Science.gov

Sample records for 1990-96 monitoring programme

  1. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  2. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  3. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  4. Optimizing study design for multi-species avian monitoring programmes

    Treesearch

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey

    2014-01-01

    Many monitoring programmes are successful at monitoring common species, whereas rare species, which are often of highest conservation concern, may be detected infrequently. Study designs that increase the probability of detecting rare species at least once over the study period, while collecting adequate data on common species, strengthen programme ability to address...

  5. Hydrologic and Meteorological Data for an Unsaturdated-Zone Study Area near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-96

    SciTech Connect

    K. S. Perkins, J. R. Nimmo, J. R. Pittman

    1998-01-01

    Trenches and pits at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (formerly known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have been used for burial of radioactive waste since 1952. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, began a multi-phase study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste trenches and pits. This phase of the study provides hydrologic and meteorological data collected at a designated test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC SDA from 1990 through 1996. The test trench area was constructed by the USGS in 1985. Hydrologic data presented in this report were collected during 1990-96 in the USGS test trench area. Soil-moisture content measurement from disturbed and undisturbed soil were collected approximately monthly during 1990-96 from 11 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture gage. In 1994, three additional neutron access holes were completed for monitoring. A meteorological station inside the test trench area provided data for determination of evapotranspiration rates. The soil-moisture and meteorological data are contained in files on 3-1/2 inch diskettes (disks 1 and 2) included with this report. The data are presented in simple American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format with tab-delimited fields. The files occupy a total of 1.5 megabytes of disk space.

  6. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring

  7. Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme coastal biodiversity monitoring background paper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLennan, Donald; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Wegeberg, S.; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, S.; Markon, Carl J.; Christensen, T.; Barry, T.; Price, C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the United States (U.S.) and Canada agreed to act as co-lead countries for the initial development of the Coastal Expert Monitoring Group (CEMG) as part of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP, www. cbmp.is) under the Arctic Council’s Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF, www.caff.is) working group. The CAFF Management Board approved Terms of Reference for the CEMG in the spring of 2014. The primary goal of the CEMG is to develop a long term, integrated, multi-disciplinary, circumpolar Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (the Coastal Plan) that relies on science and Traditional Knowledge, and has direct and relevant application for communities, industry, government decision makers, and other users. In addition to the monitoring plan, the CAFF working group has asked the CBMP, and thus the CEMG, to develop an implementation plan that identifies timeline, costs, organizational structure and partners. This background paper provides a platform for the guidance for the development of the Coastal Plan and is produced by the CEMG with assistance from a number of experts in multiple countries.

  8. Design of an integrated monitoring programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bernes, C; Giege, B; Johansson, K; Larsson, J E

    1986-03-01

    A National Swedish Environmental Monitoring Programme, the PMK, has been designed for regular and permanent recording of environmental conditions and long-term changes in background regions, and for keeping track of the flux of pollutants in and between various media. Many of the projects involved deal with integrated monitoring of terrestrial and limnic ecosystems. This work is carried out in or near some 20 small watersheds, usually selected in national parks or nature reserves. The environmental factors monitored in these areas include concentrations of chemical substances in precipitation, soil, groundwater, surface water, and organisms, as well as biological parameters-such as the population size and reproductive capacity of certain species-that may indicate effects of environmental disturbances. The data from this programme can be used as a reference to environmental data acquired near pollution sources, and as a basis for measures against e.g. acid rain, heavy-metal pollution, and use of pesticides. The biological parameters may also reveal effects of yet unknown pollutants or other disturbances.

  9. Monitoring for the management of disease risk in animal translocation programmes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is best viewed as a component of some larger programme focused on science or conservation. The value of monitoring is determined by the extent to which it informs the parent process. Animal translocation programmes are typically designed to augment or establish viable animal populations without changing the local community in any detrimental way. Such programmes seek to minimize disease risk to local wild animals, to translocated animals, and in some cases to humans. Disease monitoring can inform translocation decisions by (1) providing information for state-dependent decisions, (2) assessing progress towards programme objectives, and (3) permitting learning in order to make better decisions in the future. Here we discuss specific decisions that can be informed by both pre-release and post-release disease monitoring programmes. We specify state variables and vital rates needed to inform these decisions. We then discuss monitoring data and analytic methods that can be used to estimate these state variables and vital rates. Our discussion is necessarily general, but hopefully provides a basis for tailoring disease monitoring approaches to specific translocation programmes.

  10. Developing and enhancing biodiversity monitoring programmes: a collaborative assessment of priorities.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Michael J O; Newson, Stuart E; Henderson, Ian G; Peyton, Jodey; Sutherland, William J; Noble, David G; Ball, Stuart G; Beckmann, Björn C; Biggs, Jeremy; Brereton, Tom; Bullock, David J; Buckland, Stephen T; Edwards, Mike; Eaton, Mark A; Harvey, Martin C; Hill, Mark O; Horlock, Martin; Hubble, David S; Julian, Angela M; Mackey, Edward C; Mann, Darren J; Marshall, Matthew J; Medlock, Jolyon M; O'Mahony, Elaine M; Pacheco, Marina; Porter, Keith; Prentice, Steve; Procter, Deborah A; Roy, Helen E; Southway, Sue E; Shortall, Chris R; Stewart, Alan J A; Wembridge, David E; Wright, Mark A; Roy, David B

    2015-06-01

    Biodiversity is changing at unprecedented rates, and it is increasingly important that these changes are quantified through monitoring programmes. Previous recommendations for developing or enhancing these programmes focus either on the end goals, that is the intended use of the data, or on how these goals are achieved, for example through volunteer involvement in citizen science, but not both. These recommendations are rarely prioritized.We used a collaborative approach, involving 52 experts in biodiversity monitoring in the UK, to develop a list of attributes of relevance to any biodiversity monitoring programme and to order these attributes by their priority. We also ranked the attributes according to their importance in monitoring biodiversity in the UK. Experts involved included data users, funders, programme organizers and participants in data collection. They covered expertise in a wide range of taxa.We developed a final list of 25 attributes of biodiversity monitoring schemes, ordered from the most elemental (those essential for monitoring schemes; e.g. articulate the objectives and gain sufficient participants) to the most aspirational (e.g. electronic data capture in the field, reporting change annually). This ordered list is a practical framework which can be used to support the development of monitoring programmes.People's ranking of attributes revealed a difference between those who considered attributes with benefits to end users to be most important (e.g. people from governmental organizations) and those who considered attributes with greatest benefit to participants to be most important (e.g. people involved with volunteer biological recording schemes). This reveals a distinction between focussing on aims and the pragmatism in achieving those aims. Synthesis and applications. The ordered list of attributes developed in this study will assist in prioritizing resources to develop biodiversity monitoring programmes (including citizen science). The

  11. Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme: Coastal Expert Workshop meeting summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson, L.; McLennan, Donald; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Wegeberg, S.; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, S.; Christensen, T.; Price, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Expert Workshop brought together a diverse group of coastal experts with the common goal of developing a biodiversity monitoring program for coastal ecosystems across the circumpolar Arctic. Meeting participants, including northern residents, industry and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) representatives, scientists, and government regulators from across the circumpolar Arctic, gathered at the Lord Elgin Hotel in Ottawa from March 1 to 3, 2016, to discuss current biodiversity monitoring efforts, understand key issues facing biodiversity in the Arctic coastal areas and suggest monitoring indicators, or Focal Ecosystem Components, for the program. A Traditional Knowledge Holders meeting was held on February 29, 2016 in conjunction with the workshop. The following document provides a summary of the workshop activities and outcomes, and will be followed by a more complete Workshop Report.

  12. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators.

    PubMed

    Maleka, Elma Nelisiwe

    2017-12-01

    There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA). Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour. The selected

  13. Prosthetic arm monitoring system using a programmable interface controller.

    PubMed

    Denaro, B A; Schoenberg, J S; Self, B P; Bagley, A

    2001-01-01

    Children with upper extremity limb deficiency are often prescribed a prosthetic arm to assist with daily function. Three types of prostheses are available: passive, active body-powered, and active myoelectric; costs range from $3,000 to $15,000. Clinicians rely on parent and child feedback regarding the usefulness of the prosthesis, and may assess the child's skill in using the device in a controlled setting. However, these methods do not provide an objective quantification of the wear and use of the device during daily activities. The purpose of this project is to develop a sensor to record the amount of time per day the prosthetic arm is worn, and to count the number of times per day the child activates (closes) the prosthetic hand (or terminal device). The system that has been developed can be integrated unobtrusively into a child's prosthetic arm. A programmable interface controller (PIC) with interface circuitry and memory was developed to record the daily wear pattern and hand usage of the prosthesis at 15-minute intervals. Memory and battery capacities are sufficient to record data over a three-month period. A personal computer interface downloads the collected data and may be used to reprogram the device for different time periods of data collection. All components, including the battery, have a mass of 87 grams and fit inside the forearm cavity of a 9-year old's prosthesis. Controlled trials are underway at Shriners Hospital for Children, Northern California, to determine system reliability.

  14. Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD + programmes: two proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Martin; Skutsch, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Different options have been suggested by Parties to the UNFCCC (United Framework Convention on Climate Change) for inclusion in national approaches to REDD and REDD + (reduced deforestation, reduced degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forest, and conservation of forest carbon stocks). This paper proposes that from the practical and technical points of view of designing action for REDD and REDD + at local and sub-national level, as well as from the point of view of the necessary MRV (monitoring, reporting and verification), these should be grouped into three categories: conservation, which is rewarded on the basis of no changes in forest stock, reduced deforestation, in which lowered rates of forest area loss are rewarded, and positive impacts on carbon stock changes in forests remaining forest, which includes reduced degradation, sustainable management of forest of various kinds, and forest enhancement. Thus we have moved degradation, which conventionally is grouped with deforestation, into the forest management group reported as areas remaining forest land, with which it has, in reality, and particularly as regards MRV, much more in common. Secondly, in the context of the fact that REDD/REDD + is to take the form of a national or near-national approach, we argue that while systematic national monitoring is important, it may not be necessary for REDD/REDD + activities, or for national MRV, to be started at equal levels of intensity all over the country. Rather, areas where interventions seem easiest to start may be targeted, and here data measurements may be more rigorous (Tier 3), for example based on stakeholder self-monitoring with independent verification, while in other, untreated areas, a lower level of monitoring may be pursued, at least in the first instance. Treated areas may be targeted for any of the three groups of activities (conservation, reduced deforestation, and positive impact on carbon stock increases in

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  16. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  17. Monitoring and Stimulating Development of Integrated Professional Skills in University Study Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Marie; Ahlberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In Swedish higher education, quality assurance mainly focuses on course module outcomes. With this in mind we developed a qualitative method to monitor and stimulate progression of learning in two modularized engineering study programmes. A set of core professional values and skills were triangulated through interviews with students, teachers,…

  18. Lichen elements as pollution indicators: evaluation of methods for large monitoring programmes

    Treesearch

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated...

  19. Monitoring and Stimulating Development of Integrated Professional Skills in University Study Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Marie; Ahlberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In Swedish higher education, quality assurance mainly focuses on course module outcomes. With this in mind we developed a qualitative method to monitor and stimulate progression of learning in two modularized engineering study programmes. A set of core professional values and skills were triangulated through interviews with students, teachers,…

  20. Bioindicators of changes in water quality on coral reefs: review and recommendations for monitoring programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, T. F.; Gilmour, J. P.; Fabricius, K. E.

    2009-09-01

    Effective environmental management requires monitoring programmes that provide specific links between changes in environmental conditions and ecosystem health. This article reviews the suitability of a range of bioindicators for use in monitoring programmes that link changes in water quality to changes in the condition of coral-reef ecosystems. From the literature, 21 candidate bioindicators were identified, whose responses to changes in water quality varied spatially and temporally; responses ranged from rapid (hours) changes within individual corals to long-term (years) changes in community composition. From this list, the most suitable bioindicators were identified by determining whether responses were (i) specific, (ii) monotonic, (iii) variable, (iv) practical and (v) ecologically relevant to management goals. For long-term monitoring programmes that aim to quantify the effects of chronic changes in water quality, 11 bioindicators were selected: symbiont photophysiology, colony brightness, tissue thickness and surface rugosity of massive corals, skeletal elemental and isotopic composition, abundance of macro-bioeroders, micro- and meiobenthic organisms such as foraminifera, coral recruitment, macroalgal cover, taxonomic richness of corals and the maximal depth of coral-reef development. For short-term monitoring programmes, or environmental impact assessments that aim to quantify the effects of acute changes in water quality, a subset of seven of these bioindicators were selected, including partial mortality. Their choice will depend on the specific objectives and the timeframe available for each monitoring programme. An assessment framework is presented to assist in the selection of bioindicators to quantify the effects of changing water quality on coral-reef ecosystems.

  1. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pinior, B.; Brugger, K.; Köfer, J.; Schwermer, H.; Stockreiter, S.; Loitsch, A.; Rubel, F.

    2015-01-01

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006–2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. PMID:25841165

  2. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used.

  3. Immunisation Information Systems - useful tools for monitoring vaccination programmes in EU/EEA countries, 2016.

    PubMed

    Derrough, Tarik; Olsson, Kate; Gianfredi, Vincenza; Simondon, Francois; Heijbel, Harald; Danielsson, Niklas; Kramarz, Piotr; Pastore-Celentano, Lucia

    2017-04-27

    Immunisation Information Systems (IIS) are computerised confidential population based-systems containing individual-level information on vaccines received in a given area. They benefit individuals directly by ensuring vaccination according to the schedule and they provide information to vaccine providers and public health authorities responsible for the delivery and monitoring of an immunisation programme. In 2016, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted a survey on the level of implementation and functionalities of IIS in 30 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. It explored the governance and financial support for the systems, IIS software, system characteristics in terms of population, identification of immunisation recipients, vaccinations received, and integration with other health record systems, the use of the systems for surveillance and programme management as well as the challenges involved with implementation. The survey was answered by 27 of the 30 EU/EEA countries having either a system in production at national or subnational levels (n = 16), or being piloted (n = 5) or with plans for setting up a system in the future (n = 6). The results demonstrate the added-value of IIS in a number of areas of vaccination programme monitoring such as monitoring vaccine coverage at local geographical levels, linking individual immunisation history with health outcome data for safety investigations, monitoring vaccine effectiveness and failures and as an educational tool for both vaccine providers and vaccine recipients. IIS represent a significant way forward for life-long vaccination programme monitoring. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  4. Interlock systems using programmable sequence controllers and a monitoring system of the Photon Factory beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satow, Yoshinori; Ito, Kenji; Kosuge, Takashi

    1989-07-01

    Fully utilizing programmable sequence controllers, interlock systems for the Photon Factory beamlines were newly designed and constructed for providing the reliable and versatile control logic that is required for beamline characteristics. The systems, accommodated with radiation safety and vacuum interlock logic as well as protection logic for various components against heat and radiation damage, are in operation on eight beamlines. A centralized monitoring system, to which all interlock systems for the beamlines are connected through optical fiber links, was constructed for simultaneously monitoring the operation status of the interlock systems. Individual operations of each interlock system are also controlled by the monitoring system. Log data collected by the monitoring system are summarized and analyzed in order to provide the necessary information for smooth and safe operation as well as for further improvements of the beamlines. The interlock and the monitoring systems are described along with operational remarks.

  5. The RADMED monitoring programme as a tool for MSFD implementation: towards an ecosystem-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Jurado, J. L.; Balbín, R.; Alemany, F.; Amengual, B.; Aparicio-González, A.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Gazá, M.; Jansá, J.; Morillas-Kieffer, A.; Moyá, F.; Santiago, R.; Serra, M.; Vargas-Yáñez, M.

    2015-11-01

    In the western Mediterranean Sea, the RADMED monitoring programme is already conducting several of the evaluations required under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MFSD) along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The different aspects of the ecosystem that are regularly sampled under this monitoring programme are the physical environment and the chemical and biological variables of the water column, together with the planktonic communities, biomass and structure. Moreover, determinations of some anthropogenic stressors on the marine environment, such as contaminants and microplastics, are under development. Data are managed and stored at the Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) Data Centre that works under the SeaDataNet infrastructure, and are also stored in the IBAMar database. In combination with remote sensing data, they are used to address open questions on the ecosystems in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Gregory; Corliss, Daniel; Groenendijk, Remco; Carpaij, Rene; van Niftrik, Ton; Landie, Guillaume; Tamura, Takao; Pepin, Thomas; Waddell, James; Woods, Jerry; Robinson, Chris; Tian, Kehan; Johnson, Richard; Halle, Scott; Kim, Ryoung-Han; Mclellan, Erin; Kato, Hirokazu; Scaduto, Anthony; Maier, Carl; Colburn, Matt

    2011-04-01

    This paper will describe the development, qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator for optical lithography. FlexRay TM, a programmable illuminator based on a MEMs multi-mirror array that was developed for TWINSCAN XT:19x0i and TWINSCAN NXT series ASML immersion scanners, was first installed in January 2010 at Albany Nanotech, with subsequent tools installed in IBM's East Fishkill Manufacturing facility. After a brief overview of the concept and benefits of FlexRay, this paper will provide a comprehensive assessment of its reliability and imaging performance. A CD-based pupil qualification (CDPQ) procedure will be introduced and shown to be an efficient and effective way to monitor pupil performance. Various CDPQ and in-resist measurement results will be described, offering convincing evidence that FlexRay reliably generates high-quality pupils and is well suited for high volume manufacturing at lithography's leading edge.

  7. Participatory Training in Monitoring and Evaluation for Maternal and Newborn Health Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jacqueline S.; Marais, Debbi

    2015-01-01

    In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants’ skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the ‘real world’. PMID:25716377

  8. Participatory training in monitoring and evaluation for maternal and newborn health programmes.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jacqueline S; Marais, Debbi

    2014-10-29

    In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants' skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the 'real world'.

  9. On the strategic stability of monitoring: implications for cooperative wildlife programmes in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mesterton-Gibbons, M.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Game-theoretic modelling is used to study the design of an agreement among residents to conserve a wildlife resource, by not hunting animals illegally, when the community monitors its own behaviour. The analysis demonstrates that such an agreement may be very much costlier for a government to sustain if its incentive structure avoids the payment of monitoring fees, and instead relies on community benefits for conservation, with bonuses for reporting poachers. Conditions are identified for the agreement to be stable against both the temptation to avoid monitoring and the temptation to poach, either with guns or by snaring. In particular, the size of the community must exceed a critical value. Implications are discussed for community-based wildlife management programmes in Africa.

  10. Hydrological processes in the Chalk unsaturated zone - Insights from an intensive field monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Butler, A. P.; Mathias, S. A.; Finch, J.; Cooper, J. D.

    2006-10-01

    As part of the NERC lowland catchment research programme (LOCAR), the Pang-Lambourn catchments (Berkshire, UK) have been extensively instrumented to provide an improved understanding of the hydrological processes in the unsaturated zone of the Chalk - a subject of much debate over the past 30 years. To quantify the movement of water through the unsaturated zone it is necessary to measure matric potential and water content (as well as input and output fluxes from precipitation, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge). Previous studies have indicated the need for fine temporal resolution data to monitor this system effectively. Due to the challenges faced in meeting this objective, a monitoring scheme was designed that combines a variety of instrumentation to provide the required range, accuracy and spatial and temporal resolution of data. This paper firstly presents an overview of the monitoring programme and a critical discussion of the instrumentation used. Subsequently, the field data are used to characterise the hydrological properties of the unsaturated zone and to gain insight into recharge processes. The interpretation of the data presented in this paper indicate that, in the Chalk unsaturated zone at West Ilsley, matrix flow is the dominant recharge mechanism.

  11. Food analysis within theFusarium toxin monitoring programme of Saxony-Anhalt.

    PubMed

    Woese, Katrin

    2002-03-01

    A 3 yearFusarium andFusarium toxin monitoring programme was established within the food and feed control authorities of Saxony-Anhalt in 2001. The first year's results of the analysis of deoxynivalenol in cereals and cereal products with assured origin in this federal state, showed a contamination rate of 24% for wheat and wheat products. The contamination incidence reached only 8% in rye and rye products, whereas it was 17% for barley and its products including beer. Zearalenone could be detected only in 2 of 162 analysed samples.

  12. A Programmable Resilient High-Mobility SDN+NFV Architecture for UAV Telemetry Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Kyle J. S.; Pezaros, Dimitrios P.; Denney, Ewen; Knudson, Matt D.

    2017-01-01

    With the explosive growth in UAV numbers forecast worldwide, a core concern is how to manage the ad-hoc network configuration required for mobility management. As UAVs migrate among ground control stations, associated network services, routing and operational control must also rapidly migrate to ensure a seamless transition. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and modular architecture which supports high mobility, resilience and flexibility through the application of SDN and NFV principles on top of the UAV infrastructure. By combining SDN programmability and Network Function Virtualization we can achieve resilient infrastructure migration of network services, such as network monitoring and anomaly detection, coupled with migrating UAVs to enable high mobility management. Our container-based monitoring and anomaly detection Network Functions (NFs) can be tuned to specific UAV models providing operators better insight during live, high-mobility deployments. We evaluate our architecture against telemetry from over 80flights from a scientific research UAV infrastructure.

  13. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  14. Water-quality, water-level, and lake-bottom-sediment data collected from the defense fuel supply point and adjacent properties, Hanahan, South Carolina, 1990-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, M.D.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Robertson, J.F.; Bradley, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-year scientific investigation to determine the potential for biore-mediation of ground-water contamination and to monitor the effectiveness of an engineered bioremediation system located at the Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties in Hanahan, S.C., has culminated in the collection of abundant water-quality and water-level data.This report presents the analytical results of the study that monitored the changes in surface- and ground-water quality and water-table elevations in the study area from December 1990 to January 1996. This report also presents analytical results of lake-bottom sediments collected in the study area.

  15. A monitoring programme for 1,3-dichloropropene and metabolites in groundwater in five EU countries.

    PubMed

    Terry, Adrian S; Carter, Andrée D; Humphrey, Rebecca L; Capri, Ettore; Grua, Bruno; Panagopoulous, Andreas C; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Kennedy, Stephen H

    2008-09-01

    1,3 Dichloropropene (1,3-D) is a preplanting soil fumigant for the control of cyst and free-living nematodes and is currently undergoing a resubmission under Annex 1 listing of Directive 91/414/EEC. The characteristics of 1,3-D are such that the risk of it or its soil metabolites leaching through the soil profile cannot be excluded. As such, groundwater monitoring programmes were established in five EU countries representing a wide range of agricultural, climatic and hydrogeological situations, covering a range of groundwater vulnerability scenarios. All monitoring was conducted in areas where there has been historical use of 1,3-D. Over 5000 groundwater samples were analysed for the presence of 1,3-D and its metabolites over a 2 year period. Almost all analyses (for parent and metabolites) yielded concentrations of <0.1 microg L(-1). There were just two detections of >0.1 microg L(-1) (0.12 microg L(-1) and 0.4 microg L(-1)) for the 3-chloroacrylic acid metabolite in shallow groundwater samples of the alluvial gravels of the River Tiétar in the Caceres region of Spain. Groundwater monitoring programmes have been conducted in the EU in five countries. These have demonstrated that there is negligible contamination of groundwater with 1,3-D or its metabolites across a range of agroclimatic regions where 1,3-D is known to have been used for a number of years. Local scientific knowledge of geological features, hydrology, agricultural practice and specific local issues was essential to the conduct of the study.

  16. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: insights from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Michael, Denna; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Njau, Prosper; Kajoka, Deborah; Lema, Levina; Zaba, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Routinely collected clinic data have the potential to provide much needed information on the uptake of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and to measure HIV prevalence in pregnant women. This article describes the methodological challenges associated with using such data, based on the experiences of researchers and programme implementers in Tanzania and drawing from other examples from East Africa. PMTCT data are routinely collected in maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in East Africa using paper-based registers corresponding to distinct services within the PMTCT service continuum. This format has inherent limitations with respect to maintaining and accurately recording unique identifiers that can link patients across the different clinics (antenatal, delivery, child), and also poses challenges when compiling aggregate data. Recent improvements to recording systems include assigning unique identifiers to HIV-positive pregnant women in MCH clinics, although this should ideally be extended to all pregnant women, and recording mother and infant identifiers alongside each other in registers. The use of 'health passports', as in Malawi, which maintains the same antenatal clinic identifier over time, also holds promise. Routine data hold tremendous potential for clinic-level patient management, surveillance, and evaluating PMTCT/MCH programmes. Linking clinic data to community research datasets can also provide population-level estimates of coverage with PMTCT services, currently a problematic but vital statistic for monitoring programme performance and negotiating donor funding. Enhancements to indexing and recording of routine PMTCT/MCH data are needed if we are to capitalise on this rich data source.

  17. Who uses methadone services in China? Monitoring the world's largest methadone programme.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sheena G; Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Pang, Lin; Luo, Wei; Wang, Changhe; Cao, Xiaobin; Yin, Wenyuan; Liu, Enwu; Mi, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    To describe the data collected by the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) system and the characteristics of clients entering the programme. Descriptive study using routinely collected data from the MMT data management system for the period March 2004 and March 2010. All MMT clinics in China. Clients who enrolled for services between March 2004 and March 2010. Routinely collected data included: demographic information; drug use, sexual and criminal behaviours; status of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis; random urine-opiate test results; and the daily methadone dose received. Differences among clients by year were examined. During the period examined, there were 251,974 clients attending 684 clinics in 27 provinces. Overall, the mean age was 34.4 years, 83.8% were male, 70.2% were unemployed, 75% had ever injected drugs, 17% had shared needles and 7.4% were HIV-positive. The profile of clients changed over time, with fewer HIV-positive individuals, fewer injecting drug users, fewer needle-sharers, fewer females and fewer unemployed. Half the clients dropped out within 6 months. The average final dose received was 49.4 mg. The estimated probability of interrupting treatment before 6 months was 52.5%. The profile of clients enrolling in methadone maintenance treatment in China is continually changing and appears to be associated with reduced risk of HIV. High dropout in the programme may limit its effectiveness. The availability of a centralized, real-time data system was extremely useful for monitoring the progress of the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment programme. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Monitoring the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programmes: methods to estimate coverage.

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, J. Ties; Stanecki, Karen A.; Newell, Marie-Louise; Luo, Chewe; Beusenberg, Michel; Garnett, Geoff P.; Little, Kirsty; Calleja, Jesus Garcia; Crowley, Siobhan; Kim, Jim Yong; Zaniewski, Elizabeth; Walker, Neff; Stover, John; Ghys, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the data sources and methods used to estimate the number of people on, and coverage of, antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in low- and middle-income countries and to monitor the progress towards the "3 by 5" target set by WHO and UNAIDS. We include a review of the data sources used to estimate the coverage of ART programmes as well as the efforts made to avoid double counting and over-reporting. The methods used to estimate the number of people in need of ART are described and expanded with estimates of treatment needs for children, both for ART and for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. An estimated 6.5 million people were in need of treatment in low- and middle-income countries by the end of 2004, including 660,000 children under age 15 years. The mid-2005 estimate of 970,000 people receiving ART in low- and middle-income countries (with an uncertainty range 840,000-1,100,000) corresponds to a coverage of 15% of people in need of treatment. PMID:16501733

  19. Harmonisation of resistance monitoring programmes in veterinary medicine: an urgent need in the EU?

    PubMed

    Silley, Peter; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Thomas, Valérie

    2011-06-01

    Antimicrobial surveillance systems in Denmark (DANMAP), The Netherlands (MARAN), Spain (VAV) and Sweden (SVARM) as well as the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) were reviewed. Data have been considered for extended-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and macrolides against food-borne and commensal bacteria. The greatest challenge arises from the lack of agreement between programmes on what is meant by resistance through the use of different interpretive criteria. Indeed, it is shown here that the extent of the differences depends on the antibacterial compound being investigated, the methodology and the interpretive criteria used. This emphasises a need to agree a definition for resistance and for epidemiological cut-off values and to consider harmonising the antimicrobials used in surveillance. This analysis of the data highlights the usefulness of using both epidemiological cut-off values and clinical resistance breakpoints for the purpose of detection of decreased susceptibility and development of clinical resistance, respectively. It is concluded that harmonisation in resistance monitoring programmes is needed since there is potential for data to be appropriately used within risk analysis, providing the opportunity to implement appropriate risk management steps as a response to the public health issues arising from changes in antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and commensal organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Observational data from the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, M. L.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Fausto, R. S.; van As, D.; Forsberg, R.; Skourup, H.; Sandberg, L.; Kristensen, S. S.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change in the Arctic has resulted in accelerated mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet. The shortage of observations on the Greenland ice sheet infers large uncertainties in estimates of the ice mass loss and in predicting the contribution to sea level rise. For this reason the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) was established in 2007. The aim of the programme is to quantify the mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet and track changes in the extent of the glaciers, ice caps and ice sheet margin. Within PROMICE data sets from several activities are collected. These include: A network of currently 19 automatic weather stations on the margin of the Greenland ice sheet measuring ice ablation and snow fall as well as meteorological parameters. Airborne surveys, yielding surface elevation and ice depth along the entire margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Mapping of all Greenland ice masses, based on the highest detail aero-photogrammetric maps produced from mid-80's aerial photographs. Real-time data from the PROMICE automatic weather station network is shown in at the PROMICE web site www.promice.org and the data is freely available for download. Data from the airborne surveys and mapping activities will also become freely available. Data from PROMICE also contribute to the website www.polarportal.org which is a new Danish web site for providing updated information on the arctic cryosphere to the public.

  1. MIL-STD-1553 programmable dual redundant remote terminal, bus controller, bus monitor, unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. N.

    The performance, physical and electrical characteristics of the BUS-65600 Superhybrid are described. The Superhybrid is a programmable, fully compliant MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), BUS Controller (BC) or BUS Monitor (BM). It requires the BUS-63125 Dual Redundant Monolithic Hybrid Transceiver or two BUS-63102 Universal Transceivers for MIL-STD-1553B or McAir sinusoidal applications. A discussion of the custom Monolithic LSI components implemented in the Superhybrid is included. The special features and capabilities are highlighted, along with special programming options which facilitate a broad array of applications. The BUS-65600 Superhybrid has a Direct Memory Access (DMA) Computer Interface plus necessary control lines which are also described in detail.

  2. Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, S.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Spötl, C.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-04-01

    Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany Sylvia Riechelmann (1), Andrea Schröder-Ritzrau (2), Christoph Spötl (3), Dana F.C. Riechelmann (4), Detlev K. Richter (1), Adrian Immenhauser (1) (1) Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany (2) Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (3) Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck, Institute for Geology and Palaeontology, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria (4) Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Geography, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 21, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Monitoring of cave environments is essential to understand the processes taking place in the soil, karst and cave zone and the interpretation of speleothem archives is increasingly based on monitoring data. A five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave (NW Germany) included monthly sampling of rain, soil and drip water. The delta18O ratios of the drip waters reflect the mean annual delta18O composition of rain water. The weak seasonal pattern in drip water delta18O composition is overlain by a trend to increasing values (approximately 0.3‰ in the monitoring period between 2007 and 2011). Up to the year 2009, rain water delta18O values show an increasing trend. In 2010, the lowest yearly mean delta18O ratio of rain water (-9.20‰) was observed, probably due to cool summer air temperatures and significant amounts of snow fall during winter months 2010. A decrease of the drip water delta18O in the future will expectedly allow to stack both data series and to identify time delay between rain water and drip water series and allow for the quantification of the approximate transfer time of rain water from soil surface into the cave. The Mg2+-concentration of one drip site correlates positively with drip rate. High Mg2+-concentrations occur especially after dry periods (low

  3. Observations from the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, M. L.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Fausto, R. S.; van As, D.; Forsberg, R.; Skourup, H.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Kristensen, S. S.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Petersen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) is as an on-going effort initiated in 2007 to monitor changes in the mass budget of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The aim of the programme is to quantify the mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet and track changes in the extent of the glaciers, ice caps and ice sheet margin. Specifically, PROMICE aims to estimate the mass loss derived from three fundamentally different sources: Surface melt water runoff from the ice sheet margin Iceberg production Mass loss of individual glaciers and ice caps surrounding the ice sheet The first is observed by a network of automatic weather stations (AWS) on the ice sheet margin measuring ice ablation as well as meteorological parameters. The second is determined by establishing a so-called 'flux gate' along the entire ice sheet margin and keeping track of the ice passing through this gate. The flux gate is obtained from airborne surveys of ice sheet surface elevation and thickness. The volume of the ice passing through the gate is derived from maps of the surface velocity of the ice sheet, produced from satellite radar. The third is investigated through regular mapping of area and elevation of the approximately 20.000 individual glaciers and ice caps in Greenland. Mapping is carried out using recent satellite imagery as well as aerial ortho-photos. Within PROMICE data sets from these activities are collected. They include observations from the network of currently about 20 AWS on the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Airborne surveys, yielding surface elevation and ice depth along the entire margin of the Greenland ice sheet carried out in 2007 and 2011. A map of all Greenland ice masses, based on the highest detail aero-photogrammetric maps produced from mid-80's aerial photographs. Real-time data from the PROMICE AWS network is shown at the web site www.promice.org and the data is freely available for download. Data from the airborne surveys and mapping activities are

  4. Monitoring and enforcement of the salt iodization programme in Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran: a successful experience.

    PubMed

    Kousha, A; Hakimi, S; Soleimanzadeh, G; Hashemnia, N; Farhadgeibi, H

    2010-05-01

    After a successful programme to prevent iodine deficiency disorders in the Islamic Republic of Iran in the 1990s and early 2000s, evidence emerged that urine iodine levels in the population were falling. This paper reviews efforts to monitor and enforce the iodization of salt production and shows the resulting improvements in iodization levels of factory table Salt and in urine iodine concentrations of primary-school children in East Azerbaijan province. Reaching targets for elimination of iodine deficiency disorders requires efficient monitoring of the population's iodine levels combined with monitoring of the iodine content of table salt and enforcement of iodization regulations.

