    Menstrual regulation (MR) using vacuum aspiration is widely available in Bangladesh through public, NGO and private sector facilities, even though abortion is illegal except to save a woman's life. For more than two decades the MR programme was run as a vertical programme. In 1998 the Government of Bangladesh introduced the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP) incorporating menstrual regulation into the essential services package. This paper reports a situation analysis of the MR Programme under the HPSP, using the World Health Organization rapid evaluation methodology. In spite of wide availability, barriers such as distance to health facilities and transportation costs, unofficial fees, lack of privacy, confidentiality and cleanliness in public health facilities, and in some cases attitudes of service providers, are limiting access to MR services. Quality of care is compromised by inadequacies in infection control and in provider training and counselling. Health system weaknesses include gross under-reporting of cases by providers who do not wish to share unofficial fees, which affects monitoring and adequate provision of supplies. The HPSP has caused uncertainty regarding supervision in public sector facilities, and adversely affected training by NGOs and government-NGO coordination. Services in part of the NGO sector have also been affected by funding changes. To make the programme as a whole more effective, all these issues have to be addressed.

  2. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  3. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  4. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  5. Present status of the Copernicus programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutz, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) has established the Copernicus Programme, formerly named GMES; an Earth monitoring user-driven initiative carried out in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA) and EU/ESA Member States. Copernicus is designed to ensure continuous provision of reliable data and information on environment and security related services, primarily to users responsible for making, implementing and monitoring the relevant policies in the EU and its Member States. The Copernicus services rely on in-situ sensors and satellite data, the latter being provided by the Copernicus Space Component (CSC). ESA is responsible for coordinating the CSC, i.e. the Sentinel Missions and the access to data from Contributing Missions, in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The first dedicated Copernicus satellite mission, Sentinel-1A, was successfully launched on 3rd April 2014. After completion of the Commissioning Phase (23 September 2014), the operations ramp-up phase started. This phase consists of a gradual ground segment system deployment and user product quality verification/calibration. During this phase the data provision has been extended. The remaining activities will be achieved before the Sentinel-1A Routine Operations Readiness Review, expected to take place in May 2015. This milestone will mark the completion of the mission operations qualification and the start of the routine operations of the satellite. The Full Operational Capability will be reached when two units of Sentinel-1 will enter routine operations simultaneously. The next Sentinel missions, starting with the first unit of Sentinel-2 expected to be launched in May 2015, will be launched within the next years and will be progressively covering all domains of Earth Observation. The successful uptake of the operational phase of the Copernicus Space Component, and the full economic benefits of the Copernicus programme will materialise only when the wealth of data from the whole series of Sentinel satellites

  6. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  7. Klein's programme and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Gallardo, Jesús; Marmo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    We review the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics to identify, according to Klein's programme, the corresponding group of transformations. For closed systems, it is the unitary group. For open quantum systems, the semigroup of Kraus maps contains, as a maximal subgroup, the general linear group. The same group emerges as the exponentiation of the C*-algebra associated with the quantum system, when thought of as a Lie algebra. Thus, open quantum systems seem to identify the general linear group as associated with quantum mechanics and moreover suggest to extend the Klein programme also to groupoids. The usual unitary group emerges as a maximal compact subgroup of the general linear group.

  8. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  9. Strategising for the future Indian EO programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Kalyanraman, S.; Joseph, George; Navalgund, R. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-07-01

    The Indian Earth Observations Program, over the past three decades, has been mainly driven by the national need of natural resources management, infrastructure development, environment monitoring and disaster management support. With an array of seven Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), national development support has been supported, through a well-knit institutional framework of a National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), a wide variety of applications developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The future Earth Observation Systems will have to take into consideration the aspects related to the commercialisation and standardisation of programmes world-over; transitioning into a business environment; data continuity and the need to monitor processes rather than events. Technological changes are also going to re-define many of the concepts of observation from space and issues like spatial resolution, spectral resolution and temporal resolution may no more be a concern for observation systems. ISRO is presently defining a strategy for the Indian EO Programme that will chart the progress with a vision for the next 25 years. Based on a thorough analysis, the observation needs of the future are planned and presently systems design and implementation are underway. The Need Analysis has been done keeping in mind the Global change applications; Mapping and Cartographic applications; Natural Resources and Environmental management applications etc. Issues related to defining the space and data acquisition as a national "public good", costing of data products and services and evolving a commercial remote sensing policy have been addressed for providing the overall thrust of the Indian Earth Observations program. The paper discusses the strategy adopted for assessing the future user requirements

  10. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  11. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  12. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  13. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Yang, Shu; Yi, Yun Kyu; Kamien, Randall D; Yin, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy-saving buildings, is discussed.

  14. Food contamination monitoring in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Capak, K; Katalenić, M; Barisin, A

    2001-06-01

    The Croatian National Institute of Public Health Implements the statistical food safety monitoring programme for foods marketed in Croatia in accordance with effective laws and regulations. Laboratories for food safety control, certified by the Ministry of Health, report their findings in quarterly notifications, using the standard forms and issue statements of compliance or non-compliance with current regulations, specifying the cause in case of the latter. This paper brings the results for the period 1993-99 as an illustration of the monitoring programme.

  15. Population genetic screening programmes: principles, techniques, practices, and policies.

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; ten Kate, Leo; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the principles, techniques, practices, and policies that impact on the population genetic screening programmes in Europe. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding potential screening programmes, which require further discussion before their introduction. It aims to increase, among the health-care professions and health policy-makers, awareness of the potential screening programmes as an issue of increasing concern to public health. The methods comprised primarily the review of the existing professional guidelines, regulatory frameworks and other documents related to population genetic screening programmes in Europe. Then, the questions that need debate, in regard to different types of genetic screening before and after birth, were examined. Screening for conditions such as cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, familial hypercholesterolemia, fragile X syndrome, hemochromatosis, and cancer susceptibility was discussed. Special issues related to genetic screening were also examined, such as informed consent, family aspects, commercialization, the players on the scene and monitoring genetic screening programmes. Afterwards, these questions were debated by 51 experts from 15 European countries during an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 19-20, November, 1999. Arguments for and against starting screening programmes have been put forward. It has been questioned whether genetic screening differs from other types of screening and testing in terms of ethical issues. The general impression on the future of genetic screening is that one wants to 'proceed with caution', with more active impetus from the side of patients' organizations and more reluctance from the policy-makers. The latter try to obviate the potential problems about the abortion and eugenics issues that might be perceived as a

  16. The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Enarson, D A; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Hoa, N B; Tweya, H; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Tayler-Smith, K; Manzi, M; Khogali, M; Kizito, W; Ali, E; Delaunois, P; Reeder, J C

    2014-06-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally, it could act as an observatory to monitor and evaluate operational research in public health. Criteria for prospective partners wishing to join SORT IT have been drawn up.

  17. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using

  18. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  19. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  20. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  1. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  2. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  3. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  4. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  5. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  9. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  10. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monica; Rudge, James W; Adisasmito, Wiku; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in financing the response to HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) in Indonesia. As part of a series of case studies, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of Global Fund portfolios into the national HIV and TB programmes, integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support on the health care system in Indonesia. The study relied on a literature review and interviews with 22 key informants using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund programmes in Indonesia are highly vertical and centralized, in contrast with the decentralized nature of the Indonesian health system. Consequently, there is more integration of all functions at local levels than centrally. There is a high level of integration of planning of Global Fund HIV and TB portfolios into the National AIDS and TB programmes and some limited integration of these programmes with other disease programmes, through joint working groups. Other synergies include strengthening of stewardship and governance and increased staff recruitment encouraged by incentive payments and training. Monitoring and evaluation functions of the Global Fund programmes are not integrated with the disease programmes, with parallel indicators and reporting systems. System-wide effects include greater awareness of governance and stewardship in response to the temporary suspension of Global Fund funding in 2008, and increased awareness of the need to integrate programme planning, financing and service delivery. Global Fund investment has freed up resources for other programmes, particularly at local levels. However, this may hinder a robust exit strategy from Global Fund funding. Furthermore, Global Fund monetary incentives may result in staff shifting into HIV and TB programmes.

  11. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  12. [BINet programme as a standard of modern health policy].

    PubMed

    Hryniewicz, Waleria; Jackowska, Teresa; Skoczyńska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases--despite significant progress, both in their management and prevention--are becoming an increasingly serious problem, and their extent and character frequently constitute a threat for public health. In addition, a significant part of medical decisions regarding treatment and prevention of invasive bacterial infections is not made on the basis of the etiological agent of infection, which increases the chance of therapeutic failures, and makes the right decisions regarding prophylaxis difficult. In June 2008 the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis (Krajowy Ośrodek Referencyjny ds. Diagnostyki Bakteryjnych Zakazeń Ośrodkowego Układu Nerwowego, KOROUN) started the BINet programme, which is a network monitoring invasive bacterial infections acquired outside the hospital. The programme aims to improve the diagnostic and thus therapeutic standards, in community acquired invasive bacterial infections in Poland. The BINet programme is based on the cooperation of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and is headed by a team of the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The BINet programme enables quick and appropriate microbiological diagnosis of infections which is the basis of rational therapy and plays a key role in dealing with the infected patient. In addition, accurate epidemiological data allow to take quick and effective preventive measures at local and national level.

  13. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  14. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  15. Evaluation of commercial programmable floating gate devices as radiation dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, R.; Matheson, J.; Weber, M.; Giulio Villani, E.; Bose, R.; Khan, A.; Smith, D. R.; Adil-Smith, I.; Gabrielli, A.

    2009-02-01

    Programmable floating gate MOSFET transistors were tested with gamma radiation with doses up to approximately 100Gy (air equivalent), to evaluate their suitability as dosimeters in radiotherapy. After characterization and programming at different threshold voltages, the devices were irradiated and their Vgs shift with dose monitored in real time. Post-irradiation analysis was carried out to evaluate sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility and voltage threshold annealing. A subsequent re-programming phase followed by characterization was performed to asses their post-irradiation charge restoring capabilities. It was found that up to 73% of the initial maximum threshold voltage could be recovered. A sensitivity of up to 9 mV/Gy with an uncertainty of less than 1%, an excellent linearity up to the maximum programmable threshold voltage and low noise suggest the use of this technology for in vivo dosimetry applications.

  16. Pharmacovigilance Programme of India: Recent developments and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Thota, Prasad; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Promoting safe use of medicines is a priority of Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission that functions as the National Coordination Center (NCC) for Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI). One hundred and seventy-nine adverse drug reactions (ADRs) monitoring centers currently report ADRs to NCC. Current India contribution to global safety database reaches 3% and the completeness score is 0.93 out of 1. NCC is taking several measures to enhance patient safety including capacity building for monitoring, surveillance, collaboration with national health programs and other organizations to increase ADR reporting and to ensure that PvPI is a vital knowledge database for Indian regulators. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization has notified important safety label changes on drugs such as carbamazepine and piperacillin + tazobactam in the year 2015, other drugs are under monitoring for regulatory interventions. PMID:28066097

  17. Nonvolatile, electrically erasable programmable ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dessouky, A.

    1984-01-01

    The processing technology for integration of MNOS-EEPROMs and NMOS Logic was investigated as p-well isolation. Memory characteristics of both Si gate and metal gate MNOS devices are investigated for nitride constitution which aims for lower programming voltages and good memory performance. The complete fabrication process for 128 byte SNOS-EEPROM chip is described by using high voltage depletion MOS devices in p-well technology. Another test vehicle uses 4 x 4 metal gate MNOS array to demonstrate possible fabrication of 12 V programmable scaled MNOS devices with 10 years retention after 10 to the 5th power endurance.

  18. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  19. Toxicological programmes and teaching methods.

    PubMed

    Bergendorff, A

    2000-03-15

    Toxicological knowledge is required for three main purposes: basic and applied research, toxicity testing, and risk assessment. Curricula and teaching methods designed to meet these demands for knowledge are aimed at appropriation of relevant facts, appreciation of causality and an overall understanding of biological events caused by chemical substances. The Toxicology Programme at Karolinska Institutet is considered as an example for the design of appropriate courses. Teaching methods developed towards more self-tuition are becoming a natural part of such education. Continued escalation in scientific achievements and demands for safe use of chemicals will govern future trends in toxicological education.

  20. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  1. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  2. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  3. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2014, 4,804 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 5.4% of isolates, a lower proportion than that reported in the AGSP 2013 annual report (8.8%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (7.1% and 6.6% respectively). The proportion of strains resistant to penicillin in urban and rural Australia ranged from 11% in South Australia to 43% in New South Wales. In rural and remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remained low (1.5%). In remote Western Australia relatively low numbers of strains are available for testing, however there is now widespread molecular testing for penicillin resistance in Western Australia to monitor resistance and inform guidelines and, for first time, these data are included in the AGSP annual report. Quinolone resistance ranged from 27% in the urban and rural areas of the Northern Territory, to 44% in the Australian Capital Territory, and quinolone resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote areas of the Northern Territory (3.1%) and remote areas of Western Australia (5.6%). Azithromycin resistance ranged from 0.5% in South Australia to 5.3% in rural and urban Western Australia. High rates were also reported from the Australian Capital Territory but relatively low numbers were tested. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was again reported in 2014, in 2 strains from New South Wales. No resistance was reported from the Northern Territory, or remote Western Australia.

  4. Postcode Lotteries in Public Health - The NHS Health Checks Programme in North West London

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postcode lotteries in health refer to differences in health care between different geographic areas. These have been previously associated with clinical services. However there has been little documentation of postcode lotteries relating to preventative health care services. This paper describes a postcode lottery effect in relation to the NHS Health Checks Programme (a national cardiovascular screening programme in England) in eight PCTs in the North West sector of London. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional analysis of the Health Checks Programme was carried out in eight PCTs in North West London using a structured data-collecting instrument. Results The analysis found variation in the implementation of the national Health Checks Programme in terms of: the screening approach taken; the allocated budget (which varied from £69,000 to £1.4 million per 100,000 eligible population); payment rates made to providers of Health Checks; tools used to identify and measure risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes; monitoring and evaluation; and preventative services available following the health check. Conclusions This study identifies a postcode lottery effect related to a national public health programme. Although it is important to allow enough flexibility in the design of the Health Checks Programme so that it fits in with local factors, aspects of the programme may benefit from greater standardisation or stronger national guidance. PMID:21955810

  5. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme monitors antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in all states and territories. In 2010 the in vitro susceptibility of 3,997 isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources was determined by standardised methods. Varying antibiotic susceptibility patterns were again reported across jurisdictions and regions. Resistance to the penicillins nationally was 29% and, with the exception of the Northern Territory, ranged from 22% in Queensland to 42% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance, most at high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, was 35% nationally (excepting the Northern Territory), ranging from 28% in Queensland to 44% in Victoria. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.06 mg/L or more), was found nationally in 4.8% of isolates. There has not been an isolate of N. gonorrhoeae with an MIC value greater than 0.125 mg/L reported in Australia. Nationally, all isolates remained sensitive to spectinomycin. Azithromycin surveillance was performed in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, and resistance was found in low numbers of gonococci with MIC values up to 16 mg/L. In larger urban centres the ratio of male to female cases was high, and rectal and pharyngeal isolates were common in men. In other centres, and in rural Australia, the male to female ratio of cases was lower, and most isolates were from the genital tract.

  6. Quality assurance of medical education in the Netherlands: programme or systems accreditation?

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, Harry F. P.

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation is an instrument that is used worldwide to monitor, maintain and improve the quality of medical education. International standards have been defined to be used in reviewing and evaluating the quality of education. The organization and the process of accreditation of medical education programmes in the Netherlands and in Flanders are described in some detail. Accreditation can be based on the results of a detailed assessment of an educational programme or on an evaluation of the educational system and the organization of the institution in question. The Flemish-Dutch accreditation organization (NAO) is moving from programme accreditation towards a combination of programme and systems accreditation. The pros and cons of these two approaches are discussed. PMID:21818192

  7. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes.

  8. Rapid climate change: scientific challenges and the new NERC programme.

    PubMed

    Srokosz, M A

    2003-09-15

    In this paper the scientific challenges of observing, modelling, understanding and predicting rapid changes in climate are discussed, with a specific focus on the role of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The palaeo and present-day observational and modelling studies being carried out to meet these challenges, under the aegis of a new NERC Rapid Climate Change thematic programme (RAPID), are outlined. In particular, the paper describes the work being done to monitor changes in the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic. The paper concludes with some speculative comments about potential mechanisms for rapid changes.

  9. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  10. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  11. Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Viali, Satupaitea; Saena, Puleiala; Futi, Vailogoua

    2011-02-11

    Rheumatic fever is very common in Samoa. The following paper describes the Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa and looks at the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The incidence of ARF has decreased to 30 per 100,000 in 2005, 12.8 per 100,000 in 2007, 7.3 per 100,000 in 2008, and 9.5 per 100,000 in 2009. The incidence of RHD has decreased to 40.2 per 100,000 in 2007, 34 per 100,000 in 2008, and 31.8 per 100,000 in 2009. Cardiac surgery in New Zealand is expensive, but is cheaper to perform in Samoa. RHD screening with echocardiogram at schools may be the best way to reduce the burden and suffering from RHD.

  12. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  13. Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

  14. Research Active Programme: A Pilot Inclusive Research Curriculum in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Nancy; García Iriarte, Edurne; Burns, Emma Q.

    2017-01-01

    Participation of people with disabilities in producing and using research is critical for monitoring the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The Research Active Programme (RAP) is a module designed to build research capacity of students with intellectual disabilities. RAP was…

  15. "Inclusion in Practice": Programme Practices in Mainstream Preschool Classrooms and Associations with Context and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…

  16. Rational Emotive Behavior Based on Academic Procrastination Prevention: Training Programme of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Düsmez, Ihsan; Barut, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The research is an experimental study which has experimental and control groups, and based on pre-test, post-test, monitoring test model. Research group consists of second and third grade students of Primary School Education and Psychological Counseling undergraduate programmes in Giresun University Faculty of Educational Sciences. The research…

  17. Intervention Programmes in Mathematics and Literacy: Teaching Assistants' Perceptions of Their Training and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Croucher, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We approach the recent argument put in this journal that teaching assistants (TAs) should be more strongly trained, monitored and supervised when teaching on intervention programmes. We suggest that the argument sits uneasily with wider management and educational literature. We examine TAs' experience of delivering important intervention…

  18. International Arctic Buoy Programme Data Report, 1 January 1998 - 31 December 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    This report presents data collected by the International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ) between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 1998. The network of...automatic data buoys deployed by the IABP monitors synoptic-scale fields of pressure, temperature, and ice motion throughout the Arctic Basin.

  19. International Arctic Buoy Programme Data Report 1 January 1999 - 31 December 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    This report presents data collected by the International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ) between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. The network of...automatic data buoys deployed by the IABP monitors synoptic-scale fields of pressure, temperature, and ice motion throughout the Arctic Basin.

  20. International Arctic Buoy Programme Data Report, 1 January 2001 - 31 December 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    This report presents data collected by the International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ) between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2001. The network of...automatic data buoys deployed by the IABP monitors synoptic-scale fields of pressure temperature and ice notion throughout the Arctic Basin.