  5. How does the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme support statistical consistent nitrate trend analyses in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Lærke; Sørensen, Brian; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of performing nitrate trend analyses in oxic groundwater is to document the effect of regulation of Danish agriculture on N pollution. The design of the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme is presented and discussed in relation to performance of statistical consistence nitrate trend analyses. Three types of data are crucial. Firstly, long and continuous time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 from Denmark Statistics is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge age determination are performed in order to allow linking of the first two dataset. Recent results published in Hansen et al. (2011 & 2012) will be presented. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg/l. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N

  6. Allometric equations for integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Jucker, Tommaso; Caspersen, John; Chave, Jérôme; Antin, Cécile; Barbier, Nicolas; Bongers, Frans; Dalponte, Michele; van Ewijk, Karin Y; Forrester, David I; Haeni, Matthias; Higgins, Steven I; Holdaway, Robert J; Iida, Yoshiko; Lorimer, Craig; Marshall, Peter L; Momo, Stéphane; Moncrieff, Glenn R; Ploton, Pierre; Poorter, Lourens; Rahman, Kassim Abd; Schlund, Michael; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sterck, Frank J; Trugman, Anna T; Usoltsev, Vladimir A; Vanderwel, Mark C; Waldner, Peter; Wedeux, Beatrice M M; Wirth, Christian; Wöll, Hannsjörg; Woods, Murray; Xiang, Wenhua; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Coomes, David A

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing is revolutionizing the way we study forests, and recent technological advances mean we are now able - for the first time - to identify and measure the crown dimensions of individual trees from airborne imagery. Yet to make full use of these data for quantifying forest carbon stocks and dynamics, a new generation of allometric tools which have tree height and crown size at their centre are needed. Here, we compile a global database of 108753 trees for which stem diameter, height and crown diameter have all been measured, including 2395 trees harvested to measure aboveground biomass. Using this database, we develop general allometric models for estimating both the diameter and aboveground biomass of trees from attributes which can be remotely sensed - specifically height and crown diameter. We show that tree height and crown diameter jointly quantify the aboveground biomass of individual trees and find that a single equation predicts stem diameter from these two variables across the world's forests. These new allometric models provide an intuitive way of integrating remote sensing imagery into large-scale forest monitoring programmes and will be of key importance for parameterizing the next generation of dynamic vegetation models. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Antidoping programme and biological monitoring before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baume, Norbert; Jan, Nicolas; Emery, Caroline; Mandanis, Béatrice; Schweizer, Carine; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Marclay, François; Nicoli, Raul; Perrenoud, Laurent; Robinson, Neil; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial

    2015-01-01

    Background The FIFA has implemented an important antidoping programme for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Aim To perform the analyses before and during the World Cup with biological monitoring of blood and urine samples. Methods All qualified players from the 32 teams participating in the World Cup were tested out-of-competition. During the World Cup, 2–8 players per match were tested. Over 1000 samples were collected in total and analysed in the WADA accredited Laboratory of Lausanne. Results The quality of the analyses was at the required level as described in the WADA technical documents. The urinary steroid profiles of the players were stable and consistent with previously published papers on football players. During the competition, amphetamine was detected in a sample collected on a player who had a therapeutic use exemption for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The blood passport data showed no significant difference in haemoglobin values between out-of-competition and postmatch samples. Conclusions Logistical issues linked to biological samples collection, and the overseas shipment during the World Cup did not impair the quality of the analyses, especially when used as the biological passport of football players. PMID:25878079

  8. Risk assessment and monitoring programme of nitrates through vegetables in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Quijano, Leyre; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; McAllister, Claudia; Torres, Concepción; Pardo, Olga

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine current levels of nitrate in vegetables marketed in the Region of Valencia (Spain) and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. A total of 533 samples of seven vegetable species were studied. Nitrate levels were derived from the Valencia Region monitoring programme carried out from 2009 to 2013 and food consumption levels were taken from the first Valencia Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. The exposure was estimated using a probabilistic approach and two scenarios were assumed for left-censored data: the lower-bound scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification) were set to zero and the upper-bound scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the limit of quantification value. The exposure of the Valencia consumers to nitrate through the consumption of vegetable products appears to be relatively low. In the adult population (16-95 years) the P99.9 was 3.13 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 3.15 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. On the other hand, for young people (6-15 years) the P99.9 of the exposure was 4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 4.40 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. The risk characterisation indicates that, under the upper bound scenario, 0.79% of adults and 1.39% of young people can exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake of nitrate. This percentage could join the vegetable extreme consumers (such as vegetarians) of vegetables. Overall, the estimated exposures to nitrate from vegetables are unlikely to result in appreciable health risks.

  9. Framework for monitoring equity in access and health systems issues in antiretroviral therapy Programmes in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalanda, Boniface; Makwiza, Ireen; Kemp, Julia

    2007-03-01

    Universal provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART), while feasible, is expensive. In light of this limitation, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has launched the 3 × 5 initiative, to provide ART to 3 million people by the end of the year 2005. In Southern Africa, large-scale provision of ART will likely be achieved through fragile public health systems. ART programmes should therefore be developed and expanded in ways that will not aggravate inequities or result in the inappropriate withdrawal of resources from other health interventions or from other parts of the health system. This paper, proposes a framework for monitoring equity in access and health systems issues in ART programmes in Southern Africa. It proposes that an equity monitoring system should comprise seven thematic areas. These thematic areas encompass a national monitoring system which extends beyond one agency or single data collection method. Together with monitoring of targets in terms of numbers treated, there should also be monitoring of health systems impacts and issues in ART expansion, with reporting both nationally and to a regional body.

  10. Filling the observational void: Scientific value and quantitative validation of hydrometeorological data from a community-based monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David; Forsythe, Nathan; Parkin, Geoff; Gowing, John

    2016-07-01

    This study shows how community-based hydrometeorological monitoring programmes can provide reliable high-quality measurements comparable to formal observations. Time series of daily rainfall, river stage and groundwater levels obtained by a local community in Dangila woreda, northwest Ethiopia, have passed accepted quality control standards and have been statistically validated against formal sources. In a region of low-density and declining formal hydrometeorological monitoring networks, a situation shared by much of the developing world, community-based monitoring can fill the observational void providing improved spatial and temporal characterisation of rainfall, river flow and groundwater levels. Such time series data are invaluable in water resource assessment and management, particularly where, as shown here, gridded rainfall datasets provide gross under or over estimations of rainfall and where groundwater level data are non-existent. Discussions with the local community during workshops held at the setup of the monitoring programme and since have demonstrated that the community have become engaged in the project and have benefited from a greater hydrological knowledge and sense of ownership of their resources. This increased understanding and empowerment is at the relevant scale required for effective community-based participatory management of shallow groundwater and river catchments.

  11. The HIV prevention cascade: integrating theories of epidemiological, behavioural, and social science into programme design and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hallett, Timothy B; Johnson, Saul; Kapiga, Saidi; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Dallabetta, Gina; Garnett, Geoff P

    2016-07-01

    Theories of epidemiology, health behaviour, and social science have changed the understanding of HIV prevention in the past three decades. The HIV prevention cascade is emerging as a new approach to guide the design and monitoring of HIV prevention programmes in a way that integrates these multiple perspectives. This approach recognises that translating the efficacy of direct mechanisms that mediate HIV prevention (including prevention products, procedures, and risk-reduction behaviours) into population-level effects requires interventions that increase coverage. An HIV prevention cascade approach suggests that high coverage can be achieved by targeting three key components: demand-side interventions that improve risk perception and awareness and acceptability of prevention approaches; supply-side interventions that make prevention products and procedures more accessible and available; and adherence interventions that support ongoing adoption of prevention behaviours, including those that do and do not involve prevention products. Programmes need to develop delivery platforms that ensure these interventions reach target populations, to shape the policy environment so that it facilitates implementation at scale with high quality and intensity, and to monitor the programme with indicators along the cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FAO UN-REDD- INPE Joint Programme on Forest Monitoring Systems based on RS and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD MRV Team

    2010-12-01

    Capacity Development and Training for National Forest Monitoring Systems for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) REDD+, which stands for ’Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries’ - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD+ and to implement a future REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD+ processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes. It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD+, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. FAO and INPE (Brazilian Space Agency) have joint forces through a MoU signed last year in Copenhagen. A major joint programme has been agreed upon to set

  13. Seroepidemiology: an underused tool for designing and monitoring vaccination programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Felicity T; Hanson, Matt

    2016-09-01

    Seroepidemiology, the use of data on the prevalence of bio-markers of infection or vaccination, is a potentially powerful tool to understand the epidemiology of infection before vaccination and to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programmes. Global and national burden of disease estimates for hepatitis B and rubella are based almost exclusively on serological data. Seroepidemiology has helped in the design of measles, poliomyelitis and rubella elimination programmes, by informing estimates of the required population immunity thresholds for elimination. It contributes to monitoring of these programmes by identifying population immunity gaps and evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns. Seroepidemiological data have also helped to identify contributing factors to resurgences of diphtheria, Haemophilus Influenzae type B and pertussis. When there is no confounding by antibodies induced by natural infection (as is the case for tetanus and hepatitis B vaccines), seroprevalence data provide a composite picture of vaccination coverage and effectiveness, although they cannot reliably indicate the number of doses of vaccine received. Despite these potential uses, technological, time and cost constraints have limited the widespread application of this tool in low-income countries. The use of venous blood samples makes it difficult to obtain high participation rates in surveys, but the performance of assays based on less invasive samples such as dried blood spots or oral fluid has varied greatly. Waning antibody levels after vaccination may mean that seroprevalence underestimates immunity. This, together with variation in assay sensitivity and specificity and the common need to take account of antibody induced by natural infection, means that relatively sophisticated statistical analysis of data is required. Nonetheless, advances in assays on minimally invasive samples may enhance the feasibility of including serology in large survey programmes in low

  14. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  15. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors' involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes.

  16. Safety evaluation of phytosterol-esters. Part 9: Results of a European post-launch monitoring programme.

    PubMed

    Lea, L J; Hepburn, P A

    2006-08-01

    Phytosterol-esters were developed by Unilever as a cholesterol lowering novel food ingredient for use initially in vegetable oil spreads. In addition to an extensive package of safety studies and clinical studies a programme of post-launch monitoring (PLM) was developed. PLM was used to address the following questions: (a) Is the product use as predicted/recommended? (b) Are the known effects as predicted? (c) Does the product cause unexpected health effects? The overall conclusions from the PLM programme were: the product is being bought by the target population but intakes are less than the original assumptions made in the risk assessment; long-term use of phytosterol-ester enriched spreads results in a reduction in the serum levels of the most lipophilic carotenoids but at current levels of intake this is unlikely to result in reductions in carotenoids that are of biological significance; evaluation of health related consumer complaints have not indicated any unexpected health effects associated with the use of the product in the marketplace. As part of the European approval under Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 on Novel Foods and Food Ingredients the results of the PLM programme had to be submitted to the European Commission (EC) and reviewed by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF). They concluded that the study provided valuable information, which complemented the pre-market safety evaluation studies, and that the EC mandatory requirement had been met.

  17. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors’ involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes. PMID:25175291

  18. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; McClarty, Leigh M; Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.

  19. A national programme for patient and staff dose monitoring in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Vano, E; Fernández, J M; Sotil, J; Carrera, F; Armas, J; Rosales, F; Pifarre, X; Escaned, J; Angel, J; Diaz, J F; Bosa, F; Saez, J R; Goicolea, J

    2011-09-01

    A national programme on patient and staff dose evaluation in interventional cardiology made in cooperation with the haemodynamic section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology has recently been launched. Its aim is to propose a set of national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for patients as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and to initiate several optimisation actions to improve radiological protection of both patients and staff. Six hospitals have joined the programme and accepted to submit their data to a central database. First to be acquired were the quality control data of the X-ray systems and radiation doses of patients and professionals. The results from 9 X-ray systems, 1467 procedures and staff doses from 43 professionals were gathered. Provisional DRLs resulted in 44 Gy cm(2) for coronary angiography and 78 Gy cm(2) for interventions. The X-ray systems varied up to a factor of 5 for dose rates in reference conditions. Staff doses showed that 50 % of interventional cardiologists do not use their personal dosemeters correctly.

  20. The F-GAMMA programme: multi-frequency study of active galactic nuclei in the Fermi era. Programme description and the first 2.5 years of monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Zensus, J. A.; Nestoras, I.; Marchili, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Karamanavis, V.; Ungerechts, H.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S. S.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Myserlis, I.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Sievers, A.; Sohn, B. W.

    2016-11-01

    Context. To fully exploit the scientific potential of the Fermi mission for the physics of active galactic nuclei (AGN), we initiated the F-GAMMA programme. Between 2007 and 2015 the F-GAMMA was the prime provider of complementary multi-frequency monitoring in the radio regime. Aims: We quantify the radio variability of γ-ray blazars. We investigate its dependence on source class and examine whether the radio variability is related to the γ-ray loudness. Finally, we assess the validity of a putative correlation between the two bands. Methods: The F-GAMMA performed monthly monitoring of a sample of about 60 sources at up to twelve radio frequencies between 2.64 and 228.39 GHz. We perform a time series analysis on the first 2.5-yr data set to obtain variability parameters. A maximum likelihood analysis is used to assess the significance of a correlation between radio and γ-ray fluxes. Results: We present light curves and spectra (coherent within ten days) obtained with the Effelsberg 100 m and IRAM 30 m telescopes. All sources are variable across all frequency bands with amplitudes increasing with frequency up to rest frame frequencies of around 60-80 GHz as expected by shock-in-jet models. Compared to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) show systematically lower variability amplitudes, brightness temperatures, and Doppler factors at lower frequencies, while the difference vanishes towards higher ones. The time scales appear similar for the two classes. The distribution of spectral indices appears flatter or more inverted at higher frequencies for BL Lacs. Evolving synchrotron self-absorbed components can naturally account for the observed spectral variability. We find that the Fermi-detected sources show larger variability amplitudes, brightness temperatures, and Doppler factors than non-detected ones. Flux densities at 86.2 and 142.3 GHz correlate with 1 GeV fluxes at a significance level better than 3σ, implying that γ rays are

  1. Self-monitoring has potential for home exercise programmes in patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Goto, M; Takedani, H; Haga, N; Kubota, M; Ishiyama, M; Ito, S; Nitta, O

    2014-03-01

    Haemophiliacs who have had to keep a physically inactive lifestyle due to bleeding during childhood are likely to have little motivation for exercise. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effectiveness of the self-monitoring of home exercise for haemophiliacs. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with intervention over 8 weeks at four hospitals in Japan. Subjects included 32 male outpatients aged 26-64 years without an inhibitor who were randomly allocated to a self-monitoring group and a control group. Individual exercise guidance with physical activity for improvement of their knee functions was given to both groups. The self-monitoring materials included an activity monitor and a feedback system so that the self-monitoring group could send feedback via the Internet and cellular phone. The self-monitoring was performed by checking exercise adherence and physical activity levels, bleeding history and injection of a coagulation factor. Both groups showed significant improvements in exercise adherence (P < 0.001) and physical function such as the strength of knee extension (P < 0.001), range of knee extension (P < 0.001), range of ankle dorsiflexion (P < 0.01), a modified Functional Reach (P < 0.05) and 10 metre gait time (P < 0.01). In particular, improvements in exercise adherence (P < 0.05), self-efficacy (P < 0.05), and strength of knee extension (P < 0.05) were significant in the self-monitoring group compared with those in the control group. No increase in bleeding frequency and pain scale was noted. The self-monitoring of home exercise for haemophilic patients is useful for the improvement of exercise adherence, self-efficacy and knee extension strength. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Monitoring and evaluating the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme: evaluating the variation in radiological performance between individual programmes using PPV-referral diagrams.

    PubMed

    Blanks, R G; Moss, S M; Wallis, M G

    2001-01-01

    A high quality breast cancer screening programme can be defined as one offering both a high cancer detection rate and a low referral rate of women for further investigation. Such a programme will have as few women as possible undergoing further investigations who do not have a final diagnosis of breast cancer--that is, a high positive predictive value of referral for further investigation. This paper introduces a graphical technique to illustrate individual programme performance. The graph plots positive predictive value of referral against referral rate, with the cancer detection rate expressed as "isobars" on the graph. Confidence limits can be expressed as "boxes" on the diagram. The graph not only illustrates programme performance but also enables suggestions to be made to improve performance. The definition of high quality screening is seen to have a subjective element as well as an objective element, as radiologists have to balance screening sensitivity with specificity. The technique is illustrated using data from the individual screening programmes in the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme for the screening year 1 April 1998 to 31 March 1999. The methodology could also be applied to other national screening programmes.

  3. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. The indicators used to monitor the progress of the Population Development Programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gouws, N B

    1990-07-01

    The main goal of the Population Development Programme in South Africa is to ensure a balance between resources and population size. Secondary objectives include improving the quality of life for all sectors of society, accelerating development, integrating family planning with development programs, and fostering community involvement with the program. The program has identified education, manpower training, primary health care, the economy, and housing as areas of primary importance to address in seeking to realize program goals. The rate of infant mortality, life expectancy at birth, teen pregnancy, personal per capital income, literacy, children not attending school, and room density were then identified and quantified as indicators of progressin these areas. The importance of each indicator and its influence on fertility is discussed in turn.

  5. A wearable, low-power, health-monitoring instrumentation based on a Programmable System-on-Chip.

    PubMed

    Massot, Bertrand; Gehin, Claudine; Nocua, Ronald; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Improvement in quality and efficiency of health and medicine, at home and in hospital, has become of paramount importance. The solution of this problem would require the continuous monitoring of several key patient parameters, including the assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity using non-invasive sensors, providing information for emotional, sensorial, cognitive and physiological analysis of the patient. Recent advances in embedded systems, microelectronics, sensors and wireless networking enable the design of wearable systems capable of such advanced health monitoring. The subject of this article is an ambulatory system comprising a small wrist device connected to several sensors for the detection of the autonomic nervous system activity. It affords monitoring of skin resistance, skin temperature and heart activity. It is also capable of recording the data on a removable media or sending it to computer via a wireless communication. The wrist device is based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) from Cypress: PSoCs are mixed-signal arrays, with dynamic, configurable digital and analogical blocks and an 8-bit Microcontroller unit (MCU) core on a single chip. In this paper we present first of all the hardware and software architecture of the device, and then results obtained from initial experiments.

  6. Atmospheric monitoring of organic pollutants in the Arctic under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP): 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Kallenborn, Roland; Breivik, Knut; Su, Yushan; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Thorlacius, Johanna M; Leppänen, Sirkka; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Manø, Stein; Patton, Gregory W; Stern, Gary; Sverko, Ed; Fellin, Phil

    2010-07-01

    Continuous and comparable atmospheric monitoring programs to study the transport and occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of remote regions is essential to better understand the global movement of these chemicals and to evaluate the effectiveness of international control measures. Key results from four main Arctic research stations, Alert (Canada), Pallas (Finland), Storhofdi (Iceland) and Zeppelin (Svalbard/Norway), where long-term monitoring have been carried out since the early 1990s, are summarized. We have also included a discussion of main results from various Arctic satellite stations in Canada, Russia, US (Alaska) and Greenland which have been operational for shorter time periods. Using the Digital Filtration temporal trend development technique, it was found that while some POPs showed more or less consistent declines during the 1990s, this reduction is less apparent in recent years at some sites. In contrast, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were still found to be increasing by 2005 at Alert with doubling times of 3.5 years in the case of deca-BDE. Levels and patterns of most POPs in Arctic air are also showing spatial variability, which is typically explained by differences in proximity to suspected key source regions and long-range atmospheric transport potentials. Furthermore, increase in worldwide usage of certain pesticides, e.g. chlorothalonil and quintozene, which are contaminated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB), may result in an increase in Arctic air concentration of HCB. The results combined also indicate that both temporal and spatial patterns of POPs in Arctic air may be affected by various processes driven by climate change, such as reduced ice cover, increasing seawater temperatures and an increase in biomass burning in boreal regions as exemplified by the data from the Zeppelin and Alert stations. Further research and continued air monitoring are needed to better understand these processes and its future

  7. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  8. Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment Programme Air Quality Monitoring Unit

    EPA Science Inventory

    A request for technical collaboration between the UNEP and the US EPA resulted in the establishment of a MCRADA. The purpose of this agreement was to evaluate an air quality monitoring system (referred to as the UNEP pod) developed by the UNEP for use in environmental situations ...

  9. Management, Planning, and Monitoring Population Education Programmes. Abstract-Bibliography Series 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This document abstracts and reviews 32 publications that describe population education programs developed for Asia and the Pacific region. The documents are grouped under three sections: (1) management; (2) planning; and (3) monitoring/evaluation. Section 1 consists of 12 selected titles that deal with management of population education programs.…

  10. Sustainable microbial water quality monitoring programme design using phage-lysis and multivariate techniques.

    PubMed

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane

    2011-11-15

    Contamination of surface waters is a pervasive threat to human health, hence, the need to better understand the sources and spatio-temporal variations of contaminants within river catchments. River catchment managers are required to sustainably monitor and manage the quality of surface waters. Catchment managers therefore need cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring and management designs to proactively protect public health and aquatic ecosystems. Multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were used to investigate spatio-temporal variations of water quality, main polluting chemophysical and microbial parameters, faecal micro-organisms sources, and to establish 'sentry' sampling sites in the Ouse River catchment, southeast England, UK. 350 river water samples were analysed for fourteen chemophysical and microbial water quality parameters in conjunction with the novel human-specific phages of Bacteroides GB-124 (Bacteroides GB-124). Annual, autumn, spring, summer, and winter principal components (PCs) explained approximately 54%, 75%, 62%, 48%, and 60%, respectively, of the total variance present in the datasets. Significant loadings of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and human-specific Bacteroides GB-124 were observed in all datasets. Cluster analysis successfully grouped sampling sites into five clusters. Importantly, multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were useful in determining the sources and spatial extent of water contamination in the catchment. Though human faecal contamination was significant during dry periods, the main source of contamination was non-human. Bacteroides GB-124 could potentially be used for catchment routine microbial water quality monitoring. For a cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring design, E. coli or intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and Bacteroides GB-124 should be monitored all-year round in this river catchment.

  11. Monitoring markers of muscle damage during a 3 week periodized drop-jump exercise programme.

    PubMed

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Snieckus, Audrius; Masiulis, Nerijus; Aagaard, Per; Dargeviciute, Gintare; Brazaitis, Marius

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks of stretch-shortening exercise with a progressively increasing load and continued modulation of various key training variables. Eight healthy untrained men performed a drop-jump programme involving a progressive increase in load impact with respect to the number of jumps performed, drop (platform) height, squat depth amplitude, and addition of weights. Maximal concentric and isometric knee extensor strength were assessed immediately before and 10 min after each training session. Voluntary and 100 Hz-stimulation-evoked torque decreased acutely after each training session relative to pre-exercise values (P < 0.05) but recovered before the subsequent training session. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity increased from 162.2 ± 56.2 IU · l(-1) to 284.3 ± 116.3 IU · l(-1) at 48 h after the first training session (P < 0.05) and remained marginally elevated throughout the training period. The present results indicate that detrimental muscle damage can be avoided with drop-jump training even with the gradual introduction of more demanding exercise induced by increasing the volume, intensity, and muscle stretch amplitude. These findings suggest that the human neuromuscular system is highly adaptable to progressively varied loading demands during stretch-shortening exercise training.

  12. Sexual and reproductive health activities in HIV programmes: can we monitor progress?

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ryuichi; Lee, Donna; Lusti-Narasimhan, Manjula; Martineau, Tim; Vinh-Thomas, Elmar; Beer, Daniel Low; Atun, Rifat

    2011-03-01

    Resource allocation and integration of services have been of interest recently to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. This paper analyses the extent to which countries receiving funding in HIV were able to invest in activities in the area of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The authors screened the Global Fund grants data with an aggregate investment of US$16 billion in 140 countries to identify indicators revealing typical SRH services. The analysis focused on the 'Top Ten' internationally agreed indicators and used international guidelines and frameworks to define services for SRH and opportunities for 'linkage' between HIV and SRH services. As of December 2008, 238 of all HIV grants (n = 252) from 133 countries included 1620 service delivery indicators related to SRH. The budgets amounted to US$9.1 billion with US$5.9 billion committed and US$4 billion disbursed. Services included (1) prevention of mother to child transmission for 445,000 HIV-positive pregnant women, (2) 5.7 million care and support services, (3) 1.2 billion condoms delivered, (4) 4.4 million episodes of sexually transmitted infections treated, (5) 61 million counselling and testing encounters, and (6) 11.6 million behavioural change communication (BCC) outreach services for people at high risk and 64.5 million BCC activities for the general population, including youth. Information on the linkage and integration of SRH-HIV services was limited. Around 94% of HIV programmes supported SRH-related activities. However, there is a need to systematically capture data on SRH-HIV service integration to understand the benefits of linking these services.

  13. A wirelessly programmable actuation and sensing system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, James; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks promise to deliver low cost, low power and massively distributed systems for structural health monitoring. A key component of these systems, particularly when sampling rates are high, is the capability to process data within the network. Although progress has been made towards this vision, it remains a difficult task to develop and program 'smart' wireless sensing applications. In this paper we present a system which allows data acquisition and computational tasks to be specified in Python, a high level programming language, and executed within the sensor network. Key features of this system include the ability to execute custom application code without firmware updates, to run multiple users' requests concurrently and to conserve power through adjustable sleep settings. Specific examples of sensor node tasks are given to demonstrate the features of this system in the context of structural health monitoring. The system comprises of individual firmware for nodes in the wireless sensor network, and a gateway server and web application through which users can remotely submit their requests.

  14. Studies on automatic hot gas reader used in the countrywide personnel monitoring programme.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Munish; Alagu Raja, E; Prasad, L C; Popli, K L; Kher, R K; Bhatt, B C

    2005-01-01

    In India, approximately 58,000 radiation workers are monitored using locally made CaSO4:Dy teflon embedded thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) badge system. The automatic hot gas readers developed locally are also used in TL measurements. The hot gas reader system has many advantages over the manual readers used previously and has completely replaced the manual reader system in all TLD personnel monitoring units in India. In the present study, the new reader system is studied and a theoretical attempt has been made to interpret the experimentally obtained results. The glow curves are generated theoretically and are also plotted experimentally. It has been found that the heat capacity of the heating gas, which is responsible for the transfer of heat, has a role in deciding the position of peak and is verified experimentally using different gas flow rates of nitrogen and argon as heating gases in the reader. The theoretical study may also be helpful in fitting the experimentally obtained glow curves and, therefore, the elimination of unwanted non-radiation-induced contributions, such as dark current, electronic spikes, light leakage and triboluminescence that generally distort the glow curve shape, can be achieved.

  15. Community monitoring of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in the National Capital Region of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Juhi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Karmarkar, Madhukar G; Nair, Sirimavo

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the current status of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in the National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR Delhi) and evaluate the implementation and impact of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP). Cross-sectional study. School-going children (n 1230) in the age group of 6-12 years were enrolled from thirty primary schools in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Thirty schools were selected using the probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each identified school forty-one children were surveyed. Urine and salt samples were collected and studied for iodine concentration. A total of sixty salt samples from retail level were also collected. Schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was found to be 198·4 μg/l. The percentage of children with UIE levels of <20·0, 20·0-49·9, 50·0-99·9 and ≥100·0 μg/l was 1·9, 4·3, 9·5 and 84·2%, respectively. The proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt (salt with iodine levels of at least 15 ppm at consumption level) was 88·8%. The assessment of iodine content of salt revealed that only 6·1% of the families were consuming salt with iodine content less than 7 ppm. At retail level 88·3% of salt samples had >15 ppm iodine. Significant progress has been achieved towards elimination of IDD from NCR Delhi. There is a need for further strengthening of the system to monitor the quality of iodized salt provided to the beneficiaries under the universal salt iodization programme and so eliminate IDD from NCR Delhi.

  16. Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment in programmes with and without routine viral load monitoring in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Olivia; Chi, Benjamin H; Gsponer, Thomas; Boulle, Andrew; Orrell, Catherine; Phiri, Sam; Maxwell, Nicola; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Fox, Matthew P; Westfall, Andrew; Egger, Matthias

    2011-09-10

    To compare outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa, where viral load monitoring is routine, with those in Malawi and Zambia, where monitoring is based on CD4 cell counts. We included 18,706 adult patients starting ART in South Africa and 80,937 patients in Zambia or Malawi. We examined CD4 responses in models for repeated measures and the probability of switching to second-line regimens, mortality and loss to follow-up in multistate models, measuring time from 6 months. In South Africa, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-10.5] had switched at 3 years, 1.3% (95% CI 0.9-1.6) remained on failing first-line regimens, 9.2% (95% CI 8.5-9.8) were lost to follow-up and 4.3% (95% CI 3.9-4.8) had died. In Malawi and Zambia, more patients were on a failing first-line regimen [3.7% (95% CI 3.6-3.9], fewer patients had switched [2.1% (95% CI 2.0-2.3)] and more patients were lost to follow-up [15.3% (95% CI 15.0-15.6)] or had died [6.3% (95% CI 6.0-6.5)]. Median CD4 cell counts were lower in South Africa at the start of ART (93 vs. 132 cells/μl; P < 0.001) but higher after 3 years (425 vs. 383 cells/μl; P < 0.001). The hazard ratio comparing South Africa with Malawi and Zambia after adjusting for age, sex, first-line regimen and CD4 cell count was 0.58 (0.50-0.66) for death and 0.53 (0.48-0.58) for loss to follow-up. Over 3 years of ART mortality was lower in South Africa than in Malawi or Zambia. The more favourable outcome in South Africa might be explained by viral load monitoring leading to earlier detection of treatment failure, adherence counselling and timelier switching to second-line ART.

  17. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Respiratory Monitoring System Using a Flow Microsensor and an Accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellal, Idir; Laghrouche, Mourad; Bui, Hung Tien

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive system for respiratory monitoring using a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) flow sensor and an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) accelerometer. The designed system is intended to be wearable and used in a hospital or at home to assist people with respiratory disorders. To ensure the accuracy of our system, we proposed a calibration method based on ANN (Artificial Neural Network) to compensate the temperature drift of the silicon flow sensor. The sigmoid activation functions used in the ANN model were computed with the CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer) algorithm. This algorithm was also used to estimate the tilt angle in body position. The design was implemented on reconfigurable platform FPGA.

  18. Monitoring of Sedimentary Fluxes in Cold Environments: The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-05-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G. / A.I.G.) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017) is addressing this existing key knowledge gap. The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried out at each of the ca. 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by program, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, permafrost scientists and glaciologists. SEDIBUD has developed manuals and protocols (SEDIFLUX Manual) with a key set of primary surface process monitoring and research data requirements to incorporate results from these diverse projects and allow coordinated quantitative analysis across the program. Defined SEDIBUD key tasks for the coming years include (i) The continued generation and compilation of comparable longer-term datasets on contemporary sedimentary fluxes and sediment yields from SEDIBUD key test sites worldwide, (ii) The continued extension of the SEDIBUD metadata database with these datasets, (iii) The testing of defined SEDIBUD hypotheses (available

  19. Local media monitoring in process evaluation. Experiences from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Camilla Maria; Bjärås, Gunilla; Tillgren, Per; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2007-01-01

    We present a rationale and approach for longitudinal analyses of media coverage and content, and illustrate how media monitoring can be used in process evaluations. Within a community-based diabetes prevention project, the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program, we analyzed the frequency, prominence, and framing of physical activity in local newspapers of three intervention and two control municipalities. In total, 2,128 stories and advertisements related to physical activity were identified between the years 1997 and 2002. Although stories about physical activity were relatively few (n = 224), they were prominently located in all five local newspapers. Physical activity was framed rather similarly in the municipalities. Health aspects, however, were expressed to a greater extent in stories in two of the intervention municipalities. A limited portion (14%) of the articles could be linked directly to the program. It is not possible to assess to what extent the program has had a disseminating effect on the newspapers' health-related content in general, due to weaknesses of the process tracking system and limitations of the study design. Implications for the design is that an evaluative framework should be preplanned and include data collection about media relationships, media's interest in public health, media coverage prior to the program and coverage in other media for comparisons of general trends in the reporting. The material and the current database, however, provide a good basis for quantitative content analysis and qualitative discourse analysis to yield information on the type, frequency, and content of health reporting in local newspapers.

  20. [Monitoring programme of T-2 and HT-2 toxins level in cereal products].

    PubMed

    Postupolski, Jacek; Rybińska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Kurpińska-Jaworska, Jolanta; Szczesna, Małgorzata; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    In framework of the national monitoring program in Poland HPLC method for determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal products was developed, validated and accredited. Simply, one-step extraction and HPLC MS/MS ESI+ method was used for determination both toxins. Performance of method (recovery, precision and uncertainty of results) is in line with Commission Regulation No 401/2006. Limit of detection for T-2 and HT-2 toxins is 3 ad 4 microg/kg, respectively. Samples were taken by sanitary inspection from all region of country. 107 samples cereal products (mainly from oats) were tested. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were detected in 43% samples, mean level in oats products was 22.5 microg/kg (maximum level 109 microg/kg in oat flakes), in other samples (wheat and barley flakes, grouts, flours) - 7.0 microg/kg. Intake of T-2/HT-2 toxin by the consumer in Poland is much lower than the TDI.

  1. A multiparametric automatic method to monitor long-term reproducibility in digital mammography: results from a regional screening programme.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, G; Ballaminut, A; Contento, G

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to illustrate a multiparametric automatic method for monitoring long-term reproducibility of digital mammography systems, and its application on a large scale. Twenty-five digital mammography systems employed within a regional screening programme were controlled weekly using the same type of phantom, whose images were analysed by an automatic software tool. To assess system reproducibility levels, 15 image quality indices (IQIs) were extracted and compared with the corresponding indices previously determined by a baseline procedure. The coefficients of variation (COVs) of the IQIs were used to assess the overall variability. A total of 2553 phantom images were collected from the 25 digital mammography systems from March 2013 to December 2014. Most of the systems showed excellent image quality reproducibility over the surveillance interval, with mean variability below 5%. Variability of each IQI was 5%, with the exception of one index associated with the smallest phantom objects (0.25 mm), which was below 10%. The method applied for reproducibility tests-multi-detail phantoms, cloud automatic software tool to measure multiple image quality indices and statistical process control-was proven to be effective and applicable on a large scale and to any type of digital mammography system. • Reproducibility of mammography image quality should be monitored by appropriate quality controls. • Use of automatic software tools allows image quality evaluation by multiple indices. • System reproducibility can be assessed comparing current index value with baseline data. • Overall system reproducibility of modern digital mammography systems is excellent. • The method proposed and applied is cost-effective and easily scalable.

  2. Critical assessment of the use of growth monitoring for identifying high risk children in primary health care programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Briend, A.; Bari, A.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether change in weight was a more useful index than weight for age in assessing the risk of dying among malnourished children. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Rural community in Bangladesh being served by international health organisation. PARTICIPANTS--1011 Children aged under 5, of whom 66 died. END POINT--Efficient screening method for identifying malnourished children at risk of dying. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Weight was measured every month. Weight for age and monthly change in weight averaged over one and three months were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity curves were used to compare the values of these two variables in identifying children with a high risk of dying. Weight for age was more sensitive than change in weight at all levels of specificity. Changes in weight, however, were independently related to the risk of dying even when intercurrent diseases and low weight for age were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS--For identifying children with a high risk of dying weight for age is a more efficient screening tool than a recent change in weight. Growth monitoring as currently recommended for primary health care programmes in developing countries does not seem to be the most effective approach in identifying children in need of urgent help. PMID:2503147

  3. Assessment of potential nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and set-up of an environmental monitoring programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the project is to identify and differentiate the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources present and their impact on the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. The present investigation represents a new study, which, beside the traditional hydrochemical analyses (main ions and nutrients), introduces stable isotopes of nitrate, the stable isotope signature of boron and the stable isotopes of water. The analysis of stable isotopes in the nitrate molecule will be used to differentiate between nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizer), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes will be used to identify the impact of domestic wastewater on the aquatic system. The stable isotopes of the water molecule are useful tracers to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water and the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface water. Moreover, this study represents a very new innovative approach for the investigation of the complex hydrogeochemical processes at the mixing interface between sea and fresh water. In addition to the analytical part, the monitoring programme will also include remote sensing techniques. Remotely sensed data from the satellites Landsat 1 MSS, Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ will be analysed and processed. This analysis is to assess the multi-temporal and spatial evolution of most superficial algae flora activity and the water temperature of the Lagoon as main indicators of eutrophication and, additionally, to identify the main environmental and morphological changes of the Lagoon since the beginning of the seventies.

  4. Active safety monitoring of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme of Sri Lanka

    PubMed

    Sanchayan, K; Fernandopulle, R; Amarasinghe, A; Thiyahiny, S N; Sri Ranganathan, S

    2017-03-31

    This study was designed to report incidence and characteristics of selected adverse events following immunisation which have consistent causal association (AEFIc) with Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination given at the age of one year in the National Immunisation Programme of Sri Lanka. The data presented here were obtained from a cohort event monitoring study. It was carried out in the Jaffna Regional Directorate of Health Services area from November 2012 to December 2014. A representative sample of 3002 infants who received MMR immunisation were actively followed up for adverse events (AE) using over the phone interviews, self-reporting, and home or hospital visits up to 45 days. All AEs were reviewed by two investigators independently in two step-wise processes to detect the AEFIc. Seven AEFIc were detected using standard case definitions and onset time limit criteria. They were subjected to further analysis to describe the incidence rates and characteristics. Of the 2398 (80%) infants who completed follow up of 45 days, 1321 infants experienced 2621 AEFI. Of them 209 were classified as AEFIc. Incidence of AEFIc was 87/ 1000 immunisation. They were mainly nonserious and resolved completely. There were no fatal or life threatening AEFIs. Incidence per 1000 immunisations; allergic reactions 0.83, injection site reactions 4.58, fever100.4° F or lasting more than  3 days 9.59, macular papular rash 2.92, parotitis 2.92 and generalised convulsions 1.25. The MMR vaccine used in NIP of Sri Lanka had low incidence of AEFIc and were mainly non-serious in nature.

  5. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM) consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum) and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax) and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion rate for P. falciparum

  6. Air quality management in the WHO European Region--results of a quality assurance and control programme on air quality monitoring (1994-2004).

    PubMed

    Mücke, Hans-Guido

    2008-07-01

    Since the last decade the WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control, Berlin, Germany, operates a quality assurance and control (QA/QC) programme on air quality monitoring in the WHO European Region. As main activity Intercomparison workshops have been established for air monitoring network laboratories on a regular basis to harmonise air quality measurements, analysis and calibration techniques. 36 air hygiene laboratories of public health and environmental institutions of 24 countries participated in twelve Intercomparisons between 1994 and 2004. The majority was carried out for NO, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). The results were predominantly satisfactory for automatic methods. The results of manual methods were mainly in a good, and for several concentration levels partly very good accordance with the data obtained by the monitors.

  7. A field programmable gate array-based reconfigurable smart-sensor network for wireless monitoring of new generation computer numerically controlled machines.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node.

  8. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: A pre-post evaluation in five districts

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than −2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions. PMID:24852811

  9. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: a pre-post evaluation in five districts.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than -2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions.

  10. The importance of monitoring adverse drug reactions in elderly patients: the results of a long-term pharmacovigilance programme.

    PubMed

    Carnovale, Carla; Gentili, Marta; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Clementi, Emilio; Radice, Sonia; ViGer Group

    2016-01-01

    To recognise and prevent ADRs (including DDIs) in the elderly through a 4-year post-marketing active pharmacovigilance programme. The programme was designed to enhance high quality spontaneous reporting of ADRs in elderly patients by sampling the Italian population and was termed 'Pharmacovigilance in Geriatry (ViGer)'. ADRs were collected for adults aged over 65 years of age treated in nursing homes, continuing care retirement communities and territorial health services in Lombardy. ADRs were evaluated using the Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale (Naranjo) and analysed with respect to time, sex, category of ADR, seriousness, suspected medicines, notoriety. We analysed all the potential DDIs. We detected 1073 cases reports corresponding to 2110 ADRs. Vaccines, antibacterials for systemic use and antineoplastic agents were the pharmacotherapeutic subgroups most frequently involved. 18% of ADRs reports were classified as serious. In 752 reports patients were described as in polytherapy; in 55 patients (7.3%) the reported ADR were probably preventable because of DDIs involvement. The ViGer project demonstrated that active pos-marketing pharmacovigilance programmes are a valid strategy to increase awareness on geriatrics pharmacology, reduce underreporting and provide important information on previous unknown ADRs and DDIs, resulting in a therapy optimisation in clinical practice in the geriatric setting.

  11. A practical approach to improve safety and management in chemotherapy units based on the PROCHE - programme for optimisation of the chemotherapy network monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Scotté, Florian; Oudard, Stéphane; Aboudagga, Hail; Elaidi, Reza; Bonan, Brigitte

    2013-02-01

    The PROCHE (PRogramme d'Optimisation du circuit CHimiothErapie [Programme for optimisation of the chemotherapy network]) initiative is an innovative oncology-monitoring program designed to reduce patient waiting time and chemotherapy wastage, ultimately improving patient care. Laboratory test results and side effects data were collected for patients in the PROCHE monitoring program group 2d prior to scheduled chemotherapy visits, allowing oncologists to confirm or delay each patient's chemotherapy. Data from 1037 patients entered in the PROCHE program were compared with 513 control patients, who had been treated according to previous typical hospital procedures. Results demonstrated significant reductions in mean hospital stay i.e. decreased it by 66 min and drug wastage decreased from 6% to 2% (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.21-0.59, P<0.0001), and a significant increase in bed occupancy rates with the PROCHE initiative (all P<0.0001 vs. controls). The incidence of pain and severity of fatigue were also reduced. In conclusion, the PROCHE initiative resulted in improved patient quality of care and reduced chemotherapy toxicities, and improved hospital and pharmacy productivity. These encouraging preliminary results warrant further study.

  12. Electronic capture of dispensing data by the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme: a consultation study of community and hospital pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Jamieson, Simon; Malik, Muzaffar; Holt, Alec; Herbison, Peter

    2011-04-01

    To obtain pharmacists' views on proposals for electronic transmission of dispensing data to the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP). Consultation with a randomly selected group of 100 community pharmacists and all 28 hospital pharmacies in New Zealand was conducted by postal survey. A specific questionnaire was designed to obtain pharmacists' views on several aspects of electronic data transmission including willingness to co-operate with a new system, awareness of other electronic systems and views on security. Survey response rates were 95% for community pharmacists and 73% for hospital pharmacists. Ninety (95%) of the community pharmacists and 18 (95%) of the hospital pharmacists who responded stated they would use the IMMP proposed method of electronic data transmission. Some 91% of community pharmacists and 100% of hospital pharmacists considered the proposed new method would be equally or more secure than the present hard-copy system of posting dispensing records. There is a high level of support from New Zealand pharmacists for electronic capture of prescription dispensing data for medicines monitored by the IMMP. This electronic method will now be implemented. Development of such systems is important for enhancing patient safety and pharmacovigilance programmes worldwide. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Monitoring programme revision highlights long-term salinity changes in selected South African rivers and the value of comprehensive long-term data sets.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, H; Silberbauer, M J; Hohls, B C

    2009-07-01

    Determination of data adequacy for detection of long-term salinity changes was an important task in the revision of the South African National Chemical Monitoring Programme (NCMP). The NCMP has been running for more than 30 years with several hundred active monitoring sites. Twenty-five sites on major rivers had sufficient continuous data for the estimation of salinity changes over a 25-year period and statistically significant upward or downward trends occurred at 17 of the 25 sites. Most sites were too far apart for detailed analysis of whole river systems, though an upward trend is apparent in the Lower Orange River and a downward trend in the Great Fish River. Salinity in the Tugela River remained stable, well below the 70 mS m( - 1) guideline for drinking water. The results underline the importance of long-term data sets for assessing and managing aquatic systems and provide the impetus to continue building and maintaining long-term sampling programmes.

  14. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Broeg, Katja; Dizer, Halim; von Westernhagen, Hein; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    Immunological biomarkers that reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in coastal marine habitats were sought in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from five locations in the German Bight with different anthropogenic impacts. During a 2-year period of sampling, innate immune responses were monitored from a total of 331 individual flounder of a body length of 18 to 25 cm. From the fish, plasma lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leucocytes were analysed and implemented as part of an integrated biological effects monitoring programme. As the measurements of the parameters applied here varied within wide ranges at some locations, spatial differences could not always be established, but some general trends could be drawn: plasma lysozyme activity was decreased in flounder contaminated with DDT adducts and some PCBs, while cellular functions such as phagocytosis and respiratory burst were stimulated by some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Correlation analysis also revealed connections not only between the parameters applied here and some contaminants but also with some biochemical parameters used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring: in flounder with decreased integrity of hepatocyte lysosomal membranes, immune functions also were impaired, and plasma lysozyme as well as phagocytosis activity of head kidney cells were impaired when the activity of cytochrome P450 1A was induced. The data presented here indicate that innate immune responses may be useful parameters to monitor cellular functions in a battery of biomarkers of different levels of biological organisation.

  15. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  16. A methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation under the REDD+ programme based on remote sensing techniques and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Sanchez, Martin Enrique

    In this thesis, a methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation based on remote sensing techniques and field data, as part of the REDD+ programme, is presented. The framework intends to support the implementation of a national Monitoring, Verification and Report (MRV) system in developing countries. The framework proposed an operational definition of forest degradation and a set of indicators, namely Canopy Cover (CC), Aboveground Biomass (AGB) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP), derived from remote sensing data. The applicability of the framework is tested in a sub-deciduous tropical forest in the Southeast of Mexico. The results from the application of the methodological framework showed that the higher rates of forest degradation, 1596-2865 ha˙year-1, occur in areas with high population density. Estimations of aboveground biomass in these degraded areas span from 1 to 24 Mg˙ha-1, with a rate of carbon fixation ranging from 130 to 246 gC˙m2˙year. The results also showed that 43 % of the forests of the study area remain with no evident signs of degradation, as detected by the indicators selected, during the period evaluated. The integration of the different elements conforming the methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation enabled the identification of areas that maintain a stable condition and areas that change over the period evaluated. The methodology outlined in this thesis also allows for the identification of the temporal and spatial distributions of forest degradation based on the indicators selected, and it is expected to serve as the basis for operations of the REDD+ programme with the appropriate adaptations to the area in turn.

  17. Effects of an educational compliance enhancement programme and therapeutic drug monitoring on treatment adherence in depressed patients managed by general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Akerblad, Ann-Charlotte; Bengtsson, Finn; Ekselius, Lisa; von Knorring, Lars

    2003-11-01

    Medication non-adherence is a major obstacle in the treatment of affective disorders. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate two different interventions to improve adherence to antidepressant drugs. Secondary objectives included response to treatment, relation between adherence and response, patient satisfaction and tolerability. A randomized controlled design was used to assess the effect of a patient educational compliance enhancing programme (CP) and therapeutic drug monitoring in 1031 major depressed patients treated with sertraline for 24 weeks and managed by their general practitioner. Adherence was measured by questioning, measurable serum levels of sertraline and desmethylsertraline, appointments kept and a composite index including all three methods. Treatment adherence was found in 37-70% of patients, depending on the method used. Neither of the interventions resulted in a significant increase in adherence rate. However, significantly more patients in the CP group had responded at week 24 compared to patients in the control group. Overall, significantly more adherent patients responded to treatment compared to non-adherent patients, regardless of method used to determine adherence. This large study demonstrates that treatment response increases when using an educational compliance programme and that a strong relationship between treatment adherence and response exists.

  18. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  19. The Dutch Brucella abortus monitoring programme for cattle: the impact of false-positive serological reactions and comparison of serological tests.

    PubMed

    Emmerzaal, A; de Wit, J J; Dijkstra, Th; Bakker, D; van Zijderveld, F G

    2002-02-01

    The Dutch national Brucella abortus eradication programme for cattle started in 1959. Sporadic cases occurred yearly until 1995; the last infected herd was culled in 1996. In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union. Before 1999, the programme to monitor the official Brucella-free status of bovine herds was primarily based on periodical testing of dairy herds with the milk ring test (MRT) and serological testing of all animals older than 1 year of age from non-dairy herds, using the micro-agglutination test (MAT) as screening test. In addition, serum samples of cattle that aborted were tested with the MAT. The high number of false positive reactions in both tests and the serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for confirmation seemed to result in unnecessary blockade of herds, subsequent testing and slaughter of animals. For this reason, a validation study was performed in which three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the CFT and the SAT were compared using a panel of sera from brucellosis-free cattle, sera from experimentally infected cattle, and sera from cattle experimentally infected with bacteria which are known to induce cross-reactive antibodies (Pasteurella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia). Moreover, four ELISAs and the MRT were compared using a panel of 1000 bulk milk samples from Brucella-free herds and 12 milk samples from Brucella abortus- infected cattle. It is concluded that the ELISA obtained from ID-Lelystad is the most suitable test to monitor the brucelosis free status of herds because it gives rise to fewer false-positive reactions than the SAT.

  20. Implementation of an Electronic Monitoring and Evaluation System for the Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Cape Winelands District, South Africa: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, Cornelius J.; Struthers, Helen E.; McIntyre, James A.; Hurter, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Background A pragmatic three-tiered approach to monitor the world’s largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme was adopted by the South African National Department of Health in 2010. With the rapid expansion of the programme, the limitations of the paper-based register (tier 1) were the catalyst for implementation of the stand-alone electronic register (tier 2), which offers simple digitisation of the paper-based register. This article engages with theory on implementation to identify and contextualise enabling and constraining factors for implementation of the electronic register, to describe experiences and use of the register, and to make recommendations for implementation in similar settings where standardisation of ART monitoring and evaluation has not been achieved. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the roll-out of the register. This comprised twenty in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of stakeholders at facility, sub-district, and district levels of the health system. Facility-level participants were selected across five sub-districts, including one facility per sub-district. Responses were coded and analysed using a thematic approach. An implementation science framework guided interpretation of the data. Results & Discussion We identified the following seven themes: 1) ease of implementation, 2) perceived value of an electronic M&E system, 3) importance of stakeholder engagement, 4) influence of a data champion, 5) operational and logistical factors, 6) workload and role clarity, and 7) importance of integrating the electronic register with routine facility monitoring and evaluation. Interpreting our findings through an implementation theory enabled us to construct the scaffolding for implementation across the five facility-settings. This approach illustrated that implementation was not a linear process but occurred at two nodes: at the adoption of the register for roll-out, and at implementation at facility-level. Conclusion In

  1. Differential sensitivity of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in response to oestrogenic chemical exposure: an issue for design and interpretation of monitoring and research programmes.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M F; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Katsiadaki, I; Lyons, B; Scott, A P

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted as an initial investigation of 'differential response' in one of the main sentinel organisms used for monitoring programmes in United Kingdom estuaries, the flounder Platichthys flesus. It has been hypothesised that monitoring using species with a wide geographical spread and limited migration, such as flounder, might result in the comparison of different genetic stocks and certainly of populations with differing early life stage contaminant exposure histories. Furthermore, it is probable that these pre-exposure and genetic differences could manifest themselves in an ability to respond differently to contaminant exposure, so-called 'differential response'. It is important that the extent and nature of this response is understood, if we want to be able to fully interpret the monitoring data from such programmes. During this study, flounder were collected from four separate sources; wild caught fish from the estuaries of the Rivers Alde, Mersey and Tyne, and farmed flounder from Port Erin Farm, Isle of Man. Under controlled laboratory conditions, groups of fish from each source were exposed to water-borne concentrations of the synthetic oestrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) at a nominal concentration of 50 ng/l. Plasma was taken from each male fish after 6 and 10 days exposure and analysed for the presence of vitellogenin (VTG) using an ELISA technique. Significant levels of VTG induction were evident in fish from all sources after both 6 and 10 days exposure. Flounder from the Mersey were the only fish with significantly elevated initial background levels of VTG (day 0) and this appeared to be reflected in that these specimens showed the highest induction response after day 6. However, after day 10, fish from all other sites had a slightly higher mean VTG than those from the Mersey which showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower mean plasma VTG. It is suggested that other differential responses may have been masked by the use of a high dose of EE2

  2. Measuring hospital-acquired pressure injuries: A surveillance programme for monitoring performance improvement and estimating annual prevalence.

    PubMed

    Jull, Andrew; McCall, Elaine; Chappell, Matt; Tobin, Sam

    2016-06-01

    To describe a surveillance approach for monitoring the effect of improvement initiatives on hospital-acquired pressure injuries and findings arising from that surveillance. Random sampling of patients on the same day of each successive month from a campus of child and adult hospitals using a standard audit tool to identify presence of hospital-acquired pressure injury. Where multiple pressure injuries were present, the most severe grade injury contributed to prevalence. Statistical process control charts were used to monitor monthly performance and Maximum Likelihood Estimation to determine timing of step change. 8274 patients were assessed over 3 years from an eligible population of 32,259 hospitalised patients. 517 patients had hospital-acquired pressure injuries giving an overall prevalence of 6.2% (95% CI 5.7-6.8%). Annual prevalence was 8.4% (95% CI 7.4-9.5%) in the first year, falling to 5.6% (95% CI 4.7-6.4%) in the second year and 4.8% (95% CI 4.0-5.6%) in the third year. A step change was signalled with mean prevalence up to July 2013 being 7.9% (95% CI 7.1-8.8%) and mean prevalence thereafter 4.8% (95% CI 4.2-5.4%). Hospital-acquired pressure injuries were found in all age ranges, but were more frequent in children up to 14 years (17.4%) and those aged 75 years or older (38.7%). Monthly random sampling of patients within clinical units can be used to monitor performance improvement. This approach represents a rational alternative to cross-sectional prevalence surveys especially if the focus is on performance improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gen-2 RFID compatible, zero down-time, programmable mechanical strain-monitors and mechanical impact detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabartty, Shantanu; Feng, Tao; Aono, Kenji

    2013-04-01

    A key challenge in structural health monitoring (SHM) sensors embedded inside civil structures is that elec- tronics need to operate continuously such that mechanical events of interest can be detected and appropriately analyzed. Continuous operation however requires a continuous source of energy which cannot be guaranteed using conventional energy scavenging techniques. The paper describes a hybrid energy scavenging SHM sensor which experiences zero down-time in monitoring mechanical events of interest. At the core of the proposed sensor is an analog floating-gate storage technology that can be precisely programmed at nano-watt and pico- watt power levels. This facilitates self-powered, non-volatile data logging of the mechanical events of interest by scavenging energy directly from the mechanical events itself. Remote retrieval of the stored data is achieved using a commercial off-the-shelf Gen-2 radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader which periodically reads an electronic product code (EPC) that encapsulates the sensor data. The Gen-2 interface also facilitates in simultaneous remote access to multiple sensors and also facilitates in determining the range and orientation of the sensor. The architecture of the sensor is based on a token-ring topology which enables sensor channels to be dynamically added or deleted through software control.

  4. Evaluation of three sampling methods to monitor outcomes of antiretroviral treatment programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Tassie, Jean-Michel; Malateste, Karen; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar; Poulet, Elisabeth; Bennett, Diane; Harries, Anthony; Mahy, Mary; Schechter, Mauro; Souteyrand, Yves; Dabis, François

    2010-11-10

    Retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time is a proxy for quality of care and an outcome indicator to monitor ART programs. Using existing databases (Antiretroviral in Lower Income Countries of the International Databases to Evaluate AIDS and Médecins Sans Frontières), we evaluated three sampling approaches to simplify the generation of outcome indicators. We used individual patient data from 27 ART sites and included 27,201 ART-naive adults (≥15 years) who initiated ART in 2005. For each site, we generated two outcome indicators at 12 months, retention on ART and proportion of patients lost to follow-up (LFU), first using all patient data and then within a smaller group of patients selected using three sampling methods (random, systematic and consecutive sampling). For each method and each site, 500 samples were generated, and the average result was compared with the unsampled value. The 95% sampling distribution (SD) was expressed as the 2.5(th) and 97.5(th) percentile values from the 500 samples. Overall, retention on ART was 76.5% (range 58.9-88.6) and the proportion of patients LFU, 13.5% (range 0.8-31.9). Estimates of retention from sampling (n = 5696) were 76.5% (SD 75.4-77.7) for random, 76.5% (75.3-77.5) for systematic and 76.0% (74.1-78.2) for the consecutive method. Estimates for the proportion of patients LFU were 13.5% (12.6-14.5), 13.5% (12.6-14.3) and 14.0% (12.5-15.5), respectively. With consecutive sampling, 50% of sites had SD within ±5% of the unsampled site value. Our results suggest that random, systematic or consecutive sampling methods are feasible for monitoring ART indicators at national level. However, sampling may not produce precise estimates in some sites.

  5. Assessment of global reporting of adverse drug reactions for anti-malarials, including artemisinin-based combination therapy, to the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In spite of enhanced control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem causing close to a million deaths annually. With support from several donors, large amounts of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are being deployed in endemic countries raising safety concerns as little is known about the use of ACT in several of the settings where they are deployed. This project was undertaken to profile the provenance of the pharmacovigilance reporting of all anti-malarials, including ACT to the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR) database (Vigibase™) over the past 40 years. Methods The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) provided anonymized extracts of Vigibase™ covering the period 1968-2008. All countries in the programme were clustered according to their malaria control phase and income status. The number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) of anti-malarials was analyzed according to those clusters. Results From 1968 to 2008, 21,312 ICSRs suspecting anti-malarials were received from 64 countries. Low-income countries, that are also malaria-endemic (categorized as priority 1 countries) submitted only 1.2% of the ICSRs. Only 60 out of 21,312 ICSRs were related to ACT, 51 of which were coming from four sub-Saharan African countries. Although very few ICSRs involved artemisinin-based compounds, many of the adverse events reported were potentially serious. Conclusions This paper illustrates the low reporting of ADRs to anti-malarials in general and ACT in particular. Most reports were submitted by non-endemic and/or high-income countries. Given the current mix of large donor funding, the insufficient information on safety of these drugs, increasing availability of ACT and artemisinin-based monotherapies in public and private sector channels, associated potential for inappropriate use and finally a pipeline of more than 10 new novel anti-malarials in various stages of development, the

  6. Supporting smarter, healthier and greener societies: the dawn of operational environmental information services Some examples from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) programme in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peuch, V. H.

    2016-12-01

    Operational environmental services are a reality today, as exemplified by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service in Europe. Air quality forecasts, information on the long-range transport of dust or of fire plumes or on greenhouse gas fluxes have become reliable enough to be considered by decision makers and to be communicated broadly -making our societies more informed about the changing environment and about the direct link between human activities, atmospheric composition, weather and climate. Many aspects of the value-adding information chains that have been built over the years share commonalities with Numerical Weather Prediction: global and regional numerical models, reflecting both the level of understanding of physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere and the contemporary computing capabilities, are used to blend observations from different in situ and, increasingly, Earth Observation sources. Significantly, the World Meteorological Organisation has recently added a new component to the Global Atmospheric Watch programme in the form of a Science Advisory Group on "Applications". The main objectives of this group are to develop a portfolio of products and services related to atmospheric composition and to demonstrate particularly the usefulness of exchanging chemical observational data in Near-Real-Time. Exchanging best practices worldwide and facilitating the set-up of new applications are also among the activities. Having operational applications does not imply that research efforts to improve environmental monitoring and forecasting services have become obsolete. Quite the contrary: feedbacks and increasingly demanding requirements from users are stimulating steady progress. The last part of the talk will support the idea that atmospheric compositions services are not only an application or an extension of weather services but contribute now also to the core of them. Atmospheric composition information has become indeed of high interest for

  7. Monitoring Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in traditional free-range 'Label Rouge' broiler production: a 23-year survey programme.

    PubMed

    Salvat, G; Guyot, M; Protino, J

    2017-01-01

    'Label Rouge' broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. Initially, the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010, to Salmonella in the environment of live birds. Salmonella contamination of free-range broiler carcasses rose to a peak of 16% in 1994 but less than 1% of carcasses are now regularly found to be positive. Indicators of the overall microbiological quality of carcasses are also improving. These results correlate with the low prevalence of Salmonella in free-range broiler breeding and production flocks, and with the continuous improvement of hazard analysis and critical control points in slaughterhouses, the implementation of a good manufacturing practice guide since 1997 and the application of EU regulations on Salmonella since 1998 in France. Regarding Campylobacter counts on carcasses, the situation has been improving continuously over the last few years, even if 2·5% of the carcasses are still contaminated by more than 1000 Campylobacter per g of skin. Although the current control system focusing on Salmonella is based on firm epidemiologic data and offers effective means of control (e.g. slaughtering of positive breeder flocks), existing information on Campylobacter makes it more difficult to formulate an effective control plan for free-range broilers, due to their particular exposure to environmental contamination. This long-term surveillance programme provided an extended view of the evolution of the contamination of free-range broilers and a direct measurement of the impact of mandatory and profession-driven interventions on the microbiological quality of carcasses. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  8. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Norwegian monitoring programme on the inorganic and organic contaminants in fish caught in the Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea and North Sea, 1994-2001.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, K; Lundebye, A-K; Heggstad, K; Berntssen, M H G; Boe, B

    2004-04-01

    The results from part of a monitoring programme of contaminant levels in fish and other seafood products initiated by the Directorate of Fisheries in Norway in 1994 are presented. Concentrations of 22 elements (four are presented here: As, Cd, Hg and Pb) and HCB, HCH, PCB 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156, 180, pp-DDD, p-DDE, p-DDT, sum DDT and (137)Cs were determined in 17 species of fish caught in three sampling locations: the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea. The fish species analysed in the survey were limited to species of commercial importance for Norway with catching volumes of at least 10,000 metric tons year(-1). The survey started in 1994 and is expected to continue beyond 2010. The analyses were carried out on 25 individual fish from each species and each sampling location, and the locations were representative of commercial fishing grounds for the species in question. The concentrations of contaminants found were considerably lower than the maximum levels permissible in fish set by CODEX and the European Union for contaminants in seafood products.

  10. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Alberto, G

    2011-02-01

    The activity of (210)Po and (210)Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759±277 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg(-1) dry weight), and 45±19 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that (210)Po and (210)Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210±75 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Po and 10±4 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of

  11. The ECDL Programme in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzarossa, Maria Carla; Ciancarini, Paolo; Maresca, Paolo; Mich, Luisa; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2007-01-01

    The European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) programme aims at testing practical skills and competences in using ICT tools. This paper presents the results of a monitoring exercise aimed at analyzing the impact of the ECDL programme in the Italian Universities. The ECDL programme, adopted in most Italian Universities since the year 2000, has…

  12. Comparing a paper based monitoring and evaluation system to a mHealth system to support the national community health worker programme, South Africa: an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an attempt to address a complex disease burden, including improving progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, South Africa recently introduced a re-engineered Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy, which has led to the development of a national community health worker (CHW) programme. The present study explored the development of a cell phone-based and paper-based monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to support the work of the CHWs. Methods One sub-district in the North West province was identified for the evaluation. One outreach team comprising ten CHWs maintained both the paper forms and mHealth system to record household data on community-based services. A comparative analysis was done to calculate the correspondence between the paper and phone records. A focus group discussion was conducted with the CHWs. Clinical referrals, data accuracy and supervised visits were compared and analysed for the paper and phone systems. Results Compared to the mHealth system where data accuracy was assured, 40% of the CHWs showed a consistently high level (>90% correspondence) of data transfer accuracy on paper. Overall, there was an improvement over time, and by the fifth month, all CHWs achieved a correspondence of 90% or above between phone and paper data. The most common error that occurred was summing the total number of visits and/or activities across the five household activity indicators. Few supervised home visits were recorded in either system and there was no evidence of the team leader following up on the automatic notifications received on their cell phones. Conclusions The evaluation emphasizes the need for regular supervision for both systems and rigorous and ongoing assessments of data quality for the paper system. Formalization of a mHealth M&E system for PHC outreach teams delivering community based services could offer greater accuracy of M&E and enhance supervision systems for CHWs. PMID:25106499

  13. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  14. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  15. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  16. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  17. Programmable synchronization unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.

    1984-10-01

    A Programmable Synchronization Unit (PSU, 135-726) has been designed as an element of the new timing system for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) project to provide synchronization signals needed for various apparatus in the SLC Damping Ring, or anywhere it is necessary to monitor longer than the fiducial period (approx. = 2.8 ..mu..s). A 119 MHz pulse train derived from the 476 MHz main drive line and superimposed with 360 Hz fiducial signal is the frequency source. Following a programmable delay D of up to 4.4 ..mu..s, the PSU can deliver N pulses of width W (in increments of 8.4 ns) with a pulse period of P (in increments of 58.8 ns, the damping ring half period). The device may be programmed at any time during the interfiducial period.

  18. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  19. [Vaccination programmes].

    PubMed

    Varela, M Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella.

  20. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  1. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  2. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology.

  3. Downward trends in the prevalence of childhood overweight in two pilot towns taking part in the VIASANO community-based programme in Belgium: data from a national school health monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Vinck, J; Brohet, C; Roillet, M; Dramaix, M; Borys, J-M; Beysens, J; Jacobs, N; Jebb, S; De Laet, C; Nève, J

    2016-02-01

    Multilevel approaches involving environmental strategies are considered to be good practice to help reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of VIASANO, a community-based programme using the EPODE methodology, on the prevalence of overweight in two pilot towns in Belgium. We analysed data from a national school health monitoring system to compare changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity over a 3-year period (2007-2010) in children aged 3-4 and 5-6 years in the pilot towns with those of children of the same ages from the whole French-speaking community of Belgium. Heights and weights of all participants were measured by trained school nurses using a standardized method. The prevalence of overweight (-2.1%) and overweight + obesity (-2.4%) decreased in the pilot towns, but remained stable in the comparison population (+0.1% and +0.2%, respectively). After adjustment for lack of homogeneity between the study populations, there was a trend towards a decrease in overweight (P = 0.054) and overweight + obesity (P = 0.058) in the pilot towns compared with the general population. These results suggest that a community-based programme, such as VIASANO, may be a promising strategy for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight even over a short period of time. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  4. Diplomatic and operational adaptations to global health programmes in post-conflict settings: contributions of monitoring and evaluation systems to health sector development and 'nation-building' in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Hatfield, Amanda; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Durrani, Bilal Aurang Zeb; Bekele, Yonas; Khan, Usma; White, Karen; Myrick, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems are an essential element of functioning and accountable global health programmes. In post-conflict settings, the role of M&E systems is also critical to ensure that health services are being delivered to those populations and regions most in need. Given the inherent challenges of health service delivery in such environments, a range of both diplomatic and operational adaptations to M&E procedures are necessary. Using the '12 components' of a functioning M&E system as a conceptual and analytical framework, we observed and reviewed the key challenges to M&E systems in South Sudan as part of a broader review of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) activities supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Based on additional interview-based reviews and analyses of M&E activities, a list of adaptations to standardized M&E procedures in response to post-conflict environmental challenges was developed. The study concludes that development and implementation of M&E systems in post-conflict environments requires extensive adaptations to conventional procedures. Flexible and adaptable as well as 'diplomatically sensitized' M&E systems are considered to be essential to the successful completion of M&E-related activities, and may also contribute to broader international relations, 'nation-building', and peace-keeping goals.

  5. How to improve communication for the safe use of medicines?: Discussions on social marketing and patient-tailored approaches at the annual meetings of the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Priya; Harrison-Woolrych, Mira

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, the annual meetings of national centres participating in the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring have increasingly included discussions on how to improve communication between national pharmacovigilance centres, patients, healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public, with the aim of promoting the safe use of medicines. At the most recent meetings, working groups were dedicated to discuss possible applications and implementation of social marketing and patient-tailored approaches. This article provides the history and a summary of the recent discussions and recommendations to support progress in this respect at national and global level. Recommendations are made to investigate and pilot these approaches in small-scale projects at national pharmacovigilance centres. Applying elements from the social marketing and patient-tailored approaches to support behaviours of safe medicines use in patients and healthcare professionals should give the pharmacovigilance community new tools to achieve their goal to minimize risks with medicines and improve patient safety.

  6. Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-09-24

    Rehabilitation care is fundamental to health and human dignity and a human right enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The provision of rehabilitation is important for reducing the need for formal support and enabling persons with disabilities to lead an independent life. Increasingly scholars and advocacy groups voice concerns over the significant barriers facing people with disabilities in accessing appropriate and quality rehabilitation. A growing body of research highlights a "respond-need" gap in the provision of rehabilitation and assistive technologies and underscore the lack of indicators for assessing performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring States compliance with human rights standards in rehabilitation service planning and programming. While research on human rights and health monitoring has increased exponentially over the last decade far too little attention has been paid to rehabilitation services. The proposed research aims to reduce this knowledge gap by developing a human rights based monitoring framework with indicators to support human rights accountability and performance assessment in rehabilitation. Concept mapping, a stakeholder-driven approach will be used as the core method to identify rights based indicators and develop the rehabilitation services monitoring framework. Concept mapping requires participants from various stakeholders groups to generate a list of the potential indicators through on line brainstorming, sort the indicators for conceptual similarity into clusters and rate them against predefined criteria. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster data analysis will be performed to develop the monitoring framework while bridging analysis will provide useful insights about patterns of agreement or disagreement among participants views on indicators. This study has the potential to influence future practices on data collection and measurement of compliance with

  7. Antimicrobial resistance monitoring in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and strategic use of funds from the Global Fund to set up a systematic Moroccan gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme.