  1. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  2. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  3. Using Programmable Calculators to Evaluate Complicated Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    The application of the programmable calculator to evaluating complicated formulas is illustrated by considering the formula for finding the area of any triangle when only the lengths of the three sides are known. Other advantages of the programmable calculator are discussed such as freeing the student to explore more challenging problems and…

  4. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  5. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  6. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  7. A modularized pulse programmer for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenping; Bao, Qingjia; Yang, Liang; Chen, Yiqun; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Jianqing; Ye, Chaohui

    2011-02-01

    A modularized pulse programmer for a NMR spectrometer is described. It consists of a networked PCI-104 single-board computer and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The PCI-104 is dedicated to translate the pulse sequence elements from the host computer into 48-bit binary words and download these words to the FPGA, while the FPGA functions as a sequencer to execute these binary words. High-resolution NMR spectra obtained on a home-built spectrometer with four pulse programmers working concurrently demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulse programmer. Advantages of the module include (1) once designed it can be duplicated and used to construct a scalable NMR/MRI system with multiple transmitter and receiver channels, (2) it is a totally programmable system in which all specific applications are determined by software, and (3) it provides enough reserve for possible new pulse sequences.

  8. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  9. Factors influencing implementation of the Ministry of Health-led private medicine retailer programmes on malaria in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kenya has experienced a number of retail sector initiatives aimed at improving access to antimalarial medicines. This study explored stakeholders' perceptions of the role of private medicine retailers (PMRs), the value and feasibility of programme goals, perceived programme impact, factors influencing implementation and recommendations in three districts of Kenya. Methods This study was part of a larger evaluation of PMR programmes, including quantitative and qualitative components. The qualitative research was conducted to assess implementation processes and actors' experiences in the programmes, through focus group discussions with trained PMRs and mothers of children under five years, and in-depth interviews with programme managers, trainers and co-trainers. Results PMRs were perceived to provide rapid cheap treatment for non-serious conditions and used as a deliberate and continuously evaluated choice between different treatment sources. All stakeholders supported programme goals and most PMRs described increased customer satisfaction, more rational purchasing of medicine stock and increased medicine sales after participation. Factors undermining programme implementation included a lack of MoH resources to train and monitor large numbers of PMRs, the relative instability of outlets, medicines stocked and retail personnel, the large number of proprietary brands and financial challenges to retailers in stocking antimalarial medicines, and their customers in buying them. Unambiguous national support and a broad range of strategies are important to strengthen the feasibility of change in OTC antimalarial use. Conclusions Understanding the context and implementation processes of PMR programmes and the perspectives of key actors are critical to identifying measures to support their effective implementation. Financial barriers underlie many described challenges, with important implications for policies on subsidies in this sector. In spite of barriers to

  10. Improving access to dental care for vulnerable children; further development of the Back2School programme in 2013.

    PubMed

    Simons, D; Pearson, N; Evans, P; Wallace, T; Eke, M; Wright, D

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a service evaluation of a dental treatment programme providing care to children not normally taken to the dentist. It explains the extension of the Back2School programme from the pilot phase and assesses if a mobile dental unit (MDU) can provide a high quality service. The public health competencies it illustrates include oral health improvement, developing and monitoring quality dental services, and collaborative working.

  11. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  12. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-31

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.

  13. ACS CCDs daily monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirianni, Marco

    2006-07-01

    This program consists of a set of basic tests to monitor, the read noise, thedevelopment of hot pixels and test for any source of noise in ACS CCDdetectors. The files, biases and dark will be used to create referencefiles for science calibration. This programme will be for the entire lifetime of ACS.For cycle 15 the program will cover 18 months 12.1.06->05.31.08and it has been divied into three different proposal each covering six months.The three poroposal are 11041-11042-11043.

  14. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Finnish Action Programme, interim report.

    PubMed

    Pietinalho, A; Kinnula, V L; Sovijärvi, A R A; Vilkman, S; Säynäjäkangas, O; Liippo, K; Kontula, E; Laitinen, L A

    2007-07-01

    The Finnish National Prevention and Treatment Programme for Chronic Bronchitis and COPD, launched in 1998, has, to date, been running for 6 years (2003). The goals of this action programme were to reduce the incidence of COPD and the number of moderate and severe cases of the disease, and to reduce both the number of days of hospitalisation and treatment costs. A prevalent implementation of over 250 information and training events started. Health centres and pharmacies appointed a person in charge of COPD patients. In order to improve the cooperation between primary and specialised care, two thirds of hospital districts created local COPD treatment chains. The early diagnosis of COPD by spirometric examination was activated during the programme. Number of health centres with available spirometric services increased to 95%. Before the start of the programme, approximately 5-9% of the adult population had COPD. During the whole programme, the proportion of male and female smokers decreased from 30% to 26% and from 20% to 19%, respectively. The total number of hospitalisation periods and days due to COPD decreased by 15% and 18%, respectively. Both the number of pensioners and daily sickness days due to COPD also decreased by 18%. Registered COPD induced deaths remained at their previous levels during the monitoring period, i.e. around 1000 deaths out of 5.2 millions annually. The measures recommended by the programme have been widely introduced but they need to be still more effective.

  15. Mission reliability model programmers guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Joseph M.; Simonson, Jonathan H.; Veatch, Michael H.

    1986-12-01

    The Mission Reliability Model (MIREM) has been developed to evaluate the reliability and sustained operating capability of advanced electronic circuits during the early stages of development. MIREM is applicable to integrated systems that achieve fault tolerance through dynamic fault detection, fault isolation, and reconfiguration. The model can also be valuable in evaluating designs that employ only dedicated or hard-wired redundancy. The most unique feature of MIREM is its ability to accurately reflect the impact of reconfigurable, competing functions on system reliability. The user defines the resources necessary to support a required function, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), and the model will compute the probability of losing that functional capability over a certain operating time. A critical failure occurs when there is not a sufficient number of working resources to support a specified function. As an analytic model, MIREM determines a value for Mean Time Between Critical Failure, Mission Completion Success Probability, and Failure Resiliency. The MIREM Programmers Guide addresses the model's program structure, function of routines, interdependence of subprograms and common blocks, and file usage. The information needed to port the model to other computer systems is also provided.

  16. Lessons from a microfinance recapitalisation programme.

    PubMed

    Poston, Angus

    2010-04-01

    Following a major disaster, microfinance institutions (MFIs) often face high levels of bad debt, which may require the institutions to be recapitalised. This paper describes a recapitalisation programme implemented by the SANASA movement of Sri Lanka in 390 microfinance societies following the December 2004 tsunami, and highlights lessons for other similar programmes. MFI recapitalisation is a good use of funds in post-disaster situations. To create successful programmes, donors should expect to relax some of their usual project requirements and MFIs should focus on maintaining credit discipline.

  17. Safety programmes in the Egyptian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Amr A G; Hanna, Ragaa S

    2007-12-01

    This study is aimed at exploring the nature of the safety programmes applied by large-size contractors operating in Egypt. Results revealed that safety programmes applied by those contractors were less formal than the programmes applied by their American counterparts. Only three contractors out of the surveyed sample had accident records broken down by projects, provided workers with formal safety orientation, and trained safety personnel on first-aid. The study recommended that reforms to the scheme of the employers' contribution to social insurance are necessary. This is meant to serve as a strong incentive for safety management.

  18. Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berens, Kalynnda

    2002-01-01

    Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.

  19. How to best measure the effectiveness of male human papillomavirus vaccine programmes?

    PubMed

    Garland, S M; Molesworth, E G; Machalek, D A; Cornall, A M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-09-01

    In many countries now, vaccination of young adolescent girls with prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines has been rolled out as a public health programme. In countries where coverage has been high, this has led to dramatic reductions in cervical high-grade precancerous lesions, as well as genital warts. A reduction in circulating vaccine-related HPV types has also been demonstrated. With the introduction of gender-neutral approaches incorporating universal vaccination of pre-adolescent boys in some countries, implementation of post-vaccine monitoring will be critical to evaluate the incremental impact of male vaccination. In contrast to cervical screening programmes, population-wide screening for HPV infection or related disease in males is not recommended; hence real-time monitoring of HPV vaccine effectiveness in males will require dedicated surveillance strategies. Monitoring the prevalence of circulating genital HPV types using a sentinel surveillance model could offer a good surrogate marker of early vaccine effectiveness in males. However, such an approach requires careful consideration of the most appropriate anatomical sites from which to collect specimens, the best sampling methods and the most sensitive assays to use. Additionally, in assessing an accurate measure of the impact of HPV vaccination in the male population, the effect of herd protection will need to be assessed, as most male programmes will commence in the setting of established female programmes. This poses an interesting epidemiological challenge.

  20. Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies

    PubMed Central

    Ezzati, M.; Utzinger, J.; Cairncross, S.; Cohen, A.; Singer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Monitoring and empirical evaluation are essential components of evidence based public health policies and programmes. Consequently, there is a growing interest in monitoring of, and indicators for, major environmental health risks, particularly in the developing world. Current large scale data collection efforts are generally disconnected from micro-scale studies in health sciences, which in turn have insufficiently investigated the behavioural and socioeconomic factors that influence exposure. Study design: A basic framework is proposed for development of indicators of exposure to environmental health risks that would facilitate the (a) assessment of the health effects of risk factors, (b) design and evaluation of interventions and programmes to deliver the interventions, and (c) appraisal and quantification of inequalities in health effects of risk factors, and benefits of intervention programmes and policies. Specific emphasis is put on the features of environmental risks that should guide the choice of indicators, in particular the interactions of technology, the environment, and human behaviour in determining exposure. The indicators are divided into four categories: (a) access and infrastructure, (b) technology, (c) agents and vectors, and (d) behaviour. The study used water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from solid fuels, urban ambient air pollution, and malaria as illustrative examples for this framework. Conclusions: Organised and systematic indicator selection and monitoring can provide an evidence base for design and implementation of more effective and equitable technological interventions, delivery programmes, and policies for environmental health risks in resource poor settings. PMID:15598721

  1. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

  2. Designing a catheter skills training programme.

    PubMed

    Logan, Karen

    Karen Logan describes how a team of continence advisers designed and implemented a training programme that allows local nurses to meet the national occupational standards and competencies in catheterisation and catheter care.

  3. Establishing a national universal vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Duma, R

    1995-01-01

    The collaborative efforts of healthcare providers, governmental policy and law makers and the public are often needed to provide the pressure necessary to establish a national universal vaccination programme. Key initiatives for those beginning to establish such a programme are the following: secure a scientific consensus or base of support; clarify relevance of the subject to all concerned; increase awareness of everyone (providers and consumers); recruit and involve influential people (angels) for support; seek out agendas within which to review the topic; generate cost-benefit data; encourage a consensus to be reached; identify legislative pathways to be used; convince politicians of the value of such a programme; request budgeting and funding; and, finally, follow up with surveillance studies to demonstrate the benefits of the programme.

  4. Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslam, R; Abdollahi, Z; Haghighi, F N

    2004-11-01

    Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health--and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals.

  5. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  6. Review of field-programmable analog arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulak, Glen; D'Mello, Dean R.

    1996-10-01

    The drive towards shorter design cycles for analog integrated circuits has given impetus to several developments in the area of field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs). Various approaches have been taken in implementing topological and parametric programmability of analog circuits. Recent extensions of this work have married FPAAs to their digital counterparts (FPGAs) along with data conversion interfaces, to form field-programmable mixed signal arrays (FPMAs). This survey paper reviews work to data in the area of programmable analog and mixed signal circuits. The body of work reviewed includes university and industrial research, commercial products and patents. A time-line of important achievements in the area is drawn and the status of various activities is summarized.

  7. Evaluation of a nurse leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    West, Margaret; Smithgall, Lisa; Rosler, Greta; Winn, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The challenge for nursing leaders responsible for workforce planning is to predict the knowledge, skills and abilities required to lead future healthcare delivery systems effectively. Succession planning requires a constant, competitive pool of qualified nursing leader candidates, and retention of those interested in career growth. Formal nursing leadership education in the United States is available through graduate education and professional nursing organisation programmes, such as the Emerging Nurse Leader Institute of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. However, there is also a need for local development programmes tailored to the needs of individual organisations. Leaders at Geisinger Health System, one of the largest rural health systems in the US, identified the need for an internal professional development scheme for nurses. In 2013 the Nurses Emerging as Leaders programme was developed to prepare nurse leaders for effective leadership and successful role transition. This article describes the programme and an evaluation of its effectiveness.

  8. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  9. The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: a review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adéle

    2014-01-01

    UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics. In 2011, after four years of debate, UNESCO decided not to draft a convention on human reproductive cloning, because consensus on the issue proved impossible. This article reviews the standard setting and capacity building activities of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme. While the Programme faces challenges common to most intergovernmental organizations, its achievements in expanding international law and building bioethics capacity should not be underestimated.

  10. The Case for Programmable Calculators in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    Programmable calculators are useful tools in the classroom that are often overlooked. This report gives examples of problems and activities that can be brought within the scope of such calculators. (MP)

  11. ESO Fellowship Programme 2006/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO awards several postdoctoral fellow-ships each year. The goal of these fel-lowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  12. Paramedir: A Tool for Programmable Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Performance analysis of parallel scientific applications is time consuming and requires great expertise in areas such as programming paradigms, system software, and computer hardware architectures. In this paper we describe a tool that facilitates the programmability of performance metric calculations thereby allowing the automation of the analysis and reducing the application development time. We demonstrate how the system can be used to capture knowledge and intuition acquired by advanced parallel programmers in order to be transferred to novice users.

  13. Firmware Modification Analysis in Programmable Logic Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    MODIFICATION ANALYSIS IN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Arturo M. Garcia Jr., B.S.S.E.C.A. Captain, USA Approved: //signed// Robert F. Mills , PhD...Matthew 5:37 v Acknowledgments My sincere gratitude to my committee for their guidance and teamwork which made this thesis possible. Dr. Mills ...2012. 2012. [5] Bolton, William. Programmable logic controllers. Newnes, 2009. [6] Boyer, Stuart . SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition 4th

  14. Monitoring 'monitoring' and evaluating 'evaluation': an ethical framework for monitoring and evaluation in public health.

    PubMed

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Indira Krishna, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of public health programmes. Since M&E is the backbone of public health programmes, ethical considerations are important in their conduct. Some of the key ethical considerations are avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining independence of judgement, maintaining fairness, transparency, full disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, respect, responsibility, accountability, empowerment and sustainability. There are several ethical frameworks in public health, but none focusing on the monitoring and evaluation process. There is a need to institutionalise the ethical review of M&E proposals. A theoretical framework for ethical considerations is proposed in this paper. This proposed theoretical framework can act as the blueprint for building the capacity of ethics committees to review M&E proposals. A case study is discussed in this context. After thorough field testing, this practical and field-based ethical framework can be widely used by donor agencies, M&E teams, institutional review boards and ethics committees.

  15. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  16. Relating the bivalve shellfish harvesting area classification criteria in the United States and European Union programmes.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Reese, R A

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the relative level of public health protection and regulating international trade. The relationship was investigated using both statistical modelling and simple compliance assessment on large international data sets of paired seawater and shellfish samples. The two approaches yielded the same conclusions: EU class A is more stringent than the US Approved category for all species; the US Restrictive standard is more restrictive than EU class B for some bivalve species. Therefore, the classifications under the two programmes are not exactly equivalent.

  17. Monitoring materials

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for effectively implementing alpha and/or beta and/or gamma monitoring of items or locations as desired. Indirect alpha monitoring by detecting ions generated by alpha emissions, in conjunction with beta and/or gamma monitoring is provided. The invention additionally provides for screening of items prior to alpha monitoring using beta and/or gamma monitoring, so as to ensure that the alpha monitoring apparatus is not contaminated by proceeding direct to alpha monitoring of a heavily contaminated item or location. The invention provides additional versatility in the emission forms which can be monitored, whilst maintaining accuracy and avoiding inadvertent contamination.

  18. Meeting Teacher Expectations in a DL Professional Development Programme--A Case Study for Sustained Applied Competence as Programme Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Cornè Gerda; Van Rensburg, Ona Janse; De Witt, Marike W.

    2016-01-01

    Meeting teacher expectations for a professional development programme (PDP) is expected to strengthen sustainable applied competence as programme outcome since teachers will be more motivated to apply the programme content in practice. A revised distance learning (DL) programme was augmented by a practical component comprising a work-integrated…

  19. RHrFPGA Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. B.; LaBel, K. A.; McCabe, J. F.; Gardner, G. A.; Lintz, J.; Ross, C.; Golke, K.; Burns, B.; Carts, M. A.; Kim, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the development of the Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array (RHrFPGA) are presented. The topics include: 1) Radiation Test Suite; 2) Testing Interface; 3) Test Configuration; 4) Facilities; 5) Test Programs; 6) Test Procedure; and 7) Test Results. A summary of heavy ion and proton testing is also included.

  20. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  1. A Taxonomy and Results from a Comprehensive Review of 28 Maternal Health Voucher Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Claudia M.; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Townsend, John W.; Nahed, Matta G.; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G.; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  2. Lessons learned from a sperm morphology quality control programme.

    PubMed

    Franken, D R; Kruger, T F

    2006-12-01

    Although sperm morphology is the sperm parameter that is consistently correlated with in vitro and in vivo fertilisation, its value is often challenged due to discrepancies in reports. As sperm morphology is subjectively evaluated, the outcome of the report is entirely based on the experience and technical skill of the laboratory technician responsible for semen analyses. The study aimed to record the value of quarterly monitoring and refresher courses on morphology reading skills of technicians over a period of 40 months. Nineteen individuals from 12 different andrology laboratories were enrolled to a sperm morphology quality control programme after initial training sessions. Five of the 19 participants attended annual refresher courses. Two limits of error, namely +/- 0.5 SD and +/- 0.2 SD scores, were used to record technician deviation from the reference laboratory. Fifteen of the 19 individuals (78%) consistently reported sperm morphology readings that were within the +/- 0.5 SD limits of error. Furthermore, five of the participants, who attended annual refresher training courses, consistently reported results that were within the +/- 0.2 SD limits of error. For the first time, it has been illustrated that excellent sperm morphology reading skills can be achieved and maintained by initial training sessions, followed up with a continuous external quality control programme and annual refresher courses.

  3. The Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme: the first five years.

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Cynthia B. E.; James, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    The Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (STEP) was launched in 1997 because the incidence of the disease had remained between 49 and 56 per 100,000 resident population for the preceding 10 years. STEP involves the following key interventions: directly observed therapy (DOT) in public primary health care clinics; monitoring of treatment progress and outcome for all cases by means of a National Treatment Surveillance Registry; and preventive therapy for recently infected close contacts of infectious tuberculosis cases. Among other activities are the revamping of the National Tuberculosis Notification Registry, the discontinuation of BCG revaccination for schoolchildren, the tightening up of defaulter tracing, and the education of the medical community and the public. Future plans include an outreach programme for specific groups of patients who are unable to attend their nearest public primary care clinics for DOT, the detention of infectious recalcitrant defaulters for treatment under the Infectious Diseases Act, the molecular fingerprinting of tuberculosis isolates, and targeted screening of high-risk groups. The incidence of tuberculosis fell from 57 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 48 per 100,000 in 1999 and continued to decline to 44 per 100,000 in 2001. With political will and commitment and the support of the medical community and the public it is hoped that STEP will achieve further progress towards the elimination of tuberculosis in Singapore. PMID:12764518

  4. Future delivery of the Drug Interventions Programme: do the benefits justify the costs?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Drug Interventions Programme is an initiative employed by the Home Office in 2003 to integrate the Criminal Justice System with drug treatment services with the ultimate goal of reducing acquisitive crime. Drug Action Teams employ this scheme on a local level by providing a broad range of services for misusers in the community. Although much attention has been placed on societal gains, there is an added benefit in improving the health outcomes of those referred. Opioid replacement therapy decreases illicit heroin use, reduces mortality and maintains contact with misusers allowing for psychosocial intervention. The Drug Interventions Programme provides direct access to such treatment in an otherwise high-risk and disengaged population. Anecdotal evidence of the programme is positive; with improved mental and physical health in offenders and a reduction in hospital admissions. However, monitoring health outcomes in offenders is challenging as long-term follow-up is difficult, poor compliance is an issue and coercive referrals may introduce a reporting bias. Drug Action Team services are cost-effective due a lower consumption of health and social care and reduced offending levels. The Drug Interventions Programme has been successful in maintaining offenders in treatment and the Home Office claim its role in reducing crime is cost-saving. Future delivery of the initiative is at risk due to spending reductions, competing interests and a focus towards payment by results. Opposition to future implementation of the Drug Interventions Programme must be met with evidence for its effectiveness in order to ensure its continued investment.

  5. Health system changes under pay-for-performance: the effects of Rwanda's national programme on facility inputs.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Diana K L; Sherry, Tisamarie B; Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) programmes have been introduced in numerous developing countries with the goal of increasing the provision and quality of health services through financial incentives. Despite the popularity of P4P, there is limited evidence on how providers achieve performance gains and how P4P affects health system quality by changing structural inputs. We explore these two questions in the context of Rwanda's 2006 national P4P programme by examining the programme's impact on structural quality measures drawn from international and national guidelines. Given the programme's previously documented success at increasing institutional delivery rates, we focus on a set of delivery-specific and more general structural inputs. Using the programme's quasi-randomized roll-out, we apply multivariate regression analysis to short-run facility data from the 2007 Service Provision Assessment. We find positive programme effects on the presence of maternity-related staff, the presence of covered waiting areas and a management indicator and a negative programme effect on delivery statistics monitoring. We find no effects on a set of other delivery-specific physical resources, delivery-specific human resources, delivery-specific operations, general physical resources and general human resources. Using mediation analysis, we find that the positive input differences explain a small and insignificant fraction of P4P's impact on institutional delivery rates. The results suggest that P4P increases provider availability and facility operations but is only weakly linked with short-run structural health system improvements overall.

  6. Piloting a national laboratory electronic programme status reporting system.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi; Motlonye, Bahule; Mpele, Nobantu; Glencross, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The NHLS performs close to 4 million CD4 tests per annum for the public sector in South Africa through a network of 60 CD4 testing laboratories. CD4 laboratory data provides an assessment of the number of patients on ART and HIV-positive patients in the pre-ART wellness programs. This study aims to develop a laboratory based Comprehensive Care, Management and Treatment of HIV and AIDS (CCMT) programme status reporting system for CD4 testing at three health facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district using a newly developed CCMT request form, the Laboratory Information System (LIMS) and Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). The study will generate monitoring and evaluation data to assist in the management of health facilities through a national electronic corporate data warehouse.

  7. Interpretation of digoxin blood levels by programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Manion, C V

    1978-08-01

    The usefulness of a computer algorithm, for a hand-held calculator, in the calculation of steady-state blood levels of digoxin was studied. The calculator was programmed using the Wagner-Northam steady-state equation. The program was tested on data obtained from the charts of 14 patients recieving digoxin. Blood levels of digoxin were determined by radioimmunoassay. In nine patients, the calculated values correlated well with measured values. In five patients, calculated values did not correlate with measured values; half-life was underestimated in two patients, a charting error was made with one patient and digoxin disappearance was suggested to be unusual in two patients. This study suggests that a measure of scientific precision in planning and monitoring of drug therapy regimens is possible using a programmable calculator.

  8. The SAS-3 programmable telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concept, system design and operation principles of the telemetry system developed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) are analyzed. The concept of programmable format selected for the SAS-3 represents an optical combination of the fixed format system of SAS-1 and SAS-2, and the adaptive format concept. The programmable telemetry system permits a very wide range of changes in the data sampling order by a ground control station, depending on the experimental requirements, so that the maximal amount of useful data can be returned from orbit. The programmable system also allows the data format to differ from one spacecraft to another without changing hardware. Attention is given to the command requirements and redundancy of the SAS-3 telemetry system.

  9. Programmable DNA-Mediated Multitasking Processor.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qi-Wen; Yong, Kian-Yan; Shao, Fangwei; Lee, Kee Jin

    2015-04-30

    Because of DNA appealing features as perfect material, including minuscule size, defined structural repeat and rigidity, programmable DNA-mediated processing is a promising computing paradigm, which employs DNAs as information storing and processing substrates to tackle the computational problems. The massive parallelism of DNA hybridization exhibits transcendent potential to improve multitasking capabilities and yield a tremendous speed-up over the conventional electronic processors with stepwise signal cascade. As an example of multitasking capability, we present an in vitro programmable DNA-mediated optimal route planning processor as a functional unit embedded in contemporary navigation systems. The novel programmable DNA-mediated processor has several advantages over the existing silicon-mediated methods, such as conducting massive data storage and simultaneous processing via much fewer materials than conventional silicon devices.

  10. Implementing neural nets with programmable logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.

  11. Radiation Effects on Current Field Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAS) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar y technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  12. The Schome Park Programme: Exploring Educational Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri

    The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.

  13. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  14. Evaluating a nurse mentor preparation programme.

    PubMed

    Gray, Olivia; Brown, Donna

    Following the introduction of a regional nurse mentor preparation programme, research was undertaken within a health and social care trust to explore both the trainee mentors' and their supervisors' perception of this new programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups was undertaken. The focus groups comprised a total of twelve participants including five trainee mentors and seven supervisors (experienced mentors) who had recently completed a mentor preparation programme. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Three themes were identified from the data: personal investment (including the emotional impact of mentoring) contextual perceptions (environmental factors such as time) and intellectual facets (related to personal and professional growth). Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice. However, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care.

  15. Antibiotic stewardship programmes and the surgeon's role.

    PubMed

    Çakmakçi, M

    2015-04-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use is a frequent occurrence, especially in surgical units. Among the unnecessary costs of such usage are unfavourable outcomes for patients and the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. Antibiotic stewardship programmes aim to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance by promoting thoughtful prescribing of antibiotics. Such programmes usually try to control inappropriate use of antibiotics; to optimize the choice of drug, dosing, route, and duration of therapy; to maximize clinical cure or prevention of infection; and to limit unwanted effects and excess cost. In this paper, I discuss the impact of improper use of antibiotics and outline why I believe that antibiotic stewardship is likely to be the best way of dealing with it. Engagement of surgeons in antibiotic stewardship programmes is crucial to their success.

  16. Adapting Nepal’s polio eradication programme

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Krishna P; Hampton, Lee M; Bohara, Rajendra; Rai, Indra K; Anaokar, Sameer; Swift, Rachel D; Cochi, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems. Approach In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal’s polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Japanese encephalitis and rubella cases were added to the surveillance system in 2004. Staff from the programme aided the development and implementation of government immunization policies, helped launch vaccination campaigns, and trained government staff in reporting practices and vaccine management. Local setting Nepal eliminated indigenous polio in 2000, and controlled outbreaks caused by polio importations between 2005 and 2010. Relevant changes In 2014, the surveillance activities had expanded to 299 sites, with active surveillance for measles, rubella and neonatal tetanus, including weekly visits from 15 surveillance medical officers. Sentinel surveillance for Japanese encephalitis consisted of 132 sites. Since 2002, staff from the eradication programme have helped to introduce six new vaccines and helped to secure funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Staff have also assisted in responding to other health events in the country. Lesson learnt By expanding the activities of its polio eradication programme, Nepal has improved its surveillance and immunization systems and increased vaccination coverage of other vaccine-preventable diseases. Continued donor support, a close collaboration with the Expanded Programme on Immunization, and the retention of the polio eradication programme’s skilled workforce were important for this expansion. PMID:28250536

  17. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  18. Nurses' views on workplace wellbeing programmes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Zakarin, Melissa; Blake, Holly

    2016-11-24

    Workplace stress is prevalent among nurses. Healthcare employers have implemented complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for relaxation and stress management within workplace wellbeing programmes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 registered nurses to explore the perceptions and experiences of nurses towards accessing CATs in and outside the workplace. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using conventional, qualitative thematic techniques. Themes identified were 'perceptions of complementary and alternative therapies for stress management' and 'engagement with workplace wellness schemes'. CATs have a role within workplace wellbeing programmes and nurses are not averse to accessing them, although there are barriers to access that need to be addressed.

  19. Developing an online programme in computational biology.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather M; Page, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Much has been written about the need for continuing education and training to enable life scientists and computer scientists to manage and exploit the different types of biological data now becoming available. Here we describe the development of an online programme that combines short training courses, so that those who require an educational programme can progress to complete a formal qualification. Although this flexible approach fits the needs of course participants, it does not fit easily within the organizational structures of a campus-based university.

  20. Overview of the National Centralized Tokamak programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Tamai, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Takase, Y.; Sakurai, S.; Kizu, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kurita, G.; Morioka, A.; Hayashi, N.; Miura, Y.; Itoh, S.; Bialek, J.; Navratil, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Fujii, T.; Kurihara, K.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.; Miya, N.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kawashima, H.; Kudo, Y.; Masaki, K.; Takahashi, H.; Takechi, M.; Akiba, M.; Okuno, K.; Ishida, S.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T.; Hashizume; Miura, Y. M.; Horiike, H.; Kimura, A.; Tsutsui, H.; Matsuoka, M.; Uesugi, Y.; Sagara, A.; Nishimura, A.; Shimizu, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Okano, K.; Ida, K.; Shimada, H. R.; Kishimoto, Y.; Azechi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Yatsu, K.; Yoshida, N.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Inoue, N.; Hosogane, N.; Kuriyama, M.; Ninomiya, H.

    2006-03-01

    An overview is given of the National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) programme as a research programme for advanced tokamak research to succeed JT-60U. The mission of NCT is to establish high beta steady-state operation for DEMO and to contribute to ITER. The machine flexibility is pursued in aspect ratio and shape controllability for the demonstration of the high-β steady-state, feedback control of resistive wall modes, wide current and pressure profile control capability and also very long pulse steady-state operation. Existing JT-60 infrastructure such as the heating and current drive system, power supplies and cooling systems will be best utilized for this modification.

  1. A programmable interface to neuromolecular computing networks.

    PubMed

    Akingbehin, K

    1995-01-01

    A programmable interface is provided to a simulated network of reaction-diffusion neurons. The interface allows special 'learn' and 'decide' syntactic constructs to be intermixed with conventional programming constructs. This hybrid combination allows the power of programmability to be combined with the power of adaptability to provide innovative solutions to complex problems. The network uses reaction-diffusion neurons instead of adaline neurons. A mesh topology is used instead of a feedforward topology. The performance of the mesh reaction-diffusion network compares favorably with that of conventional feedforward adaline networks. Enhancements to incorporate short- and long-term memory are described.

  2. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  3. Implementing a Microcontroller Watchdog with a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Bartholomew

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is crucial to safety. Redundancy of important system components greatly enhances reliability and hence safety. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are useful for monitoring systems and handling the logic necessary to keep them running with minimal interruption when individual components fail. A complete microcontroller watchdog with logic for failure handling can be implemented in a hardware description language (HDL.). HDL-based designs are vendor-independent and can be used on many FPGAs with low overhead.

  4. Introducing new diagnostics into STI control programmes: the importance of programme science.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David; Ballard, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Many innovative diagnostic technologies will become commercially available over the next 5-10 years. These tests can potentially transform the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections but their introduction into control programmes can be hampered by health system constraints, and political, cultural, socioeconomic and behavioural factors. We used the introduction of syphilis rapid tests to illustrate the importance of programme science to address the gap between accruing evidence of acceptable test performance and the complexity of programme design, implementation and evaluation of test deployment to address public health needs and improve patient-important outcomes.

  5. Faculty Development through an Educational Action Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigmar, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries, including Sweden, are reconsidering traditional teaching and learning methods in higher education. This article describes the work of implementing an Educational Action Programme to support faculty development. The work has been organized by an educational developer at the Educational Development Unit (EDU). Representatives…

  6. Implementing biosecurity education: approaches, resources and programmes.

    PubMed

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia-Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level "Train-the-Trainer" programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students.

  7. Report of Programme Commission II (Natural Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    As the first part of the report of the Programme Commission II, a summary of discussions on plans for natural sciences and their applications is presented in this document. The two agenda items are: (1) detailed consideration of the 1973-74 draft program and budget and of the 1973-78 draft medium-term outline, and (2) desirability of adopting an…

  8. Creating meaningful business continuity management programme metrics.

    PubMed

    Strong, Brian

    2010-11-01

    The popular axiom, 'what gets measured gets done', is often applied in the quality management and continuous improvement disciplines. This truism is also useful to business continuity practitioners as they continually strive to prove the value of their organisation's investment in a business continuity management (BCM) programme. BCM practitioners must also remain relevant to their organisations as executives focus on the bottom line and maintaining stakeholder confidence. It seems that executives always find a way, whether in a hallway or elevator, to ask BCM professionals about the company's level of readiness. When asked, they must be ready with an informed response. The establishment of a process to measure business continuity programme performance and organisational readiness has emerged as a key component of US Department of Homeland Security 'Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness (PS-Prep) Program' standards where the overarching goal is to improve private sector preparedness for disasters and emergencies. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to introduce continuity professionals to best practices that should be considered when developing a BCM metrics programme as well as providing a case study of how a large health insurance company researched, developed and implemented a process to measure BCM programme performance and company readiness.

  9. Improved Programmable High-Voltage Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Rutberg, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Improved dc-to-dc converter functions as programmable high-voltage power supply with low-power-dissipation voltage regulator on high-voltage side. Design of power supply overcomes deficiencies of older designs. Voltage regulation with low power dissipation provided on high-voltage side.

  10. Voyageur Wilderness Programme: A Different Educational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoie, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Back in 1958, environmental clubs were few, organizations that considered eco-practices were almost non-existent, and the concept of environmental studies at any level in their educational system was in its infancy. It was in this environment that Voyageur Wilderness Programme (VWP) was founded on Voyageur Island, Nym Lake, Quetico, Ontario,…

  11. Evaluation of the 1981 Vocational Preparation Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, D. L.; Grosvenor, J. S.

    An evaluation project investigated the Vocational Preparation Programme conducted in 1981 by the South Australian Department of Technical and Further Education (TAFE). The vocational preparation program was designed to increase the employability of young unemployed people aged 15 to 19 by providing them with an understanding of a family of related…

  12. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  13. International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Examining College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David; McGaughy, Charis; Davis-Molin, Whitney; Farkas, Rachel; Fukuda, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) works with schools, governments, and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. This three-phase study prepared by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization explored the impact…

  14. The Northland fluoridation advocacy programme: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sunitha; Thomas, David R

    2008-12-01

    On 20 July 2006, the Far North District Council resolved to fluoridate Kaitaia and Kaikohe. This was the first such initiative by any Territorial Local Authority (TLA) in New Zealand for 23 years, and resulted from a fluoridation advocacy programme. This paper describes the programme implementation, assesses its consistency with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and critically examines the collaboration between the fluoride advocate and the key stakeholders. Process evaluation identified three main categories of programme implementation: policy advocacy, community action projects, and media advocacy. The collaboration of iwi, Maori health providers and the community suggests that the programme was consistent with the principles (partnership, participation and protection) ofthe Treaty ofWaitangi. Media advocacy played an important role in reflecting and engaging community views on fluoridation, and it influenced decision-making by the Far North District Council. The simultaneous, combined 'top-down and bottom-up' approach was an effective and successful strategy for fluoridation advocacy in the community. Less integrated approaches implemented on their own (such as the 'top down' approach in Whangarei and the 'bottom-up' approach in Dargaville) were not effective.

  15. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  16. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  17. Empathy among students in engineering programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoal, Chato; Danielsson, Henrik; Jungert, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Engineers face challenges when they are to manage project groups and be leaders for organisations because such positions demand skills in social competence and empathy. Previous studies have shown that engineers have low degrees of social competence skills. In this study, the level of empathy as measured by the four subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking, fantasy, empathic distress and empathic concern, among engineering students was compared to students in health care profession programmes. Participants were undergraduate students at Linköping University, 365 students from four different health care profession programmes and 115 students from two different engineering programmes. When the empathy measures were corrected for effects of sex, engineering students from one of the programmes had lower empathy than psychology and social worker students on the fantasy and perspective-taking subscales. These results raise questions regarding opportunities for engineering students to develop their empathic abilities. It is important that engineering students acquire both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills regarding empathy.

  18. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before September 20, 2012,...

  19. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  20. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  1. Community nutrition programmes, globalization and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Herrera, José Carlos

    2006-08-01

    On an international scale, the last seventy-five years have been a period of deep social, economic and political transformation for the developing countries. They have been especially influenced by the international phenomenon of globalization, the benefits of which have been unequally distributed among countries. In this context, the strategies used to improve the general nutritional health of the population of developing countries include broad approaches integrating nutritional interventions in a context of sustainable community development, while valuing the existing relations between fields as diverse as agriculture, education, sociology, economy, health, environment, hygiene and nutrition. The community nutrition programmes are emblematic of these initiatives. Nevertheless, in spite of the increasing evidence of the potential possibilities offered by these programmes to improve the nutritional status and contribute to the development and the self-sufficiency of the community, their success is relatively limited, due to the inappropriate planning, implementation and evaluation of the programmes. In the present article, I attempt to emphasie the importance of community participation of the population of developing countries in the community nutrition programmes within the context of globalization. This process is not only an ethical imperative, but a pragmatic one. It is a crucial step in the process of liberation, democratization and equality that will lead to true sustainable development.

  2. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  3. Implementing Biosecurity Education: Approaches, Resources and Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia–Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level “Train-the-Trainer” programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students. PMID:22038099

  4. Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

  5. Programmable Calculators: Uses in Freshman Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Clark, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Suggests two uses for the programmable calculator in the freshman chemistry laboratory: as a means of determining whether or not a student's raw data from a laboratory experiment fall within acceptable tolerance limits; and as a means of checking the reliability of unknowns and grading on quantitative experiments. (MLH)

  6. The Legacy of the Microelectronics Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP), a plan developed to help British secondary school students learn about microcomputers and the role of technology in society, and its successor, the Microelectronics Support Unit (MESU). Highlights include curriculum development, teacher training, computer assisted instruction and the…

  7. Development of the Microelectronic Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of the Microelectronics Education Programme for England, Northern Ireland and Wales, including funding, aims, and relationships of the national program with local organizations. The program focuses on incorporating uses/effects of microelectronic technology into the total school curriculum and ways of using this…

  8. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment…

  9. ESO Fellowship Programme 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere awards several postdoctoral fellowships each year. The goal of these fellowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes by facilitating close contact between young astronomers and the activities and staff at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  10. American diagnostic radiology residency and fellowship programmes.