    PubMed

    Hançali, Amina; Ndowa, Francis; Bellaji, Bahija; Bennani, Aziza; Kettani, Amina; Charof, Reda; El Aouad, Rajae

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections and update the treatment in the national guidelines for the syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections in Morocco. 171 men complaining of urethral discharge were recruited from basic health services during 2009. Urethral swab samples were collected and N gonorrhoeae identification was performed by culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method and the antimicrobial agents tested were ciprofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone and cefixime. A total of 72 isolates were examined. Significant resistance to tetracycline (92.8%) and ciprofloxacin (86.8%), which was used as first-line treatment in gonococcal infections, was noted. No resistance to spectinomycin, ceftriaxone or cefixime was detected in all the isolates. Following these results the Ministry of Health of Morocco replaced ciprofloxacin and introduced ceftriaxone 250 mg as a single dose in the treatment of gonococcal infections. Using funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund), a surveillance programme was set up for antimicrobial resistance testing in N gonorrhoeae.

  8. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  9. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E.; Huda, Tanvir M.; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  10. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and

  11. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    programme management process. Programme managers should lead this developmental process, ensuring that evaluation methods produce the information they need to monitor and improve their programmes at reasonable cost. PMID:8062394

  12. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India

    PubMed Central

    Piot, Bram; Navin, Deepa; Krishnan, Nattu; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Sharma, Vivek; Marjara, Pritpal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites. Methods The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used for the assessment of the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of condoms in target areas in four states and along selected national highways in India, as part of Avahan, the India AIDS initiative. Results A significant general increase in condom availability was observed in the intervention area between 2005 and 2008. High coverage rates were gradually achieved through an extensive network of pharmacies and particularly of non-traditional outlets, whereas traditional outlets were instrumental in providing large volumes of condoms. Conclusion LQAS is seen as a valuable tool for the routine monitoring of the geographical coverage and of the quality of delivery systems of condoms and of health products and services in general. With a relatively small sample size, easy data collection procedures and simple analytical methods, it was possible to inform decision-makers regularly on progress towards coverage targets. PMID:20167732

  13. Antibiotic resistance monitoring: the Spanish programme. The VAV Network. Red de Vigilancia de Resistencias Antibióticas en Bacterias de Origen Veterinario.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L; Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C

    2000-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a problem in modern public health and antimicrobial use and especially misuse, the most important selecting force for bacterial antibiotic resistance. As this resistance must be monitored we have designed the Spanish network 'Red de Vigilancia de Resistencias Antibióticas en Bacterias de Origen Veterinario'. This network covers the three critical points of veterinary responsibility, bacteria from sick animals, bacteria from healthy animals and bacteria from food animals. Key bacteria, antimicrobials and animal species have been defined for each of these groups along with laboratory methods for testing antimicrobial susceptibility and for data analysis and reporting. Surveillance of sick animals was first implemented using Escherichia coli as the sentinel bacterium. Surveillance of E. coli and Enterococcus faecium from healthy pigs was implemented in 1998. In July 1999, data collection on Salmonella spp. was initiated in poultry slaughterhouses. Additionally, the prevalence of vancomycin resistant E. faecium was also monitored. This network has specific topics of interest related to methods of determining resistance, analysis and reporting of data, methods of use for veterinary practitioners and collaboration with public health authorities.

  14. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India.

    PubMed

    Piot, Bram; Mukherjee, Amajit; Navin, Deepa; Krishnan, Nattu; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Sharma, Vivek; Marjara, Pritpal

    2010-02-01

    This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used for the assessment of the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of condoms in target areas in four states and along selected national highways in India, as part of Avahan, the India AIDS initiative. A significant general increase in condom availability was observed in the intervention area between 2005 and 2008. High coverage rates were gradually achieved through an extensive network of pharmacies and particularly of non-traditional outlets, whereas traditional outlets were instrumental in providing large volumes of condoms. LQAS is seen as a valuable tool for the routine monitoring of the geographical coverage and of the quality of delivery systems of condoms and of health products and services in general. With a relatively small sample size, easy data collection procedures and simple analytical methods, it was possible to inform decision-makers regularly on progress towards coverage targets.

  15. New guidelines are needed to manage heat stress in elite sports--The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) Heat Stress Monitoring Programme.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Roald; Reeser, Jonathan C

    2012-09-01

    There seems to be a discrepancy between the available heat stress guidelines and the actual risk of heat-related illness among professional beach volleyball players competing under hot and humid conditions. To monitor heat stress and record cases of heat-related medical forfeits on the Swatch FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour. The FIVB Heat Stress Monitoring Protocol covered events on the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour and FIVB Beach Volleyball World Championships during the 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons (51 events, most of these double gender). The protocol consisted of (1) measuring the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) on centre court prior to the start of every match, and (2) recording any heat-related medical forfeits during the tournament. Data were collected during 48 of 51 events. There were nine events where the peak WBGT exceeded the US Navy Black flag conditions of >32.3°C and an additional two events where the peak WBGT exceeded 31°C, (meeting Red flag conditions.) In two events, the average WBGT equalled at least 31°C. One case of a medical forfeit related to heat stress was recorded over the 3-year surveillance period: an athlete whose fluid balance was compromised from a 3-day bout of acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of significant heat illness among athletes competing on the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour appears to be quite low, even though weather conditions frequently result in a WBGT index >32°C. Currently available guidelines appear to be inadequate to fully assess the risk of heat stress and too conservative to inform safety decisions in professional beach volleyball.

  16. Provision of long-term monitoring and late effects services following adult allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant: a survey of UK NHS-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, A; Greenfield, D M; Gilleece, M; Salooja, N; Kenyon, M; Morris, E; Glover, N; Miller, P; Braund, H; Peniket, A; Shaw, B E; Snowden, J A

    2017-06-01

    Despite international guidelines, optimal delivery models of late effects (LE) services for HSCT patients are unclear from the clinical, organizational and economic viewpoints. To scope current LE service delivery models within the UK NHS (National Health Service), in 2014, we surveyed the 27 adult allogeneic HSCT centres using a 30-question online tool, achieving a 100% response rate. Most LE services were led and delivered by senior physicians (>80% centres). Follow-up was usually provided in a dedicated allograft or LE clinic for the first year (>90% centres), but thereafter attrition meant that only ~50% of patients were followed after 5 years. Most centres (69%) had a standard operating procedure for long-term monitoring but access to a LE Multi-Disciplinary Team was rare (19% centres). Access to medical specialities necessary for LE management was good, but specialist interest in long-term HSCT complications was uncommon. Some screening (endocrinopathy, cardiovascular) was near universal, but other areas were more limited (mammography, cervical smears). Funding of extra staff and investigations were the most commonly perceived barriers to implementation of LE services. This survey shows variation in the long-term follow-up of allogeneic HSCT survivors within the UK NHS and further work is warranted to optimize effective, sustainable and affordable models of LE service delivery among this group.

  17. Type-specific HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in the UK prior to national HPV immunisation programme: baseline for monitoring the effects of immunisation.

    PubMed

    Mesher, David; Cuschieri, Kate; Hibbitts, Sam; Jamison, Jackie; Sargent, Alex; Pollock, Kevin G; Powell, Ned; Wilson, Robbie; McCall, Fiona; Fiander, Alison; Soldan, Kate

    2015-02-01

    To establish the human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific prevalence in cervical cancer and high-grade cervical lesions in the UK prior to the introduction of national HPV vaccination. Specimens of cervical cancer (n=1235) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)3 (n=2268) were tested for HPV genotypes in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Data were pooled and weighted estimates presented. Among cervical cancer cases, 95.8% were positive for at least one high-risk (HR) HPV type. Restricting to those with HR HPV, the proportion positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 was similar across countries (weighted overall prevalence 83.0%). This proportion decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (p=0.0005). HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58 were detected in 16.1% of HR HPV-positive cervical cancers and there was no significant association with age for these types. For HR HPV-positive CIN3 cases, there was a similar age-specific pattern with the highest positivity of HPV16 and/or HPV18 in the youngest age group (77.2%). The proportion of HR HPV CIN3 cases positive for HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58 was 36.3% in those aged <30 years at diagnosis. The prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was high in all UK countries and highest in those diagnosed at a younger age. The UK is well placed to monitor the impact of HPV vaccination on type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. A reassessment of the suspended sediment load in the Madeira River basin from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia to the Amazon River in Brazil, based on 10 years of data from the HYBAM monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchel, Philippe; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean Loup; Moquet, Jean Sébastien; Martinez, Jean Michel; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Baby, Patrice; Fuertes, Oscar; Noriega, Luis; Puita, Oscar; Sondag, Francis; Fraizy, Pascal; Armijos, Elisa; Cochonneau, Gérard; Timouk, Franck; de Oliveira, Eurides; Filizola, Naziano; Molina, Jorge; Ronchail, Josyane

    2017-10-01

    The Madeira River is the second largest tributary of the Amazon River. It contributes approximately 13% of the Amazon River flow and it may contribute up to 50% of its sediment discharge to the Atlantic Ocean. Until now, the suspended sediment load of the Madeira River was not well known and was estimated in a broad range from 240 to 715 Mt yr-1. Since 2002, the HYBAM international network developed a new monitoring programme specially designed to provide more reliable data than in previous intents. It is based on the continuous monitoring of a set of 11 gauging stations in the Madeira River watershed from the Andes piedmont to the confluence with the Amazon River, and discrete sampling of the suspended sediment concentration every 7 or 10 days. This paper presents the results of the suspended sediment data obtained in the Madeira drainage basin during 2002-2011. The Madeira River suspended sediment load is estimated at 430 Mt yr-1 near its confluence with the Amazon River. The average production of the Madeira River Andean catchment is estimated at 640 Mt yr-1 (±30%), the corresponding sediment yield for the Andes is estimated at 3000 t km-2 yr-1 (±30%), and the average denudation rate is estimated at 1.20 mm yr-1 (±30%). Contrary to previous results that had mentioned high sedimentation rates in the Beni River floodplain, we detected no measurable sedimentation process in this part of the basin. On the Mamoré River basin, we observed heavy sediment deposition of approximately 210 Mt yr-1 that seem to confirm previous studies. But while these studies mentioned heavy sedimentation in the floodplain, we showed that sediment deposition occurred mainly in the Andean piedmont and immediate foreland in rivers (Parapeti, Grande, Pirai, Yapacani, Chimoré, Chaparé, Secure, Maniqui) with discharges that are not sufficiently large to transport their sediment load downstream in the lowlands.

  19. Strengthening health systems capacity to monitor and evaluate programmes targeted at reducing abortion-related maternal mortality in Jessore district, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Ford, Evelyn Rebecca; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2015-09-28

    Abortion related deaths as a proportion of maternal mortality appears to have fallen dramatically in Bangladesh from 5 % in 2001 to 1 % in 2010. Yet complications from menstrual regulation (MR) and unsafe abortion continue to cause deleterious health, economic and social consequences for women in the country. This quasi experimental design study with a baseline (January to December 2008) and an endline survey (August to October 2009) was conducted in 69 public, private, and NGO sector health facilities in Jessore district of Bangladesh with the objective of adapting and implementing a set of process indicators, specifically to supplement the indicators for monitoring emergency obstetric care interventions. At the baseline, we collected retrospective data from all 69 health facilities that provided MR, legal abortion or post-abortion care (PAC), by reviewing their last one year's records. Three months after introducing the safe menstrual regulation and abortion care (SMRAC) model, endline data was collected. Signal function (critical services that facilities must perform in order to prevent and treat abortion complications) analysis was used to characterize facilities as providing basic care, comprehensive care, or neither. Facility mapping, and records on services provided and complications treated were used to further characterize service availability and to describe service use and quality. No facilities fulfilled criteria for 'comprehensive' care at either the baseline or end line while only one met the 'basic' criteria during the endline of the project. Recommended uterine evacuation technology, manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was used for 100.0 % of MR clients but only for 8.0 % or fewer PAC patients. MR clients were 37.5 times more likely than PAC patients to leave facilities with a contraceptive method (75.0 % vs. 2.0 %). Persistent use of older uterine evacuation technologies was observed when recommended techniques were widely available in the facilities

  20. Water Resource Monitoring Based on EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze Middle Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathais; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  1. Water Resource Monitoring Based n EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze River Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathias; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  2. Which adherence measure - self-report, clinician recorded or pharmacy refill - is best able to predict detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring?

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2016-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses viral replication to an undetectable level if a sufficiently high level of adherence is achieved. We investigated which adherence measurement best distinguishes between patients with and without detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring. We randomly selected 870 patients who started cART between May 2009 and April 2012 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Six hundred and sixty-four (76.3%) patients who were retained in HIV care and were receiving cART for at least 6 months were included and 642 had their plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration measured. Patients' adherence to cART was assessed according to self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill measures. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify the predictors of detectable viremia. Model accuracy was evaluated by computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 9.2% and 5.5% of the 642 patients had a detectable viral load of ≥40 and ≥400 RNA copies/ml, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, younger age, lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation, being illiterate and widowed, and each of the adherence measures were significantly and independently predictive of having ≥400 RNA copies/ml. The ROC curve showed that these variables altogether had a likelihood of more than 80% to distinguish patients with a plasma viral load of ≥400 RNA copies/ml from those without. Adherence to cART was remarkably high. Self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill non-adherence were all significantly predictive of detectable viremia. The choice for one of these methods to detect non-adherence and predict a detectable viral load can therefore be based on what is most practical in a particular setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Financial planning and management of health programmes in India.

    PubMed

    Handa, K L

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with the financial planning and control of health programmes in India. The techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and of performance budgeting are highly useful aids to management for implementation of monitoring and review of performance of the programmes are also essential for gauging the progress.

  4. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  5. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  6. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  7. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  8. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETARY SAMPLES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE SELECTED ION MONITORING MODE USING A TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMABLE LARGE VOLUME INJECTOR WITH PRE-SEPARATION COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of a temperature-programmable pre-separation column in the gas chromatographic injection port permits determination of a wide range of semi-volatile pesticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, and anilines in fatty composite dietary samples while reduci...

  9. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETARY SAMPLES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE SELECTED ION MONITORING MODE USING A TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMABLE LARGE VOLUME INJECTOR WITH PRE-SEPARATION COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of a temperature-programmable pre-separation column in the gas chromatographic injection port permits determination of a wide range of semi-volatile pesticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, and anilines in fatty composite dietary samples while reduci...

  10. Reactivity measurement using a programmable logic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Bobek, L.M.; Miraglia, P.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The application of digital systems for measuring reactor dynamics has been used at experimental and research reactors for almost 30 yr. At the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) nuclear reactor facility (NRF), a recent modernization effort included the installation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and an operator interface terminal (OIT). The PLC systems are increasingly being used to replace relay-based monitoring and control systems at nuclear power plants. At WPI, the PLC and OIT provide a digital reactor monitoring system that is remote from the reactor`s analog control instrumentation. The NRF staff has programmed the monitoring system for several reactor-related applications, including reactivity measurement.

  11. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  12. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  13. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  14. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  16. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  17. Making programmable BMS safe and reliable

    SciTech Connect

    Cusimano, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Burner management systems ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and prevent explosions. This article describes how programmable control systems can be every bit as safe and reliable as hardwired or standard programmable logic controller-based designs. High-pressure boilers are required by regulatory agencies and insurance companies alike to be equipped with a burner management system (BMS) to ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and to prevent explosions. These systems work in parallel with, but independently of, the combustion and feedwater control systems that start up, monitor, and shut down burners and furnaces. Safety and reliability are the fundamental requirements of a BMS. Programmable control system for BMS applications are now available that incorporate high safety and reliability into traditional microprocessor-based designs. With one of these control systems, a qualified systems engineer applying relevant standards, such as the National Fire Protection Assn (NFPA) 85 series, can design and implement a superior BMS.

  18. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. Dieter; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    EUMETSAT is providing space based observations for operational meteorology and climate monitoring. The observations are measured by geostationary and sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellites in the frame of mandatory programmes. In the frame of optional programmes further observations for altimetry and oceanography are collected and disseminated. In the frame of third party programmes, EUMETSAT makes available data from other agencies' satellites to the user community. Since summer 2015 MSG-4 complements the current operational fleet of operational geostationary spacecraft, Meteosat-7, which is the last satellite of the first generation and the three satellites of the Second Generation of Meteosat, Meteosat-8, Meteosat-9 and Meteosat-10. MSG-4 became Meteosat-11 and was stored in orbit after successful commissioning. Two satellites of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) provide data from sunsynchronous polar orbit. Metop-B, the second of a series of three satellites, launched in September 2012 and Metop-A, the first of the series, in orbit since October 2006 provide operational services. The satellites belong to the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) with the US. EUMETSAT's first optional programme continues to provide data from the Jason-2 satellite since summer 2008. As follow on the Jason-3 satellite was launched in January 2016 and is currently in commissioning. To assure continuity development of Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) is ongoing. The EPS-SG programme was fully approved in summer 2015. In the frame of the Copernicus Programme (formerly GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security)) EUMETSAT will operate the marine part of the Sentinel-3 satellite. It was launched in February 2016 and is currently under commissioning.

  19. The National Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Belete; Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Fikreab; Martindale, Sarah; Hassan, Mohammed; Sime, Heven; Mackenzie, Charles; Mulugeta, Abate; Tamiru, Mossie; Sileshi, Mesfin; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre, Teshome; Fentaye, Amha; Kebede, Biruck

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia and is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Mapping for LF has shown that 70 woredas (districts) are endemic and 5.9 million people are estimated to be at risk. The national government’s LF elimination programme commenced in 2009 in 5 districts integrated with the onchocerciasis programme. The programme developed gradually and has shown significant progress over the past 6 years, reaching 100% geographical coverage for mass drug administration (MDA) by 2016. To comply with the global LF elimination goals an integrated morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) guideline and a burden assessment programme has also been developed; MMDP protocols and a hydrocoele surgical handbook produced for country-wide use. In Ethiopia, almost all LF endemic districts are co-endemic with malaria and vector control aspects of the activities are conducted in the context of malaria programme as the vectors for both diseases are mosquitoes. In order to monitor the elimination, 11 sentinel and spot-check sites have been established and baseline information has been collected. Although significant achievements have been achieved in the scale up of the LF elimination programme, there is still a need to strengthen operational research to generate programme-relevant evidence, to increase access to morbidity management services, and to improve monitoring and evaluation of the LF programme. However, the current status of implementation of the LF national programme indicates that Ethiopia is poised to achieve the 2020 goal of elimination of LF. Nevertheless, to achieve this goal, high and sustained treatment coverage and strong monitoring and evaluation of the programme are essential. PMID:28878429

  20. Techniques for Sea Ice Characteristics Extraction and Sea Ice Monitoring Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data in the Bohai Sea-Dragon 3 Programme Final Report (2012-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of Dragon-3 programme (ID: 10501) are to develop methods for classification sea ice types and retrieving ice thickness based on multi-sensor data. In this final results paper, we give a briefly introduction for our research work and mainly results. Key words: the Bohai Sea ice, Sea ice, optical and

  1. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  2. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  3. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  4. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  5. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  6. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  7. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  8. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  9. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  10. Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The Farmers Training and Functional Literacy Programme, initiated by the government of India in 1968, was an effort to translate into practice the concept of linking education (not only vocational training) to development, particularly for increasing production. The project, a joint enterprise of three government ministries, provides participating…

  11. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  12. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  13. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  14. Project W-058 monitor and control system logic

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERTS, J.B.

    1999-05-12

    This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console.

  15. Attainments and limitations of an early childhood programme in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J; Trujillo, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    The Growth and Development Monitoring Programme is a longstanding early childhood social intervention in Colombia. The programme's goal is the prevention and early identification of problems affecting children's health and nutrition. To achieve this aim, the programme's basic strategy is to educate parents about the overall health care of infants. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of this programme on children's nutrition and health status and maternal child-care practices. To address potential selection bias, we employ quasi-experimental techniques. This article uses data from the Demographic Health Survey of 2010. The evidence suggests that the programme improved immunization status and the likelihood of health care for acute respiratory infection or fever. As expected, the programme has a greater impact on children from among the poorest people in the country. In the most advanced regions and for the beneficiaries of private health care, the effects of the programme have tended to be negligible. In this sense, our central policy recommendation is to optimize the programme for the poorest households in the country.

  16. Pilot quality assurance programme for plasma metanephrines.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Dilo; Callen, Shaw

    2010-03-01

    Up to 2007 there was no formal external quality assurance programme for plasma free metanephrines. A pilot programme was conceived by the AACB (Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists) Working Party on biogenic amines. With support from the AACB and Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance programmes, a pilot study was developed. Data from this study are presented for the first time. Twelve lyophilized plasma samples were distributed to 15 centres. Samples were spiked with metanephrine (metadrenaline), normetanephrine (normetadrenaline) and 3-methoxytyramine, all derived from human urine. Concentrations were arranged in a linear relationship. The analytes were present at six levels and samples were duplicated. High-pressure liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry methods showed acceptable precision but in general enzyme immunoassay displayed a higher degree of imprecision as well as a negative bias. Differences in calibration and matrix effects are likely to have been responsible for the discrepancy between chromatographic and immunoassay methods. These differences need to be further examined although efforts at standardization between different methods have been hampered by the lack of a universal calibrator for plasma metanephrines. Meanwhile, a laboratory's performance characteristics can be monitored and enhanced by participation in suitable external quality assurance programmes.

  17. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  18. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  19. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  20. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  1. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  2. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  3. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  4. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe: organization, coverage and participation.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano; Majek, Ondrej; de Wolf, Chris; Lancucki, Lesz; Hofvind, Solveig; Nyström, Lennarth; Segnan, Nereo; Ponti, Antonio; Van Hal, G; Martens, P; Májek, O; Danes, J; von Euler-Chelpin, M; Aasmaa, A; Anttila, A; Becker, N; Péntek, Z; Budai, A; Mádai, S; Fitzpatrick, P; Mooney, T; Zappa, M; Ventura, L; Scharpantgen, A; Hofvind, S; Seroczynski, P; Morais, A; Rodrigues, V; Bento, M J; Gomes de Carvalho, J; Natal, C; Prieto, M; Sánchez-Contador Escudero, C; Zubizarreta Alberti, R; Fernández Llanes, S B; Ascunce, N; Ederra Sanza, M; Sarriugarte Irigoien, G; Salas Trejo, D; Ibáñez Cabanell, J; Wiege, M; Ohlsson, G; Törnberg, S; Korzeniewska, M; de Wolf, C; Fracheboud, J; Patnick J, J; Lancucki, L; Ducarroz, S; Suonio, E

    2012-01-01

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe. We used the European Network for Information on Cancer (EUNICE), a web-based data warehouse (EUNICE Breast Cancer Screening Monitoring, EBCSM) for breast cancer screening, to obtain information on programme characteristics, coverage and participation from its initial application in 10 national and 16 regional programmes in 18 European countries. The total population targeted by the screening programme services covered in the report comprised 26.9 million women predominantly aged 50-69. Most of the collected data relates to 2005, 2006 and/or 2007. The average participation rate across all programmes was 53.4% (range 19.4-88.9% of personally invited); or 66.4% excluding Poland, a large programme that initiated personal invitations in 2007. Thirteen of the 26 programmes achieved the European Union benchmark of acceptable participation (>70%), nine achieved the desirable level (>75%). Despite considerable invitation coverage across all programmes (79.3%, range 50.9-115.2%) only 48.2% (range 28.4-92.1%) of the target population were actually screened. The overall invitation and examination coverage excluding Poland was 70.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The results demonstrate the feasibility of European-wide screening monitoring using the EBCSM data warehouse, although further efforts to refine the system and to harmonize standards and data collection practices will be required, to fully integrate all European countries. The more than three-fold difference in the examination coverage should be taken into account in the evaluation of service screening programmes.

  5. Graduates' satisfaction with and attitudes towards a master programme in dental public health.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Jaskiran; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa Karina; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-03-26

    Monitoring graduates' views of their learning experiences is important to ensure programme standards and further improvement. This study evaluated graduates' satisfaction with and attitudes towards a Master programme in Dental Public Health. An online questionnaire was sent to individuals who completed successfully the Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health at King's College London Dental Institute and had a valid email address. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, satisfaction with and attitudes towards the programme. Satisfaction and attitudes scores were compared by demographic characteristics using multiple linear regression models. Satisfaction scores with the programme were high, with 92% of respondents reporting the programme had met or exceeded their expectations. Learning resources and quality of teaching and learning were the aspects of the programme graduates were most satisfied with. The main motivations for taking the programme were to progress in career path and improve employment prospects. As for attitudes, 70.7% of respondents would recommend this course to a colleague or a friend. There were no significant differences in satisfaction and attitude scores by graduates' demographic background. Graduates were satisfied with most aspects of the programme and reported positive attitudes towards it. This study highlights the value of using graduates' views for programme's improvement and the need for a regular monitoring of the programme.

  6. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  7. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  8. [Competency-based Neurosurgery Residency Programme].

    PubMed

    Lobato, Ramiro D; Jiménez Roldan, Luis; Alen, José F; Castaño, Ana M; Munarriz, Pablo M; Cepeda, Santiago; Lagares, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    assess the overall operation of the programme. Results of evaluations are registered, together with other relevant data, in the Resident's Book. The creation of a Programme Committee directly attached to the SENEC (National Commission) that, aside from generating a final version of the programme, monitors its implementation (level of adherence and operation in the different departments), assumes the creation of test banks and the centralized administration of knowledge tests (in the middle of the residency and/or at the end of it) and centralizes information collected by tutors that could be used for re-accreditation of the services, is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  10. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  11. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  12. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  13. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  14. Southern African AIDS Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, G H

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa.

  15. PATHway: Decision Support in Exercise Programmes for Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Filos, Dimitris; Triantafyllidis, Andreas; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Buys, Roselien; Cornelissen, Véronique; Budts, Werner; Walsh, Deirdre; Woods, Catherine; Moran, Kieran; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation is important for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to improve health outcomes and quality of life. However, adherence to current exercise programmes in cardiac rehabilitation is limited. We present the design and development of a Decision Support System (DSS) for telerehabilitation, aiming to enhance exercise programmes for CVD patients through ensuring their safety, personalising the programme according to their needs and performance, and motivating them toward meeting their physical activity goals. The DSS processes data originated from a Microsoft Kinect camera, a blood pressure monitor, a heart rate sensor and questionnaires, in order to generate a highly individualised exercise programme and improve patient adherence. Initial results within the EU-funded PATHway project show the potential of our approach.

  16. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    PubMed

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  17. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  18. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  19. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  20. The Sheffield outreach teaching programme.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Lennon, M A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-27

    Sheffield's School of Clinical Dentistry has developed a year-round dental outreach teaching programme of 20 weeks for each student in two or three of six already established general practices and five PCT clinics. On the programme, under local supervision, students provide comprehensive care for patients and complete associated projectwork. This paper first describes the development and management of the programme then the learning experiences of recent students.

  1. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  2. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  3. Classroom Leadership: The Effect of a School Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2009-01-01

    Using a cohort longitudinal design, this study examined pupils' perceptions of their teachers' classroom leadership, both before and after implementation of the Respect programme. Pupils in Grades 5-10 (age 11-16) in four Norwegian schools reported their perceptions of their teachers' emotional support, academic support, and monitoring five times…

  4. Audit of the Bloodhound Education Programme, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straw, Suzanne; Jeffes, Jennifer; Dawson, Anneka; Lord, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned by the "Bloodhound Education Programme" (BEP) to conduct an audit of its activities throughout 2012 and early 2013. The audit included: telephone consultations with a range of stakeholders; analysis of monitoring and internal evaluation data; and attendance at two…

  5. Classroom Leadership: The Effect of a School Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2009-01-01

    Using a cohort longitudinal design, this study examined pupils' perceptions of their teachers' classroom leadership, both before and after implementation of the Respect programme. Pupils in Grades 5-10 (age 11-16) in four Norwegian schools reported their perceptions of their teachers' emotional support, academic support, and monitoring five times…

  6. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  7. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  8. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  9. Programmable multimode quantum networks

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-François; Janousek, Jiri; Hage, Boris; Treps, Nicolas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-A.

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement between large numbers of quantum modes is the quintessential resource for future technologies such as the quantum internet. Conventionally, the generation of multimode entanglement in optics requires complex layouts of beamsplitters and phase shifters in order to transform the input modes into entangled modes. Here we report the highly versatile and efficient generation of various multimode entangled states with the ability to switch between different linear optics networks in real time. By defining our modes to be combinations of different spatial regions of one beam, we may use just one pair of multi-pixel detectors in order to measure multiple entangled modes. We programme virtual networks that are fully equivalent to the physical linear optics networks they are emulating. We present results for N=2 up to N=8 entangled modes here, including N=2, 3, 4 cluster states. Our approach introduces the highly sought after attributes of flexibility and scalability to multimode entanglement. PMID:22929783

  10. Finnish-Russian programme for the control of rabies (2005-2010).

    PubMed

    Metlin, A E; Rybakov, S S; Gruzdev, K N; Mikhalishin, V V; Huovilainen, A; Neuvonen, E

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish-Russian collaboration on rabies control began in 2000. This data summarizes the results of the scientific part of the programme, including rabies monitoring in Russia and the molecular epidemiological studies with field viruses.

  11. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  12. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  13. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  14. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  15. Introducing a new monitoring manual for home fortification and strengthening capacity to monitor nutrition interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D.; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lack of monitoring capacity is a key barrier for nutrition interventions and limits programme management, decision making and programme effectiveness in many low-income and middle-income countries. A 2011 global assessment reported lack of monitoring capacity was the top barrier for home fortification interventions, such as micronutrient powders or lipid-based nutrient supplements. A Manual for Developing and Implementing Monitoring Systems for Home Fortification Interventions was recently disseminated. It is comprehensive and describes monitoring concepts and frameworks and includes monitoring tools and worksheets. The monitoring manual describes the steps of developing and implementing a monitoring system for home fortification interventions, including identifying and engaging stakeholders; developing a programme description including logic model and logical framework; refining the purpose of the monitoring system, identifying users and their monitoring needs; describing the design of the monitoring system; developing indicators; describing the core components of a comprehensive monitoring plan; and considering factors related to stage of programme development, sustainability and scale up. A fictional home fortification example is used throughout the monitoring manual to illustrate these steps. The monitoring manual is a useful tool to support the development and implementation of home fortification intervention monitoring systems. In the context of systematic capacity gaps to design, implement and monitor nutrition interventions in many low-income and middle-income countries, the dissemination of new tools, such as monitoring manuals may have limited impact without additional attention to strengthening other individual, organisational and systems levels capacities. PMID:24784541

  16. Introducing a new monitoring manual for home fortification and strengthening capacity to monitor nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Lack of monitoring capacity is a key barrier for nutrition interventions and limits programme management, decision making and programme effectiveness in many low-income and middle-income countries. A 2011 global assessment reported lack of monitoring capacity was the top barrier for home fortification interventions, such as micronutrient powders or lipid-based nutrient supplements. A Manual for Developing and Implementing Monitoring Systems for Home Fortification Interventions was recently disseminated. It is comprehensive and describes monitoring concepts and frameworks and includes monitoring tools and worksheets. The monitoring manual describes the steps of developing and implementing a monitoring system for home fortification interventions, including identifying and engaging stakeholders; developing a programme description including logic model and logical framework; refining the purpose of the monitoring system, identifying users and their monitoring needs; describing the design of the monitoring system; developing indicators; describing the core components of a comprehensive monitoring plan; and considering factors related to stage of programme development, sustainability and scale up. A fictional home fortification example is used throughout the monitoring manual to illustrate these steps. The monitoring manual is a useful tool to support the development and implementation of home fortification intervention monitoring systems. In the context of systematic capacity gaps to design, implement and monitor nutrition interventions in many low-income and middle-income countries, the dissemination of new tools, such as monitoring manuals may have limited impact without additional attention to strengthening other individual, organisational and systems levels capacities.

  17. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  18. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  19. Hepatitis B immunisation programmes in European Union, Norway and Iceland: where we were in 2009?

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Lopalco, Pierluigi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Giambi, Cristina; Johansen, Kari; Dematte, Luca; Salmaso, Stefania; Stefanoff, Pawel; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2010-06-17

    In January 2009 25 European Union (EU) Member States (MSs), Norway and Iceland, participated in a survey seeking information on national hepatitis B vaccination programmes. Details of vaccination policy, schedule, population groups targeted for vaccination, programme funding, vaccine coverage and methods of monitoring of vaccine coverage were obtained. Twenty (74%) countries reported that they have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, in addition to immunisation of at risk groups; seven (26%) countries recommend HBV for high risk groups only (with some inter-country variation on groups considered at high risk). Among countries without universal hepatitis B vaccination programmes, the major factor for non-introduction is low disease endemicity.

  20. Developments in veterinary herd health programmes on dairy farms: a review.

    PubMed

    Noordhuizen, J P; Wentink, G H

    2001-11-01

    This review article addresses some major developments in herd health programmes for dairy farms over the last decades. It focuses particularly on herd health and production management programmes that use protocols and monitoring activities. The article further emphasizes the need for merging herd health programmes with quantitative epidemiological principles and methods. Subsequently, this article points to the latest developments regarding quality assurance in the dairy sector and some quality management methods. Quality should be regarded in its broadest sense. The importance of integrating veterinary herd health programmes and quality (risk) management support at a dairy farm level is stressed. Examples are provided.

  1. Roles of laboratories and laboratory systems in effective tuberculosis programmes.

    PubMed

    Ridderhof, John C; van Deun, Armand; Kam, Kai Man; Narayanan, P R; Aziz, Mohamed Abdul

    2007-05-01

    Laboratories and laboratory networks are a fundamental component of tuberculosis (TB) control, providing testing for diagnosis, surveillance and treatment monitoring at every level of the health-care system. New initiatives and resources to strengthen laboratory capacity and implement rapid and new diagnostic tests for TB will require recognition that laboratories are systems that require quality standards, appropriate human resources, and attention to safety in addition to supplies and equipment. To prepare the laboratory networks for new diagnostics and expanded capacity, we need to focus efforts on strengthening quality management systems (QMS) through additional resources for external quality assessment programmes for microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular diagnostics. QMS should also promote development of accreditation programmes to ensure adherence to standards to improve both the quality and credibility of the laboratory system within TB programmes. Corresponding attention must be given to addressing human resources at every level of the laboratory, with special consideration being given to new programmes for laboratory management and leadership skills. Strengthening laboratory networks will also involve setting up partnerships between TB programmes and those seeking to control other diseases in order to pool resources and to promote advocacy for quality standards, to develop strategies to integrate laboratories functions and to extend control programme activities to the private sector. Improving the laboratory system will assure that increased resources, in the form of supplies, equipment and facilities, will be invested in networks that are capable of providing effective testing to meet the goals of the Global Plan to Stop TB.