    PubMed

    Rumack, Carol Masters

    2011-03-01

    American Diagnostic Radiology Residency and Fellowship programmes are Graduate Medical Education programmes in the United States (US) equivalent to the Postgraduate Medical Education programmes in Singapore. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited diagnostic radiology residency programmes require 5 years total with Post Graduate Year (PGY) 1 year internship in a clinical specialty, e.g. Internal Medicine following medical school. PGY Years 2 to 5 are the core years which must include Radiology Physics, Radiation Biology and rotations in 9 required subspecialty rotations: Abdominal, Breast, Cardiothoracic, Musculoskeletal, Neuroradiology, Nuclear and Paediatric Radiology, Obstetric & Vascular Ultrasound and Vascular Interventional Radiology. A core curriculum of lectures must be organised by the required 9 core subspecialty faculty. All residents (PGY 2 to 4) take a yearly American College of Radiology Diagnostic In-Training Examination based on national benchmarks of medical knowledge in each subspecialty. Because the American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations are changing, until 2012, residents have to take 3 ABR examinations: (i) ABR physics examination in the PGY 2 to 3 years, (ii) a written examination at the start of the PGY 5 year and (iii) an oral exam at the end of the PGY 5 year. Beginning in 2013, there will be only 2 examinations: (i) the physics and written examinations after PGY 4 will become a combined core radiology examination. Beginning in 2015, the final certifying examination will be given 15 months after the completion of residency. After residency, ACGME fellowships in PGY 6 are all one-year optional programmes which focus on only one subspecialty discipline. There are 4 ACGME accredited fellowships which have a Board Certifi cation Examination: Neuroradiology, Nuclear, Paediatric and Vascular Interventional Radiology. Some ACGME fellowships do not have a certifying examination: Abdominal, Endovascular

  11. Mainstreaming nutrition into maternal and child health programmes: scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Nita; Kabir, A K M Iqbal; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2008-04-01

    Interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding have been estimated to have the potential to prevent 13% of all under-5 deaths in developing countries and are the single most important preventive intervention against child mortality. According to World Health Organization and United Nations Children Funds (UNICEF), only 39% infants are exclusively breastfed for less than 4 months. This review examines programme efforts to scale up exclusive breastfeeding in different countries and draws lesson for successful scale-up. Opportunities and challenges in scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding into Maternal and Child Health programmes are identified. The key processes required for exclusive breastfeeding scale-up are: (1) an evidence-based policy and science-driven technical guidelines; and (2) an implementation strategy and plan for achieving high exclusive breastfeeding rates in all strata of society, on a sustainable basis. Factors related to success include political will, strong advocacy, enabling policies, well-defined short- and long-term programme strategy, sustained financial support, clear definition of roles of multiple stakeholders and emphasis on delivery at the community level. Effective use of antenatal, birth and post-natal contacts at homes and through community mobilization efforts is emphasized. Formative research to ensure appropriate intervention design and delivery is critical particularly in areas with high HIV prevalence. Strong communication strategy and support, quality trainers and training contributed significantly to programme success. Monitoring and evaluation with feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to very high coverage. Legal framework must make it possible for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for at least 4 months. Sustained programme efforts are critical to achieve high coverage and this requires strong national- and state-level leadership.

  12. Elimination of human rabies in a canine endemic province in Thailand: five-year programme.

    PubMed Central

    Kamoltham, T.; Singhsa, J.; Promsaranee, U.; Sonthon, P.; Mathean, P.; Thinyounyong, W.

    2003-01-01

    A five-year project to prevent human deaths from rabies in Phetchabun Province, Thailand involved increasing accessibility of post-exposure treatment with the Thai Red Cross intradermal (2-2-2-0-1-1) regimen for humans exposed to potentially and confirmed rabid animals; intensifying documentation of post-exposure treatment; increasing educational awareness through advocacy in provincial schools, television programmes, and newspapers; reducing canine rabies by monitoring the dog population and implementing vaccination and sterilization programmes; increasing the cooperation between the Ministries of Public Health, Agriculture, and Education on a provincial level; and assessing the impact of the programme through intensified follow-up of patients exposed to suspected and laboratory-confirmed rabid animals. Between 1996 and 2001, 10350 patients received post-exposure treatment; 7227 of these received the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen. Fewer than 3% of exposed patients received rabies immunoglobulin. Seventy-three percent of all patients presented with WHO category III exposures. In a retrospective study, 188 patients exposed to laboratory-confirmed rabid animals were followed to determine their health status. Of these patients, 20 received the intramuscular Essen regimen and 168 the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen (148 received 0.1 ml purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine, 10 received 0.1 ml purified vero cell rabies vaccine, and 10 received 0.2 ml purified duck embryo cell rabies vaccine). All patients were alive one year after exposure. Two human deaths occurred in the first two years of the programme - neither patient had received vaccine or rabies immunoglobulin after exposure. No deaths occurred during the last three years of the programme, which indicated that the programme was successful. PMID:12862022

  13. Occupational health programme for lead workers in battery plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook

    The realization of problems resulting from the exposure to undue high lead levels of workers in lead-using industries, particularly in storage battery plants, has given rise to a new occupational health service, the so-called type specific (harmful agent specific) group occupational health. In 1988, the Korean Ministry of Labor designated the Institute of Industrial Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, as an authorized organization to take care of lead workers in lead industries. The following occupational health services are provided by the Institute: (i) physical health examination; (ii) biological monitoring with zinc protoporphyrin, urine δ-aminolevulinic acid and blood lead; (iii) respiratory protection with maintenance-free respirators; (iv) measurement of the environmental condition of workplaces; (v) health education. A three-year occupational health programme for lead workers has contributed to improvements in the working conditions of lead industries, particularly in large-scale battery plants, and has decreased the unnecessary high lead burden of workers through on-going medical surveillance with biological monitoring and health education schemes. The strong commitment of both employers and the government to improve the working conditions of lead industries, together with the full cooperation of lead workers, has served to reduce the high lead burdens of lead workers. This decreases the number of lead-poisoning cases and provides more comfortable workplaces, particularly in battery plants.

  14. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  15. A new one year interuniversity Master Programme in Water Resources Management in the French speaking community of Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassargues, A.; Vanclooster, M.; Xanthoulis, D.; Descy, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A new one year interuniversity Master Programme in Water Resources Management, organised within the French speaking Community of Belgium is presented. This new programme was launched in September 08. The programme is jointly organised by the « Académie Wallonie-Europe » and the « Académie Louvain ». The programme aims advanced training in the domain of water resources management, targeted to a French speaking audience of undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professionals working in the water sector area. During the training, emphasis is put on the understanding of the processes that determine the fluxes in terrestrial hydrosystems (quantitative and qualitative fluxes). Emphasis is also put on the assessment of different components of the hydrosystem (monitoring and data analysis) and the predictive modelling of the hydrosystem supporting optimal water management. The programme includes both advanced training in basic disciplines related to hydrological sciences (hydrology, climatology, hydrogeology, unsaturated zone hydrology, hydrobiology) and inter-disciplinary training in water resources management. The interdisciplinary teaching team includes hydrogeologists, agronomists, hydrologists, climatologists, hydraulic engineers, hydrobiologists and hydrogeophysicists from the four participating universities. Practical exercises and field work are included in the teaching modules and the master thesis work is oriented towards practical water management problems. The programme is accessible to undergraduate students holding an initial master degree in sciences, applied sciences and engineering. Particular attention is devoted to recruit students from French speaking developing countries.

  16. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  17. An Analysis of Ethical Considerations in Programme Design Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2014-01-01

    Ethical considerations are inherent to programme design decision-making, but not normally explicit. Nonetheless, they influence whose interests are served in a programme and who benefits from it. This paper presents an analysis of ethical considerations made by programme design practitioners in the context of a polytechnic in Aotearoa/New Zealand.…

  18. Silos to Symphonies? Hopes and Challenges Implementing Multicultural Programme Infusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Laura B.; Milman, Natalie B.

    2013-01-01

    The need to infuse multicultural education (ME) across teacher preparation programmes is well documented by research, yet institutions are at very different stages in this endeavour. While most programmes demonstrate a segregated approach to ME, confining diversity to specialty courses, ME programme infusion places diversity, equity and social…

  19. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  20. "We Are Family": Maori Success in Foundation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the question: What constitutes an optimal learning environment for Maori learners in foundation programmes? Using Kaupapa Maori methodology, nearly 100 adult Maori (Indigenous) students in Aotearoa/New Zealand were interviewed from a range of tertiary providers of foundation programmes. State-funded foundation programmes that…

  1. A Mathematics Support Programme for First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillock, Poh Wah; Jennings, Michael; Roberts, Anthony; Scharaschkin, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a mathematics support programme at the University of Queensland, targeted at first-year engineering students identified as having a high risk of failing a first-year mathematics course in calculus and linear algebra. It describes how students were identified for the programme and the main features of the programme. The…

  2. Diploma Disease in Ghanaian Distance Education Upgrading Programmes for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mereku, Damian Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This research explores manifestations of "diploma disease" in distance education (DE) upgrading programmes for basic school teachers in Ghana. A survey design which included document analysis was used to explore the emphasis in the contents of the DE programme and the experiences of teachers who took the programmes. The study involved a…

  3. Conceptualising Transformation and Interrogating Elitism: The Bale Scholarship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsis, Hannah; Dominguez-Whitehead, Yasmine; Liccardo, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the extent to which a scholarship programme at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) engages with the challenges of transformation. This scholarship programme highlights the transformative potential of a programme that focuses on excellence for a previously under-represented group, but also demonstrates how this…

  4. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper.

  5. Programmes of Educational Technology in China: Looking Backward, Thinking Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuyin, Xu; Jianli, Jiao

    2010-01-01

    There is a history of programmes in educational technology in colleges and universities in China going back about 70 years. This paper briefly reviews the developmental history of the educational technology programme in China, elaborates the status-quo of the programme and looks ahead into the future trends of educational technology development in…

  6. A Teacher Competence Development Programme for Supporting Students' Reflection Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker-Groen, Agaath M.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a training programme for Dutch teachers in six institutes for nursing education to support students' reflection skills. The research question was: what are the feasibility, quality and effects of the programme? The training programme focused on four competences of teachers regarding instructing, guiding, giving…

  7. Informing New String Programmes: Lessons Learned from an Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Fintan; Rickard, Nikki; Gill, Anneliese; Grimmett, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many examples of notable string programmes there has been relatively little comparative analysis of these programmes. This paper examines three benchmark string programmes (The University of Illinois String Project, The Tower Hamlets String Teaching Project and Colourstrings) alongside Music4All, an innovative string programme…

  8. A Programmable Calculator Activity, x = 1/x + 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    An activity for secondary schools is presented and discussed which may be explored with a programmable calculator. The activity is non-standard and could not be easily explored without the use of a programmable calculator. Related activities are also discussed. Flow charts and programs for different programmable calculators are presented. (MP)

  9. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  14. Learning in and beyond Small Business Advisory Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rachel Louise; Hine, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how participants learn in small business advisory programmes and to explore the impact of these learning programmes on the development of reflective learning dispositions in participants. The research involves two case studies of small business advisory programmes in Queensland, a state of Australia. One…

  15. Twenty years of monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Greenland biota. A review.

    PubMed

    Rigét, F; Vorkamp, K; Bossi, R; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Dietz, R

    2016-10-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a working group under the Arctic Council with the aim to monitor and assess temporal trends of contaminants in Arctic ecosystems. The Greenland AMAP Core programme was established to contribute to this effort. The Core programme includes three main components; routine monitoring, retrospective studies and new POP screening studies. The programme is based on an adaptive approach, which has led to changes throughout the years. An overview of the temporal trends during the last two to three decades is presently given together with selected examples of different characteristic trends of POPs. The results show how tissue banked samples and retrospective studies has helped in establishing time-series of compounds of emerging concern. Lastly, the statistical power of the Greenlandic time-series is discussed. The lesson learned is that trend monitoring improves with samples over time, and only pays off after decades of data are generated.

  16. Evaluating the implementation of the WHO Healthy Cities Programme across Germany (1999-2002).

    PubMed

    Plümer, Klaus D; Kennedy, Lynne; Trojan, Alf

    2010-09-01

    The WHO Healthy Cities Project (1988) is a well-known example of the setting-based approach to health promotion. Developed as a framework for translating the key principles of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) into practice, it is best characterized as a process for successfully encouraging healthy public policy. In 2001, the German Healthy Cities Network (HCN) commissioned a survey of the 52 local Healthy Cities programme Coordinators (HCC) to monitor progress and identify strengths and weaknesses associated with its implementation. Most (90%; 47/52) HCC participated in the survey. Several positive aspects of the Health Cities Programmes (HCP) in Germany were identified: during the first 5 years, it expanded rapidly; project coordinators felt highly engaged, despite limited resources; a combination of traditional and innovative approaches was adopted and applauded; and almost 75% of HCC felt that their efforts had been beneficial. Nonetheless, the following shortcomings were identified: increased resources required; greater clarification of concepts and strategies at the local level; stronger commitment to the Nine-Point Programme of Action; greater integration within the national HCN and the local political administrative system (PAS); better programme documentation and evaluation. In conclusion, the HCN in Germany has expanded and developed since its inception 20 years ago. German HCP will only improve if professionalism and quality of local work are improved, particularly in terms of strengthening their influence on the local PAS and on public policies.

  17. An (even) broader perspective: Combining environmental processes and natural hazards education in a MSc programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Trappe, Martin; Cyffka, Bernd; Becht, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards are processes occurring in the natural environment that negatively affect human society. In most instances, the definition of natural hazards implies sudden events as different as earthquakes, floods or landslides. In addition, there are other phenomena that occur more subtly or slowly, and nevertheless may have serious adverse effects on the human environment. Hence, a comprehensive study programme in natural hazards has to include not only the conspicuous causes and effects of natural catastrophes, but of environmental processes in general. Geography as a discipline is located at the interface of natural, social and economic sciences; the physical geography programme described here is designed to include the social and economic dimension as well as management issues. Modules strengthening the theoretical background of geomorphic, geological, hydrological and meteorological processes and hazards are complemented by practical work in the field and the laboratory, dealing with measuring and monitoring environmental processes. On this basis, modeling and managing skills are developed. Another thread in the transdisciplinary programme deals with sustainability and environmental policy issues, and environmental psychology (e.g. perception of and reaction to hazards). This will improve the communication and team working skills of students wherever they are part of an interdisciplinary working group. Through the involvement in research programmes, students are confronted ‘hands on' with the different aspects of environmental processes and their consequences; thus, they will be excellently but not exclusively qualified for positions in the ‘natural hazards' sector.

  18. Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

    PubMed Central

    Chilundo, Baltazar GM; Cliff, Julie L; Mariano, Alda RE; Rodríguez, Daniela C; George, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. Methodology: We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. Results: Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded ‘old’ CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. Conclusions: Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the

  19. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output.

  20. Programmable hydrogenation of graphene for novel nanocages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Wang, Xianqiao

    2013-11-01

    Folded graphene has exhibited novel electrical and mechanical properties unmatched by pristine graphene, which implies that morphology of graphene adds the dimensionality of design space to tailor its properties. However, how to overcome the energy barrier of the folding process to fold the graphene with the specific morphology remains unexplored. Here we propose a programmable chemical functionalization by doping a pristine graphene sheet in a certain pattern with hydrogen atoms to precisely control its folding morphology. Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to create a cross-shaped cubic graphene nanocage encapsulating a biomolecule by warping the top graphene layer downward and the bottom graphene layer upward to mimic the drug delivery vehicle. Such a paradigm, programmable enabled graphene nanocage, opens up a new avenue to control the 3D architecture of folded graphene and therefore provides a feasible way to exploit and fabricate the graphene-based unconventional nanomaterials and nanodevices for drug delivery.

  1. ECORLOG computer application users' and programmers' guides

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, C.

    1984-09-01

    This document consists of two separate guides to the ECORLOG application. Sections One through Five make up the Users' Guide, while the Programmers' Guide is contained in the Appendix. The Programmers' Guide contains information that will be useful in maintaining or updating the ECORLOG application's capabilities, but is not needed for day-to-day use of the ECORLOG Job and programs. Each of the following four sections covers a separate aspect of ECORLOG. Section Two explains how data is entered into a Batch of the ECORLOG Job. In Section Three, several common data-editing operations are described. Instructions for running the three ECORLOG programs (ECORUP, ECRPT1 and ECRPT2) are given in Section Four, which also includes samples of the ECORLOG reports. Section Five concludes the Users' Guide with procedures for redirecting the output of ECORLOG reports to different printers, and for storing ECORLOG data at the end of a fiscal year.

  2. Auto-programmable impulse neural circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watula, D.; Meador, J.

    1990-01-01

    Impulse neural networks use pulse trains to communicate neuron activation levels. Impulse neural circuits emulate natural neurons at a more detailed level than that typically employed by contemporary neural network implementation methods. An impulse neural circuit which realizes short term memory dynamics is presented. The operation of that circuit is then characterized in terms of pulse frequency modulated signals. Both fixed and programmable synapse circuits for realizing long term memory are also described. The implementation of a simple and useful unsupervised learning law is then presented. The implementation of a differential Hebbian learning rule for a specific mean-frequency signal interpretation is shown to have a straightforward implementation using digital combinational logic with a variation of a previously developed programmable synapse circuit. This circuit is expected to be exploited for simple and straightforward implementation of future auto-adaptive neural circuits.

  3. String formatting considered harmful for novice programmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-09-01

    In Java, System.out.printf and String.format consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the compilation errors and 100% of the exceptional, run-time behaviour they encountered were due to the improper construction of format strings. Format strings are a language unto themselves embedded within Java, and they are difficult for novice programmers to master when learning to program. In this article, we present exemplars of students' problematic interactions with the Java compiler and run-time environment when dealing with format strings, discuss these interactions, and recommend possible instructional interventions based on our observations.

  4. [Vaccination: a programme for the whole life].

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-10

    In 2010 in Switzerland, vaccine-preventable infectious diseases still cause a significant morbi-mortality, notably among old adults. While the vaccination-based prevention in the aged population has been neglected for a long time, the two European geriatrics and gerontology societies, EUGMS, IAGG-ER has recently proposed a vaccine schedule dedicated to adults aged over 60 and promote a life-course vaccination programme. To convince of the importance of such measures in Switzerland, this article: recounts the beneficial impact of vaccines on the incidence of measles, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus as well as influenza and pneumococcal diseases; presents the burden of these infectious diseases among the population no or insufficiently immunized; demonstrates that vaccinating in the respect of a life-course vaccine programme will reduce considerably the burden of these infectious disease.

  5. Experimental signature of programmable quantum annealing.

    PubMed

    Boixo, Sergio; Albash, Tameem; Spedalieri, Federico M; Chancellor, Nicholas; Lidar, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a general strategy for solving difficult optimization problems with the aid of quantum adiabatic evolution. Both analytical and numerical evidence suggests that under idealized, closed system conditions, quantum annealing can outperform classical thermalization-based algorithms such as simulated annealing. Current engineered quantum annealing devices have a decoherence timescale which is orders of magnitude shorter than the adiabatic evolution time. Do they effectively perform classical thermalization when coupled to a decohering thermal environment? Here we present an experimental signature which is consistent with quantum annealing, and at the same time inconsistent with classical thermalization. Our experiment uses groups of eight superconducting flux qubits with programmable spin-spin couplings, embedded on a commercially available chip with >100 functional qubits. This suggests that programmable quantum devices, scalable with current superconducting technology, implement quantum annealing with a surprising robustness against noise and imperfections.