  2. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  3. Owl: Next Generation System Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M; White, B S; McKee, S A; Lee, H S; Jeitner, J

    2005-02-16

    As microarchitectural and system complexity grows, comprehending system behavior becomes increasingly difficult, and often requires obtaining and sifting through voluminous event traces or coordinating results from multiple, non-localized sources. Owl is a proposed framework that overcomes limitations faced by traditional performance counters and monitoring facilities in dealing with such complexity by pervasively deploying programmable monitoring elements throughout a system. The design exploits reconfigurable or programmable logic to realize hardware monitors located at event sources, such as memory buses. These monitors run and writeback results autonomously with respect to the CPU, mitigating the system impact of interrupt-driven monitoring or the need to communicate irrelevant events to higher levels of the system. The monitors are designed to snoop any kind of system transaction, e.g., within the core, on a bus, across the wire, or within I/O devices.

  4. Shape-programmable macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Schafmeister, Christian E; Brown, Zachary Z; Gupta, Sharad

    2008-10-01

    Proteins catalyze specific chemical reactions and carry out highly selective molecular recognition because they adopt well-defined three-dimensional structures and position chemically reactive functional groups in specific constellations. Proteins attain these well-defined structures through the complex process of protein folding. We seek to emulate these protein functions by constructing macromolecules that are easier to engineer by avoiding folding altogether. Toward that goal, we have developed an approach for the synthesis of macromolecules with programmable shapes. As described in this Account, we have constructed synthetic building blocks called bis-amino acids that we then couple through pairs of amide bonds to create water-soluble, spiroladder oligomers (bis-peptides) with well-defined three-dimensional structures. Bis-peptides use the conformational preferences of fused rings, stereochemistry, and strong covalent bonds to define their shape, unlike natural proteins and synthetic foldamers, which depend on noncovalent interactions and an unpredictable folding process to attain structure. Using these bis-amino acid monomers, we have built and characterized a number of bis-peptide nanostructures. We also constructed a molecular actuator that undergoes a large change in conformation under the control of metal exchange; the first application of bis-peptides. We are currently developing further approaches to functionalize bis-peptides as scaffolds to present well-defined constellations of functional groups. Such macromolecules could facilitate multifunctional catalysis and molecular recognition and lead to nanoscale molecular devices.

  5. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  6. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  7. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  9. Rotating Desk for Collaboration by Two Computer Programmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, John Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A special-purpose desk has been designed to facilitate collaboration by two computer programmers sharing one desktop computer or computer terminal. The impetus for the design is a trend toward what is known in the software industry as extreme programming an approach intended to ensure high quality without sacrificing the quantity of computer code produced. Programmers working in pairs is a major feature of extreme programming. The present desk design minimizes the stress of the collaborative work environment. It supports both quality and work flow by making it unnecessary for programmers to get in each other s way. The desk (see figure) includes a rotating platform that supports a computer video monitor, keyboard, and mouse. The desk enables one programmer to work on the keyboard for any amount of time and then the other programmer to take over without breaking the train of thought. The rotating platform is supported by a turntable bearing that, in turn, is supported by a weighted base. The platform contains weights to improve its balance. The base includes a stand for a computer, and is shaped and dimensioned to provide adequate foot clearance for both users. The platform includes an adjustable stand for the monitor, a surface for the keyboard and mouse, and spaces for work papers, drinks, and snacks. The heights of the monitor, keyboard, and mouse are set to minimize stress. The platform can be rotated through an angle of 40 to give either user a straight-on view of the monitor and full access to the keyboard and mouse. Magnetic latches keep the platform preferentially at either of the two extremes of rotation. To switch between users, one simply grabs the edge of the platform and pulls it around. The magnetic latch is easily released, allowing the platform to rotate freely to the position of the other user

  10. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  11. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  12. Programmable control means for providing safe and controlled medication infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An implantable programmable infusion pump (IPIP) is disclosed and generally includes: a fluid reservoir filled with selected medication; a pump for causing a precise volumetric dosage of medication to be withdrawn from the reservoir and delivered to the appropriate site within the body; and, a control means for actuating the pump in a safe and programmable manner. The control means includes a microprocessor, a permanent memory containing a series of fixed software instructions, and a memory for storing prescription schedules, dosage limits and other data. The microprocessor actuates the pump in accordance with programmable prescription parameters and dosage limits stored in the memory. A communication link allows the control means to be remotely programmed. The control means incorporates a running integral dosage limit and other safety features which prevent an inadvertent or intentional medication overdose. The control means also monitors the pump and fluid handling system and provides an alert if any improper or potentially unsafe operation is detected.

  13. Technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    St John, T J; Cassata, J R; Blake, P K; Wallace, W H; Minniti, R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) quality programme. The Navy has been formally monitoring personnel for occupational exposure to ionising radiation since at least 1946. The current system, the DT-702/PD, is the Harshaw 8840 holder and 8841 card. New card and holder checks are performed to verify that the correct LiF elements and holder filters are in the correct location and are of the correct composition. Element correction coefficient (ECC) magnitude and repeatability are also verified. Several quality assurance parameters are checked by a specially designed shipping machine. Calibration cards are used to calibrate each reader and quality control cards are inserted throughout a group of field cards to verify reader operation during the read process. The success of the programme is measured by annual proficiency tests administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Programme and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories.

  14. The United Nations programme on space applications: priority thematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held in 1999 with efforts to identify world wide benefits of developing space science and technology, particularly in the developing nations. One of the main vehicles to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III is the United Nations Programme on Space Applications of the Office for Outer Space Affairs at UN Headquarters in Vienna. Following a process of prioritization by Member States, the Programme focus its activities on (i) knowledge-based themes as space law and basic space science, (ii) application-based themes as disaster management, natural resources management, environmental monitoring, tele-health, and (iii) enabling technologies such as remote sensing satellites, communications satellites, global navigation satellite systems, and small satellites. Current activities of the Programme will be reviewed. Further information available at http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/sapidx.html

  15. ESA's Living Planet Programme: The Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA's) Living Planet Programme marks the beginning of a new chapter in European led Earth Observation, based on focussed science user-driven missions. The Earth Explorer missions seek to advance the understanding of complex Earth system processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Each of the Explorer missions is adapted to address a specific scientific problem whilst at the same time building on the heritage of, and the experience gained from a decade of successful continuous scientific obervations made by the larger ERS-1, and -2 and Envisat missions. The Living Planet Programme's Explorer line of smaller and focused missions is also complemented by a parallel line of applications-driven Earth Watch missions address mature operational applications and the provision of services. Specifically, the science-driven Explorer missions are designed to further the demonstration of new satellite-based observing techniques that will allow us to develop our knowledge of the Earth system. Four new missions are currently under development, that will soon begin a sequence of launches beginning in 2004 with CryoSat. Several new mission concepts are also undergoing detailed study, with subsequent consideration for approval. The existing approved missions seek to measure: climate-induced changes in polar terrestrial and sea ice masses; a high resolution Earth gravity field; vertical wind vector profiles; and soil moisture and ocean salinity. Mission concepts under study address a broad array of Earth processes from Earth's magnetic field through stratospheric chemistry to terrestrial vegetation. The Explorers employ a wide array of technologies such as lidars for the sensing of clouds, winds, water vapour and other atmospheric constituents; radars for ice and ocean topography, land and ocean monitoring, cloud profiling and rain monitoring; passive instruments covering the UV through far infrared, including

  16. [Programmes against depression].

    PubMed

    Taleb, M; Rouillon, F; Hegerl, U; Hamdani, N; Gorwood, Ph

    2006-01-01

    frequently criticized, as this may reduce efficacy. A multilevel approach is crucial for the success of action programmes against depression, because synergistic effects can be expected. In Germany, the "Nürnberger Bündnis gegen Depression" project was based on four levels, and effectively reduced the suicide rate. These levels of action included "cooperation with GPs", such as training sessions based on video, and presence of a phone hotline, "public relations activities", "training sessions for multipliers", such as priests, social workers and media, and "special offers for high risk groups and self-help activities". In France, such a program is clearly required.

  17. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  18. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  19. Food contamination monitoring in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Capak, K; Katalenić, M; Barisin, A

    2001-06-01

    The Croatian National Institute of Public Health Implements the statistical food safety monitoring programme for foods marketed in Croatia in accordance with effective laws and regulations. Laboratories for food safety control, certified by the Ministry of Health, report their findings in quarterly notifications, using the standard forms and issue statements of compliance or non-compliance with current regulations, specifying the cause in case of the latter. This paper brings the results for the period 1993-99 as an illustration of the monitoring programme.

  20. French space programmes related to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

    The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

  1. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  2. The central role of national programme management for the achievement of malaria elimination: a cross case-study analysis of nine malaria programmes.

    PubMed

    Smith Gueye, Cara; Newby, Gretchen; Tulloch, Jim; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Gosling, Roland D

    2016-09-22

    A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan). A conceptual framework for malaria elimination programme management was developed and data were extracted and synthesized. Findings were reviewed at a consultative workshop, which led to a revision of the framework and further data extraction and synthesis. Success factors of implementation, programme choices and changes, and enabling factors were distilled. Decentralized programmes enhanced engagement in malaria elimination by sub-national units and communities. Integration of the malaria programme into other health services was also common. Decentralization and integration were often challenging due to the skill and experience levels of newly tasked staff. Accountability for programme impact was not clarified for most programmes. Motivation of work force was a key factor in maintaining programme quality but there were few clear, detailed strategies provided. Different incentive schemes targeted various stakeholders. Training and supervision, although not well described, were prioritized by most programmes. Multi-sectoral collaboration helped some programmes share information, build strategies and interventions and achieve a higher quality of implementation. In most cases programme action was spurred by malaria outbreaks or a new elimination goal with strong leadership. Some programmes showed high capacity for flexibility through introduction of new strategies and tools. Several case-studies described methods for monitoring

  3. A situation analysis of the menstrual regulation programme in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Syeda Nahid Mukith; Moni, Dipu

    2004-11-01

    Menstrual regulation (MR) using vacuum aspiration is widely available in Bangladesh through public, NGO and private sector facilities, even though abortion is illegal except to save a woman's life. For more than two decades the MR programme was run as a vertical programme. In 1998 the Government of Bangladesh introduced the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP) incorporating menstrual regulation into the essential services package. This paper reports a situation analysis of the MR Programme under the HPSP, using the World Health Organization rapid evaluation methodology. In spite of wide availability, barriers such as distance to health facilities and transportation costs, unofficial fees, lack of privacy, confidentiality and cleanliness in public health facilities, and in some cases attitudes of service providers, are limiting access to MR services. Quality of care is compromised by inadequacies in infection control and in provider training and counselling. Health system weaknesses include gross under-reporting of cases by providers who do not wish to share unofficial fees, which affects monitoring and adequate provision of supplies. The HPSP has caused uncertainty regarding supervision in public sector facilities, and adversely affected training by NGOs and government-NGO coordination. Services in part of the NGO sector have also been affected by funding changes. To make the programme as a whole more effective, all these issues have to be addressed.

  4. Establishing a workplace antiretroviral therapy programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, S; Grant, A D; Day, J H; Pemba, L; Chaisson, R E; Kruger, P; Martin, D; Wood, R; Brink, B; Churchyard, G J

    2007-01-01

    Ways to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low income settings are being sought. We describe an HIV care programme including ART in an industrial setting in South Africa. The programme uses guidelines derived from local and international best practice. The training component aims to build capacity among health care staff. Nurses and doctors are supported by experienced HIV clinicians through telephone consultation and site visits. Patients undergo a three-stage counselling procedure prior to starting ART. Drug regimens and monitoring are standardised and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (isoniazid and cotrimoxazole) is offered routinely. Laboratory and pharmacy services, using named-patient dispensing, are centralized. The programme is designed to ensure that data on clinical and economic outcomes will be available for programme evaluation. Between November 2002-December 2004, ART delivery has been established at 70 ART workplace ART sites. The sites range from 200 to 12000 employees, and from small occupational health clinics and general practitioner rooms to larger hospital clinics. During this period, 2456 patients began ART. Of those on treatment for at least three months, 1728 (78%) have been retained on the programme and only 38 (1.7%) patients have failed the first-line ART regimen. This model for delivery of ART is feasible and successful in an industrial setting. The model may be generalizable to other employment health services in settings of high HIV prevalence, and as a model for implementing ART in other types of health-care settings.

  5. Programmable DNA-Based Finite Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, Tamar; Keinan, Ehud

    Computation using DNA has many advantages, including the potential for massive parallelism that allows for large number of operations per second, the direct interface between the computation process and a biological output, and the miniaturization of the computing devices to a molecular scale. In 2001, we reported on the first DNA-based, programmable finite automaton (2-symbol-2-state) capable of computing autonomously with all its hardware, software, input, and output being soluble biomolecules mixed in solution. Later, using similar principles, we developed advanced 3-symbol-3-state automata. We have also shown that real-time detection of the output signal, as well as real-time monitoring of all the computation intermediates, can be achieved by the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. More recently, we have shown that it is possible to achieve a biologically relevant output, such as specific gene expression, by using a reporter-gene as an output-readout. We cloned the input into circular plasmids, and thereby achieved control over gene expression by a programmable sequence of computation events. Further efforts are currently directed to immobilization of the input molecules onto a solid chip to enable parallel computation, where the location of the input on the chip represents specific tagging.

  6. Present status of the Copernicus programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutz, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) has established the Copernicus Programme, formerly named GMES; an Earth monitoring user-driven initiative carried out in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA) and EU/ESA Member States. Copernicus is designed to ensure continuous provision of reliable data and information on environment and security related services, primarily to users responsible for making, implementing and monitoring the relevant policies in the EU and its Member States. The Copernicus services rely on in-situ sensors and satellite data, the latter being provided by the Copernicus Space Component (CSC). ESA is responsible for coordinating the CSC, i.e. the Sentinel Missions and the access to data from Contributing Missions, in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The first dedicated Copernicus satellite mission, Sentinel-1A, was successfully launched on 3rd April 2014. After completion of the Commissioning Phase (23 September 2014), the operations ramp-up phase started. This phase consists of a gradual ground segment system deployment and user product quality verification/calibration. During this phase the data provision has been extended. The remaining activities will be achieved before the Sentinel-1A Routine Operations Readiness Review, expected to take place in May 2015. This milestone will mark the completion of the mission operations qualification and the start of the routine operations of the satellite. The Full Operational Capability will be reached when two units of Sentinel-1 will enter routine operations simultaneously. The next Sentinel missions, starting with the first unit of Sentinel-2 expected to be launched in May 2015, will be launched within the next years and will be progressively covering all domains of Earth Observation. The successful uptake of the operational phase of the Copernicus Space Component, and the full economic benefits of the Copernicus programme will materialise only when the wealth of data from the whole series of Sentinel satellites

  7. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  8. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  9. Strategising for the future Indian EO programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Kalyanraman, S.; Joseph, George; Navalgund, R. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-07-01

    The Indian Earth Observations Program, over the past three decades, has been mainly driven by the national need of natural resources management, infrastructure development, environment monitoring and disaster management support. With an array of seven Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), national development support has been supported, through a well-knit institutional framework of a National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), a wide variety of applications developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The future Earth Observation Systems will have to take into consideration the aspects related to the commercialisation and standardisation of programmes world-over; transitioning into a business environment; data continuity and the need to monitor processes rather than events. Technological changes are also going to re-define many of the concepts of observation from space and issues like spatial resolution, spectral resolution and temporal resolution may no more be a concern for observation systems. ISRO is presently defining a strategy for the Indian EO Programme that will chart the progress with a vision for the next 25 years. Based on a thorough analysis, the observation needs of the future are planned and presently systems design and implementation are underway. The Need Analysis has been done keeping in mind the Global change applications; Mapping and Cartographic applications; Natural Resources and Environmental management applications etc. Issues related to defining the space and data acquisition as a national "public good", costing of data products and services and evolving a commercial remote sensing policy have been addressed for providing the overall thrust of the Indian Earth Observations program. The paper discusses the strategy adopted for assessing the future user requirements

  10. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  11. National Tuberculosis Control Programme.

    PubMed

    Uke, B T

    1995-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem in India, since there are an estimated 2.5-3 million sputum positive cases and 5-6 million noninfectious cases in the country. The National Tuberculosis Program was established in 1962 with the main objective of reducing the disability and death from TB by effective treatment. Under the District Tuberculosis Program, district TB centers (DTCs) were set up for referral diagnosis, treatment, and community control of TB. Nationally, there are 390 districts with fully equipped DTCs staffed by a team of medical and paramedical personnel. Another 330 TB clinics are mostly located in big cities, caring for the local populace. In addition, 17 tuberculosis training and demonstration centers provide basic training to paramedical personnel, including general practitioners. There are a total of about 47,000 beds available nationwide for TB patients. The majority of patients are treated at home, thus only serious cases or those requiring surgical treatment are admitted. The NTP also stresses health education aimed at the community and general practitioners. Booklets, pamphlets, radio, TV, and newspaper advertisements are utilized for this purpose. International assistance has been provided by UNICEF, WHO, and the Swedish International Development Agency since the 1950s. The National Tuberculosis Institute was established in 1959 in Bangalore and it has engaged in research on epidemiological, sociological, and operations aspects, along with monitoring of the program. Other TB research institutes are the TB Research Center in Madras and the LRS Institute of TB and Allied Diseases in Delhi. BCG vaccination of children up to the age of 1 year continues, although a study showed that vaccination did not protect from adult TB. Evaluation of the NTP comprises quarterly reports for DTCs and countrywide assessment. NTP achievements include 85% coverage of districts, diagnosis of 1,500,000 new cases a year, and short

  12. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  13. Klein's programme and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Gallardo, Jesús; Marmo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    We review the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics to identify, according to Klein's programme, the corresponding group of transformations. For closed systems, it is the unitary group. For open quantum systems, the semigroup of Kraus maps contains, as a maximal subgroup, the general linear group. The same group emerges as the exponentiation of the C*-algebra associated with the quantum system, when thought of as a Lie algebra. Thus, open quantum systems seem to identify the general linear group as associated with quantum mechanics and moreover suggest to extend the Klein programme also to groupoids. The usual unitary group emerges as a maximal compact subgroup of the general linear group.

  14. NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

  15. Socioeconomic and ethnic inequities within organised colorectal cancer screening programmes worldwide.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, C M; Gupta, S; Dekker, E; Essink-Bot, M L

    2017-01-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes can reduce CRC mortality. However, the implementation of a screening programme may create or exacerbate socioeconomic and ethnic health inequities if participation varies by subgroup. We determined which organised programmes characterise participation inequities by socioeconomic and ethnic subgroups, and assessed the variation in subgroup participation among programmes collecting group-specific data. Employing a literature review and survey among leaders of national or regional screening programmes, this study identified published and unpublished data on participation by socioeconomic status and ethnicity. We assessed programmes offering faecal occult blood tests (FOBT) for screening. Primary outcome was screening participation rate. Across 24 organised FOBT-screening programmes meeting the inclusion criteria, participation rates ranged from 21% to 73%. Most programmes (13/24, 54%) did not collect data on participation by socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Among the 11 programmes with data on participation by socioeconomic status, 90% (28/31 publications) reported lower participation among lower socioeconomic groups. Differences across socioeconomic gradients were moderate (66% vs 71%) to severe (35% vs 61%). Only six programmes reported participation results by ethnicity. Ethnic differences were moderate, though only limited data were available for evaluation. Across organised CRC screening programmes worldwide, variation in participation by socioeconomic status and ethnicity is often not assessed. However, when measured, marked disparities in participation by socioeconomic status have been observed. Limited data were available to assess inequities by ethnicity. To avoid exacerbating health inequities, screening programmes should systematically monitor participation by socioeconomic status and ethnicity, and investigate and address determinants of low participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  16. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  17. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  18. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Yang, Shu; Yi, Yun Kyu; Kamien, Randall D; Yin, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy-saving buildings, is discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  20. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes

    PubMed Central

    Ovretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-01-01

    

 In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994

  1. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  2. [Results of the Czech National Breast Cancer screening programme].

    PubMed

    Skovajsová, M; Májek, O; Daneš, J; Bartoňková, H; Ngo, O; Dušek, L

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening based on mammography is an effective tool for lowering mortality rates from this disease. The organised and nationwide Breast Cancer Screening Programme has been underway in the Czech Republic since 2002. Monitoring of the programme is based on data from the Czech National Cancer Registry (CNCR), Breast Cancer Screening Registry, and the Czech National Reference Centre (CNRC). These data sources make it possible to evaluate early performance indicators according to international standards, and to monitor the cancer burden in the Czech population. The CNRC data allow us to document the high validity of the available data as well as to map non-organised mammography examinations (so-called opportunistic screening). Until the mid-1990s, breast cancer incidence and mortality rates saw a slight but continuous increase. In the last 15 years, however, incidence rates have grown more substantially; by contrast, mortality rates have stalled and even started to decline since the 2000s. In the mid-1990s, the proportion of cancers diagnosed at stage I was below 20%; this situation has dramatically improved since then, as more than 40% cases of breast cancer were diagnosed at stage I in 2011. Breast cancer screening coverage currently amounts to 50%; this value reached a plateau in the period 2007-2008, and unfortunately has not shown any further significant increase. Over the last few decades, the breast cancer burden among the Czech population has been significantly reduced - despite the growing incidence rates, mortality rates have decreased, which can be largely attributed to earlier detection of breast cancer based on the screening programme. Further improvements in the programmes effectiveness can only be achieved if the population coverage becomes higher; the programme of personalised invitations to mammography examinations, which was introduced in early 2014, should contribute to the accomplishment of this goal.

  3. Self-management education programmes for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Féline P B; van der Burg, Lennart R A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Johnston, Renea V; Pitt, Veronica

    2014-01-15

    Self-management education programmes are complex interventions specifically targeted at patient education and behaviour modification. They are designed to encourage people with chronic disease to take an active self-management role to supplement medical care and improve outcomes. To assess the effectiveness of self-management education programmes for people with osteoarthritis. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PyscINFO, SCOPUS and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform were searched, without language restriction, on 17 January 2013. We checked references of reviews and included trials to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials of self-management education programmes in people with osteoarthritis were included. Studies with participants receiving passive recipients of care and studies comparing one type of programme versus another were excluded. In addition to standard methods we extracted components of the self-management interventions using the eight domains of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ), and contextual and participant characteristics using PROGRESS-Plus and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Outcomes included self-management of osteoarthritis, participant's positive and active engagement in life, pain, global symptom score, self-reported function, quality of life and withdrawals (including dropouts and those lost to follow-up). We assessed the quality of the body of evidence for these outcomes using the GRADE approach. We included twenty-nine studies (6,753 participants) that compared self-management education programmes to attention control (five studies), usual care (17 studies), information alone (four studies) or another intervention (seven studies). Although heterogeneous, most interventions included elements of skill and technique acquisition (94%), health-directed activity (85%) and self-monitoring and insight (79

  4. The challenges and successes of implementing a sustainable antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Malla, Sarala; Dumre, Shyam Prakash; Shakya, Geeta; Kansakar, Palpasa; Rai, Bhupraj; Hossain, Anowar; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Albert, M John; Sack, David; Baker, Stephen; Rahman, Motiur

    2014-03-21

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health concern and its surveillance is a fundamental tool for monitoring the development of AMR. In 1998, the Nepalese Ministry of Health (MOH) launched an Infectious Disease (ID) programme. The key components of the programme were to establish a surveillance programme for AMR and to develop awareness among physicians regarding AMR and rational drug usage in Nepal. An AMR surveillance programme was established and implemented by the Nepalese MOH in partnership with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B) from 1998 to 2003. From 2004 to 2012, the programme was integrated and maintained as a core activity of the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) and resulted in an increased number of participating laboratories and pathogens brought under surveillance. The main strategies were to build national capacity on isolation, identification and AMR testing of bacterial pathogens, establish laboratory networking and an External Quality Assessment (EQA) programme, promote standardised recording and reporting of results, and to ensure timely analysis and dissemination of data for advocacy and national policy adaptations. The programme was initiated by nine participating laboratories performing AMR surveillance on Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The number of participating laboratories was ultimately increased to 13 and the number of pathogens under surveillance was increased to seven (Salmonella spp. was added to the surveillance programme in 2002 and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in 2011). From 1999 to 2012, data were available on 17,103 bacterial isolates. During the AMR programme, we observed changing trends in serovars/species for Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and V. cholerae and changing AMR trend for all organisms. Notably, N. gonorrhoeae isolates demonstrated

  5. The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Enarson, D A; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Hoa, N B; Tweya, H; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Tayler-Smith, K; Manzi, M; Khogali, M; Kizito, W; Ali, E; Delaunois, P; Reeder, J C

    2014-06-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally, it could act as an observatory to monitor and evaluate operational research in public health. Criteria for prospective partners wishing to join SORT IT have been drawn up.

  6. The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Zachariah, R.; Bissell, K.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Edginton, M.; Enarson, D. A.; Satyanarayana, S.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Hoa, N. B.; Tweya, H.; Reid, A. J.; Van den Bergh, R.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Manzi, M.; Khogali, M.; Kizito, W.; Ali, E.; Delaunois, P.; Reeder, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally, it could act as an observatory to monitor and evaluate operational research in public health. Criteria for prospective partners wishing to join SORT IT have been drawn up. PMID:26399203

  7. Cervical cancer screening in Europe: Quality assurance and organisation of programmes.

    PubMed

    Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; von Karsa, Lawrence; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-05-01

    Cervical screening programmes have reduced cervical cancer incidence and mortality but the level of success is highly variable between countries. Organisation of programmes is essential for equity and cost-effectiveness. However, there are differences in effectiveness, also among organised programmes. In order to identify the key organisational components that determine effectiveness, we performed a Europe-wide survey on the current status of organisation and organised quality assurance (QA) measures in cervical cancer prevention programmes, as well as organisation-associated costs. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed through systematic review of literature and existing guidelines. The survey was sent to programme organisers, Ministries of Health and experts in 34 European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA) countries. Detailed aspects of programme organisation, quality assurance, monitoring, evaluation and corresponding line-item costs were recorded. Documentation of programme guidelines, protocols and publications was requested. Twenty-nine of 34 countries responded. The results showed that organised efforts for QA, monitoring and evaluation were carried out to a differing extent and were not standardised, making it difficult to compare the cost-effectiveness of organisation and QA strategies. Most countries found it hard to estimate the costs associated with launching and operating the organised programme. To our knowledge, this is the first questionnaire to request detailed information on the actual organisation and QA of programmes. The results of this survey can be used as a basis for further development of standardised guidelines on organisation and QA of cervical cancer screening programmes in Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Population genetic screening programmes: principles, techniques, practices, and policies.

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; ten Kate, Leo; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the principles, techniques, practices, and policies that impact on the population genetic screening programmes in Europe. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding potential screening programmes, which require further discussion before their introduction. It aims to increase, among the health-care professions and health policy-makers, awareness of the potential screening programmes as an issue of increasing concern to public health. The methods comprised primarily the review of the existing professional guidelines, regulatory frameworks and other documents related to population genetic screening programmes in Europe. Then, the questions that need debate, in regard to different types of genetic screening before and after birth, were examined. Screening for conditions such as cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, familial hypercholesterolemia, fragile X syndrome, hemochromatosis, and cancer susceptibility was discussed. Special issues related to genetic screening were also examined, such as informed consent, family aspects, commercialization, the players on the scene and monitoring genetic screening programmes. Afterwards, these questions were debated by 51 experts from 15 European countries during an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 19-20, November, 1999. Arguments for and against starting screening programmes have been put forward. It has been questioned whether genetic screening differs from other types of screening and testing in terms of ethical issues. The general impression on the future of genetic screening is that one wants to 'proceed with caution', with more active impetus from the side of patients' organizations and more reluctance from the policy-makers. The latter try to obviate the potential problems about the abortion and eugenics issues that might be perceived as a

  9. Rival research programmes and their influence on nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Newbold, David

    2004-03-01

    In most forms of industry, there is an explicit link between research and development and subsequent technological processes. New discoveries can alter the direction or trajectory of technological progress. In this respect, health care is no different to any other form of industry. There are several theories of science which attempt to explain this link and predict its behaviour. According to Lakatos (1978), rival research programmes may co-exist, whilst Brouwer (1990) suggests they may vie with each other to alter the direction of technological progress. Presently, there are at least two research programmes which are competing to capture the activities of nurses. These are: the Health Care as Industrial Process programme, generating guideline driven nursing, and use of care pathways to maximize throughput plus labour substitution to minimize costs; and the Health Care as Therapeutic Interaction programme, focused on the management and delivery of the fundamental aspects of nursing care, and the use of emotional labour and psychological care to enable patients to cope and make sense of their situation. Ideally, the direction of practice should reflect both of these valid research programmes, with nurses as the staff best placed to integrate medical technology with humanity. Arguably, it is the Industrial Process programme which is currently dominant, at the price of decreased quality of care, and loss of the health benefits of therapeutic interaction. Greater effort is needed, in terms of research to reduce the apparent 'invisibility' of emotional labour, and education of nurses to boost therapeutic interaction skills. In order to re-direct the trajectory, managers should acknowledge and accommodate aspects of therapeutic interaction in service re-engineering, and use quality assurance tools which may accurately detect and monitor therapeutic interaction by nurses.

  10. Heart failure management programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, T; Strömberg, A; De Geest, S; Fridlund, B; Heikkila, J; Mårtensson, J; Moons, P; Scholte op Reimer, W; Smith, K; Stewart, S; Thompson, D R

    2006-09-01

    The ESC guidelines recommend that an organised system of specialist heart failure (HF) care should be established to improve outcomes of HF patients. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the number and the content of HF management programmes in Europe. A two-phase descriptive study was conducted: an initial screening to identify the existence of HF management programmes; and a survey to describe the content in countries where at least 30% of the hospitals had a programme. Of the 43 European countries approached, 26 (60%) estimated the percentage of HF management programmes. Seven countries reported that they had such programmes in more than 30% of their hospitals. Of the 673 hospitals responding to the questionnaire, 426 (63%) had a HF management programme. Half of the programmes (n = 205) were located in an outpatient clinic. In the UK a combination of hospital and home-based programmes was common (75%). The most programmes included physical examination, telephone consultation, patient education, drug titration and diagnostic testing. Most (89%) programmes involved nurses and physicians. Multi-disciplinary teams were active in 56% of the HF programmes. The most prominent differences between the 7 countries were the degree of collaboration with home care and GP's, the role in palliative care and the funding. Only a few European countries have a large number of organised programmes for HF care and follow up. To improve outcomes of HF patients throughout Europe more effort should be taken to increase the number of these programmes in all countries.

  11. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Drocourt, Yoann; Ferré, Hélène; Henriot, Nicolas; Ramage, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology…) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  12. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  13. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  14. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using

  15. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  16. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  17. Monitoring a Maori Teacher Training Programme in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moana, Whare Te; Selby, Rachael

    For years, Maori tribes have wanted their own people to be trained as teachers and to return to teach their own language and culture in their tribal regions. Many Maori who returned from colleges of education had absorbed too much of European New Zealanders' ways and did not meet their community's expectations. Maori-education preschools were…

  18. [Epidemiological methods for evaluating screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jørn

    2014-06-09

    The effect of screening programmes must be estimated before the programmes are implemented. Usually, the evaluation includes randomized trials if possible but even a large randomized trial will have limitations and need not estimate effects properly under routine conditions.

  19. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  20. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  1. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monica; Rudge, James W; Adisasmito, Wiku; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in financing the response to HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) in Indonesia. As part of a series of case studies, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of Global Fund portfolios into the national HIV and TB programmes, integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support on the health care system in Indonesia. The study relied on a literature review and interviews with 22 key informants using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund programmes in Indonesia are highly vertical and centralized, in contrast with the decentralized nature of the Indonesian health system. Consequently, there is more integration of all functions at local levels than centrally. There is a high level of integration of planning of Global Fund HIV and TB portfolios into the National AIDS and TB programmes and some limited integration of these programmes with other disease programmes, through joint working groups. Other synergies include strengthening of stewardship and governance and increased staff recruitment encouraged by incentive payments and training. Monitoring and evaluation functions of the Global Fund programmes are not integrated with the disease programmes, with parallel indicators and reporting systems. System-wide effects include greater awareness of governance and stewardship in response to the temporary suspension of Global Fund funding in 2008, and increased awareness of the need to integrate programme planning, financing and service delivery. Global Fund investment has freed up resources for other programmes, particularly at local levels. However, this may hinder a robust exit strategy from Global Fund funding. Furthermore, Global Fund monetary incentives may result in staff shifting into HIV and TB programmes.

  2. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    -keeping efforts. Global health programmes may frequently produce a wider range of 'collateral benefits' that conventional monitoring and evaluation systems should be expanded to assess, in keeping with contemporary efforts to leverage development programmes from a 'global health diplomacy' perspective.

  3. Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Henrique M; David Cooper, H

    2006-03-01

    Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The scientific community now faces the challenge of assessing the progress made towards this target and beyond. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network to complement and enhance these efforts. The network would develop a global sampling programme for indicator taxa (we suggest birds and vascular plants) and would integrate regional sampling programmes for taxa that are locally relevant to the monitoring of biodiversity change. The network would also promote the development of comparable maps of global land cover at regular time intervals. The extent and condition of specific habitat types, such as wetlands and coral reefs, would be monitored based on regional programmes. The data would then be integrated with other environmental and socioeconomic indicators to design responses to reduce biodiversity loss.

  4. [BINet programme as a standard of modern health policy].

    PubMed

    Hryniewicz, Waleria; Jackowska, Teresa; Skoczyńska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases--despite significant progress, both in their management and prevention--are becoming an increasingly serious problem, and their extent and character frequently constitute a threat for public health. In addition, a significant part of medical decisions regarding treatment and prevention of invasive bacterial infections is not made on the basis of the etiological agent of infection, which increases the chance of therapeutic failures, and makes the right decisions regarding prophylaxis difficult. In June 2008 the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis (Krajowy Ośrodek Referencyjny ds. Diagnostyki Bakteryjnych Zakazeń Ośrodkowego Układu Nerwowego, KOROUN) started the BINet programme, which is a network monitoring invasive bacterial infections acquired outside the hospital. The programme aims to improve the diagnostic and thus therapeutic standards, in community acquired invasive bacterial infections in Poland. The BINet programme is based on the cooperation of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and is headed by a team of the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The BINet programme enables quick and appropriate microbiological diagnosis of infections which is the basis of rational therapy and plays a key role in dealing with the infected patient. In addition, accurate epidemiological data allow to take quick and effective preventive measures at local and national level.

  5. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  9. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  10. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  11. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  12. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  13. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  14. Coverage of community-based management of severe acute malnutrition programmes in twenty-one countries, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Eleanor; Myatt, Mark; Woodhead, Sophie; Guerrero, Saul; Alvarez, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews coverage data from programmes treating severe acute malnutrition (SAM) collected between July 2012 and June 2013. This is a descriptive study of coverage levels and barriers to coverage collected by coverage assessments of community-based SAM treatment programmes in 21 countries that were supported by the Coverage Monitoring Network. Data from 44 coverage assessments are reviewed. These assessments analyse malnourished populations from 6 to 59 months old to understand the accessibility and coverage of services for treatment of acute malnutrition. The majority of assessments are from sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the programmes (33 of 44) failed to meet context-specific internationally agreed minimum standards for coverage. The mean level of estimated coverage achieved by the programmes in this analysis was 38.3%. The most frequently reported barriers to access were lack of awareness of malnutrition, lack of awareness of the programme, high opportunity costs, inter-programme interface problems, and previous rejection. This study shows that coverage of CMAM is lower than previous analyses of early CTC programmes; therefore reducing programme impact. Barriers to access need to be addressed in order to start improving coverage by paying greater attention to certain activities such as community sensitisation. As barriers are interconnected focusing on specific activities, such as decentralising services to satellite sites, is likely to increase significantly utilisation of nutrition services. Programmes need to ensure that barriers are continuously monitored to ensure timely removal and increased coverage.

  15. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  17. Programmable spectroscopy enabled by DLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Michael; Herholdt-Rasmussen, Nicolai; Jespersen, Ole

    2015-03-01

    Ibsen Photonics has since 2012 worked to deploy Texas Instruments DLP® technology to high efficiency, fused silica transmission grating based spectrometers and programmable light sources. The use of Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) in spectroscopy, allows for replacement of diode array detectors by single pixel detectors, and for the design of a new generation of programmable light sources, where you can control the relative power, exposure time and resolution independently for each wavelength in your spectrum. We present the special challenges presented by DMD's in relation to stray light and optical throughput, and we comment on the possibility for instrument manufacturers to generate new, dynamic measurement schemes and algorithms for increased speed, higher accuracy, and greater sample protection. We compare DMD based spectrometer designs with competing, diode array based designs, and provide suggestions for target applications of the technology.

  18. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  19. Programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Choe, Hwan Sung; Nam, SungWoo; Hu, Yongjie; Das, Shamik; Klemic, James F; Ellenbogen, James C; Lieber, Charles M

    2011-02-10

    A nanoprocessor constructed from intrinsically nanometre-scale building blocks is an essential component for controlling memory, nanosensors and other functions proposed for nanosystems assembled from the bottom up. Important steps towards this goal over the past fifteen years include the realization of simple logic gates with individually assembled semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes, but with only 16 devices or fewer and a single function for each circuit. Recently, logic circuits also have been demonstrated that use two or three elements of a one-dimensional memristor array, although such passive devices without gain are difficult to cascade. These circuits fall short of the requirements for a scalable, multifunctional nanoprocessor owing to challenges in materials, assembly and architecture on the nanoscale. Here we describe the design, fabrication and use of programmable and scalable logic tiles for nanoprocessors that surmount these hurdles. The tiles were built from programmable, non-volatile nanowire transistor arrays. Ge/Si core/shell nanowires coupled to designed dielectric shells yielded single-nanowire, non-volatile field-effect transistors (FETs) with uniform, programmable threshold voltages and the capability to drive cascaded elements. We developed an architecture to integrate the programmable nanowire FETs and define a logic tile consisting of two interconnected arrays with 496 functional configurable FET nodes in an area of ∼960 μm(2). The logic tile was programmed and operated first as a full adder with a maximal voltage gain of ten and input-output voltage matching. Then we showed that the same logic tile can be reprogrammed and used to demonstrate full-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer and clocked D-latch functions. These results represent a significant advance in the complexity and functionality of nanoelectronic circuits built from the bottom up with a tiled architecture that could be cascaded to realize fully integrated

  20. A programmable video image remapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Timothy E.; Juday, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) has created the specifications for a new kind of image processing machine, a video-rate coordinate remapper. Previous image-processing machines for machine vision typically have done point operations without changing the geometry of the image. The JSC Programmable Remapper offers complete flexibility in changing the coordinates of an input image at video rates. Presented here are the main capabilities and some of the applications of such a device.

  1. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  2. Programmable Cockpit - Flight Dynamic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Airlines of Australia, Library Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Civil Aviation Authority Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty Ltd...detai as well as its limitations . A brief overview of the Programmable Cockpit is also given. -i*Q j, DSTO4 MELBOURNE (C) COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA...components Vt Aircraft true velocity Vil,. Limited aircraft true velocity X., Ya IZ. Aerodynamic forces in stability axes X,, Y, ZP Propulsive forces

  3. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  4. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme.

    PubMed

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. During 2005-2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K- or k- donors aged 18-55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region, which were transfused to 2,365 patients with no

  5. Evaluation of commercial programmable floating gate devices as radiation dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, R.; Matheson, J.; Weber, M.; Giulio Villani, E.; Bose, R.; Khan, A.; Smith, D. R.; Adil-Smith, I.; Gabrielli, A.

    2009-02-01

    Programmable floating gate MOSFET transistors were tested with gamma radiation with doses up to approximately 100Gy (air equivalent), to evaluate their suitability as dosimeters in radiotherapy. After characterization and programming at different threshold voltages, the devices were irradiated and their Vgs shift with dose monitored in real time. Post-irradiation analysis was carried out to evaluate sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility and voltage threshold annealing. A subsequent re-programming phase followed by characterization was performed to asses their post-irradiation charge restoring capabilities. It was found that up to 73% of the initial maximum threshold voltage could be recovered. A sensitivity of up to 9 mV/Gy with an uncertainty of less than 1%, an excellent linearity up to the maximum programmable threshold voltage and low noise suggest the use of this technology for in vivo dosimetry applications.

  6. Pharmacovigilance Programme of India: Recent developments and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Thota, Prasad; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Promoting safe use of medicines is a priority of Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission that functions as the National Coordination Center (NCC) for Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI). One hundred and seventy-nine adverse drug reactions (ADRs) monitoring centers currently report ADRs to NCC. Current India contribution to global safety database reaches 3% and the completeness score is 0.93 out of 1. NCC is taking several measures to enhance patient safety including capacity building for monitoring, surveillance, collaboration with national health programs and other organizations to increase ADR reporting and to ensure that PvPI is a vital knowledge database for Indian regulators. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization has notified important safety label changes on drugs such as carbamazepine and piperacillin + tazobactam in the year 2015, other drugs are under monitoring for regulatory interventions. PMID:28066097

  7. Health promotion and sustainability programmes in Australia: barriers and enablers to evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    In an era characterised by the adverse impacts of climate change and environmental degradation, health promotion programmes are beginning to actively link human health with environmental sustainability imperatives. This paper draws on a study of health promotion and sustainability programmes in Australia, providing insights to evaluation approaches being used and barriers and enablers to these evaluations. The study was based on a multi-strategy research involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. Health promotion practitioners explained through surveys and semi-structured interviews that they focused on five overarching health and sustainability programme types (healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature, and capacity building). Various evaluation methods and indicators (health, social, environmental, economic and demographic) were identified as being valuable for monitoring and evaluating health and sustainability programmes. Findings identified several evaluation enablers such as successful community engagement, knowledge of health and sustainability issues and programme champions, whereas barriers included resource constraints and competing interests. This paper highlights the need for ecological models and evaluation tools to support the design and monitoring of health promotion and sustainability programmes.

  8. Effects of an education programme to change clinical laboratory testing habits in primary care.

    PubMed

    Larsson, A; Biom, S; Wernroth, M L; Hultén, G; Tryding, N

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of clinical laboratory tests in primary care and to evaluate if it is possible to improve the cost-effectiveness of laboratory testing by a short-term education programme. Our main goal has been to lower the total costs of care. An education programme that was monitored by laboratory test ratios. Primary health care. 63 primary care doctors at 19 primary care centres in the county of Uppsala, Sweden. The effects of the education programme were monitored by laboratory test ratios (e.g. ASAT/ALAT) of individual doctors before and after the education programme. The education programme resulted in significant changes for the majority of the ratios studied. The savings on direct laboratory costs were approximately SEK 400,000 for assays that were recommended to decrease. The increased cost for assays that were recommended to increase was approximately SEK 140,000 but was considered cost-effective. It is possible to achieve significant changes in clinical chemistry test ordering habits of primary care doctors with a 2 day education programme. It resulted in cost savings and a better use of clinical chemistry tests in primary care. The effects were sustained for at least 6 months.

  9. Nonvolatile, electrically erasable programmable ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dessouky, A.

    1984-01-01

    The processing technology for integration of MNOS-EEPROMs and NMOS Logic was investigated as p-well isolation. Memory characteristics of both Si gate and metal gate MNOS devices are investigated for nitride constitution which aims for lower programming voltages and good memory performance. The complete fabrication process for 128 byte SNOS-EEPROM chip is described by using high voltage depletion MOS devices in p-well technology. Another test vehicle uses 4 x 4 metal gate MNOS array to demonstrate possible fabrication of 12 V programmable scaled MNOS devices with 10 years retention after 10 to the 5th power endurance.

  10. Programmable multi-chip module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-03-02

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  11. Toxicological programmes and teaching methods.

    PubMed

    Bergendorff, A

    2000-03-15

    Toxicological knowledge is required for three main purposes: basic and applied research, toxicity testing, and risk assessment. Curricula and teaching methods designed to meet these demands for knowledge are aimed at appropriation of relevant facts, appreciation of causality and an overall understanding of biological events caused by chemical substances. The Toxicology Programme at Karolinska Institutet is considered as an example for the design of appropriate courses. Teaching methods developed towards more self-tuition are becoming a natural part of such education. Continued escalation in scientific achievements and demands for safe use of chemicals will govern future trends in toxicological education.

  12. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  13. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  14. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  15. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  16. Programme Reporting Standards (PRS) for improving the reporting of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health programmes.

    PubMed

    Kågesten, Anna E; Tunçalp, Özge; Portela, Anayda; Ali, Moazzam; Tran, Nhan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2017-08-03

    Information about design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understand the impact of programmes within the field of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH). Existing reporting guidelines do not orient on reporting of contextual and implementation issues in sufficient detail. We therefore developed Programme Reporting Standards (PRS) to be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. Building on the first step of the PRS development (a systematic review to identify reporting items), we conducted a three-round online Delphi consensus survey with experts. Consensus was defined a-priori as 80% agreement of items as essential. This was followed by a technical consultation with a group of experts to refine the items, definitions and their structuring. The revised PRS was piloted to assess its relevance to current SRMNCAH programme reports and identify key issues regarding the use of the PRS. Of the 81 participants invited to the Delphi survey, 20 responded to all three rounds. In the final round, 27 items received consensus as essential; three items were ranked as "borderline" essential; 20 items as supplementary. The items were subsequently revised, followed by a technical consultation with 29 experts to further review and refine the PRS. The feedback resulted in substantial changes to the structure and content of the PRS into 24 items across five domains: Programme overview; Programme components and implementation; Monitoring of Implementation; Evaluation and Results; and Synthesis. This version was used in a piloting exercise, where questions regarding how much information to report and how to comment on the quality of the information reported were addressed. All items were kept in the PRS following the pilot although minor changes were made to the flow and description of items. The PRS 1.0 is the result of a structured, collaborative process, including methods to incorporate input from SRMNCAH

  17. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2014, 4,804 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 5.4% of isolates, a lower proportion than that reported in the AGSP 2013 annual report (8.8%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (7.1% and 6.6% respectively). The proportion of strains resistant to penicillin in urban and rural Australia ranged from 11% in South Australia to 43% in New South Wales. In rural and remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remained low (1.5%). In remote Western Australia relatively low numbers of strains are available for testing, however there is now widespread molecular testing for penicillin resistance in Western Australia to monitor resistance and inform guidelines and, for first time, these data are included in the AGSP annual report. Quinolone resistance ranged from 27% in the urban and rural areas of the Northern Territory, to 44% in the Australian Capital Territory, and quinolone resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote areas of the Northern Territory (3.1%) and remote areas of Western Australia (5.6%). Azithromycin resistance ranged from 0.5% in South Australia to 5.3% in rural and urban Western Australia. High rates were also reported from the Australian Capital Territory but relatively low numbers were tested. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was again reported in 2014, in 2 strains from New South Wales. No resistance was reported from the Northern Territory, or remote Western Australia.

  18. ACS CCDs daily monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirianni, Marco

    2006-07-01

    This program consists of a set of basic tests to monitor, the read noise, thedevelopment of hot pixels and test for any source of noise in ACS CCDdetectors. The files, biases and dark will be used to create referencefiles for science calibration. This programme will be for the entire lifetime of ACS.For cycle 15 the program will cover 18 months 12.1.06->05.31.08and it has been divied into three different proposal each covering six months.The three poroposal are 11041-11042-11043.

  19. Evaluation of the first 5 years of a national eye health programme in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Williams, Carmel; Szetu, John L; Ramke, Jacqueline; Palagyi, Anna; du Toit, Renee; Brian, Garry

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate against its objectives the achievements of the first 5 years of a national eye health programme in Vanuatu. Programme clinical activity data were collated from surgical logs, clinic and outreach reports, and patient register books. Cataract surgical outcomes were retrieved from monitoring software. Programme annual reports provided information about management, infrastructure improvements, equipment supplied, repaired or replaced, the supply and use of consumables, and human resource development and deployment. Costs were determined from project budgets and acquittals. The programme promoted eye health, including through the integration of eye care into existing health services; established adequate facilities, at referral hospitals, provincial hospitals and rural health clinics, with equipment and manpower to provide eye care appropriate to the location; established a primary eye care programme; strengthened cataract services, although its effect on any cataract backlog is unknown; developed a diabetic eye disease diagnosis and treatment service, but its reach and effectiveness are unknown; provided accessible comprehensive eye care, but its effect on the prevalence of vision impairment is unknown; and established medical records and data collection systems, but these need more attention. This programme achieved much. However, the evaluation highlighted the limitations of inadequate project design and that, without addressing further human resource development and the Ministry of Health's wavering financial commitment, there are potential risks to ongoing services. That revenue generating capacity was not incorporated into this programme may prove to be a flaw that will limit ongoing access to eye care, especially in rural areas.

  20. Postcode Lotteries in Public Health - The NHS Health Checks Programme in North West London

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postcode lotteries in health refer to differences in health care between different geographic areas. These have been previously associated with clinical services. However there has been little documentation of postcode lotteries relating to preventative health care services. This paper describes a postcode lottery effect in relation to the NHS Health Checks Programme (a national cardiovascular screening programme in England) in eight PCTs in the North West sector of London. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional analysis of the Health Checks Programme was carried out in eight PCTs in North West London using a structured data-collecting instrument. Results The analysis found variation in the implementation of the national Health Checks Programme in terms of: the screening approach taken; the allocated budget (which varied from £69,000 to £1.4 million per 100,000 eligible population); payment rates made to providers of Health Checks; tools used to identify and measure risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes; monitoring and evaluation; and preventative services available following the health check. Conclusions This study identifies a postcode lottery effect related to a national public health programme. Although it is important to allow enough flexibility in the design of the Health Checks Programme so that it fits in with local factors, aspects of the programme may benefit from greater standardisation or stronger national guidance. PMID:21955810

  1. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme monitors antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in all states and territories. In 2010 the in vitro susceptibility of 3,997 isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources was determined by standardised methods. Varying antibiotic susceptibility patterns were again reported across jurisdictions and regions. Resistance to the penicillins nationally was 29% and, with the exception of the Northern Territory, ranged from 22% in Queensland to 42% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance, most at high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, was 35% nationally (excepting the Northern Territory), ranging from 28% in Queensland to 44% in Victoria. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.06 mg/L or more), was found nationally in 4.8% of isolates. There has not been an isolate of N. gonorrhoeae with an MIC value greater than 0.125 mg/L reported in Australia. Nationally, all isolates remained sensitive to spectinomycin. Azithromycin surveillance was performed in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, and resistance was found in low numbers of gonococci with MIC values up to 16 mg/L. In larger urban centres the ratio of male to female cases was high, and rectal and pharyngeal isolates were common in men. In other centres, and in rural Australia, the male to female ratio of cases was lower, and most isolates were from the genital tract.

  2. The NMC annual monitoring process and nurse education.

    PubMed

    Glasper, Alan

    Professor Alan Glasper Professor Emeritus at the University of Southampton, discusses the Nursing and Midwifery Council annual monitoring process and how this protects the integrity of educational programmes, many of which lead to an annotation on the professional register.

  3. Quality assurance of medical education in the Netherlands: programme or systems accreditation?

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, Harry F. P.

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation is an instrument that is used worldwide to monitor, maintain and improve the quality of medical education. International standards have been defined to be used in reviewing and evaluating the quality of education. The organization and the process of accreditation of medical education programmes in the Netherlands and in Flanders are described in some detail. Accreditation can be based on the results of a detailed assessment of an educational programme or on an evaluation of the educational system and the organization of the institution in question. The Flemish-Dutch accreditation organization (NAO) is moving from programme accreditation towards a combination of programme and systems accreditation. The pros and cons of these two approaches are discussed. PMID:21818192

  4. A graduate programme for academic family physicians.

    PubMed

    Brennan, M; McWhinney, I R; Stewart, M; Weston, W

    1985-09-01

    The paper describes a graduate studies programme designed to prepare outstanding family physicians for academic leadership and reports an evaluation of the programme. The programme aims to produce academic family physicians who exhibit certain qualities: outstanding clinical skills, professional interest in the organization and transmission of knowledge, and a scholarly approach through research and skills of leadership. The course includes clinical and teaching practice, formal course work and a scholarly thesis; the emphasis is on teaching and learning, theoretical foundations of family medicine, whole person medicine, research design and techniques, ethical decision making, and administration of organizations. A survey of the first 30 graduates of the programme indicated that the majority did more clinical teaching, small group teaching, research, writing and administration than before the course. The graduates' opinions of the programme indicated the extent to which the programme goals have been met; to provide a coherent learning experience integrating the art, science and technology of the discipline of family medicine.

  5. A programmable image compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrelle, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

  6. Rapid climate change: scientific challenges and the new NERC programme.

    PubMed

    Srokosz, M A

    2003-09-15

    In this paper the scientific challenges of observing, modelling, understanding and predicting rapid changes in climate are discussed, with a specific focus on the role of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The palaeo and present-day observational and modelling studies being carried out to meet these challenges, under the aegis of a new NERC Rapid Climate Change thematic programme (RAPID), are outlined. In particular, the paper describes the work being done to monitor changes in the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic. The paper concludes with some speculative comments about potential mechanisms for rapid changes.

  7. Pressure ramp programmer; IMBLMS Phase B4 Additional Tasks: Task 3.0 pressure ramp programmer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Reinhardt, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    A pressure ramp programmer model was designed, fabricated and tested. This model, in conjunction with an automatic blood pressure monitor, automatically controls the pressure in the blood pressure monitor arterial cuff. The cuff pressurization cycle is designed to maximize accuracy and repeatability of blood pressure measurements. The key feature of this automatic cycle is rapid blood pressure cuff bleed down from an initial setting until systolic (diastolic) pressure is encountered followed by a short repressurization and slow bleed, long enough to permit accurate systolic (diastolic) pressure determination. The system includes a pressure reservoir which bleeds the cuff through a precision needle valve; a solenoid valve which permits rapid pressurization from the reservoir; and a pressure sensor which provides information for bleed rate and set point controls. Korotkoff sound signals from a microphone in the blood pressure cuff (not part of the system) provide decision information to the digital control system. The system completed a series of engineering tests using simulated Korotkoff sound inputs. The system performed successfully in all cases and was stable over an extended period of time.

  8. Demonstrating programme impact on maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Graham, W J; Filippi, V A; Ronsmans, C

    1996-03-01

    Reducing maternal mortality if one of the primary goals of safe mother hood programmes in developing countries. Maternal mortality is not, however, a feasible outcome indicator with which to judge the success of these programmes. This is due to an unfortunate combination of obstacles to measurement--some general to assessing the mortality impact of health programmes and some peculiar to estimating maternal mortality. There is a need to promote alternative views and measures of programme success, and alternative uses for information on maternal deaths.

  9. Developing a forensic dental code and programme.

    PubMed

    Pierce, L; Lindsay, J; Lautenschlager, E P; Smith, E S; Harcourt, J K

    1982-02-01

    An attempt was made to develop a computer-assisted programme to aid in the positive identification of human remains. The first and second generations of a computer code and programme for entering ante-mortem and post-mortem records into a computer data bank are discussed. The initial code is presented along with the results following the computer evaluation of 50 record pairs. The self-evaluating aspects of the programme are discussed and the proposed second generation code is presented. The programme exhibits some promising characteristics but further refinement based on increased data banks is needed.

  10. A leadership programme for critical care.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Linda

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the genesis, design and implementation of a leadership programme for critical care. This was an initiative funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Nursing Leadership Project and had at the core of its design flexibility to meet the needs of the individual hospitals, which took part in it. Participation was from the multi-disciplinary critical care team. Six NHS hospitals took part in the programme which was of 20 days duration and took place on hospital sites. The programme used the leadership model of as its template and had a number of distinct components; a baseline assessment, personal development, principles of leadership and critical case reviews. The programme was underpinned by three themes; working effectively in multi-professional teams to provide patient focussed care, managing change through effective leadership and developing the virtual critical care service. Each group set objectives pertinent to their own organisation's needs. The programme was evaluated by a self-reporting questionnaire; group feedback and feedback from stakeholders. Programme evaluation was positive from all the hospitals but it was clear that the impact of the programme varied considerably between the groups who took part. It was noted that there was some correlation between the success of the programme and organisational 'buy in' as well as the organisational culture within which the participants operated. A key feature of the programme success was the critical case reviews, which were considered to be a powerful learning tool and medium for group learning and change management.

  11. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes.

  12. Research Active Programme: A Pilot Inclusive Research Curriculum in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Nancy; García Iriarte, Edurne; Burns, Emma Q.

    2017-01-01

    Participation of people with disabilities in producing and using research is critical for monitoring the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The Research Active Programme (RAP) is a module designed to build research capacity of students with intellectual disabilities. RAP was…

  13. International Arctic Buoy Programme Data Report, 1 January 1998 - 31 December 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    This report presents data collected by the International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ) between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 1998. The network of...automatic data buoys deployed by the IABP monitors synoptic-scale fields of pressure, temperature, and ice motion throughout the Arctic Basin.

  14. International Arctic Buoy Programme Data Report 1 January 1999 - 31 December 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    This report presents data collected by the International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ) between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. The network of...automatic data buoys deployed by the IABP monitors synoptic-scale fields of pressure, temperature, and ice motion throughout the Arctic Basin.

  15. International Arctic Buoy Programme Data Report, 1 January 2001 - 31 December 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    This report presents data collected by the International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ) between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2001. The network of...automatic data buoys deployed by the IABP monitors synoptic-scale fields of pressure temperature and ice notion throughout the Arctic Basin.

  16. "Inclusion in Practice": Programme Practices in Mainstream Preschool Classrooms and Associations with Context and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…

  17. Intervention Programmes in Mathematics and Literacy: Teaching Assistants' Perceptions of Their Training and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Croucher, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We approach the recent argument put in this journal that teaching assistants (TAs) should be more strongly trained, monitored and supervised when teaching on intervention programmes. We suggest that the argument sits uneasily with wider management and educational literature. We examine TAs' experience of delivering important intervention…

  18. Rational Emotive Behavior Based on Academic Procrastination Prevention: Training Programme of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Düsmez, Ihsan; Barut, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The research is an experimental study which has experimental and control groups, and based on pre-test, post-test, monitoring test model. Research group consists of second and third grade students of Primary School Education and Psychological Counseling undergraduate programmes in Giresun University Faculty of Educational Sciences. The research…

  19. Research Active Programme: A Pilot Inclusive Research Curriculum in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Nancy; García Iriarte, Edurne; Burns, Emma Q.

    2017-01-01

    Participation of people with disabilities in producing and using research is critical for monitoring the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The Research Active Programme (RAP) is a module designed to build research capacity of students with intellectual disabilities. RAP was…

  20. Intervention Programmes in Mathematics and Literacy: Teaching Assistants' Perceptions of Their Training and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Croucher, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We approach the recent argument put in this journal that teaching assistants (TAs) should be more strongly trained, monitored and supervised when teaching on intervention programmes. We suggest that the argument sits uneasily with wider management and educational literature. We examine TAs' experience of delivering important intervention…

  1. Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

  2. "Inclusion in Practice": Programme Practices in Mainstream Preschool Classrooms and Associations with Context and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…

  3. Preparedness for Tertiary Chemistry: Issues of Placement and Performance of Academic Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, M.; Davidowitz, B.; Mathabatha, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of an outcomes-based curriculum in South Africa together with a new syllabus for physical sciences for grades 10-12, prompted the development of an instrument to monitor conceptual understanding in chemistry at the secondary-tertiary interface. This instrument was used to evaluate placement within different programmes at tertiary…

  4. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

  5. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  6. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  7. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  8. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  9. Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Viali, Satupaitea; Saena, Puleiala; Futi, Vailogoua

    2011-02-11

    Rheumatic fever is very common in Samoa. The following paper describes the Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa and looks at the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The incidence of ARF has decreased to 30 per 100,000 in 2005, 12.8 per 100,000 in 2007, 7.3 per 100,000 in 2008, and 9.5 per 100,000 in 2009. The incidence of RHD has decreased to 40.2 per 100,000 in 2007, 34 per 100,000 in 2008, and 31.8 per 100,000 in 2009. Cardiac surgery in New Zealand is expensive, but is cheaper to perform in Samoa. RHD screening with echocardiogram at schools may be the best way to reduce the burden and suffering from RHD.

  10. Growth monitoring: the role of community health volunteers.

    PubMed

    Melville, B; Fidler, T; Mehan, D; Bernard, E; Mullings, J

    1995-03-01

    A community volunteer programme was initiated in rural Jamaica in May 1990. The main aim of the programme was to monitor the growth of children less than 36 months of age through community health volunteers (CHVs) and improve their nutritional status. At the end of the second year the programme was evaluated to determine its effectiveness. The results of the evaluation indicated that almost all (95.6%) of the children were covered by the CHVs. In addition the participation rate was high (78.5%). However, only 50% of the children were adequately covered. Nonetheless, 81% of them gained adequate weight. Indeed, malnutrition levels declined by 34.5%. The annual cost per child per year for the total programme was fairly moderate (US$14.5) with growth monitoring accounting for nearly half (42.7). The results suggest that CHVs can play an important role in primary health care programmes in developing countries.

  11. Monitoring materials

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for effectively implementing alpha and/or beta and/or gamma monitoring of items or locations as desired. Indirect alpha monitoring by detecting ions generated by alpha emissions, in conjunction with beta and/or gamma monitoring is provided. The invention additionally provides for screening of items prior to alpha monitoring using beta and/or gamma monitoring, so as to ensure that the alpha monitoring apparatus is not contaminated by proceeding direct to alpha monitoring of a heavily contaminated item or location. The invention provides additional versatility in the emission forms which can be monitored, whilst maintaining accuracy and avoiding inadvertent contamination.

  12. Monitoring 'monitoring' and evaluating 'evaluation': an ethical framework for monitoring and evaluation in public health.

    PubMed

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Indira Krishna, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of public health programmes. Since M&E is the backbone of public health programmes, ethical considerations are important in their conduct. Some of the key ethical considerations are avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining independence of judgement, maintaining fairness, transparency, full disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, respect, responsibility, accountability, empowerment and sustainability. There are several ethical frameworks in public health, but none focusing on the monitoring and evaluation process. There is a need to institutionalise the ethical review of M&E proposals. A theoretical framework for ethical considerations is proposed in this paper. This proposed theoretical framework can act as the blueprint for building the capacity of ethics committees to review M&E proposals. A case study is discussed in this context. After thorough field testing, this practical and field-based ethical framework can be widely used by donor agencies, M&E teams, institutional review boards and ethics committees.

  13. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Treesearch

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  14. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers...

  15. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  16. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  17. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programmes

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese

    2001-01-01

    The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...

  18. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  19. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  20. The new FDA combination products programme.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2002-10-01

    The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Combination Products Programme and developed a new internal procedure to increase its effectiveness in regulating products consisting of combinations of drugs, devices and biological products. This article provides a brief overview of the FDA regulation of combination products and discusses the new Programme.

  1. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  2. Gender Differences in Peace Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

    2009-01-01

    Peace education programmes have become part of the school curriculum all over the world, as a way to enhance positive relationships between conflict groups. However, although gender differences are being taken into account when planning various educational programmes, this is usually not the case with peace education. The present study aimed to…

  3. Multi-output programmable quantum processor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yafei; Zhan Mingsheng; Feng Jian

    2002-11-01

    By combining telecloning and the programmable quantum gate array presented by Nielsen and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 321 (1997)], we propose a programmable quantum processor which can be programmed to implement a restricted set of operations with several identical data outputs. The outputs are approximately transformed versions of input data. The processor successes with certain probability.

  4. Using Programmable Calculators to Evaluate Complicated Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    The application of the programmable calculator to evaluating complicated formulas is illustrated by considering the formula for finding the area of any triangle when only the lengths of the three sides are known. Other advantages of the programmable calculator are discussed such as freeing the student to explore more challenging problems and…

  5. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  6. Parenting Programmes: The Best Available Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Parenting programmes have been provided to a wide range of child and parent groups across a number of countries, but are they effective? This aim of this paper is to examine the findings from a number of systematic reviews that summarise the best available research evidence on the impact of these programmes on a range of parental and child…

  7. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  8. [Practical guidelines for peer support programmes for mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Campos, Filipa; Sousa, Ana; Rodrigues, Vânia; Marques, António; Queirós, Cristina; Dores, Artemisa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the guiding principles for the implementation of peer support programmes in Portugal. The study was divided in 2 phases. In the first phase a systematic review of 112 papers indexed in ISI and EBSCO databases (2001 to 2012) was conducted. In the second phase clinicians, researchers, and people with psychiatric disabilities were invited to take part in a two-round online survey based on the Delphi process to rate the importance of statements generated from the systematic review. Data were analysed with NVivo 9 and SPSS 19. During the Delphi round 72 experts were contacted, 44 participated in the second round. A consensus was achieved on major statements, with 84% of the sentences obtaining a consensus and 8 key recommendations covering goals of peer support, selection of peer supporters, training and accreditation, role of mental health professionals, role of peer supporters, access to peer supporters, looking after peer supporters, and programme evaluation were based on these statements. Use of peer support for mental health problems is still underexplored and surrounded by some controversy and ambiguity. However, its organization and proper monitoring appears to enhance the quality of life and social inclusion of people with mental illness. This highlights the importance of conducting studies that increase our knowledge of these programmes and determining guidelines for their implementation. This national consensus may be used as a starting point for the design and implementation of peer support programmes in mental health organizations. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing implementation of the Ministry of Health-led private medicine retailer programmes on malaria in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rowa, Yvonne; Abuya, Timothy O; Mutemi, Wilfred K; Ochola, Sam; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2010-02-24

    Kenya has experienced a number of retail sector initiatives aimed at improving access to antimalarial medicines. This study explored stakeholders' perceptions of the role of private medicine retailers (PMRs), the value and feasibility of programme goals, perceived programme impact, factors influencing implementation and recommendations in three districts of Kenya. This study was part of a larger evaluation of PMR programmes, including quantitative and qualitative components. The qualitative research was conducted to assess implementation processes and actors' experiences in the programmes, through focus group discussions with trained PMRs and mothers of children under five years, and in-depth interviews with programme managers, trainers and co-trainers. PMRs were perceived to provide rapid cheap treatment for non-serious conditions and used as a deliberate and continuously evaluated choice between different treatment sources. All stakeholders supported programme goals and most PMRs described increased customer satisfaction, more rational purchasing of medicine stock and increased medicine sales after participation. Factors undermining programme implementation included a lack of MoH resources to train and monitor large numbers of PMRs, the relative instability of outlets, medicines stocked and retail personnel, the large number of proprietary brands and financial challenges to retailers in stocking antimalarial medicines, and their customers in buying them. Unambiguous national support and a broad range of strategies are important to strengthen the feasibility of change in OTC antimalarial use. Understanding the context and implementation processes of PMR programmes and the perspectives of key actors are critical to identifying measures to support their effective implementation. Financial barriers underlie many described challenges, with important implications for policies on subsidies in this sector. In spite of barriers to implementation, increased exposure to

  10. Factors influencing implementation of the Ministry of Health-led private medicine retailer programmes on malaria in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kenya has experienced a number of retail sector initiatives aimed at improving access to antimalarial medicines. This study explored stakeholders' perceptions of the role of private medicine retailers (PMRs), the value and feasibility of programme goals, perceived programme impact, factors influencing implementation and recommendations in three districts of Kenya. Methods This study was part of a larger evaluation of PMR programmes, including quantitative and qualitative components. The qualitative research was conducted to assess implementation processes and actors' experiences in the programmes, through focus group discussions with trained PMRs and mothers of children under five years, and in-depth interviews with programme managers, trainers and co-trainers. Results PMRs were perceived to provide rapid cheap treatment for non-serious conditions and used as a deliberate and continuously evaluated choice between different treatment sources. All stakeholders supported programme goals and most PMRs described increased customer satisfaction, more rational purchasing of medicine stock and increased medicine sales after participation. Factors undermining programme implementation included a lack of MoH resources to train and monitor large numbers of PMRs, the relative instability of outlets, medicines stocked and retail personnel, the large number of proprietary brands and financial challenges to retailers in stocking antimalarial medicines, and their customers in buying them. Unambiguous national support and a broad range of strategies are important to strengthen the feasibility of change in OTC antimalarial use. Conclusions Understanding the context and implementation processes of PMR programmes and the perspectives of key actors are critical to identifying measures to support their effective implementation. Financial barriers underlie many described challenges, with important implications for policies on subsidies in this sector. In spite of barriers to

  11. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  12. Applied field epidemiology programme in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez Navarro, J F; Herrera, D; Sanchez Barco, C

    2001-03-01

    In 1994, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII; Carlos III Health Institute) of the Spanish Ministry of Health and the Consumer (MSC) created the Programa de Epidemiología Aplicada de Campo (PEAC; Applied Field Epidemiology Programme). The programme is managed by the Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (National Epidemiological Centre) in collaboration with the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad (National School of Health), and supported by General Direction for Health and Consumer of MSC and the Health Councils (Consejerías de Sanidad) of the autonomous regions. The PEAC runs a masters degree programme in applied field epidemiology, in which degrees are conferred by the National School of Health. As PEAC is a national programme, it forms a part of the European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) and is a member of the Network Training for Epidemiology Public Health Intervention (TEPHINET), the association of 27 regional and national programmes of the acting Intervention Epidemiology Training Programs.