  6. Programmable resolution imager for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Elisenda; Soriano, German; Espejo, Servando; Dominguez-Castro, Rafael; Linan, Gustavo; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2000-05-01

    In this paper a programmable imager with averaging capabilities will be described which is intended for averaging of different groups or sets of pixels formed by n X n kernels, n X m kernels or any group of randomly- selected pixels across the array. This imager is a 64 X 64 array which uses passive pixels with electronic shutter and anti-blooming structure that can be randomly accessed. The read-out stage includes a sole charge amplifier with programmable gain, a sample-and-hold structure and an analog buffer. This read-out structure is different from other existing imagers with variable resolution since it uses a sole charge amplifier, whereas the conventional structure employs an opamp per column plus another global opamp. this architecture allows a reduction of the fixed-pattern noise observed in standard imagers. The prototype also includes an analog to digital converter which provides the digital output of the images.

  7. Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

  8. An evaluation of programmer/analyst workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, K.; Mital, R.; Card, D.; Maione, A.

    1984-01-01

    Very few automated tools were available to support software requirements analysis and design even though improvements in quality during these phases appear to offer the greatest leverage for improving the quality and productivity of the overall software development process. Recently, however, some such tools have appeared on the market. An industry survey, and an in-house evaluation of two commercial products by programmers and analysts was undertaken to determine which tool is the best to support programmers and analysts through life cycle development. A tool was selected for full implementation on a project, where complete analysis of software statistics over the system life cycle will determine whether or not quality and productivity improvements have actually occurred. The results of the industry survey and in-house evaluation are summarized.

  9. Status of the ESA Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H. R.; Schumann, W.

    2004-11-01

    Following on from the first generation of Meteosat, the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) programme promises to provide advanced and more frequent data for short-range and medium-range weather forecasting and climate monitoring for at least the next 12 years. The MSG programme is a cooperation between ESA and EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites organisation. ESA has been responsible for designing and developing the first of the four satellites in the MSG programme, whilst EUMETSAT has overall responsibility for defining the end-user requirements, developing the ground segment and operating the system. The first MSG satellite, called MSG-1 (METEOSAT 8), was successfully launched on 28August 2002 by an Ariane 5 launcher together with its co-passenger Atlantic Bird. ESOC took over control of the satellite after separation and placed the satellite from the Ariane injection orbit to a quasi-geostationary orbit drifting slowly towards the commissioning longitude at 10.5 deg West. Subsequently EUMETSAT started the satellite commissioning testing. Except the in-orbit failure of an on-board amplifier, with its consequences for the dissemination service, the achieved results show a high degree of compliance with respect to the satellite specification and show very good overall performance of the satellite, in particular for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument to be outstanding. METEOSAT-8 entered routine operations on 29 January 2004. In parallel with the MSG-1 commissioning activities, the integration and test phases on the other MSG satellites has well progressed. Begin March 2004, EUMETSAT took the decision to take the MSG-2 satellite out of storage, resuming testing and work on it towards its final preparation for launch with a launch period now defined between February and April 2005. MSG-3 is entered into storage in summer this year. It is an intermediate storage configuration, after the

  10. Understanding and quantifying greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions: the UK GHG Emissions and Feedback Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Palmer, Paul; Watson, Andrew; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    -annually. Integration activities link these three projects to foster knowledge exchange across different scales, methods and sub-disciplines, both within the Programme and with the wider research community. The three projects are integrated to improve our understanding of greenhouse gases across domains and scales. The observational components lay the foundation of new measurement infrastructure that will deliver beyond the lifetime of this Programme. Through the development of robust methods to reduce uncertainties in GHG emissions estimates, the Programme supports regulatory efforts to monitor emissions trends and the efficacy of reduction strategies.

  11. Economic evaluation of the surveillance and intervention programme for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Di Labio, E; Schwermer, H; Stärk, K D C

    2012-02-01

    Empirical analyses founded on sound economic principles are essential in advising policy makers on the efficiency of resource use for disease mitigation. Surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities directed at mitigation. Surveillance helps to offset negative disease effects by promoting successful intervention. Intervention is the process of implementing measures (e.g. vaccination or medication) to reduce or remove a hazard in a population. The scale and ratios in which the two are combined affect the efficiency of mitigation, its costs, benefits, and thus net effect on society's well-being. The Swiss national mitigation programme for bluetongue virus serotype 8 was used as case study to investigate the economic efficiency of mitigation. In 2008, Switzerland implemented a vaccination programme to avoid and reduce disease and infection in its ruminant population. To monitor the vaccination programme and the vector dynamics, a surveillance system consisting of serological and entomological surveillance was established. Retrospective analyses for the years 2008-2009 and prospective analyses for the years 2010-2012 were conducted to investigate if the mitigation programme was economically beneficial. In the retrospective analysis, the implemented programme (=comparative scenario) was compared to a hypothesised baseline scenario of voluntary vaccination and surveillance. In the prospective analysis, the comparative scenario assumed to continue was compared to two baseline scenarios: one of voluntary vaccination combined with surveillance and one of no vaccination combined with surveillance. For each scenario, monetary surveillance, intervention and disease costs were calculated. The comparison of baseline and comparative scenarios yielded estimates for the total benefit (=disease costs avoided), margin over intervention cost and the net value of the programme. For 2008-2009, in aggregate, the mean biannual total benefit was 17.46 m Swiss francs (CHF) (1

  12. RELBET 4.0 programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huysman, B. P.; Kwong, P. S.; Pieniazek, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    The RELBET 4.0 System as implemented on the Hewlett Packard model 9000 computer system is described. The manual is directed toward programmers and system maintenance personnel. It is intended to serve both as a reference and as a introductory guide to the software. The body of the manual provides an overview of major features and indicates where to look for further information. Full details are left to Appendices.

  13. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  14. Data management in schistosomiasis control programmes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, H G

    1986-06-01

    Adequate data recording, processing, analysis and evaluation are all components of data management within schistosomiasis control programmes oriented towards reduction of morbidity. Without data management, the response to operational questions will remain subjective and vague. Different types of data related to the population and the environment are reviewed. Examples of data format and presentation are given. The importance of data management for proper short and long term evaluation of control measures is emphasized.

  15. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis.

  16. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  17. Programmable near-infrared ranging system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Jr., Hobart R.

    1989-01-01

    A high angular resolution ranging system particularly suitable for indoor plications involving mobile robot navigation and collision avoidance uses a programmable array of light emitters that can be sequentially incremented by a microprocessor. A plurality of adjustable level threshold detectors are used in an optical receiver for detecting the threshold level of the light echoes produced when light emitted from one or more of the emitters is reflected by a target or object in the scan path of the ranging system.

  18. Digitally Programmable Active Switched Capacitor Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California n FILE WRY In THESIS DIGITALLY PROGRAMMABLE ACTIVE SWITCHED CAPACITOR FILTERS by Yalkin, Cengiz March 1987 Thesis ...COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year. Month. Day) 15 PAGE (OkNTMaster’s Thesis FROM ’O 1987 March 89 𔄀 SLP-ILENIENTARY NOTATION COSArI CODES 18 SUBJECT...Sheri chael, Thesis Advisor Roberto Cristi, Second Reader "harriet Rigas, Clirman, Department of Electrical and Computer En’ ineering Gordon E

  19. Multicopy programmable discrimination of general qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Sentis, G.; Bagan, E.; Calsamiglia, J.; Munoz-Tapia, R.

    2010-10-15

    Quantum state discrimination is a fundamental primitive in quantum statistics where one has to correctly identify the state of a system that is in one of two possible known states. A programmable discrimination machine performs this task when the pair of possible states is not a priori known but instead the two possible states are provided through two respective program ports. We study optimal programmable discrimination machines for general qubit states when several copies of states are available in the data or program ports. Two scenarios are considered: One in which the purity of the possible states is a priori known, and the fully universal one where the machine operates over generic mixed states of unknown purity. We find analytical results for both the unambiguous and minimum error discrimination strategies. This allows us to calculate the asymptotic performance of programmable discrimination machines when a large number of copies are provided and to recover the standard state discrimination and state comparison values as different limiting cases.

  20. PATIENT SATISFACTION IN PROSTHETIC REHABILITATION PROGRAMME.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Parmar, N K; Mand, G S

    2001-04-01

    Patient satisfaction is an important outcome measure independent of other outcomes. Its measurement is important to assess the effectiveness of a programme and to gain insight into the patients' perception of the programme. In this study conducted in a large rehabilitation centre it was found that majority of patients express satisfaction with care inspite of perceived discomfort. Various demographic factors, severity or duration of the disability or the level of rehabilitation do not influence patient satisfaction. Patients express more concern with aspects such as delay in issue of the prosthesis, or hotel component of the hospital services. Patients did not appear too concerned about the level of information provided. Patient satisfaction is an individual reaction to the overall care process and is influenced by the initial expectation level of the patient. Emotional response of the patient appears to be more important determinant of patient satisfaction than the cognitive evaluation. Periodical assessment of patient satisfaction should be an important component of any programme evaluation exercise.

  1. Programmable diffractive lens for ophthalmic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Romero, Lenny A.; Ramírez, Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Pixelated liquid crystal displays have been widely used as spatial light modulators to implement programmable diffractive optical elements, particularly diffractive lenses. Many different applications of such components have been developed in information optics and optical processors that take advantage of their properties of great flexibility, easy and fast refreshment, and multiplexing capability in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. We explore the application of programmable diffractive lenses displayed on the pixelated screen of a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator to ophthalmic optics. In particular, we consider the use of programmable diffractive lenses for the visual compensation of refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism) and presbyopia. The principles of compensation are described and sketched using geometrical optics and paraxial ray tracing. For the proof of concept, a series of experiments with artificial eye in optical bench are conducted. We analyze the compensation precision in terms of optical power and compare the results with those obtained by means of conventional ophthalmic lenses. Practical considerations oriented to feasible applications are provided.

  2. European Association of Echocardiography: Research Grant Programme.

    PubMed

    Gargani, Luna; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Sicari, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) offers a variety of grants/fellowships to help young professionals in the field of cardiological training or research activities throughout Europe. The number of grants has significantly increased in recent years with contributions from the Associations, Working Groups and Councils of the ESC. The European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) is a registered branch of the ESC and actively takes part in this initiative. One of the aims of EAE is to promote excellence in research in cardiovascular ultrasound and other imaging modalities in Europe. Therefore, since 2008, the EAE offers a Research Grant Programme to help young doctors to obtain research experience in a high standard academic centre (or similar institution oriented to clinical or pre-clinical research) in an ESC member country other than their own. This programme can be considered as a valorization of the geographical mobility as well as cultural exchanges and professional practice in the field of cardiovascular imaging. The programme has been very successful so far, therefore in 2012 the EAE has increased its offer to two grants of 25,000 euros per annum each.

  3. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  4. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  5. Provision of orientation programmes for nurses in pediatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen

    2002-01-01

    It has been recommended that nursing staff who are new to paediatric intensive care should be offered an orientation programme There is no guidance currently available to influence the content or duration of such a programme on a national level A multi-centre research study was carried out to identify the existing provision of orientation programmes and how beneficial these are perceived to be Supernumerary status and effective mentoring are seen as essential to the success of these programmes Many new starters perceive that they receive inadequate preparation on stress management and psychosocial issues National communication between paediatric intensive care educators will help to improve and develop orientation programme provision.

  6. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  7. Sustainability science: an integrated approach for health-programme planning.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Russell L; Elliott, Julian H; Nolan, Monica L; Lawton, Paul D; Parkhill, Anne; McLaren, Cameron J; Lavis, John N

    2008-11-01

    Planning for programme sustainability is a key contributor to health and development, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. A consensus evidence-based operational framework would facilitate policy and research advances in understanding, measuring, and improving programme sustainability. We did a systematic review of both conceptual frameworks and empirical studies about health-programme sustainability. On the basis of the review, we propose that sustainable health programmes are regarded as complex systems that encompass programmes, health problems targeted by programmes, and programmes' drivers or key stakeholders, all of which interact dynamically within any given context. We show the usefulness of this approach with case studies drawn from the authors' experience.

  8. Monitoring your baby before labor

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

  9. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  10. Unattended Dual Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Parker, Robert F.; Jones, David C.

    2016-08-11

    The Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM) is an ideal solution for current measurement needs such as ion chamber gamma measurements. The UDCM has two independent inputs and each input detects currents in two user selectable ranges, -0.2nA to -20nA or -20nA to -2uA. Measurement results can be retrieved via an Ethernet connection or by monitoring the TTL output pulses with a simple counter. Measurement data is also stored on a user accessible micro-SD card and automatically downloaded to a USB flash drive. A programmable negative High Voltage (HV) power supply provides detector bias voltages from 0 to -1,000V. The UDCM is fully compatible with the IAEA Multi Instrument Collect (MIC) software and responds to the existing MiniGRAND commands. The Ethernet port provides an IAEA RAINSTORM compliant data transfer and data security interface. The UDCM produces TTL pulses at a rate proportional to the input current, 100cps/nA. The UDCM can simplify instrumentation needs by enabling the use of a simple pulse counter for both neutron and gamma measurements. The UDCM is a simple instrument, inexpensive to manufacturer and designed for reliability.

  11. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  12. First Images from VLT Science Verification Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    morning of September 1 when the telescope was returned to the Commissioning Team that has since continued its work. The FORS instrument is now being installed and the first images from this facility are expected shortly. Observational circumstances During the two-week SV period, a total of 154 hours were available for astronomical observations. Of these, 95 hours (62%) were used to collect scientific data, including calibrations, e.g. flat-fielding and photometric standard star observations. 15 hours (10%) were spent to solve minor technical problems, while another 44 hours (29%) were lost due to adverse meteorological conditions (clouds or wind exceeding 15 m/sec). The amount of telescope technical downtime is very small at this moment of the UT1 commissioning. This fact provides an impressive indication of high technical reliability that has been achieved and which will be further consolidated during the next months. The meteorological conditions that were encountered at Paranal during this period were unfortunately below average, when compared to data from the same calendar period in earlier years. There was an excess of bad seeing and fewer good seeing periods than normal; see, however, ESO PR Photo 35c/98 with 0.26 arcsec image quality. Nevertheless, the measured image quality on the acquired frames was often better than the seeing measured outside the enclosure by the Paranal seeing monitor. Part of this very positive effect is due to "active field stabilization" , now performed during all observations by rapid motion (10 - 70 times per second) of the 1.1-m secondary mirror of beryllium (M2) and compensating for the "twinkling" of stars. Science Verification data soon to be released A great amount of valuable data was collected during the SV programme. The available programme time was distributed as follows: Hubble Deep Field - South [HDF-S; NICMOS and STIS Fields] (37.1 hrs); Lensed QSOs (3.2 hrs); High-z Clusters (6.2 hrs); Host Galaxies of Gamma-Ray Bursters (2

  13. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  14. National GLP programmes and implication of regulatory authorities for pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Nobumasa

    2008-01-01

    There are various kinds of good laboratory practice (GLP) monitoring authorities (MAs) in the world. Some countries have only one MA, while others, including Japan, have more than one MA. In addition, each MA has its own relationship with regulatory authorities (RAs), receiving authorities (RcAs) and industry based on the internal regulatory systems. There are eight GLP MAs in Japan. This number is probably the largest in the world. Efforts have been made to establish a close link among MAs and to apply and implement GLP programmes in an efficient, effective and consistent way, namely: i) interministerial meeting on GLP. It is essential to establish a system for information exchange and decision making when there are a number of MAs such as in Japan. To this end, the interministerial meeting on GLP has been set up as a means for MAs, RAs, and RcAs to share information on Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and foreign countries and make national decisions as a whole country; ii) joint training programme. With the goal of training inspectors and minimizing differences in inspections among MAs, a joint training programme has been started including joint visits to test facilities (TFs) and participation in evaluation committees at other MAs. One of the purposes of this training programme is to get ready for the on-site evaluation visit (OEV) of the OECD by simulating it at MAs in Japan; iii) joint translation programme of the OECD documents. To avoid unnecessary confusion due to differences of interpretation and translation of OECD documents among MAs, these have been translated into Japanese in cooperation with industry. This has also other substantial merits such as cost reduction and time saving for all stakeholders in Japan. Some countries, both members and non-members of the OECD, have also established more than one GLP MA. It is hoped that the Japanese experience can be useful to them.

  15. Business Planning Model Programmer’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    alloc~wkyI cctot ec-oreca cdosvers dosvers cent avgload cent balancel cent balance2 cent balanc3 cent bpmn (main)Icent choose cent choosemnenu cent...center cýo user -defined data-entry bpmn (main) Page 135 I Business Planning Model Programmer’s Guide 3Called Routine Callina Routine dbedit browse...doit view -tda -org doload assortedIdopack bpmn (miain) dopessitniism revpessimiism doproj org_tda view tda-org doreindex assorted dosvers bpm (main

  16. Nonvolatile programmable neural network synaptic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A floating-gate metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor is implemented for use as a nonvolatile analog storage element of a synaptic cell used to implement an array of processing synaptic cells. These cells are based on a four-quadrant analog multiplier requiring both X and Y differential inputs, where one Y input is UV programmable. These nonvolatile synaptic cells are disclosed fully connected in a 32 x 32 synaptic cell array using standard very large scale integration (VLSI) complementary MOS (CMOS) technology.

  17. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling. PMID:27353838

  18. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling.

  19. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work.

  20. Surfaces and Interfaces of Ceramic Materials. Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Univ. Aveiro, Portugal P26 / 3’epariamn ofan AIO ,,-r0 ’ sol fgm L MONTANARO, Politecnico, Torno, Italy 1030- 11.00 Coffeebreak 11.00- 12.15 ROUND...Division Centre National de la Recherche Scientifiaue. France European Research Office of US Army ISA Riber. France PROGRAMME (%J TL = Tutorial lecture L ...Invited lecture (Seminar) 3:. L - P= Contrbuted paperS i 3 189 I SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 4 14.00 - 22.0 Reception and registration of participants MONDAY

  1. Universal programmable logic gate and routing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.

  2. Stretch not flex: programmable rubber keyboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daniel; Tairych, Andreas; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    Stretchability is a property that brings versatility and design freedom to human interface devices. We present a soft, flexible and stretchable keyboard made from a dielectric elastomer sensor sheet. Using a multi-frequency capacitance sensing technique based on a transmission line model, we demonstrate how this keyboard can detect touch in two dimensions, programmable to increase the number of keys and into different layouts, all without adding any new wires, connections or modifying the hardware. The method is efficient and scalable for large sensing systems with multiple degrees of freedom.

  3. A programmable MTD system with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ying-Ning; Ma, Zang-E.; Ding, Xiu-Dong; Wang, Xiu-Tan; Fu, Jeng-Yun

    A digital programmable MTD system has been developed recently. In this system slow and fast moving targets are detected by a 64-order complex FIR filter and 64-point FFT equivalent filter bank, respectively. The method which obtains land clutter CFAR threshold for every Doppler channel with very good performance is proposed. When power spectral density of land clutter has a certain cubic shape, an average signal to clutter ratio improvement factor of about 48dB could be realized in this system.