  13. A modularized pulse programmer for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenping; Bao, Qingjia; Yang, Liang; Chen, Yiqun; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Jianqing; Ye, Chaohui

    2011-02-01

    A modularized pulse programmer for a NMR spectrometer is described. It consists of a networked PCI-104 single-board computer and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The PCI-104 is dedicated to translate the pulse sequence elements from the host computer into 48-bit binary words and download these words to the FPGA, while the FPGA functions as a sequencer to execute these binary words. High-resolution NMR spectra obtained on a home-built spectrometer with four pulse programmers working concurrently demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulse programmer. Advantages of the module include (1) once designed it can be duplicated and used to construct a scalable NMR/MRI system with multiple transmitter and receiver channels, (2) it is a totally programmable system in which all specific applications are determined by software, and (3) it provides enough reserve for possible new pulse sequences.

  14. Improving access to dental care for vulnerable children; further development of the Back2School programme in 2013.

    PubMed

    Simons, D; Pearson, N; Evans, P; Wallace, T; Eke, M; Wright, D

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a service evaluation of a dental treatment programme providing care to children not normally taken to the dentist. It explains the extension of the Back2School programme from the pilot phase and assesses if a mobile dental unit (MDU) can provide a high quality service. The public health competencies it illustrates include oral health improvement, developing and monitoring quality dental services, and collaborative working.

  15. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  16. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  17. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Finnish Action Programme, interim report.

    PubMed

    Pietinalho, A; Kinnula, V L; Sovijärvi, A R A; Vilkman, S; Säynäjäkangas, O; Liippo, K; Kontula, E; Laitinen, L A

    2007-07-01

    The Finnish National Prevention and Treatment Programme for Chronic Bronchitis and COPD, launched in 1998, has, to date, been running for 6 years (2003). The goals of this action programme were to reduce the incidence of COPD and the number of moderate and severe cases of the disease, and to reduce both the number of days of hospitalisation and treatment costs. A prevalent implementation of over 250 information and training events started. Health centres and pharmacies appointed a person in charge of COPD patients. In order to improve the cooperation between primary and specialised care, two thirds of hospital districts created local COPD treatment chains. The early diagnosis of COPD by spirometric examination was activated during the programme. Number of health centres with available spirometric services increased to 95%. Before the start of the programme, approximately 5-9% of the adult population had COPD. During the whole programme, the proportion of male and female smokers decreased from 30% to 26% and from 20% to 19%, respectively. The total number of hospitalisation periods and days due to COPD decreased by 15% and 18%, respectively. Both the number of pensioners and daily sickness days due to COPD also decreased by 18%. Registered COPD induced deaths remained at their previous levels during the monitoring period, i.e. around 1000 deaths out of 5.2 millions annually. The measures recommended by the programme have been widely introduced but they need to be still more effective.

  18. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-31

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.

  19. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Warakamin, Busaba; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    As part of a series of case studies on the interactions between programmes supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and health systems, we assessed the extent of integration of national HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria programmes with the general health system, the integration of the Global Fund-portfolios within the national disease programmes, and system-wide effects on the health system in Thailand. The study relied on a literature review and 34 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Thailand, the HIV, TB and malaria programmes' structures and functions are well established in the general health care system, with the Department for Disease Control and the Ministry of Public Health's network of health providers at sub-national levels as the main responsible organizations for stewardship and governance, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation, planning, and to some extent, demand generation. Civil society groups are active in certain areas, particularly in demand generation for HIV/AIDS. Overall, the Global Fund-supported programmes were almost fully integrated and coordinated with the general health system. The extent of integration varied across disease portfolios because of different number of actors and the nature of programme activities. There were also specific requirements by Global Fund that limit integration for some health system functions namely financing and monitoring and evaluation. From the view of stakeholders in Thailand, the Global Fund has contributed significantly to the three diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS. Financial support from the early Global Fund rounds was particularly helpful to the disease programmes during the time of major structural change in the MoPH. It also promoted collaborative networks of stakeholders, especially civil societies. However, the impacts on the overall health system, which is relatively well developed, are seen as

  20. An intergenerational reminiscence programme for older adults with early dementia and youth volunteers: values and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jenny C C

    2009-06-01

    To examine the values of a reminiscence programme, adopting an intergenerational approach, on older persons with early dementia and youth volunteers. A pre- and post- one group design was adopted. Forty-nine elderly participants with early dementia and 117 youth volunteers participated in the study. Each elderly participant was assigned to two youth participants. This dyad group participated in a 12-session reminiscence programme. The youth participants acted as facilitators to prompt the elderly participants to share and discuss past events and experiences, and to support them to fabricate a personalized life-story book. An occupational therapist provided ongoing support and monitoring. The elderly participants were evaluated by the Chinese version of Mini-mental State Examination, Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD), and Chinese version of Geriatric Depression Scale (CGDS) before and after the programme. Dementia Quiz (DQ), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a 20-item feedback questionnaire on the programme were used to evaluate the youth participants. Significant pre- and postprogramme differences were found for QoL-AD (mean change = -1.91; 95% CI = -3.18, -0.64) and CGDS (mean change = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.92, 2.80) among the elderly participants, and for DQ (mean change = -1.14; 95% CI = -2.11, -0.17) among the youth participants. Volunteers also showed positive appreciation of older persons and opined that this community service provided them an opportunity to reflect on their relationship with elderly relatives. Some volunteers, however, commented the heavy workload of the reminiscence programme. The intergenerational reminiscence programme suggests mutually beneficial values for both groups of participants. Whilst it is feasible to involve trained volunteers in the implementation of dementia-related programmes, it is essential that they are adequately trained and that ongoing support and monitoring are provided.

  1. An induction programme for health visitors.

    PubMed

    Honey, Stephanie; Walton, Claire

    2008-02-01

    Bradford South and West PCT developed a comprehensive induction programme for newly-qualified health visitors in order to enhance the support offered to these practitioners. This study examined the experiences of a group of health visitors who have undergone this programme and compared it with the experiences of health visitors who did not receive a structured induction. The data were collected by means of two focus groups and were analysed using framework analysis. The findings indicated that the induction programme was very valuable to newly-qualified health visitors, as well as those new to the PCT. Health visitors who had taken part in the programme felt privileged to have had this opportunity. The programme helped them adjust to their new roles and made the transference to personal accountability easier. The provision of peer support and preceptorship enhanced learning and effective decision-making, and encouraged reflection. The health visitors who had not received a structured induction felt they had been at a distinct disadvantage and welcomed the new programme. There was a consensus of opinion that the induction programme would have a positive impact on the recruitment and retention of health visitors and should continue to be developed.

  2. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-09-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  3. Programmes for parents with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Reupert, A; Maybery, D

    2011-04-01

    Parents with a mental illness experience the same parenting stressors that other parents do, and at the same time need to manage their mental illness. However, few programmes are designed for parents who have a mental illness, with older children (as opposed to interventions for mothers with infants). This study identified the common components across six programmes developed for parents with a mental illness who have older children. Australian clinicians, responsible for six parenting programmes for those with a mental illness, participated in individual, semi-structured interviews, during 2008. Programme manuals and evaluation reports were also sourced. Analyses involved thematic analysis, inter-rater reliability and respondent validation. Data were organized in three main areas: (1) programme description (format, goals, length and participants' inclusion criteria); (2) theoretical framework (including clinicians' beliefs and evidence underpinning programmes); and (3) evaluation designs and methodologies. It was found that clinicians facilitated education and support via a peer intervention model for parents with various mental illness diagnoses, responsive to the needs of parents and in a time flexible manner. At the same time, clinicians found it difficult to articulate the theoretical framework of their programmes and employed mostly simplistic evaluation strategies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. Mission reliability model programmers guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Joseph M.; Simonson, Jonathan H.; Veatch, Michael H.

    1986-12-01

    The Mission Reliability Model (MIREM) has been developed to evaluate the reliability and sustained operating capability of advanced electronic circuits during the early stages of development. MIREM is applicable to integrated systems that achieve fault tolerance through dynamic fault detection, fault isolation, and reconfiguration. The model can also be valuable in evaluating designs that employ only dedicated or hard-wired redundancy. The most unique feature of MIREM is its ability to accurately reflect the impact of reconfigurable, competing functions on system reliability. The user defines the resources necessary to support a required function, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), and the model will compute the probability of losing that functional capability over a certain operating time. A critical failure occurs when there is not a sufficient number of working resources to support a specified function. As an analytic model, MIREM determines a value for Mean Time Between Critical Failure, Mission Completion Success Probability, and Failure Resiliency. The MIREM Programmers Guide addresses the model's program structure, function of routines, interdependence of subprograms and common blocks, and file usage. The information needed to port the model to other computer systems is also provided.

  5. How to best measure the effectiveness of male human papillomavirus vaccine programmes?

    PubMed

    Garland, S M; Molesworth, E G; Machalek, D A; Cornall, A M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-09-01

    In many countries now, vaccination of young adolescent girls with prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines has been rolled out as a public health programme. In countries where coverage has been high, this has led to dramatic reductions in cervical high-grade precancerous lesions, as well as genital warts. A reduction in circulating vaccine-related HPV types has also been demonstrated. With the introduction of gender-neutral approaches incorporating universal vaccination of pre-adolescent boys in some countries, implementation of post-vaccine monitoring will be critical to evaluate the incremental impact of male vaccination. In contrast to cervical screening programmes, population-wide screening for HPV infection or related disease in males is not recommended; hence real-time monitoring of HPV vaccine effectiveness in males will require dedicated surveillance strategies. Monitoring the prevalence of circulating genital HPV types using a sentinel surveillance model could offer a good surrogate marker of early vaccine effectiveness in males. However, such an approach requires careful consideration of the most appropriate anatomical sites from which to collect specimens, the best sampling methods and the most sensitive assays to use. Additionally, in assessing an accurate measure of the impact of HPV vaccination in the male population, the effect of herd protection will need to be assessed, as most male programmes will commence in the setting of established female programmes. This poses an interesting epidemiological challenge.

  6. Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies

    PubMed Central

    Ezzati, M.; Utzinger, J.; Cairncross, S.; Cohen, A.; Singer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Monitoring and empirical evaluation are essential components of evidence based public health policies and programmes. Consequently, there is a growing interest in monitoring of, and indicators for, major environmental health risks, particularly in the developing world. Current large scale data collection efforts are generally disconnected from micro-scale studies in health sciences, which in turn have insufficiently investigated the behavioural and socioeconomic factors that influence exposure. Study design: A basic framework is proposed for development of indicators of exposure to environmental health risks that would facilitate the (a) assessment of the health effects of risk factors, (b) design and evaluation of interventions and programmes to deliver the interventions, and (c) appraisal and quantification of inequalities in health effects of risk factors, and benefits of intervention programmes and policies. Specific emphasis is put on the features of environmental risks that should guide the choice of indicators, in particular the interactions of technology, the environment, and human behaviour in determining exposure. The indicators are divided into four categories: (a) access and infrastructure, (b) technology, (c) agents and vectors, and (d) behaviour. The study used water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from solid fuels, urban ambient air pollution, and malaria as illustrative examples for this framework. Conclusions: Organised and systematic indicator selection and monitoring can provide an evidence base for design and implementation of more effective and equitable technological interventions, delivery programmes, and policies for environmental health risks in resource poor settings. PMID:15598721

  7. Supporting completion of an online continuing professional development programme for newly qualified practitioners: A qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Erol, Rosie; Upton, Penney; Upton, Dominic

    2016-07-01

    Development programmes to support newly qualified practitioners gain confidence in their first professional role often show varied levels of engagement, due to competing priorities and demands. In Scotland, the Flying Start NHS® programme uses a structured programme of online and work-based learning with associated mentoring, to support individuals through an often difficult transition to become capable, confident practitioners. Whilst the programme was generally well received, the factors leading to widely varying completion rates between professions and organisations were not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify the factors leading to successful completion of Flying Start, a transition programme for newly qualified practitioners. A qualitative approach was adopted to gather data from two groups of participants. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with strategic and management level participants (n=23), from five health boards in Scotland. Semi-structured interviews (n=22) and focus groups (n=11) were conducted with practitioners within 6months either side of completing the programme. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Three key themes relating to successful completion emerged from the analysis: Management and Delivery; Content and Material; Participation and Completion. Factors leading to successful completion were identified at programme, organisational and individual levels. These included clear communication and signposting, up-to-date and relevant content, links with continuing professional development frameworks, effective leadership, mentor and peer support, setting clear standards for assessment, and facilitating appropriate IT access. A strong strategic commitment to embedding a development programme for newly qualified practitioners can ensure that the necessary support is available to encourage timely completion. The mentor's role - to provide face-to-face support - is identified as

  8. Promoting health behaviour in Portuguese children via Short Message Service: The efficacy of a text-messaging programme.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Ali, Kathina; Gonçalves, Sónia; Conceição, Eva; Vaz, Ana; Crosby, Ross D; Machado, Paulo P P

    2015-06-01

    A Short Message Service programme was adapted to monitor three health behaviours and provide supportive feedback. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme to increase fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity and to decrease screen time. A total of 139 Portuguese children, aged 8-10 years, grouped by classroom, were randomly assigned to an intervention (8 weeks of monitoring/feedback) or a control condition. Participants had their key behaviours assessed at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up. A three-level hierarchical linear model was developed. Results showed that the monitoring and feedback programme significantly increased fruit and vegetable consumption over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Safety programmes in the Egyptian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Amr A G; Hanna, Ragaa S

    2007-12-01

    This study is aimed at exploring the nature of the safety programmes applied by large-size contractors operating in Egypt. Results revealed that safety programmes applied by those contractors were less formal than the programmes applied by their American counterparts. Only three contractors out of the surveyed sample had accident records broken down by projects, provided workers with formal safety orientation, and trained safety personnel on first-aid. The study recommended that reforms to the scheme of the employers' contribution to social insurance are necessary. This is meant to serve as a strong incentive for safety management.

  10. Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berens, Kalynnda

    2002-01-01

    Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.

  11. Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berens, Kalynnda

    2002-01-01

    Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.

  12. Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, David; Farr, William

    2006-01-01

    A programmable pulse-position-modulation (PPM) encoder has been designed for use in testing an optical communication link. The encoder includes a programmable state machine and an electronic code book that can be updated to accommodate different PPM coding schemes. The encoder includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that is programmed to step through the stored state machine and code book and that drives a custom high-speed serializer circuit board that is capable of generating subnanosecond pulses. The stored state machine and code book can be updated by means of a simple text interface through the serial port of a personal computer.

  13. Lessons from a microfinance recapitalisation programme.

    PubMed

    Poston, Angus

    2010-04-01

    Following a major disaster, microfinance institutions (MFIs) often face high levels of bad debt, which may require the institutions to be recapitalised. This paper describes a recapitalisation programme implemented by the SANASA movement of Sri Lanka in 390 microfinance societies following the December 2004 tsunami, and highlights lessons for other similar programmes. MFI recapitalisation is a good use of funds in post-disaster situations. To create successful programmes, donors should expect to relax some of their usual project requirements and MFIs should focus on maintaining credit discipline.

  14. Effectiveness of a telemedicine programme for patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    López-Torres, Jesús; Rabanales, Joseba; Simarro, María José

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Western societies, and it is therefore an example of chronic disease whose follow-up could be enhanced by telemedicine. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a telemedicine programme for the follow-up and control of patients with metabolic syndrome in a primary-care setting. Semi-experimental study in which 82 patients with metabolic syndrome were included in a telemedicine programme and compared to 82 patients routinely followed up at health-care facilities. The programme consisted of the teletransmission of analytical parameters via the PITES technological platform for chronic and dependent patients. Other study variables were lifestyle, treatment compliance, perceived health status and satisfaction with the programme. Follow-up showed that 68 patients (82.9%) continued in the programme after 6 months and 45 (54.9%) after one year, with a mean stay of 39.7 weeks. Comparison of the parameters obtained for the telemedicine and control-group patients indicated that the former registered significantly lower mean values for systolic blood pressure (125.5 ± 10.6 SD vs. 136.7 ± 12.0 SD), diastolic blood pressure (81.0 ± 6.3 SD vs. 84.0 ± 6.8 SD), total cholesterol (177.4 ± 34.5 SD vs. 202.4 ± 31.7 SD) and cLDL (106.0 ± 28.1 SD vs. 121.3 ± 30.6 SD). By the end of follow-up, the health status scores of the patients monitored by telemedicine had risen significantly (69.2 vs. 64.2; p=0.04), and 86.6% stated that they were satisfied. Telemedicine allows for better control of some of the defining parameters of metabolic syndrome than is achieved by routine clinical practice. Teletransmission is viable and satisfactory, and constitutes a novel contribution to the clinical management of these patients.

  15. The evolvability of programmable hardware

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Wagner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In biological systems, individual phenotypes are typically adopted by multiple genotypes. Examples include protein structure phenotypes, where each structure can be adopted by a myriad individual amino acid sequence genotypes. These genotypes form vast connected ‘neutral networks’ in genotype space. The size of such neutral networks endows biological systems not only with robustness to genetic change, but also with the ability to evolve a vast number of novel phenotypes that occur near any one neutral network. Whether technological systems can be designed to have similar properties is poorly understood. Here we ask this question for a class of programmable electronic circuits that compute digital logic functions. The functional flexibility of such circuits is important in many applications, including applications of evolutionary principles to circuit design. The functions they compute are at the heart of all digital computation. We explore a vast space of 1045 logic circuits (‘genotypes’) and 1019 logic functions (‘phenotypes’). We demonstrate that circuits that compute the same logic function are connected in large neutral networks that span circuit space. Their robustness or fault-tolerance varies very widely. The vicinity of each neutral network contains circuits with a broad range of novel functions. Two circuits computing different functions can usually be converted into one another via few changes in their architecture. These observations show that properties important for the evolvability of biological systems exist in a commercially important class of electronic circuitry. They also point to generic ways to generate fault-tolerant, adaptable and evolvable electronic circuitry. PMID:20534598

  16. CERN launches high-school internship programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2017-07-01

    The CERN particle-physics lab has hosted 22 high-school students from Hungary in a pilot programme designed to show teenagers how science, technology, engineering and mathematics is used at the particle-physics lab.

  17. The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: a review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adéle

    2014-01-01

    UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics. In 2011, after four years of debate, UNESCO decided not to draft a convention on human reproductive cloning, because consensus on the issue proved impossible. This article reviews the standard setting and capacity building activities of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme. While the Programme faces challenges common to most intergovernmental organizations, its achievements in expanding international law and building bioethics capacity should not be underestimated.

  18. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  19. Review of field-programmable analog arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulak, Glen; D'Mello, Dean R.

    1996-10-01

    The drive towards shorter design cycles for analog integrated circuits has given impetus to several developments in the area of field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs). Various approaches have been taken in implementing topological and parametric programmability of analog circuits. Recent extensions of this work have married FPAAs to their digital counterparts (FPGAs) along with data conversion interfaces, to form field-programmable mixed signal arrays (FPMAs). This survey paper reviews work to data in the area of programmable analog and mixed signal circuits. The body of work reviewed includes university and industrial research, commercial products and patents. A time-line of important achievements in the area is drawn and the status of various activities is summarized.

  20. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  1. Evaluation of a nurse leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    West, Margaret; Smithgall, Lisa; Rosler, Greta; Winn, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The challenge for nursing leaders responsible for workforce planning is to predict the knowledge, skills and abilities required to lead future healthcare delivery systems effectively. Succession planning requires a constant, competitive pool of qualified nursing leader candidates, and retention of those interested in career growth. Formal nursing leadership education in the United States is available through graduate education and professional nursing organisation programmes, such as the Emerging Nurse Leader Institute of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. However, there is also a need for local development programmes tailored to the needs of individual organisations. Leaders at Geisinger Health System, one of the largest rural health systems in the US, identified the need for an internal professional development scheme for nurses. In 2013 the Nurses Emerging as Leaders programme was developed to prepare nurse leaders for effective leadership and successful role transition. This article describes the programme and an evaluation of its effectiveness.

  2. The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Adèle

    2017-01-01

    UNESCO’s Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics. In 2011, after four years of debate, UNESCO decided not to draft a convention on human reproductive cloning, because consensus on the issue proved impossible. This article reviews the standard setting and capacity building activities of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme. While the Programme faces challenges common to most intergovernmental organizations, its achievements in expanding international law and building bioethics capacity should not be underestimated. PMID:24979873

  3. Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslam, R; Abdollahi, Z; Haghighi, F N

    2004-11-01

    Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health--and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals.

  4. Designing a catheter skills training programme.

    PubMed

    Logan, Karen

    Karen Logan describes how a team of continence advisers designed and implemented a training programme that allows local nurses to meet the national occupational standards and competencies in catheterisation and catheter care.

  5. Establishing a national universal vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Duma, R

    1995-01-01

    The collaborative efforts of healthcare providers, governmental policy and law makers and the public are often needed to provide the pressure necessary to establish a national universal vaccination programme. Key initiatives for those beginning to establish such a programme are the following: secure a scientific consensus or base of support; clarify relevance of the subject to all concerned; increase awareness of everyone (providers and consumers); recruit and involve influential people (angels) for support; seek out agendas within which to review the topic; generate cost-benefit data; encourage a consensus to be reached; identify legislative pathways to be used; convince politicians of the value of such a programme; request budgeting and funding; and, finally, follow up with surveillance studies to demonstrate the benefits of the programme.

  6. The Case for Programmable Calculators in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    Programmable calculators are useful tools in the classroom that are often overlooked. This report gives examples of problems and activities that can be brought within the scope of such calculators. (MP)

  7. ESO Fellowship Programme 2006/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO awards several postdoctoral fellow-ships each year. The goal of these fel-lowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  8. Critical review of programmable media processor architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Stefan G.; Sun, Weiyun; Kim, Donglok; Kim, Yongmin

    1998-12-01

    In the past several years, there has been a surge of new programmable mediaprocessors introduced to provide an alternative solution to ASICs and dedicated hardware circuitries in the multimedia PC and embedded consumer electronics markets. These processors attempt to combine the programmability of multimedia-enhanced general purpose processors with the performance and low cost of dedicated hardware. We have reviewed five current multimedia architectures and evaluated their strengths and weaknesses.

  9. Firmware Modification Analysis in Programmable Logic Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    MODIFICATION ANALYSIS IN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Arturo M. Garcia Jr., B.S.S.E.C.A. Captain, USA Approved: //signed// Robert F. Mills , PhD...Matthew 5:37 v Acknowledgments My sincere gratitude to my committee for their guidance and teamwork which made this thesis possible. Dr. Mills ...2012. 2012. [5] Bolton, William. Programmable logic controllers. Newnes, 2009. [6] Boyer, Stuart . SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition 4th

  10. Paramedir: A Tool for Programmable Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Performance analysis of parallel scientific applications is time consuming and requires great expertise in areas such as programming paradigms, system software, and computer hardware architectures. In this paper we describe a tool that facilitates the programmability of performance metric calculations thereby allowing the automation of the analysis and reducing the application development time. We demonstrate how the system can be used to capture knowledge and intuition acquired by advanced parallel programmers in order to be transferred to novice users.

  11. An innovative programme for premedical students.

    PubMed

    Banuelos, Andrea; Afghani, Behnoosh

    2016-10-01

    The worldwide shortage of doctors and the low representation of minorities in medicine outline the need for enrichment programmes that expose a diverse population of youth to health careers. This report describes the innovative Summer Premed Program run at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, from the perspective of our diverse group of participating high school students. Our unique and highly interactive programme focused on providing youths with a glimpse of life in medical school. Students participated in interactive workshops such as a cadaver lab, robotics, patient interviews and bedside ultrasound. To determine the success of the programme, a feedback survey was distributed to all students at the end of the programme. During the summers of 2012, 2013 and 2014, 418 high-school students participated in the programme and 19.4 per cent were under-represented in medicine. Of the 418 students, 371 (89%) completed evaluations. The average rating of all the workshops ranged from 3.26 to 4.68 (out of maximum of 5) with cadaver lab, suturing workshops and patient interviews each having the highest rating of approximately 4.7. Additionally, resulting from this programme, students gave an average rating of 4.42 for comfort in interviewing patients, and 4.55 for professional development. The results reveal that the Summer Premed Program at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, was successful towards exposing a diverse range of youths to medical school while motivating them to pursue careers in medicine. The follow-up of participants' career choices is needed to assess the long-term effectiveness of the programme. [There is a] need for enrichment programmes that expose a diverse population of youth to health careers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Master/Programmable-Slave Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaistrla, David; Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Unique modular computer features compactness, low power, mass storage of data, multiprocessing, and choice of various input/output modes. Master processor communicates with user via usual keyboard and video display terminal. Coordinates operations of as many as 24 slave processors, each dedicated to different experiment. Each slave circuit card includes slave microprocessor and assortment of input/output circuits for communication with external equipment, with master processor, and with other slave processors. Adaptable to industrial process control with selectable degrees of automatic control, automatic and/or manual monitoring, and manual intervention.

  13. Complexity and whole-system change programmes.

    PubMed

    Dattée, Brice; Barlow, James

    2010-04-01

    There has been growing interest in applying complexity theory to health care systems, both in policy and academic research discourses. However, its application often lacks rigour - authors discuss the properties of complex systems, state that they apply to health care and draw conclusions anchored around the idea of 'whole system change'. This paper explores the use of whole systems change in a programme to improve the delivery of unscheduled health care in Scotland. Qualitative case-studies of five health boards in Scotland reflecting different demographics, initial performance data and progress towards meeting programme targets. The programme's collaborative approach was successful in moving to a culture of mutual understanding and greater awareness of the interdependencies between different functions within the hospitals. There was whole system working at the acute hospital level, leading to improved patient flows. But despite recognizing the need for whole system change overall, it proved hard to address relationships with stakeholders influencing wider out-of-hospital patient flows. This was exacerbated by the structure of the programme, which was designed much more around acute patient flows. The programme worked well to improve performance by focusing on interdependencies within a large part of the acute care subsystem but did not have the same impact at the overall health care system level. This has important implications for the design of policy and associated programmes which seek to effect whole system reform, or at least are realistic about the magnitude of change they can achieve.

  14. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  15. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Susan C; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A

    2008-06-01

    The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme, including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. RESULTS / OUTCOMES: NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favourable response to the programme.

  16. Human error and crew resource management failures in Naval aviation mishaps: a review of U.S. Naval Safety Center data, 1990-96.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, D A; Shappell, S A

    1999-12-01

    The present study examined the role of human error and crew-resource management (CRM) failures in U.S. Naval aviation mishaps. All tactical jet (TACAIR) and rotary wing Class A flight mishaps between fiscal years 1990-1996 were reviewed. Results indicated that over 75% of both TACAIR and rotary wing mishaps were attributable, at least in part, to some form of human error of which 70% were associated with aircrew human factors. Of these aircrew-related mishaps, approximately 56% involved at least one CRM failure. These percentages are very similar to those observed prior to the implementation of aircrew coordination training (ACT) in the fleet, suggesting that the initial benefits of the program have not persisted and that CRM failures continue to plague Naval aviation. Closer examination of these CRM-related mishaps suggest that the type of flight operations (preflight, routine, emergency) do play a role in the etiology of CRM failures. A larger percentage of CRM failures occurred during non-routine or extremis flight situations when TACAIR mishaps were considered. In contrast, a larger percentage of rotary wing CRM mishaps involved failures that occurred during routine flight operations. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of CRM failures within Naval aviation and support the need for ACT programs tailored to the unique problems faced by specific communities in the fleet.

  17. Ground-water and surface-water elevations in the Fairbanks International Airport area, Alaska, 1990-96, and selected geohydrologic report references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claar, David V.; Lilly, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water and surface-water elevation data were collected at 61 sites from 1990 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Fairbanks International Airport. Water-surface elevations were measured in 41 ground-water observation wells and at 20 surface-water sites to help characterize the geohydrology of the Fairbanks International Airport area. From 1990 to 1993, data were collected in the vicinity of the former fire-training area at the airport. From 1993 to 1996, the data-collection area was expanded to include the entire airport area. The total number of data-collection sites varied each year because of changing project objectives and increased understanding of the geohydrology in the area.

  18. Evaluating the implementation of a national clinical programme for diabetes to standardise and improve services: a realist evaluation protocol.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S; Tracey, M L; Riordan, F; O'Neill, K; Mays, N; Kearney, P M

    2016-07-28

    Over the last three decades in response to the growing burden of diabetes, countries worldwide have developed national and regional multifaceted programmes to improve the monitoring and management of diabetes and to enhance the coordination of care within and across settings. In Ireland in 2010, against a backdrop of limited dedicated strategic planning and engrained variation in the type and level of diabetes care, a national programme was established to standardise and improve care for people with diabetes in Ireland, known as the National Diabetes Programme (NDP). The NDP comprises a range of organisational and service delivery changes to support evidence-based practices and policies. This realist evaluation protocol sets out the approach that will be used to identify and explain which aspects of the programme are working, for whom and in what circumstances to produce the outcomes intended. This mixed method realist evaluation will develop theories about the relationship between the context, mechanisms and outcomes of the diabetes programme. In stage 1, to identify the official programme theories, documentary analysis and qualitative interviews were conducted with national stakeholders involved in the design, development and management of the programme. In stage 2, as part of a multiple case study design with one case per administrative region in the health system, qualitative interviews are being conducted with frontline staff and service users to explore their responses to, and reasoning about, the programme's resources (mechanisms). Finally, administrative data will be used to examine intermediate implementation outcomes such as service uptake, acceptability, and fidelity to models of care. This evaluation is using the principles of realist evaluation to examine the implementation of a national programme to standardise and improve services for people with diabetes in Ireland. The concurrence of implementation and evaluation has enabled us to produce formative

  19. The Evaluation of Foreign-Language-Teacher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new procedure for the evaluation of EFL teacher-training programmes based on principles of programme evaluation and foreign-language-teacher (FLT) education. The procedure focuses on programme strengths and weaknesses and how far the programme meets the needs of students. I tested the procedure through an evaluation of a…

  20. Future delivery of the Drug Interventions Programme: do the benefits justify the costs?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Drug Interventions Programme is an initiative employed by the Home Office in 2003 to integrate the Criminal Justice System with drug treatment services with the ultimate goal of reducing acquisitive crime. Drug Action Teams employ this scheme on a local level by providing a broad range of services for misusers in the community. Although much attention has been placed on societal gains, there is an added benefit in improving the health outcomes of those referred. Opioid replacement therapy decreases illicit heroin use, reduces mortality and maintains contact with misusers allowing for psychosocial intervention. The Drug Interventions Programme provides direct access to such treatment in an otherwise high-risk and disengaged population. Anecdotal evidence of the programme is positive; with improved mental and physical health in offenders and a reduction in hospital admissions. However, monitoring health outcomes in offenders is challenging as long-term follow-up is difficult, poor compliance is an issue and coercive referrals may introduce a reporting bias. Drug Action Team services are cost-effective due a lower consumption of health and social care and reduced offending levels. The Drug Interventions Programme has been successful in maintaining offenders in treatment and the Home Office claim its role in reducing crime is cost-saving. Future delivery of the initiative is at risk due to spending reductions, competing interests and a focus towards payment by results. Opposition to future implementation of the Drug Interventions Programme must be met with evidence for its effectiveness in order to ensure its continued investment.

  1. What is needed for taking emergency obstetric and neonatal programmes to scale?

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Allanson, Emma; Pattinson, Robert C

    2015-11-01

    Scaling up an emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) programme entails reaching a larger number of people in a potentially broader geographical area. Multiple strategies requiring simultaneous attention should be deployed. This paper provides a framework for understanding the implementation, scale-up and sustainability of such programmes. We reviewed the existing literature and drew on our experience in scaling up the Essential Steps in the Management of Obstetric Emergencies (ESMOE) programme in South Africa. We explore the non-linear change process and conditions to be met for taking an existing EmONC programme to scale. Important concepts cutting across all components of a programme are equity, quality and leadership. Conditions to be met include appropriate awareness across the board and a policy environment that leads to the following: commitment, health systems-strengthening actions, allocation of resources (human, financial and capital/material), dissemination and training, supportive supervision and monitoring and evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lessons learned from a sperm morphology quality control programme.

    PubMed

    Franken, D R; Kruger, T F

    2006-12-01

    Although sperm morphology is the sperm parameter that is consistently correlated with in vitro and in vivo fertilisation, its value is often challenged due to discrepancies in reports. As sperm morphology is subjectively evaluated, the outcome of the report is entirely based on the experience and technical skill of the laboratory technician responsible for semen analyses. The study aimed to record the value of quarterly monitoring and refresher courses on morphology reading skills of technicians over a period of 40 months. Nineteen individuals from 12 different andrology laboratories were enrolled to a sperm morphology quality control programme after initial training sessions. Five of the 19 participants attended annual refresher courses. Two limits of error, namely +/- 0.5 SD and +/- 0.2 SD scores, were used to record technician deviation from the reference laboratory. Fifteen of the 19 individuals (78%) consistently reported sperm morphology readings that were within the +/- 0.5 SD limits of error. Furthermore, five of the participants, who attended annual refresher training courses, consistently reported results that were within the +/- 0.2 SD limits of error. For the first time, it has been illustrated that excellent sperm morphology reading skills can be achieved and maintained by initial training sessions, followed up with a continuous external quality control programme and annual refresher courses.

  3. Methods to sustain drug efficacy in helminth control programmes.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M

    2003-05-01

    Assessment of the efficacy of anthelminthic treatment in public health is a broad concept, which goes beyond parasitological methods and should be clearly defined according to several indicators of morbidity. Several factors may influence the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs. The quality of drug is an issue of great importance, especially when produced locally as a generic product and used in large-scale chemotherapy-based control programmes. Other factors include the drug-patient interaction, the host-parasite relationship, the diagnostic method used, genetic variations between parasite strains and induced drug resistance. Veterinary scientists have warned that drug resistance can be selected through frequent mass treatment of sheep and goats and have developed a body of knowledge on evaluation of efficacy and detection of resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. In soil-transmitted nematodes infections of humans, the egg reduction rate (ERR), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and novel molecular biological techniques may be used to monitor drug efficacy in helminth control programmes and to detect early occurrence of resistance. Evidence of reduced drug efficacy of some anthelminthics has been suggested by recent studies and strategies to prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance in human soil-transmitted nematodes.