  4. A Programmable System for Motion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlin, Brent C.

    2003-01-01

    The need for improved flow measurements in the flow path of aeronautics testing facilities has led the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a new motion control system. The new system is programmable, offering a flexibility unheard of in previous systems. The motion control system is PLC-based, which leads to highly accurate positioning ability, as well as reliability. The user interface is a software-based HMI package, which also adds flexibility to the overall system. The system also has the ability to create and execute motion profiles. This paper discusses the system's operation, control implementation, and experiences.

  5. PLAFST Programmable Logic Array from State Table.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    HD -i8 466 PL AFST PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ARRAY FROM STATE T ABLE(U) AIR /2 FORC INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF UNCLSSIIED...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ) A ’J[. .:’,,- oved iot public T.,-].:.,’ 8 4 7 x -;..- APIT/GE/EE/83D-57 Accession For...number of rows with y - 1. Don’t care symbols are denoted by a " x ". The l’s and x’s are grouped together like Karnaugh maps with two exceptions. The

  6. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  7. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-06-29

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling.

  8. Root Locus Algorithms for Programmable Pocket Calculators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wechsler, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Two algorithms are described which allow the plotting of individual points on a root locus diagram with or without time delay. The development was performed during the design of a continuous phase shifter used in the Baseband Antenna Combiner for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The algorithms, which are expected to be useful in similar DSN efforts, are simple enough to be implemented on a programmable pocket calculator. The coordinates of the open-loop zeros and poles, the gain constant K, and the time delay T are the data inputs.

  9. Programmable Analog-To-Digital Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kist, Edward H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed analog-to-digital converter with programmable voltage steps that can be changed during operation. Allows concentration of converter resolution over specific portion of waveform. Particularly useful in digitizing wind-shear radar and lidar return signals, in digital oscilloscopes, and other applications in which desirable to increase digital resolution over specific area of waveform while accepting lower resolution over rest of waveform. Effective increase in dynamic range achieved without increase in number of analog-to-digital converter bits. Enabling faster analog-to-digital conversion.

  10. Electrostatic monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for more simply measuring alpha and/or beta emissions arising from items or locations. The technique uses indirect monitoring of the emissions by detecting ions generated by the emissions, the ions being attracted electrostatically to electrodes for discharge of collection. The apparatus and method employ a chamber which is sealed around the item or location during monitoring with no air being drawn into or expelled from the chamber during the monitoring process. A simplified structure and operations arises as a result, but without impairing the efficiency and accuracy of the detection technique.

  11. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  12. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  13. Programmable CCD imaging system for synchrotron radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rodricks, B.; Brizard, C.

    1991-07-01

    A real-time imaging system for x-ray detection has been developed. The CAMAC-based system has a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as its active detection element. The electronics consists of a CAMAC-crate-based dedicated microprocessor coupled to arbitrary waveform generators, programmable timing, and ADC modules. The hardware flexibility achievable through this system enables one to use virtually any commercially available CCD. A dedicated CAMAC-based display driver allows for real-time imaging on a high-resolution color monitor. An optional front end consisting of a fiber-optic taper and a focusing optical lens system coupled to a phosphor screen allows for large area imaging. Further, programming flexibility, in which the detector can be used in different read-out modes, enables it to be exploited for time-resolved experiments. In one mode, sections of the CCD can be read-out with millisecond time-resolution and, in another, the use of the CCD as a storage device is exploited resulting microsecond time-resolution. Three different CCDs with radically different read-out timings and waveforms have been tested. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Role of operation centres in the future exploration programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, C.; Moreau, D.; Daerden, F.; Michel, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the Apollo programme, the role of ground operations was at the minimum due to limited communication means. The absence of support to the astronaut limited the science return of the missions by imposing very coarse operations. The Space Shuttle era saw the implementation of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Systems which since 1983 leads to unprecedented ground monitoring and commanding capabilities and presently allows ground operation centres to conduct experiments on the ISS either independently or in support of the crew. These aspects of telescience on the ISS are currently exercised in Europe by the USOC's (User support and Operation Centres) and a few examples of the successes of this concept on external payloads will be described. The extension of this telescience aspect to robotic exploration brings some of the advantages of manned flight to automatic missions. The advantages of testing dedicated exploration operation centres during automatic missions are of different orders: direct science enhancement, increase of the exploration manned base, direct involvement of scientists in exploration operations and finally training for the operations of the manned flights. Examples in the current and near future Mars missions will be shown. In the final stage of exploration: manned flight, the role of ground support will increase crew efficiency and limit the dangers of astronaut exhaustion. The necessary infrastructure to fulfil this role will be described.

  15. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  16. Programmable multi-node quantum network design and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Venkat R.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Prout, Ryan; Williams, Brian P.; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-05-01

    Software-defined networking offers a device-agnostic programmable framework to encode new network functions. Externally centralized control plane intelligence allows programmers to write network applications and to build functional network designs. OpenFlow is a key protocol widely adopted to build programmable networks because of its programmability, flexibility and ability to interconnect heterogeneous network devices. We simulate the functional topology of a multi-node quantum network that uses programmable network principles to manage quantum metadata for protocols such as teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum key distribution. We first show how the OpenFlow protocol can manage the quantum metadata needed to control the quantum channel. We then use numerical simulation to demonstrate robust programmability of a quantum switch via the OpenFlow network controller while executing an application of superdense coding. We describe the software framework implemented to carry out these simulations and we discuss near-term efforts to realize these applications.

  17. Population policies, programmes and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Speidel, J. Joseph; Weiss, Deborah C.; Ethelston, Sally A.; Gilbert, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Human consumption is depleting the Earth's natural resources and impairing the capacity of life-supporting ecosystems. Humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively over the past 50 years than during any other period, primarily to meet increasing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fibre and fuel. Such consumption, together with world population increasing from 2.6 billion in 1950 to 6.8 billion in 2009, are major contributors to environmental damage. Strengthening family-planning services is crucial to slowing population growth, now 78 million annually, and limiting population size to 9.2 billion by 2050. Otherwise, birth rates could remain unchanged, and world population would grow to 11 billion. Of particular concern are the 80 million annual pregnancies (38% of all pregnancies) that are unintended. More than 200 million women in developing countries prefer to delay their pregnancy, or stop bearing children altogether, but rely on traditional, less-effective methods of contraception or use no method because they lack access or face other barriers to using contraception. Family-planning programmes have a successful track record of reducing unintended pregnancies, thereby slowing population growth. An estimated $15 billion per year is needed for family-planning programmes in developing countries and donors should provide at least $5 billion of the total, however, current donor assistance is less than a quarter of this funding target. PMID:19770155

  18. Blindness prevention programmes: past, present, and future.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, S.; Pararajasegaram, R.

    2001-01-01

    Blindness and visual impairment have far-reaching implications for society, the more so when it is realized that 80% of visual disability is avoidable. The marked increase in the size of the elderly population, with their greater propensity for visually disabling conditions, presents a further challenge in this respect. However, if available knowledge and skills were made accessible to those communities in greatest need, much of this needless blindness could be alleviated. Since its inception over 50 years ago, and beginning with trachoma control, WHO has spearheaded efforts to assist Member States to meet the challenge of needless blindness. Since the establishment of the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness in 1978, vast strides have been made through various forms of technical support to establish national prevention of blindness programmes. A more recent initiative, "The Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness" (referred to as "VISION 2020--The Right to Sight"), launched in 1999, is a collaborative effort between WHO and a number of international nongovernmental organizations and other interested partners. This effort is poised to take the steps necessary to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness worldwide by the year 2020. PMID:11285666

  19. Population policies, programmes and the environment.

    PubMed

    Speidel, J Joseph; Weiss, Deborah C; Ethelston, Sally A; Gilbert, Sarah M

    2009-10-27

    Human consumption is depleting the Earth's natural resources and impairing the capacity of life-supporting ecosystems. Humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively over the past 50 years than during any other period, primarily to meet increasing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fibre and fuel. Such consumption, together with world population increasing from 2.6 billion in 1950 to 6.8 billion in 2009, are major contributors to environmental damage. Strengthening family-planning services is crucial to slowing population growth, now 78 million annually, and limiting population size to 9.2 billion by 2050. Otherwise, birth rates could remain unchanged, and world population would grow to 11 billion. Of particular concern are the 80 million annual pregnancies (38% of all pregnancies) that are unintended. More than 200 million women in developing countries prefer to delay their pregnancy, or stop bearing children altogether, but rely on traditional, less-effective methods of contraception or use no method because they lack access or face other barriers to using contraception. Family-planning programmes have a successful track record of reducing unintended pregnancies, thereby slowing population growth. An estimated $15 billion per year is needed for family-planning programmes in developing countries and donors should provide at least $5 billion of the total, however, current donor assistance is less than a quarter of this funding target.

  20. European Space Science gets new Programme Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Prof. Southwood, born on 30 June 1945, holds a BA in Mathematics and a Ph.D in Physics from Imperial College, London. He has spent most of his career at Imperial College, apart from two periods at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), as Postdoctoral Fellow and later as Visiting Professor. In 1997 he joined ESA as Earth Observation Future Programme Strategy Manager. He is currently Imperial College Pro Rector responsible for external academic affairs. Prof. Southwood has received five awards/honours and held many chairmanships, including those of the Science Programme Committee and Space Science Advisory Committee at ESA. His role as Principal Investigator for the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Magnetometer is his most recent project. He has been active over the years, both in Europe and in the United States, in public outreach on space science. He has around 200 publications and 100 invited papers to his name. "David Southwood ranks among the most prominent space science experts in Europe", said ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodotà, welcoming Prof. Southwood's appointment, "and I am sure that he, like his predecessor, Prof. Bonnet, will do a first-rate job for the excellent scientific community in our member states".

  1. Efficient control structures for digital programmable retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Thierry M.

    2001-05-01

    A digital programmable artificial retina (PAR) is a functional extension of a CMOS imager, in which every pixel is fitted with a local ADC and a tiny digital programmable processor. From an architectural viewpoint, a PAR is an SIMD array processor with local optical input. A PAR is aimed at processing images on-site until they can be output from the array under concentrated form. The overall goal is to get compact, fast and inexpensive vision systems, in particular for robotics applications. A 256 by 256 PAR with up to a few tens bits of local memory per pixel is now within reach at reasonable cost. However, whereas the local memory size benefits quadratically from the feature size decrease, wiring density improvement can only be linear, at best. So control should become more complex with the danger of a growing proportion of the digital pixel area being devoted to instruction or address decoding. We propose efficient scalable solutions to this problem at the architectural, circuit and topological levels, which attempt to minimize both silicon area and power consumption.

  2. Technology transfer trends in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Shoba, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    Indian space programme, whose objectives involve acceleration of economic and social development through applications of space technology, has been engaged in the development of state-of-the-art satellite systems, launch vehicles and equipment necessary for applications. Even during the early phase of evolution of this Programme, deliberate policies have been adopted by the national space agency, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), to promote spin-off benefit from the technologies developed for the use of space projects. Consistently adhering to this policy, ISRO has transferred over 280 technologies till date, spanning a wide spectrum of disciplines. This has resulted in a fruitful two-way cooperation between a number of SMEs and the ISRO. In order to make the technology transfer process effective, ISRO has adopted a variety of functional and organizational policies that included awareness building measures, licensee selection methods, innovative contract systems, diverse transfer processes, post licencing services and feedback mechanisms. Besides analyzing these policies and their evolution, the paper discusses various models adopted for technology transfer and their impact on assessment. It also touches upon relevant issues relating to creating interface between public funded R&D and the private commercial enterprises. It suggests few models in which international cooperation could be pursued in this field.

  3. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.H.; Dillon, H.K.

    1986-02-01

    Biological monitoring is defined as the measurement and assessment of workplace agents or their metabolites in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air, or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risk compared to an appropriate reference. Biological monitoring offers several advantages: it takes into account individual variability in biological activity resulting from a chemical insult. It takes into account the effects of personal physical activity and individual life styles. It is a valuable adjunct to ambient monitoring and health surveillance. The importance of chemical speciation in the toxicity of pollutants is discussed. Basic protocols for lead, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and nickel are presented. Basic criteria for biological monitoring methods are presented. 11 references, 1 table.

  4. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  5. Experimental demonstration of a programmable quantum computer by NMR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehyun; Lee, Jae-Seung; Hwang, Taesoon; Lee, Soonchil

    2004-01-01

    A programmable quantum computer is experimentally demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance using one qubit for the program and two qubits for data. A non-separable two-qubit operation is performed in a programmable way to show the successful demonstration. Projective measurements required in the programmable quantum computer are simulated by averaging the results of experiments just like when producing an effective pure state.

  6. Using self-assessments to enhance business continuity programmes.

    PubMed

    Trousdale, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Self-assessments have limitations and are no substitute for independent audits of a business continuity programme. Nevertheless, they can be an economical way to identify gaps, enhance the programme and create awareness. Self- assessments can also help prepare the programme and team members for an independent audit. In a resource-constrained environment, self-assessments can provide an opportunity to obtain measurable outputs about current state that can be tracked over time to capture improvement and maturity or identify deficiencies. Self-assessments can have a valuable place in any business continuity programme.

  7. FINDS: A fault inferring nonlinear detection system programmers manual, version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancraft, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed software documentation of the digital computer program FINDS (Fault Inferring Nonlinear Detection System) Version 3.0 is provided. FINDS is a highly modular and extensible computer program designed to monitor and detect sensor failures, while at the same time providing reliable state estimates. In this version of the program the FINDS methodology is used to detect, isolate, and compensate for failures in simulated avionics sensors used by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transport System Research Vehicle (TSRV) in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment. It is intended that this report serve as a programmers guide to aid in the maintenance, modification, and revision of the FINDS software.

  8. Reprogrammable field programmable gate array with integrated system for mitigating effects of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Herath, Jeffrey A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An integrated system mitigates the effects of a single event upset (SEU) on a reprogrammable field programmable gate array (RFPGA). The system includes (i) a RFPGA having an internal configuration memory, and (ii) a memory for storing a configuration associated with the RFPGA. Logic circuitry programmed into the RFPGA and coupled to the memory reloads a portion of the configuration from the memory into the RFPGA's internal configuration memory at predetermined times. Additional SEU mitigation can be provided by logic circuitry on the RFPGA that monitors and maintains synchronized operation of the RFPGA's digital clock managers.

  9. The International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejada-Guibert, J.

    2007-12-01

    UNESCO's International Hydrological Programme (IHP) is the only intergovernmental scientific program of the UN system on freshwater having a global scope. Since its inception in 1975, IHP has been at the forefront of international cooperation on water research and management, bringing together scientists, engineers, policy- makers, managers, and stakeholders. Currently there are over 160 National Committees for the IHP, including the US. During six successive phases, IHP has evolved into a transdisciplinary, action-oriented and policy- relevant program with a strong scientific core responding to the needs of the Member States. This presentation will address the concepts underpinning the strategic plan of the seventh phase of IHP (2008-2013) and the proposed lines of action. Adaptation to the impacts of global changes on river basins and aquifer systems is a theme central to this phase. Global changes associated with climate, demographic factors and modifications in land use, among other factors, can have significant impacts on the hydrological cycle and on water resources. Due to the global character of such changes, its potential interaction with the hydrological cycle, and the transboundary nature of many river basins and aquifers, international cooperation is essential to improve our understanding and to efficiently address the challenges posed to water resources. During IHP-VII, particularly stressed and/or vulnerable areas (i.e. arid and semi-arid regions, the Polar regions, glaciated mountainous, urban areas and coastal regions) will be assessed, with the aim of supporting the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies by Member States and policies based on institutional synergies to diminish stresses on water resources. Strengthening water governance for sustainability is another thematic concentration, emphasizing the need of society to be able to respond adequately to the critical freshwater challenges. Lessons learned from the cross

  10. New technologies to monitor healthcare worker hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Marra, A R; Edmond, M B

    2014-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programmes. Hand hygiene is a major infection control prevention intervention, but in many medical centres compliance rates are only c. 50%. Given the enormous number of hand hygiene opportunities in hospitals, direct observation to monitor compliance is very inefficient. However, technologies are emerging to obviate the need for direct observation. These new technologies for monitoring hand hygiene compliance are discussed in this article.

  11. Patient dose monitoring in Dubai in radiography and interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    AlSuwaidi, J S; AlMazrouei, N K; Pottybindu, S; Siraj, M; Mathew, D; Al Blooshi, A A; Kuriakose, V P

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents ongoing actions in Dubai on patient dose monitoring in digital radiographic examinations, mammography, interventional procedures, and dental radiological procedures. The aim of Dubai Health Authority (DHA) is to move towards the establishment of local diagnostic reference levels. DHA has participated in national and regional projects under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The need for local radiation protection educational programmes and wider patient dosimetry monitoring and recording emerged from this work.

  12. Evaluation of a PICC care training programme.

    PubMed

    Purran, Ashutosh; Weller, Gordon; Kerr, Catherine

    2016-01-13

    An integrated care organisation requires a flexible workforce with a variable skill mix in all care settings. Organisations should ensure that education and training are maintained to support safe, high quality care that provides value for money, promotes flexibility, and increases workforce participation in achieving organisation objectives and the expansion of services. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) care was identified as a challenging area for the nursing workforce in acute care and community services, following the integration and service enlargement of the Whittington Health NHS Trust. This article describes the evaluation of a new PICC care training programme that was developed and implemented to increase knowledge and awareness. The evaluation provides the clinical education team with information to help identify additional training needs to facilitate the integration of care.

  13. National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, J. C.; Smith, S. K.; Watson, C. R.

    1991-12-01

    The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives.

  14. Vivo-Fluidics and Programmable Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David

    In this talk I will discuss two projects that appear very different but are uniquely unified by the fact that they both involve the use of microfluidics to enable physical control of complex systems. The first of these projects involves our work on Insect Cyborgs or living insects with implanted microdevices. There I will show how we can use implanted microfluidic elements to exert control over the nervous system, turning it on and off on command, by injecting controlled amounts of neurotransmitters. In the second project I will demonstrate how microfluidics can be used to control assembly processes ultimately enabling a new form of "programmable matter". There I will show how controlling the strength and location of fluidic jets can provide control over fluidic assembly processes enabling affinity tuning, reconfiguration and error correction.

  15. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  16. Thermally programmable pH buffers.

    PubMed

    Van Gough, Dara; Bunker, Bruce C; Roberts, Mark E; Huber, Dale L; Zarick, Holly F; Austin, Mariah J; Wheeler, Jill S; Moore, Diana; Spoerke, Erik D

    2012-11-01

    Many reactions in both chemistry and biology rely on the ability to precisely control and fix the solution concentrations of either protons or hydroxide ions. In this report, we describe the behavior of thermally programmable pH buffer systems based on the copolymerization of varying amounts of acrylic acid (AA) groups into N-isopropylacrylamide polymers. Because the copolymers undergo phase transitions upon heating and cooling, the local environment around the AA groups can be reversibly switched between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states affecting the ionization behavior of the acids. Results show that moderate temperature variations can be used to change the solution pH by two units. However, results also indicate that the nature of the transition and its impact on the pH values are highly dependent on the AA content and the degree of neutralization.

  17. Computational multiqubit tunnelling in programmable quantum annealers

    PubMed Central

    Boixo, Sergio; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shabani, Alireza; Isakov, Sergei V.; Dykman, Mark; Denchev, Vasil S.; Amin, Mohammad H.; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers higher than the energy of the state itself. Quantum tunnelling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization in quantum annealing. However, computational multiqubit tunnelling has not yet been observed, and a theory of co-tunnelling under high- and low-frequency noises is lacking. Here we show that 8-qubit tunnelling plays a computational role in a currently available programmable quantum annealer. We devise a probe for tunnelling, a computational primitive where classical paths are trapped in a false minimum. In support of the design of quantum annealers we develop a nonperturbative theory of open quantum dynamics under realistic noise characteristics. This theory accurately predicts the rate of many-body dissipative quantum tunnelling subject to the polaron effect. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum tunnelling outperforms thermal hopping along classical paths for problems with up to 200 qubits containing the computational primitive. PMID:26739797

  18. Programmable Microcapsules from Self-Immolative Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    For the autonomous repair of damaged materials, microcapsules are needed that release their contents in response to a variety of physical and chemical phenomena, not just by direct mechanical rupture. Herein we report a general route to programmable microcapsules. This method creates core-shell microcapsules with polymeric shell walls composed of self-immolative polymer networks. The polymers in these networks undergo a head-to-tail depolymerization upon removal of the triggering end group, leading to breakdown of the shell wall and subsequent release of the capsule’s liquid interior. We report microcapsules with shell walls bearing both Boc and Fmoc triggering groups. The capsules release their contents only under conditions known to remove these triggering groups; otherwise, they retain their contents under a variety of conditions. In support of the proposed release mechanism, the capsule shell walls were observed to undergo physical cracking upon exposure to the triggering conditions.

  19. Breast cancer control programme in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, J A; Barros, A C; Hegg, R; Zeferino, L C

    1993-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very important health problem in developing countries, where its incidence has increased in the last decades. Mortality rates due to breast cancer have also increased, and the main reason for this is late diagnosis. The authors demonstrate that organizing programmes for early breast cancer detection is possible by making use of simple resources. A set of tiered interventions is proposed, stratified in levels of complexity: Level 1--Identification of abnormal breast by health professionals; Level 2--Medical assistance to women whose breast is considered abnormal, in order to diagnose and treat benign diseases and recognize suspect cases of cancer; Level 3--Management of the women with suspected or diagnosed breast cancer by a multidisciplinary team. Therefore, a proposal for wide action for breast cancer control in developing countries is presented.

  20. A successful national control programme for enzootic respiratory diseases in pigs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stärk, K D C; Miserez, R; Siegmann, S; Ochs, H; Infanger, P; Schmidt, J

    2007-12-01

    Before the start of systematic disease control, respiratory diseases in swine in Switzerland caused estimated losses of several million euros per year. In 1993, a national programme to control enzootic respiratory diseases in pigs was proposed, with the aim of reducing the incidence of clinical cases to less than 1%. Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and clinical cases of pleuropneumonia caused by any serotype of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) would be targeted, in addition to any cases with serological evidence of APP serotype 2. This control programme was initiated in 1996, region by region, and fully implemented by 2004. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory test results were used to identify the appropriate disease control measures. Partial depopulation was used to control EP on breeding and breeding-finishing farms. Total depopulation was implemented on all farms affected with APP and finishing farms affected with EP Animal trade was strictly regulated during the programme and all suspected cases of respiratory disease in pigs were made notifiable. Continued monitoring is based on clinical suspicion of infection and/or the detection of gross pathological lesions at slaughter, followed by laboratory confirmation. In 2005, the incidence of clinical cases was less than 1%. Regulations have been introduced to control the international trade in live pigs and prevent the re-introduction of respiratory diseases into Switzerland.

  1. Effects of a 12-week physical activities programme on sleep in female university students.

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Watier, Timothée; Honn, Kimberly; Pezé, Thierry; Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sleep is known to negatively affect adolescent's health and the links between regular physical activity and sleep are unclear.This pilot study investigated whether the regular practice of physical activities among sedentary female students would improve their sleep. Nineteen female students, identified as sedentary and having poor subjective sleep quality were assigned in two groups to a 12-week university physical activities programme in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organisation (N = 10) or to a control condition (N = 9). Sleep was assessed with actigraphy before and after the study and with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality 15 Index (PSQI) at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. The intensity of physical activities was controlled by heart rate monitor. The analysis showed that sleep quality in the physical activities group improved, with the mean ± SD PSQI score decreasing from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 2.0. Despite some limitations, these pilot data indicate that a physical activities programme is feasible to implement in students, and that participation in such a programme improves sleep in 18- 24 -year-old female adolescents. Further potential benefits remain to be investigated in follow-up research.

  2. The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme

    PubMed Central

    King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary. PMID:14645950

  3. A survey of STI policies and programmes in Europe: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Dehne, K; Riedner, G; Neckermann, C; Mykyev, O; Ndowa, F; Laukamm-Josten, U

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A survey was conducted to assess the adequacy of sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention and control policies and programmes in the European region (including the central Asian republics). Methods: An adapted World Health Organization (WHO) model questionnaire was sent to ministry of health officials in all 45 countries of Europe and central Asia. The questionnaire included questions on STI programme structure; STI case management; the different types and levels of services, including public and private service providers; partner notification and screening policies; services for vulnerable populations; monitoring and supervision; surveillance and research. Results: Western European countries largely leave STI prevention and care to individual practitioners. Licensed providers exist at all levels of care, and access to consultations and treatment is usually free of charge. In the newly independent states (NIS), by contrast, programme efforts emphasise state guidance and supervision of local providers rather than individual practitioners. Access to services is limited in that in several NIS, only public sector specialists are licensed to treat STI. Formerly free of charge policies have been severely eroded. While in western Europe access to condoms appears to be good, in the NIS there are many fewer condom outlets. Regionwide, in 40% of countries the distribution of condoms is part of STI consultations. Conclusions: Non-availability of affordable high quality STI services, including STI treatment and condoms, may be one of the causes for the much higher STI prevalence in parts of eastern Europe and NIS than in western Europe. PMID:12407246

  4. [Implementation of mastitis prevention and control programmes on Flemish dairy farms].

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Van Brempt, H; Supré, K; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2010-01-15

    Mastitis prevention and control programmes were developed in the 1960s and have since been adopted with considerable success. Our data for a convenience sample of 45 Flemish dairy farms demonstrate that the well-known "five-point prevention and control programme" is still not, or not adequately, implemented. For example, only 18% of the dairy farmers prestripped their cows and wiped the teats using single-use dry towels before attaching the milking units. Although about 70% of the farms practised post-milking teat disinfection (dipping or spraying), 40% of the farmers did this inadequately. On only one farm were cows with clinical mastitis treated both locally and parenterally for at least 3 days, and on only 7% of the dairy farms was the udder health status of the herd systematically monitored. According to the dairy farmers, the extra labour and stress caused by udder health problems were the most troublesome aspects of mastitis. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that bovine practitioners in the Flemish region should critically evaluate the mastitis management of their clients (farmers) and motivate them to implement an efficient mastitis prevention programme.

  5. Aspects of ESA s public outreach programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maree, H.

    The Science Programme Communication Service is currently implementing a new policy to increase the overall public interest in ESA Science Programme by adopting new ways of promoting its activities, accordingly to the simple principle that "different target audiences have different needs". It is clear that the general public (i.e. "the man in the street" / "the average tax- payer") rarely has the knowledge and the background to understand what exactly a space mission is, what it does and why it does it ("Mission oriented approach"). The experience has shown that a space mission becomes "popular" amongst this target audience when the relevant communication is done by passing generic/bas ic/simple messages ("Thematic oriented approach"). The careful selection of adequate supports together with efficient distribution and promotion networks are also key parameters for success of the latter approach. One should also note that the overall objective of this new policy, is to raise people's interest in space in general. By presenting the information under the ESA brand, the public will start more and more to associate this brand and Europe to space exploration. Within the next twelve months, four scientific missions will be launched. Interestingly, tree of them (SMART-1, ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS) offer a unique opportunity to implement the new communication policy under the single thematic : Europe is exploring the Solar System. Nevertheless, the study of the various mission profiles and their potential communication impact lead us to choose to reach out the general public primarily via the sub-thematic : Europe goes to Mars.

  6. List of Organizing Committees and Conference Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Romanian Neutron Scattering Society Sponsors Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, Czech Republic Programme Committee Valentin Gordely (chairman)Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Heinrich StuhrmannGermany Jose TeixeiraLaboratoire Leon Brillouin, France Pavel ApelJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Pavol BalgavyComenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Alexander BelushkinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Georg BueldtInstitute of Structural Biology and Biophysics (ISB), Germany Leonid BulavinTaras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine Emil BurzoBabes-Bolyai University, Romania Vadim CherezovThe Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, USA Ion IonitaRomanian Society of Neutron Scattering, Romania Alexei KhokhlovMoscow State University, Russia Aziz MuzafarovInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Alexander OzerinInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Gerard PepyResearch Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungary Josef PlestilInstitute of Macromolecular Chemistry CAS, Czech Republic Aurel RadulescuJuelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Germany Maria BalasoiuJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Alexander KuklinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Local Organizing Committee Alexander Kuklin - Chairman Maria Balasoiu - Co-chairman Tatiana Murugova - Secretary Natalia Malysheva Natalia Dokalenko Julia Gorshkova Andrey Rogachev Oleksandr Ivankov Dmitry Soloviev Lilia Anghel Erhan Raul The PDF also contains the Conference Programme.

  7. Results of the Finnish bioenergy research programme

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, D.A.; Helynen, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Programme for the period 1993-1998 is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of biofuels. The main research areas are production methods of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass to bio-oils. The total funding of the Bioenergy Research Programme is estimated to be 50 million USD which includes the public funding and also funding from the industrial sources. The total number of the projects in 1994 were 60, and 23 of them were at universities and research institutes, 20 industrial and 17 demonstration projects. The integrated harvesting methods, which would produce both wood raw material for pulp mills and wood fuel for energy production, have been further developed and partly demonstrated. The Massahake method, based on several different successive separation phases, has showed a debarking result for birch and bark content below 1% and economical calculations show that the method can be profitable. A full scale Massahake demonstration plant started during the spring 1995. Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. Two new pressurized piston feeders, which could substitute lock-hopper systems and high inert gas consumption, have been designed and tested. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)-concepts for biomass need require a low moisture content of the fuel. A new dryer concept based on a fixed bed dryer ha been developed and tested. In research on conversion technology, new results have been created related to pyrolysis oil and upgrading processes for different pulp industry raw material producing bio-oils. Economical calculations showed that pyrolysis oil could be competitive compared to light fuel oil.

  8. Electrically Variable or Programmable Nonvolatile Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shangqing, Liu; NaiJuan, Wu; Ignatieu, Alex; Jianren, Li

    2009-01-01

    Electrically variable or programmable capacitors based on the unique properties of thin perovskite films are undergoing development. These capacitors show promise of overcoming two important deficiencies of prior electrically programmable capacitors: Unlike in the case of varactors, it is not necessary to supply power continuously to make these capacitors retain their capacitance values. Hence, these capacitors may prove useful as components of nonvolatile analog and digital electronic memories. Unlike in the case of ferroelectric capacitors, it is possible to measure the capacitance values of these capacitors without changing the values. In other words, whereas readout of ferroelectric capacitors is destructive, readout of these capacitors can be nondestructive. A capacitor of this type is a simple two terminal device. It includes a thin film of a suitable perovskite as the dielectric layer, sandwiched between two metal or metal oxide electrodes (for example, see Figure 1). The utility of this device as a variable capacitor is based on a phenomenon, known as electrical-pulse-induced capacitance (EPIC), that is observed in thin perovskite films and especially in those thin perovskite films that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. In EPIC, the application of one or more electrical pulses that exceed a threshold magnitude (typically somewhat less than 1 V) gives rise to a nonvolatile change in capacitance. The change in capacitance depends on the magnitude duration, polarity, and number of pulses. It is not necessary to apply a magnetic field or to cool the device below (or heat it above) room temperature to obtain EPIC. Examples of suitable CMR perovskites include Pr(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3, La(1-x)S-r(x)MnO3,and Nb(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3. Figure 2 is a block diagram showing an EPIC capacitor connected to a circuit that can vary the capacitance, measure the capacitance, and/or measure the resistance of the capacitor.

  9. Recreation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Merklein, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recreational use and recreational facilities are common features at hydropower projects. In fact, the hydropower industry is a major supplier of recreational opportunities contributing to tourism and rural economic growth in many communities across the country, As demands for public recreation have grown, pressure on the hydropower industry to provide more public access and more facilities has increased. This paper looks at recent developments in the FERC licensing and compliance arenas with regard to planning for and monitoring recreation at hydropower facilities. The paper highlights the increased occurrence of recreation monitoring requirements in license articles and discusses methods for complying with such requirements. The paper also looks at how monitoring data can be used to avoid unnecessary developments and to better plan for future recreation use.

  10. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  11. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  12. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  13. An automated programmable platform enabling multiplex dynamic stimuli delivery and cellular response monitoring for high-throughput suspension single-cell signaling studies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4lc01070a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    He, Luye; Kniss, Ariel; San-Miguel, Adriana; Rouse, Tel; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling events are orchestrated by dynamic external biochemical cues. By rapidly perturbing cells with dynamic inputs and examining the output from these systems, one could study the structure and dynamic properties of a cellular signaling network. Conventional experimental techniques limit the implementation of these systematic approaches due to the lack of sophistication in manipulating individual cells and the fluid microenvironment around them; existing microfluidic technologies thus far are mainly targeting adherent cells. In this paper we present an automated platform to interrogate suspension cells with dynamic stimuli while simultaneously monitoring cellular responses in a high-throughput manner at single-cell resolution. We demonstrate the use of this platform in an experiment to measure Jurkat T cells in response to distinct dynamic patterns of stimuli; we find cells exhibit highly heterogeneous responses under each stimulation condition. More interestingly, these cells act as low-pass filters, only entrained to the low frequency stimulus signals. We also demonstrate that this platform can be easily programmed to actively generate arbitrary dynamic signals. We envision our platform to be useful in other contexts to study cellular signaling dynamics, which may be difficult using conventional experimental methods. PMID:25609410

  14. Empirical Investigation of Predictors of Success in an MBA Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Atul; Turek, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The twofold purpose of this study was to determine if selected variables were predictors of: student performance in the MBA programme; and student performance on the MBA MFT exam. Design/methodology/approach: This study focuses on MBA graduates at a US university who have successfully completed the entire programme requirements. Real…

  15. Effects of a Music Programme on Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolduc, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…

  16. What Makes a Good Educator? The Relevance of Meta Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study which explores the relevance of meta programmes to students' perceptions of teaching quality. Meta programmes are a model of personality preferences from the discipline of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). Research into teaching effectiveness indicates that students rate as important "hygiene…

  17. Students' Attitudes toward an After-School Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Though considerable research on student attitudes has been conducted in physical education, little information exists concerning student attitudes toward after-school physical activity programmes. This study assessed students' attitudes toward their after-school physical activity programme located in southwest Texas, USA. Participants included 158…

  18. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  20. Quality Assessment of Special Education Programmes: Listen to the Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Special Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Special education programmes must include high quality services to enhance children with disabilities (CWD) in all aspects of their development. This study aims to assess special education programmes (SEP) in Jordan from the perspectives of parents of CWD. Two different SEPs were assessed: inclusive education (IE) in regular schools, and special…

  1. Evaluating IMU communication skills training programme: assessment tool development.

    PubMed

    Yeap, R; Beevi, Z; Lukman, H

    2008-08-01

    This article describes the development of four assessment tools designed to evaluate the communication skills training (CST) programme at the International Medical University (IMU). The tools measure pre-clinical students' 1) perceived competency in basic interpersonal skills, 2) attitude towards patient-centred communication, 3) conceptual knowledge on doctor-patient communication, and 4) acceptance of the CST programme.

  2. Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

  3. Who Attends Physical Activity Programmes in Deprived Neighbourhoods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withall, J.; Jago, R.; Fox, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Such diseases are most prevalent in economically-disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. There is a need to engage disadvantaged groups in programmes to increase physical activity. This case study examined programmes on offer in a…

  4. Cross-Evaluation of Degree Programmes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to develop and describe the benchmarking approach of enhancement-led evaluation in higher education and to present a cross-evaluation process for degree programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The benchmarking approach produces useful information for the development of degree programmes based on self-evaluation,…

  5. Enhancing Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy through Vocational Entrepreneurship Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritz, Alex; Brown, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the results of a longitudinal evaluation of a vocational entrepreneurship education programme (EEP) using entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) measures. An empirical, mixed methods longitudinal and effectuation scale was used to measure ESE scores. Results indicate that participation in the programme had a…

  6. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can...

  9. The Specialist Schools Programme: Golden Goose or Conjuring Trick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Schagen, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The Specialist Schools Programme was launched in England in 1993. Under the programme, schools submit a bid to central government to specialise in specified curriculum areas. To qualify to participate they must raise private sponsorship to contribute to the cost of their development plans and set targets, including targets for pupils' attainment.…

  10. Undergraduate Mathematics Achievement in the Emerging Ethnic Engineers Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of collegiate mathematics achievement of underrepresented minority students as it investigates the impact of a cooperative learning calculus programme on the first-year calculus experience of non-Asian ethnic minority engineering students. The Emerging Ethnic Engineers Programme in the College of Engineering at the…

  11. Exploring the Value of Professional Body Accreditation for Masters Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Masters programmes face a range of pressures including the drive for increased numbers, for widening participation and for increasingly vocational approaches. Maintaining quality and consistency of knowledge and skill sets between programmes is becoming difficult. This paper critically appraises the value of accreditation of a UK Masters programme…

  12. Implementation Quality of Family Literacy Programmes: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Rie, S.; van Steensel, R. C. M.; van Gelderen, A. J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Raising the literacy levels of young children is a major concern in many countries for which various programmes have been suggested. One of these is family literacy programmes. In previous meta-analyses wide variability in effects has been found and it has been suggested that this is partly caused by variability in implementation quality. This…

  13. Revealing the Effects of Cognitive Education Programmes through Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzuriel, David

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of dynamic assessment (DA) in revealing outcomes of cognitive education programmes. Three programmes based on "mediated learning experience" theory are reviewed: "Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment", "Bright Start", and "Peer Mediation with…

  14. Mentees' Views of a Structured Mentoring Programme at Unisa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Management of one college at Unisa initiated a structured mentoring programme to develop researchers, among others. This article reports the views of 43 mentees of the programme one year after implementation. The research design was a survey. The items in a questionnaire were influenced by the self-efficacy theory and the constructivist views…

  15. The Provision of Educationally Focused Parenting Programmes in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Shaw, Jacquelene; Rhamie, Jasmine

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of parenting and the way in which parenting programmes can be an effective intervention in changing behaviour and parent-child interactions. The aim of this research, funded by the Department for Education and Skills, was to provide a map of parenting programme provision in…

  16. 46 CFR 62.25-25 - Programmable systems and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Programmable systems and devices. 62.25-25 Section 62.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-25 Programmable systems and...