  4. The Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme: the first five years.

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Cynthia B. E.; James, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    The Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (STEP) was launched in 1997 because the incidence of the disease had remained between 49 and 56 per 100,000 resident population for the preceding 10 years. STEP involves the following key interventions: directly observed therapy (DOT) in public primary health care clinics; monitoring of treatment progress and outcome for all cases by means of a National Treatment Surveillance Registry; and preventive therapy for recently infected close contacts of infectious tuberculosis cases. Among other activities are the revamping of the National Tuberculosis Notification Registry, the discontinuation of BCG revaccination for schoolchildren, the tightening up of defaulter tracing, and the education of the medical community and the public. Future plans include an outreach programme for specific groups of patients who are unable to attend their nearest public primary care clinics for DOT, the detention of infectious recalcitrant defaulters for treatment under the Infectious Diseases Act, the molecular fingerprinting of tuberculosis isolates, and targeted screening of high-risk groups. The incidence of tuberculosis fell from 57 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 48 per 100,000 in 1999 and continued to decline to 44 per 100,000 in 2001. With political will and commitment and the support of the medical community and the public it is hoped that STEP will achieve further progress towards the elimination of tuberculosis in Singapore. PMID:12764518

  5. A model to increase rehabilitation adherence to home exercise programmes in patients with varying levels of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Picha, Kelsey J; Howell, Dana M

    2017-04-12

    Patient adherence to rehabilitation programmes is frequently low - particularly adherence to home exercise programmes. Home exercise programmes have been identified as complementary to clinic-based physical therapy in an orthopaedic setting. Barriers to patient adherence have previously been identified within the literature. Low self-efficacy is a barrier to adherence that clinicians have the ability to have an impact on and improve. The theory of self-efficacy is defined as a person's confidence in their ability to perform a task. This theory examines the ability of a person to change through exerting control over inner processes of goal setting, self-monitoring, feedback, problem solving and self-evaluation. If clinicians are able to identify patients with low self-efficacy prior to the prescription of a home exercise programme, adjustments to individualized care can be implemented. Individualized care based on improving self-efficacy for home exercise programmes may improve patient adherence to these programmes. The purpose of this article was to use the theory of self-efficacy to direct clinicians in providing individualized programmes to patients with varying levels of self-efficacy.

  6. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  7. A Taxonomy and Results from a Comprehensive Review of 28 Maternal Health Voucher Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Claudia M.; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Townsend, John W.; Nahed, Matta G.; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G.; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  8. Evaluation of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary (HPB) fellowships: an international survey of programme directors

    PubMed Central

    Raptis, Dimitri A; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This report describes a survey undertaken with the aim of assessing the current status of available fellowships in hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery in order to identify steps to be taken to ensure the provision of successful training in this specialty. Methods An online survey was conducted among members of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) targeting registered and non-registered HPB surgery fellowships. A total of 71 programmes are registered on the IHPBA website and 40 fellowship directors completed the survey. Only 18 completed surveys referred to programmes previously listed on the website. Results Responses showed great diversity among centres regarding their requirements for application, the duration of training and exposure to HPB cases during the fellowship. Factors associated with higher levels of training included the country of fellowship, a third year of training and the presence of a well-structured HPB curriculum. Over 90% of responders seek official accreditation from their regional association (i.e. the European, American and Asian-Pacific HPB Associations). Most programmes would welcome official IHPBA or regional association monitoring of their fellowship. Conclusions This survey discloses important information which will allow the IHPBA Education and Training Committee to move forward. The next steps should include close monitoring of the performance of fellows by creating a fellows' registry, as well as a blog or forum which can be used to further enhance communication among fellows. The availability of registration to both programme directors and fellows may eventually lead to an official fellowship accreditation process. PMID:21418134

  9. A pilot study of videoconferencing for an Internet-based weight loss programme for obese adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Chou, Pesus; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study of the feasibility of an Internet-based weight loss programme using videoconferencing to emulate face-to-face situations and a Web service to support self-monitoring. A pre-post test design was used to compare changes in bodyweight, metabolic variables and attendance rate. Nine subjects lost on average 5.9 kg (6.0% of body weight, P<0.001) over the course of the 12-week programme. Waist circumference was reduced significantly (10.2 cm, P=0.03). Total cholesterol, aspartate transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) significantly decreased. Eight participants completed a questionnaire after the intervention. Overall, responders were satisfied with the protocol and considered the Internet weight loss programme to be helpful to them. One technical problem was that Internet congestion could reduce the quality of audio and video. The Internet appears to hold promise as a medium to facilitate communication in weight loss programmes.

  10. Meeting Teacher Expectations in a DL Professional Development Programme--A Case Study for Sustained Applied Competence as Programme Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Cornè Gerda; Van Rensburg, Ona Janse; De Witt, Marike W.

    2016-01-01

    Meeting teacher expectations for a professional development programme (PDP) is expected to strengthen sustainable applied competence as programme outcome since teachers will be more motivated to apply the programme content in practice. A revised distance learning (DL) programme was augmented by a practical component comprising a work-integrated…

  11. RHrFPGA Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. B.; LaBel, K. A.; McCabe, J. F.; Gardner, G. A.; Lintz, J.; Ross, C.; Golke, K.; Burns, B.; Carts, M. A.; Kim, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the development of the Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array (RHrFPGA) are presented. The topics include: 1) Radiation Test Suite; 2) Testing Interface; 3) Test Configuration; 4) Facilities; 5) Test Programs; 6) Test Procedure; and 7) Test Results. A summary of heavy ion and proton testing is also included.

  12. RHrFPGA Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. B.; LaBel, K. A.; McCabe, J. F.; Gardner, G. A.; Lintz, J.; Ross, C.; Golke, K.; Burns, B.; Carts, M. A.; Kim, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the development of the Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array (RHrFPGA) are presented. The topics include: 1) Radiation Test Suite; 2) Testing Interface; 3) Test Configuration; 4) Facilities; 5) Test Programs; 6) Test Procedure; and 7) Test Results. A summary of heavy ion and proton testing is also included.

  13. Piloting a national laboratory electronic programme status reporting system.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi; Motlonye, Bahule; Mpele, Nobantu; Glencross, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The NHLS performs close to 4 million CD4 tests per annum for the public sector in South Africa through a network of 60 CD4 testing laboratories. CD4 laboratory data provides an assessment of the number of patients on ART and HIV-positive patients in the pre-ART wellness programs. This study aims to develop a laboratory based Comprehensive Care, Management and Treatment of HIV and AIDS (CCMT) programme status reporting system for CD4 testing at three health facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district using a newly developed CCMT request form, the Laboratory Information System (LIMS) and Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). The study will generate monitoring and evaluation data to assist in the management of health facilities through a national electronic corporate data warehouse.

  14. J-PARC accelerator and neutrino beamline upgrade programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, M.

    2017-09-01

    The 30 GeV proton beam from the J-PARC Main Ring (MR) accelerator is used to produce a world-class conventional neutrino beam – the neutrino source for the J-PARC long-baseline neutrino programme, including the current T2K experiment and proposed future experiments. Planned upgrades to increase the beam power of the MR from the current ∼400 kW to the design power of 750 kW and beyond, to 1.3+ MW, are underway. These include hardware modifications, such as upgrades of the MR magnet power supplies, RF systems, and feedback systems, as well as a change of the MR beam betatron tune point. Upgrades to the neutrino beamline, such as to the proton beam monitoring, horns, and radioactive material handling, will also be required to accommodate the increased proton beam power. An overview of planned J-PARC MR and neutrino facility upgrades is given.

  15. Interpretation of digoxin blood levels by programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Manion, C V

    1978-08-01

    The usefulness of a computer algorithm, for a hand-held calculator, in the calculation of steady-state blood levels of digoxin was studied. The calculator was programmed using the Wagner-Northam steady-state equation. The program was tested on data obtained from the charts of 14 patients recieving digoxin. Blood levels of digoxin were determined by radioimmunoassay. In nine patients, the calculated values correlated well with measured values. In five patients, calculated values did not correlate with measured values; half-life was underestimated in two patients, a charting error was made with one patient and digoxin disappearance was suggested to be unusual in two patients. This study suggests that a measure of scientific precision in planning and monitoring of drug therapy regimens is possible using a programmable calculator.

  16. ESA to unveil its new science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The science community, European industry, the ESA Executive and cooperating space agencies in Europe and elsewhere have been consulted, and sometimes challenged, to find the best ways to maximise science value for money. The exercise is now over following intensive consultations with ESA's Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Member States represented by the Science Programme Committee (SPC). After final SPC approval at the meeting on 22/23 May there will be a new programme and a new implementation plan. The results of this meeting will then be presented to the press on 27 May, in Paris, by the ESA Director of Science, in the presence of the chairmen of the SSAC and SPC. Media representatives wishing to attend the press breakfast are kindly requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations, Fax: +33.(0)1.5369.7690 For more information, please contact: ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33 (0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33 (0)1.53.69.76.90 ESA's Science Programme Agenda Monday 27 May 2002 - 08:30-10:00 ESA Headquarters, 8/10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris 08:30 Registration & breakfast 08:45 Introduction , by Hugo Marée, Science Programme Coordination Office 08:50 Presentation of the new ESA Science Programme, by Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science 09:10 Question &Answer session

  17. Transformational leadership training programme for charge nurses.

    PubMed

    Duygulu, Sergul; Kublay, Gulumser

    2011-03-01

    This paper is a report of an evaluation of the effects of a transformational leadership training programme on Unit Charge Nurses' leadership practices. Current healthcare regulations in the European Union and accreditation efforts of hospitals for their services mandate transformation in healthcare services in Turkey. Therefore, the transformational leadership role of nurse managers is vital in determining and achieving long-term goals in this process. The sample consisted of 30 Unit Charge Nurses with a baccalaureate degree and 151 observers at two university hospitals in Turkey. Data were collected using the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self and Observer (applied four times during a 14-month study process from December 2005 to January 2007). The transformational leadership training programme had theoretical (14 hours) and individual study (14 hours) in five sections. Means, standard deviations and percentages, repeated measure tests and two-way factor analysis were used for analysis. According the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self and Observer ratings, leadership practices increased statistically significantly with the implementation of the programme. There were no significant differences between groups in age, length of time in current job and current position. The Unit Charge Nurses Leadership Practices Inventory self-ratings were significantly higher than those of the observers. There is a need to develop similar programmes to improve the leadership skills of Unit Charge Nurses, and to make it mandatory for nurses assigned to positions of Unit Charge Nurse to attend this kind of leadership programme. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Rudge, James W; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Chanthapadith, Chansouk; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Lao PDR, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Lao PDR. The study relied on a literature review and 35 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Lao PDR, the HIV and TB programmes remain vertical and mostly weakly integrated with the general health system. However, Global Fund investments have extended the network of facilities delivering care at local level, resulting in greater integration with primary care and improved access for patients, particularly for TB. For HIV, as the prevalence remains low, services primarily target high-risk groups in urban areas. Less integrated functions include procurement and drug supply, and monitoring and evaluation. HIV and TB programmes are only starting to coordinate with each other. Global Fund-supported activities are generally integrated within the national disease programmes, except for monitoring and evaluation. Synergies of Global Fund support with the health system include improved access to services, institutional strengthening and capacity building, improved family planning (with wider condom distribution through HIV/AIDS social marketing programmes), and the delivery of add-on interventions, such as vaccinations and health education, alongside Global Fund-supported interventions at community level. Unintended consequences concern the lack of alignment between national stated priorities (maternal and child health) and the strong focus of external partners, such as the Global Fund

  19. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  20. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  1. Radiation Effects on Current Field Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAS) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar y technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  2. Antibiotic stewardship programmes and the surgeon's role.

    PubMed

    Çakmakçi, M

    2015-04-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use is a frequent occurrence, especially in surgical units. Among the unnecessary costs of such usage are unfavourable outcomes for patients and the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. Antibiotic stewardship programmes aim to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance by promoting thoughtful prescribing of antibiotics. Such programmes usually try to control inappropriate use of antibiotics; to optimize the choice of drug, dosing, route, and duration of therapy; to maximize clinical cure or prevention of infection; and to limit unwanted effects and excess cost. In this paper, I discuss the impact of improper use of antibiotics and outline why I believe that antibiotic stewardship is likely to be the best way of dealing with it. Engagement of surgeons in antibiotic stewardship programmes is crucial to their success.

  3. Evaluating a nurse mentor preparation programme.

    PubMed

    Gray, Olivia; Brown, Donna

    Following the introduction of a regional nurse mentor preparation programme, research was undertaken within a health and social care trust to explore both the trainee mentors' and their supervisors' perception of this new programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups was undertaken. The focus groups comprised a total of twelve participants including five trainee mentors and seven supervisors (experienced mentors) who had recently completed a mentor preparation programme. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Three themes were identified from the data: personal investment (including the emotional impact of mentoring) contextual perceptions (environmental factors such as time) and intellectual facets (related to personal and professional growth). Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice. However, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care.

  4. Programmable DNA-Mediated Multitasking Processor.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qi-Wen; Yong, Kian-Yan; Shao, Fangwei; Lee, Kee Jin

    2015-04-30

    Because of DNA appealing features as perfect material, including minuscule size, defined structural repeat and rigidity, programmable DNA-mediated processing is a promising computing paradigm, which employs DNAs as information storing and processing substrates to tackle the computational problems. The massive parallelism of DNA hybridization exhibits transcendent potential to improve multitasking capabilities and yield a tremendous speed-up over the conventional electronic processors with stepwise signal cascade. As an example of multitasking capability, we present an in vitro programmable DNA-mediated optimal route planning processor as a functional unit embedded in contemporary navigation systems. The novel programmable DNA-mediated processor has several advantages over the existing silicon-mediated methods, such as conducting massive data storage and simultaneous processing via much fewer materials than conventional silicon devices.

  5. Benefits of pre-operative information programmes.

    PubMed

    Garretson, Sharon

    Thousands of patients undergo surgical procedures daily. Research has shown the benefits of giving pre-operative information to patients, which include decreased length of stay, less demand for analgesia post-operatively and increased patient satisfaction. However, despite this evidence, there are still many facilities with no formal policy or programme for giving pre-operative information. Nurses and managers should be made aware of the benefits and potential financial savings of pre-operative information programmes. Once education takes place, a concerted multidisciplinary effort should be made to implement a programme. This will help to ensure that patients no longer arrive at the operating theatre frightened and unaware of what will happen to them.

  6. The Schome Park Programme: Exploring Educational Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri

    The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.

  7. Programmer's manual for the Banning artwork program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    The document is intended to serve as the programmer's Manual for the Banning Artwork Program. A detailed description of the internal logic and flow of the Artwork Program has been included in this report. It is recommended that every user review this manual in order to receive an appreciation of the functions performed by the Artwork Program; however, the User's Manual for the Artwork Program contains sufficient information to allow the designer/engineer to efficiently use the Artwork Program. Before beginning a detailed study of this Programmer's Manual, the reader should have a complete understanding of the contents of the User's Manual for the Banning Artwork Program. It is assumed that the programmer using this manual has a working knowledge of FORTRAN IV.

  8. Implementing neural nets with programmable logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.

  9. Radiation effects on current field programmable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-12-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices' total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  10. The SAS-3 programmable telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concept, system design and operation principles of the telemetry system developed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) are analyzed. The concept of programmable format selected for the SAS-3 represents an optical combination of the fixed format system of SAS-1 and SAS-2, and the adaptive format concept. The programmable telemetry system permits a very wide range of changes in the data sampling order by a ground control station, depending on the experimental requirements, so that the maximal amount of useful data can be returned from orbit. The programmable system also allows the data format to differ from one spacecraft to another without changing hardware. Attention is given to the command requirements and redundancy of the SAS-3 telemetry system.

  11. [Effectiveness of Spanish tuberculosis control programmes].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Teresa; Caylà, Joan A

    2003-09-27

    An assessment of tuberculosis programmes was carried out in Spain in 1996. The present article looks at trends in tuberculosis control since then. A questionnaire asking about indicators, referred to year 2000, was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. Results were compared with those obtained in 1996. Improvements, i.e. implementation of more activities, were observed in 77.8% of operative programmes. However, 16.7% of regions have no program yet, while in 27.8% of them, control activities remain scarce. Castilla-León, Catalunya, Ceuta, Madrid, Murcia, Valencia and Galicia were the regions exhibiting more control activities. Although the trend is positive, many programmes still have a limited effectiveness.

  12. Implementing neural nets with programmable logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.

  13. Implementing a Microcontroller Watchdog with a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Bartholomew

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is crucial to safety. Redundancy of important system components greatly enhances reliability and hence safety. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are useful for monitoring systems and handling the logic necessary to keep them running with minimal interruption when individual components fail. A complete microcontroller watchdog with logic for failure handling can be implemented in a hardware description language (HDL.). HDL-based designs are vendor-independent and can be used on many FPGAs with low overhead.

  14. Adapting Nepal’s polio eradication programme

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Krishna P; Hampton, Lee M; Bohara, Rajendra; Rai, Indra K; Anaokar, Sameer; Swift, Rachel D; Cochi, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems. Approach In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal’s polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Japanese encephalitis and rubella cases were added to the surveillance system in 2004. Staff from the programme aided the development and implementation of government immunization policies, helped launch vaccination campaigns, and trained government staff in reporting practices and vaccine management. Local setting Nepal eliminated indigenous polio in 2000, and controlled outbreaks caused by polio importations between 2005 and 2010. Relevant changes In 2014, the surveillance activities had expanded to 299 sites, with active surveillance for measles, rubella and neonatal tetanus, including weekly visits from 15 surveillance medical officers. Sentinel surveillance for Japanese encephalitis consisted of 132 sites. Since 2002, staff from the eradication programme have helped to introduce six new vaccines and helped to secure funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Staff have also assisted in responding to other health events in the country. Lesson learnt By expanding the activities of its polio eradication programme, Nepal has improved its surveillance and immunization systems and increased vaccination coverage of other vaccine-preventable diseases. Continued donor support, a close collaboration with the Expanded Programme on Immunization, and the retention of the polio eradication programme’s skilled workforce were important for this expansion. PMID:28250536

  15. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  16. A CMOS field-programmable analog array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edward K. F.; Gulak, P. G.

    1991-12-01

    The design details and test results of a field-programmable analog array (FPAA) prototype chip in 1.2-micron CMOS are presented. The analog array is based on subthreshold circuit techniques and consists of a collection of a homogeneous configurable analog blocks (CABs) and an interconnection network. Interconnections between CABs and the analog functions to be implemented in each block are defined by a set of configuration bits loaded serially into an onboard shift register by the user. Macromodels are developed for the analog functions in order to simulate various neural network applications on the field-programmable analog array.

  17. Overview of the National Centralized Tokamak programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Tamai, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Takase, Y.; Sakurai, S.; Kizu, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kurita, G.; Morioka, A.; Hayashi, N.; Miura, Y.; Itoh, S.; Bialek, J.; Navratil, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Fujii, T.; Kurihara, K.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.; Miya, N.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kawashima, H.; Kudo, Y.; Masaki, K.; Takahashi, H.; Takechi, M.; Akiba, M.; Okuno, K.; Ishida, S.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T.; Hashizume; Miura, Y. M.; Horiike, H.; Kimura, A.; Tsutsui, H.; Matsuoka, M.; Uesugi, Y.; Sagara, A.; Nishimura, A.; Shimizu, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Okano, K.; Ida, K.; Shimada, H. R.; Kishimoto, Y.; Azechi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Yatsu, K.; Yoshida, N.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Inoue, N.; Hosogane, N.; Kuriyama, M.; Ninomiya, H.

    2006-03-01

    An overview is given of the National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) programme as a research programme for advanced tokamak research to succeed JT-60U. The mission of NCT is to establish high beta steady-state operation for DEMO and to contribute to ITER. The machine flexibility is pursued in aspect ratio and shape controllability for the demonstration of the high-β steady-state, feedback control of resistive wall modes, wide current and pressure profile control capability and also very long pulse steady-state operation. Existing JT-60 infrastructure such as the heating and current drive system, power supplies and cooling systems will be best utilized for this modification.

  18. A Computational Architecture for Programmable Automation Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell H.; Korein, James U.; Maier, Georg E.; Durfee, Lawrence F.

    1987-03-01

    This short paper describes recent work at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center directed at developing a highly flexible computational architecture for research on sensor-based programmable automation. The system described here has been designed with a focus on dynamic configurability, layered user inter-faces and incorporation of sensor-based real time operations into new commands. It is these features which distinguish it from earlier work. The system is cur-rently being implemented at IBM for research purposes and internal use and is an outgrowth of programmable automation research which has been ongoing since 1972 [e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] .

  19. Nurses' views on workplace wellbeing programmes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Zakarin, Melissa; Blake, Holly

    2016-11-24

    Workplace stress is prevalent among nurses. Healthcare employers have implemented complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for relaxation and stress management within workplace wellbeing programmes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 registered nurses to explore the perceptions and experiences of nurses towards accessing CATs in and outside the workplace. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using conventional, qualitative thematic techniques. Themes identified were 'perceptions of complementary and alternative therapies for stress management' and 'engagement with workplace wellness schemes'. CATs have a role within workplace wellbeing programmes and nurses are not averse to accessing them, although there are barriers to access that need to be addressed.

  20. The European quantum technologies flagship programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Max F.; Binosi, Daniele; Thew, Rob; Calarco, Tommaso

    2017-09-01

    Quantum technologies, such as quantum communication, computation, simulation as well as sensors and metrology, address and manipulate individual quantum states and make use of superposition and entanglement. Both companies and governments have realised the high disruptive potential of this technology. Consequently, the European Commission has announced an ambitious flagship programme to start in 2018. Here, we sum up the history leading to the quantum technologies flagship programme and outline its envisioned goals and structure. We also give an overview of the strategic research agenda for quantum communication, which the flagship will pursue during its 10-year runtime.

  1. Developing an online programme in computational biology.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather M; Page, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Much has been written about the need for continuing education and training to enable life scientists and computer scientists to manage and exploit the different types of biological data now becoming available. Here we describe the development of an online programme that combines short training courses, so that those who require an educational programme can progress to complete a formal qualification. Although this flexible approach fits the needs of course participants, it does not fit easily within the organizational structures of a campus-based university.

  2. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  3. Checking Programmer-Specified Non-Aliasing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Checking Programmer-Speci ed Non-Aliasing Je rey S. Foster Alex Aiken Report No. UCB/CSD-01-1160 October 2001 Computer Science Division (EECS...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Checking Programmer-Speci ed Non-Aliasing Je rey S. Foster Alex Aiken EECS...Design and Implementation, pages 230{241, Orlando, Florida, June 1994. [DMW98] Saumya Debray , Robert Muth, and Matthew Weippert. Alias Analysis of

  4. A programmable interface to neuromolecular computing networks.

    PubMed

    Akingbehin, K

    1995-01-01

    A programmable interface is provided to a simulated network of reaction-diffusion neurons. The interface allows special 'learn' and 'decide' syntactic constructs to be intermixed with conventional programming constructs. This hybrid combination allows the power of programmability to be combined with the power of adaptability to provide innovative solutions to complex problems. The network uses reaction-diffusion neurons instead of adaline neurons. A mesh topology is used instead of a feedforward topology. The performance of the mesh reaction-diffusion network compares favorably with that of conventional feedforward adaline networks. Enhancements to incorporate short- and long-term memory are described.

  5. Monitoring your baby before labor

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

  6. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  7. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self

  8. Twenty years of monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Greenland biota. A review.

    PubMed

    Rigét, F; Vorkamp, K; Bossi, R; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Dietz, R

    2016-10-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a working group under the Arctic Council with the aim to monitor and assess temporal trends of contaminants in Arctic ecosystems. The Greenland AMAP Core programme was established to contribute to this effort. The Core programme includes three main components; routine monitoring, retrospective studies and new POP screening studies. The programme is based on an adaptive approach, which has led to changes throughout the years. An overview of the temporal trends during the last two to three decades is presently given together with selected examples of different characteristic trends of POPs. The results show how tissue banked samples and retrospective studies has helped in establishing time-series of compounds of emerging concern. Lastly, the statistical power of the Greenlandic time-series is discussed. The lesson learned is that trend monitoring improves with samples over time, and only pays off after decades of data are generated.

  9. Introducing new diagnostics into STI control programmes: the importance of programme science.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David; Ballard, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Many innovative diagnostic technologies will become commercially available over the next 5-10 years. These tests can potentially transform the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections but their introduction into control programmes can be hampered by health system constraints, and political, cultural, socioeconomic and behavioural factors. We used the introduction of syphilis rapid tests to illustrate the importance of programme science to address the gap between accruing evidence of acceptable test performance and the complexity of programme design, implementation and evaluation of test deployment to address public health needs and improve patient-important outcomes.

  10. Anaesthetic training programmes in the UK: the role of the programme director.

    PubMed

    Barker, I

    1998-02-01

    Schools of anaesthesia provide anaesthetic training in the UK. Each school has at least one programme director undertaking some or all of the management duties. Most programme directors appears to be unresourced volunteers whose roles have developed in response to local requirements. A postal questionnaire was sent to all anaesthetic training programme directors in the UK, asking about their role. Respondents had a wide variation in duties and responsibilities towards anaesthetic training schemes. Few had terms of reference, clear lines of responsibility, remuneration or resources to undertake the role.

  11. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  12. Unattended Dual Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Parker, Robert F.; Jones, David C.

    2016-08-11

    The Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM) is an ideal solution for current measurement needs such as ion chamber gamma measurements. The UDCM has two independent inputs and each input detects currents in two user selectable ranges, -0.2nA to -20nA or -20nA to -2uA. Measurement results can be retrieved via an Ethernet connection or by monitoring the TTL output pulses with a simple counter. Measurement data is also stored on a user accessible micro-SD card and automatically downloaded to a USB flash drive. A programmable negative High Voltage (HV) power supply provides detector bias voltages from 0 to -1,000V. The UDCM is fully compatible with the IAEA Multi Instrument Collect (MIC) software and responds to the existing MiniGRAND commands. The Ethernet port provides an IAEA RAINSTORM compliant data transfer and data security interface. The UDCM produces TTL pulses at a rate proportional to the input current, 100cps/nA. The UDCM can simplify instrumentation needs by enabling the use of a simple pulse counter for both neutron and gamma measurements. The UDCM is a simple instrument, inexpensive to manufacturer and designed for reliability.

  13. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  14. Creating meaningful business continuity management programme metrics.

    PubMed

    Strong, Brian

    2010-11-01

    The popular axiom, 'what gets measured gets done', is often applied in the quality management and continuous improvement disciplines. This truism is also useful to business continuity practitioners as they continually strive to prove the value of their organisation's investment in a business continuity management (BCM) programme. BCM practitioners must also remain relevant to their organisations as executives focus on the bottom line and maintaining stakeholder confidence. It seems that executives always find a way, whether in a hallway or elevator, to ask BCM professionals about the company's level of readiness. When asked, they must be ready with an informed response. The establishment of a process to measure business continuity programme performance and organisational readiness has emerged as a key component of US Department of Homeland Security 'Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness (PS-Prep) Program' standards where the overarching goal is to improve private sector preparedness for disasters and emergencies. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to introduce continuity professionals to best practices that should be considered when developing a BCM metrics programme as well as providing a case study of how a large health insurance company researched, developed and implemented a process to measure BCM programme performance and company readiness.

  15. Automatic Configuration of Programmable Logic Controller Emulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    you for your passionate teaching , advice, and mentorship. I would also like to thank the other members in my committee, LTC Mason Rice and Mr. Juan...Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.4 Protocol Informatics In-depth...tree PI Protocol Informatics PLC programmable logic controller PRISMA Protocol Inspection and State Machine Analysis RA Region Analysis RRP request

  16. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  17. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  18. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  19. Community nutrition programmes, globalization and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Herrera, José Carlos

    2006-08-01

    On an international scale, the last seventy-five years have been a period of deep social, economic and political transformation for the developing countries. They have been especially influenced by the international phenomenon of globalization, the benefits of which have been unequally distributed among countries. In this context, the strategies used to improve the general nutritional health of the population of developing countries include broad approaches integrating nutritional interventions in a context of sustainable community development, while valuing the existing relations between fields as diverse as agriculture, education, sociology, economy, health, environment, hygiene and nutrition. The community nutrition programmes are emblematic of these initiatives. Nevertheless, in spite of the increasing evidence of the potential possibilities offered by these programmes to improve the nutritional status and contribute to the development and the self-sufficiency of the community, their success is relatively limited, due to the inappropriate planning, implementation and evaluation of the programmes. In the present article, I attempt to emphasie the importance of community participation of the population of developing countries in the community nutrition programmes within the context of globalization. This process is not only an ethical imperative, but a pragmatic one. It is a crucial step in the process of liberation, democratization and equality that will lead to true sustainable development.

  20. Report of Programme Commission II (Natural Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    As the first part of the report of the Programme Commission II, a summary of discussions on plans for natural sciences and their applications is presented in this document. The two agenda items are: (1) detailed consideration of the 1973-74 draft program and budget and of the 1973-78 draft medium-term outline, and (2) desirability of adopting an…

  1. Getting Started: An Integrated Curriculum Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Describes the planning and integration of the Earthkeepers Programme into the curriculum at Orchard Park Secondary School, Ontario. Benefits included student development of community skills and relationships with the natural world, as well as leadership and responsibility through cross-age teaching of elementary students by high school seniors.…

  2. Empathy among students in engineering programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoal, Chato; Danielsson, Henrik; Jungert, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Engineers face challenges when they are to manage project groups and be leaders for organisations because such positions demand skills in social competence and empathy. Previous studies have shown that engineers have low degrees of social competence skills. In this study, the level of empathy as measured by the four subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking, fantasy, empathic distress and empathic concern, among engineering students was compared to students in health care profession programmes. Participants were undergraduate students at Linköping University, 365 students from four different health care profession programmes and 115 students from two different engineering programmes. When the empathy measures were corrected for effects of sex, engineering students from one of the programmes had lower empathy than psychology and social worker students on the fantasy and perspective-taking subscales. These results raise questions regarding opportunities for engineering students to develop their empathic abilities. It is important that engineering students acquire both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills regarding empathy.

  3. The Responsive College Programme: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Geoffrey; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Responsive College Programme is a centrally funded and organized activity encompassing a varied range of 10 local projects in England from whose experience it is hoped to obtain lessons for public sector education and training. The central/local nature of the enterprise imposes both the necessity of operating within broad, general constraints…

  4. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  5. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  6. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

    PubMed

    Amazigo, U

    2008-09-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995, ultimately to eliminate human onchocerciasis from the African countries in which the disease was endemic. This goal is being achieved, via a public-private partnership, using a strategy, of community-directed treatment (CDT) with ivermectin, that is based on the empowerment of each target community. It is estimated that the Programme saved 3 million disability-adjusted life-years between 1996 and 2005, and, with a free supply of ivermectin, this gives an estimated 17% economic rate of return on the cost of treatment delivery. In addition to the substantial direct benefits from the control of onchocerciasis, there are several indirect benefits, including the de-worming of children who receive ivermectin, increased school attendance, general improvements in community and individual health, and increased food production. A key component of the Programme is the co-implementation of onchocerciasis control with other health interventions that can be delivered at the community level. This approach has proved highly effective, leading to higher levels of therapeutic coverage for onchocerciasis control as well as improved delivery of other services, especially vaccination programmes. In the accompanying article, the outcome and challenges of the APOC in 2006, in 105,866 participating communities spread across 15 countries, are described.

  7. International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Examining College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David; McGaughy, Charis; Davis-Molin, Whitney; Farkas, Rachel; Fukuda, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) works with schools, governments, and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. This three-phase study prepared by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization explored the impact…

  8. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  9. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  10. Evaluation of the 1981 Vocational Preparation Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, D. L.; Grosvenor, J. S.

    An evaluation project investigated the Vocational Preparation Programme conducted in 1981 by the South Australian Department of Technical and Further Education (TAFE). The vocational preparation program was designed to increase the employability of young unemployed people aged 15 to 19 by providing them with an understanding of a family of related…

  11. Implementing biosecurity education: approaches, resources and programmes.

    PubMed

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia-Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level "Train-the-Trainer" programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students.

  12. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  13. Improved Programmable High-Voltage Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Rutberg, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Improved dc-to-dc converter functions as programmable high-voltage power supply with low-power-dissipation voltage regulator on high-voltage side. Design of power supply overcomes deficiencies of older designs. Voltage regulation with low power dissipation provided on high-voltage side.

  14. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  15. The Artificial Intelligence Applications to Learning Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Noel

    1992-01-01

    Explains the Artificial Intelligence Applications to Learning Programme, which was developed in the United Kingdom to explore and accelerate the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in learning in both the educational and industrial sectors. Highlights include program evaluation, marketing, ownership of information, consortia, and cost…

  16. Perspectives on a Whole Class Mindfulness Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George; Atkinson, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to establish pupil and teacher views about a six-hour, whole-class mindfulness programme called Paws.b. Pupil post-intervention focus groups and teacher semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain what was interesting and useful about Paws.b, and how it could be developed. Audio recordings were transcribed and thematically…

  17. Faculty Development through an Educational Action Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigmar, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries, including Sweden, are reconsidering traditional teaching and learning methods in higher education. This article describes the work of implementing an Educational Action Programme to support faculty development. The work has been organized by an educational developer at the Educational Development Unit (EDU). Representatives…

  18. The Northland fluoridation advocacy programme: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sunitha; Thomas, David R

    2008-12-01

    On 20 July 2006, the Far North District Council resolved to fluoridate Kaitaia and Kaikohe. This was the first such initiative by any Territorial Local Authority (TLA) in New Zealand for 23 years, and resulted from a fluoridation advocacy programme. This paper describes the programme implementation, assesses its consistency with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and critically examines the collaboration between the fluoride advocate and the key stakeholders. Process evaluation identified three main categories of programme implementation: policy advocacy, community action projects, and media advocacy. The collaboration of iwi, Maori health providers and the community suggests that the programme was consistent with the principles (partnership, participation and protection) ofthe Treaty ofWaitangi. Media advocacy played an important role in reflecting and engaging community views on fluoridation, and it influenced decision-making by the Far North District Council. The simultaneous, combined 'top-down and bottom-up' approach was an effective and successful strategy for fluoridation advocacy in the community. Less integrated approaches implemented on their own (such as the 'top down' approach in Whangarei and the 'bottom-up' approach in Dargaville) were not effective.

  19. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  20. Implementing Extensive Reading in an EAP Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2008-01-01

    For more than twenty years the benefits of extensive reading have been proclaimed to the ELT community, but the inclusion of extensive reading in ELT programmes is far from universal. Extensive reading appears to be particularly absent in higher educational and English for Academic Purposes settings. This paper reports on the implementation of an…