  17. Effects of College Programme Characteristics on Graduates' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Aracil, Adela

    2015-01-01

    Education programmes are designed to equip young populations with the qualifications required to assume responsible roles in specific professions and in society generally. In this paper, the focus of the analysis is on the significance of a number of higher education programme characteristics in allocating young higher education graduates across…

  18. Observing Classroom Instruction in Schools Implementing the International Baccalaureate Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Beverly L.; Rollins, Kayla Braziel; Stillisano, Jacqueline R.; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2013-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programme utilizes an inquiry-based multi-disciplinary approach and focuses on the teaching of critical-thinking skills. The IB programme is growing at a rapid rate within the United States, with the overall number of IB schools having more than doubled in the last five years. The purpose of the present study…

  19. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  20. Reforming a Bachelor of Music Programme: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Gemma; Lebler, Don

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the authors conducted a formal review of the Queensland Conservatorium's Bachelor of Music programme to determine to what extent the programme prepared graduates for professional life in the 21st century. The process was informed by comprehensive performance indicator data and substantial feedback from staff, students, and other…

  1. Actions of the International Environmental Education Programme 1975-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connect: Unesco-UNEP Environmental Education Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    In 1975 Unesco, with the cooperation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), launched the current International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP). The initial 3-year phase of the IEEP was fundamentally that of promoting and stimulating environmental education among Unesco member states by (1) elaborating concepts, goals, and…

  2. The Need for a Manifesto for Educational Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, John; Kushner, Saville

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the progress of educational programme evaluation over three decades through the lens of a group of evaluators primarily from the UK and the US who met periodically from 1972 to 2004 to review the state of the art of educational programme evaluation--what it could and could not do--in relation to the complexity of programme…

  3. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  4. Sexual Orientation Topics in Educational Leadership Programmes across the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines the inclusion of sexual orientation topics within the formal curriculum of 55 public college and university educational administration/leadership programmes across the USA. The findings indicate that programmes place a low priority upon sexual orientation compared to other diversity topics and that 59.5% of programmes…

  5. Curriculum Innovation in Undergraduate Accounting Degree Programmes through "Virtual Internships"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayerlein, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss major criticisms of traditional undergraduate accounting programmes and to introduce virtual internships as a curriculum innovation that addresses these criticisms. Design/methodology/approach: The main aim of the paper is to inspire curriculum innovation in accounting programmes though the…

  6. Context or Key? Language in Four Adult Learning Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Context is a key factor in designing and delivering adult learning programmes, and in multilingual environments the choice of language plays a decisive role. Four programmes, two in Asia (Bhutan Myanmar) and two in Africa (Ghana and Uganda), which focus on learning for development, integrate language considerations in different ways, related both…

  7. The Reflective Professional Honours Programme of the Dutch Saxion Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Trijntje

    2012-01-01

    The Reflective Professional Honours Programme of the Saxion Universities of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands centers on a profile of what graduates of the program should have accomplished in addition to their regular bachelor's degree program. The development team for our programme first investigated what the profile should be, interviewing…

  8. Developing a Mind-Body Exercise Programme for Stressed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Claudia; Seo, Dong-Chul; Geib, Roy W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the process of developing a Health Qigong programme for stressed children using a formative evaluation approach. Methods: A multi-step formative evaluation method was utilised. These steps included (1) identifying programme content and drafting the curriculum, (2) synthesising effective and age-appropriate pedagogies, (3)…

  9. A Nurse Prescribing Programme Incorporating e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Joan

    2007-01-01

    In order to become a UK Nurse Prescriber, a First Level Registered Nurse must undergo an approved University based educational programme, which consists of theory, and a period of practice supervised by doctors. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires nurses undertaking this programme to have some formal university attendance and to be…

  10. Implementing a Strategy Awareness Raising Programme: Strategy Changes and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Maria; Pino, Margarita; Rodriguez, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a collaborative action research study carried out on three groups of Spanish beginners during the implementation of a strategy awareness raising programme (SAR). The objective was to analyse the impact of the SAR programme on the students' learning process in three main areas: strategy awareness, strategy use in learning…

  11. Negotiating and Constructing an Educationally Relevant Leadership Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David L.; Smith, Richard J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to discuss the conceptualisation process of developing a new one-year taught-master's programme in educational leadership at an Aotearoa/New Zealand university. Design/methodology/approach: The perspective taken is a highly personalised one from the two lead "drivers" of the programme and outlines the two-year…

  12. Master Study Programmes Orientation and Curricula Inconsistency in Lithuanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzackas, Rimantas; Rackauskaite, Aiste; Jaskauskaite, Daiva

    2004-01-01

    When independence was restored in Lithuania, a single-stage higher education system that had existed hitherto was reorganised into a multi-stage system with Bachelor, Master and Doctoral programme studies. The analysis of Master studies, as a new and atypical phenomenon in Lithuania, highlights the discrepancies between Master programme curricula…

  13. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  14. IFLA General Conference, 1987. IFLA Core Programmes. Open Forum. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The four papers in this compilation report on some of the recent core programs of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA): (1) "The IFLA Universal Bibliographic Control and International Machine Readable Cataloging Programme (UBCIM)" (Ross Bourne, IFLA UBCIM Programme Officer); (2) "The IFLA UAP (Universal…

  15. Adult Numeracy Teacher Training Programmes in England: A Suggested Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sai

    2006-01-01

    Nationally approved adult numeracy teacher training programmes were started in September 2002 following the introduction of subject specifications by the Department for Education and Skills and the Further National Training Organisation in England. These programmes delivered by higher education institutions and further education colleges were…

  16. Incredible Years Parent and Teacher Programmes: Emerging Themes and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherall, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Incredible Years Parent and Teacher Programmes that have originated from the work of Webster-Stratton. It provides a brief background on the programmes and a critical analysis of the issues as identified in current literature. The issues can be grouped into four main categories, the first being government decision-making…

  17. The computation of body composition data using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Withers, R T

    1986-01-01

    A body composition programme has been developed for the Texas Instruments TI 59 programmable calculator and printer. The methodology involves the determination of body density by underwater weighing with the ventilated residual volume being measured by helium dilution. Some of the labelled output variables included on the printout are: body density, percent body fat, fat mass and fat free mass.

  18. The Effectiveness of Multimedia Programmes in Children's Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acha, Joana

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of three different presentation modes in children's vocabulary learning with a self-guided multimedia programmes. Participants were 135 third and fourth grade children who read a short English language story presented by a computer programme. For 12 key (previously unknown) words in the story,…

  19. Experiences of Action Leaning in Two SME Business Support Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Action learning sets are used by Lancaster University Management School's Institute for Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development to provide business support to owner managers of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs). This paper compares the experiences of participants and facilitator of two programmes: one part of a wider programme of…

  20. Learning Together: An International Master Programme in Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swet, Jacqueline; Brown, Kathleen L.; Tedla, Paulos Kebreab

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the Erasmus Mundus Special Educational Needs (EM SEN) programme experience and the ways in which it influenced the authors' perception of reflection and research involving inclusive education. The authors argue that incorporating reflective practice and research into an international Master's programme holds promise for…

  1. Assessing "Me Generation's" Entrepreneurship Degree Programmes in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Muhammad Nizam; Rejab, Mohd Rozaini Mohd

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available to "ME generation" students. By analysing the antecedents and predicting self-employment intention, the paper evaluates the impact of such programmes upon the…

  2. Coloured Language: Identity Perception of Children in Bilingual Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Research involving bilingual education programmes has largely focused on cognitive and academic outcomes, with a paucity of studies investigating what involvement in these programmes means to the participants. Viewing identity using the dynamic systems theory perspective, this paper reports on a study analysing how children experience their…

  3. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  4. Current air quality analytics and monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Marć, Mariusz; Tobiszewski, Marek; Zabiegała, Bożena; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the different tools and concepts that are commonly applied in air quality monitoring. The monitoring of atmosphere is extremely important as the air quality is an important problem for large communities. Main requirements for analytical devices used for monitoring include a long period of autonomic operation and portability. These instruments, however, are often characterized by poor analytical performance. Monitoring networks are the most common tools used for monitoring, so large-scale monitoring programmes are summarized here. Biomonitoring, as a cheap and convenient alternative to traditional sample collection, is becoming more and more popular, although its main drawback is the lack of standard procedures. Telemonitoring is another approach to air monitoring, which offers some interesting opportunities, such as ease of coverage of large or remote areas, constituting a complementary approach to traditional strategies; however, it requires huge costs.

  5. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  6. The Wmo Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: Global Framework for Atmospheric Composition Observations and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Jalkanen, L.

    2010-12-01

    The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme is the only existing long-term international global programme providing an international coordinated framework for observations and analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. GAW is a partnership involving contributors from about 80 countries. It includes a coordinated global network of observing stations along with supporting facilities (Central Facilities) and expert groups (Scientific Advisory Groups, SAGs and Expert Teams, ETs). Currently GAW coordinates activities and data from 27 Global Stations and a substantial number of Regional and Contributing Stations. Station information is available through the GAW Station Information System GAWSIS (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/). There are six key groups of variables which are addressed by the GAW Programme, namely: ozone, reactive gases, greenhouse gases, aerosols, UV radiation and precipitation chemistry. GAW works to implement integrated observations unifying measurements from different platforms (ground based in situ and remote, balloons, aircraft and satellite) supported by modeling activities. GAW provides data for ozone assessments, Greenhouse Gas Bulletins, Ozone Bulletins and precipitation chemistry assessments published on a regular basis and for early warnings of changes in the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere. To ensure that observations can be used for global assessments, the GAW Programme has developed a Quality Assurance system. Five types of Central Facilities dedicated to the six groups of measurement variables are operated by WMO Members and form the basis of quality assurance and data archiving for the GAW global monitoring network. They include Central Calibration Laboratories (CCLs) that host primary standards (PS), Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centres (QA/SACs), World Calibration Centers (WCCs), Regional Calibration Centers (RCCs), and World Data Centers (WDCs) with responsibility for

  7. Children Become "Real Scientists" as They Help to Monitor the Health of Their Local Estuary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Brent

    2014-01-01

    The author explains how the children at his primary school in New Zealand are inspired by their involvement in environmental monitoring. Shellfish surveys are conducted annually in New Zealand in order to establish the health of their estuaries. By involving the children in this national monitoring programme, prepared by the Hauraki Gulf Forum (an…

  8. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  9. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

  10. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A monitoring well including a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto.

  11. Air - Net of Polish Permanent Station Rtk Dgps In Programme Eur Rvsm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, A.

    All aircraft intending to operate in the EUR RVSM Airspace, except State aircraft, shall require an Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum approval issued by the responsible authority. To obtain such an approval, aircraft operators will have to satisfy the requirements set out in Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) Temporary Guidance Leaflet No6 (TGL6), which require: · that aircraft for which RVSM Approval is sought have the vertical navigation performance capability required for RVSM operations through compliance with the criteria of the RVSM Minimum Aircraft System Performance Specification (MASPS); · that, they have instituted procedures for continued airworthiness (maintenance and repair) practices; · that they have instituted flight crew procedures for operations in the EUR RVSM Airspace. A comprehensive means of monitoring the height ­ keeping performance of aircraft has been developed utilising two types of equipment: · Height Monitoring Units ­ static height monitoring facilities; · GPS Monitoring Units ­ portable monitoring units on board aircraft. Poster present select problems connected of Polish Air - System RTK DGPS in EUR RVSM Programme. Reached results became during air - tests in years 1995 ­ 2001.

  12. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Bobrek, Miljko; Blalock, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios where human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments due the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is the final report of the activities involving the NEET 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. We present a detailed functional block diagram of the proposed data acquisition system, the thought process leading to technical decisions, the implemented system, and the tested results from the systems. This system will be capable of monitoring at least three parameters of importance to nuclear reactor monitoring: temperature, radiation level, and pressure.

  13. Professional Development Programmes for Teachers in the Northern Territory of Australia: Enablers and Inhibiters for Success in Two Aspirant Leadership Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speering, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Professional development programmes for teachers have become an increasing focus in the quest to improve teacher quality. In regional and remote areas of Australia the delivery of professional development programmes can become problematic. This study compares and contrasts the two separate professional development programmes evaluated (Programme A…

  14. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists: a multi-programme evaluation in a field setting.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Divera A M; Vlakveld, Willem P; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-05-01

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after participation in the RSE programmes, both to youngsters who had participated in a RSE programme, the intervention group, and to a comparable reference group of youngsters who had not, the reference group. For each RSE programme, the answers to the questionnaires in the pre- and post-test were checked for internal consistency and then condensed into a single safety score using categorical principal components analysis. Next, an analysis of covariance was performed on the obtained safety scores in order to compare the post-test scores of the intervention and reference groups, corrected for their corresponding pre-test scores. It was found that three out of five RSE programmes resulted in significantly improved self-reported safety behaviour. However, the proportions of participants that changed their behaviour relative to the reference group were small, ranging from 3% to 20%. Comparisons among programme types showed cognitive approaches not to differ in effect from programmes that used fear-appeal approaches. The method used provides a useful tool to assess and compare the effects of different education programmes on self-reported behaviour.

  15. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning…

  16. The Zero Programme against Bullying: Effects of the Programme in the Context of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling; Bru, Edvin; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Vaaland, Grete S.

    2010-01-01

    The anti-bullying programme "Zero" was implemented at 146 Norwegian primary schools. The outcome among pupils was evaluated after 12 months of the total 16-month period using an age-equivalent design. The present study shows that bullying was reduced among pupils in the schools participating in the Zero programme. Moreover, National…

  17. Self-management programmes in temporomandibular disorders: results from an international Delphi process.

    PubMed

    Durham, J; Al-Baghdadi, M; Baad-Hansen, L; Breckons, M; Goulet, J P; Lobbezoo, F; List, T; Michelotti, A; Nixdorf, D R; Peck, C C; Raphael, K; Schiffman, E; Steele, J G; Story, W; Ohrbach, R

    2016-12-01

    Self-management (SM) programmes are commonly used for initial treatment of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The programmes described in the literature, however, vary widely with no consistency in terminology used, components of care or their definitions. The aims of this study were therefore to construct an operationalised definition of self-management appropriate for the treatment of patients with TMD, identify the components of that self-management currently being used and create sufficiently clear and non-overlapping standardised definitions for each of those components. A four-round Delphi process with eleven international experts in the field of TMD was conducted to achieve these aims. In the first round, the participants agreed upon six principal concepts of self-management. In the remaining three rounds, consensus was achieved upon the definition and the six components of self-management. The main components identified and agreed upon by the participants to constitute the core of a SM programme for TMD were as follows: education; jaw exercises; massage; thermal therapy; dietary advice and nutrition; and parafunctional behaviour identification, monitoring and avoidance. This Delphi process has established the principal concepts of self-management, and a standardised definition has been agreed with the following components for use in clinical practice: education; self-exercise; self-massage; thermal therapy; dietary advice and nutrition; and parafunctional behaviour identification, monitoring and avoidance. The consensus-derived concepts, definitions and components of SM offer a starting point for further research to advance the evidence base for, and clinical utility of, TMD SM.

  18. Joint use of monitoring and modelling.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, L F; Refsgaard, J C; Højberg, A L

    2007-01-01

    There is much to gain in joining monitoring and modelling efforts, especially in the present process of implementing the European Water Framework Directive. Nevertheless, it is rare to see forces combined in these two disciplines. To bring the monitoring and the modelling communities together, a number of workshops have been arranged with discussions on benefits and constraints in joint use of monitoring and modelling. The workshops have been attended by scientists, water managers, policy makers as well as stakeholders and consultants. Emphasis has been put on data availability and accessibility, remote sensing and data assimilation techniques, monitoring programmes and modelling support to the design or optimisation of these as well as potential benefits of using supporting modelling tools in the process of designing Programmes of Measures by impact assessment etc. The way models can support in extrapolation in time and space, in data analysis, in process understanding (conceptual models), in accessing correct interaction between pressures and impacts etc. have also been elaborated. Although practitioners have been open-minded to the presented ideas, they are somewhat reluctant towards how to implement this in their daily work. This paper presents some experiences from the workshops.

  19. Programmable CGH on photochromic material using DMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alata, Romain; Pariani, Giorgio; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Bianco, Andrea; Bertarelli, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) are useful for wavefront shaping and complex optics testing, including aspherical and free-form optics. Today, CGHs are recorded directly with a laser or intermediates masks but allows only recording binary CGHs; binary CGHs are efficient but can reconstruct only pixilated images. We propose to use a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) for writing binary CGHs as well as grayscale CGHs, able to reconstruct fulfilled images. DMD is actually studied at LAM, for generating programmable slit masks in multi-object spectrographs. It is composed of 2048x1080 individually controllable micro-mirrors, with a pitch of 13.68 μm. This is a real-time reconfigurable mask, perfect for recording CGHs. A first setup has been developed for hologram recording, where the DMD is enlightened with a collimated beam and illuminates a photosensible plate through an Offner relay, with a magnification of 1:1. Our set up resolution is 2-3 μm, leading to a CGH resolution equal to the DMD micro mirror size. In order to write and erase CGHs during test procedure or on request, we use a photochromic plate called PUR-GD71-50-ST developed at Politecnico di Milano. It is opaque at rest, and becomes transparent when it is illuminated with visible light, between 500 and 700 nm; then it can be erased by a UV flash. We choose to code the CGHs in equally spaced levels, so called stepped CGH. We recorded up to 1000x1000 pixels CGHs with a contrast greater than 50, knowing that the material is able to reach an ultimate contrast of 1000. A second bench has also been developed, dedicated to the reconstruction of the recorded images with a 632.8nm He-Ne laser beam. Very faithful reconstructions have been obtained. Thanks to our recording and reconstruction set-ups, we have been able to successfully record binary and stepped CGHs, and reconstruct them with a high fidelity, revealing the potential of this method for generating programmable/rewritable stepped CGHs on

  20. Programmable spectral design and the binary supergrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levner, Daniel

    Spectral operations such as wavelength selection, power level manipulation, and chromatic dispersion control are key to many processes in optical telecommunication, spectroscopy, and sensing. In their simplest forms, these functions can be performed using a number of successful devices such as the Fraunhofer ("diffraction") grating, Bragg grating, thin-film filter (TFF), and dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF). More complicated manipulations, however, often require either problematic cascades of many simple elements, the use of custom technologies that offer little adjustment, or the implementation of fully programmable devices, which allow for the desired spectral function to be synthesized ab initio. Here, I present the Binary Supergrating (BSG), a novel technology that permits the programmable and near-arbitrary control of optical amplitude and phase using a simple, robust and practical form. This guided-wave form consists of an aperiodic sequence of binary elements; the sequence, determined through the process of BSG synthesis, encodes an optical program that defines device functionality. The ability to derive optical programs that address broad spectral demands is central to the BSG's extensive capabilities. In consequence, I present a powerful approach to synthesis that exploits existing knowledge in the design of "analog" gratings. This approach is based on a two-step process, which first derives an analog diffractive structure using the best available methods and then transforms it into binary form. Accordingly, I discuss the notion of diffractive structure transformation and introduce the principle of key information. I identify such key information and illustrate its application in grating quantizers based on an atypical form of Delta-Sigma modulation. As a digital approach to spectral engineering, the BSG presents many of the same advantages offered by the digital approach to electronic signal processing (DSP) over its analog predecessors. As such, it