Science.gov

Sample records for 1990s college enrollment

  1. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    1990-01-01

    Provides a literature review on community college services to older adults, focusing on studies of this population's needs (e.g., personal business and financial information, employment needs, physical fitness training, and maintaining self-esteem and a sense of the purpose and meaning in life) and courses and services that colleges offer. (DMM)

  2. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  3. Two-Year College Mathematics Education for the 1990s: A Commitment to Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Don, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of this special issue is to suggest strategies for meeting the mathematical needs of two-year college students in the decade of the 1990s. Since the 20 contributors were free to write about topics that they considered to be appropriate to the intellectual and personal development of all students their papers represent a broad…

  4. Minimum Wages and School Enrollment of Teenagers: A Look at the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Duncan D.; Turner, Mark D.; Pape, Andreas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates the effects of higher minimum wages on school enrollment using the Common Core of Data. Controlling for local labor market conditions and state and year fixed effects, finds some evidence that higher minimum wages reduce teen school enrollment in states where students drop out before age 18. (23 references) (Author/PKP)

  5. College Choice+Enrollment Management = Enrollment Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between students and institutions as they move toward decisions related to college attendance. Enrollment managers will find this information useful as they work within their institution to develop and revise long-term recruiting strategies that benefit both the institution and future students. Typically,…

  6. Interdistrict Enrollment. California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    California community colleges inherit their statutes on interdistrict enrollment from those in force for California elementary and secondary schools. Prior to 1978, statutory restrictions on students enrolling in a college outside the district in which they lived were tied to the method of funding. A 1978 change in funding methodology, followed by…

  7. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  8. Financing the American Community College in the 1990's: A New Kind of Blues or the Same Old Tune?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Susan Robinson

    Drawing from journal, report, and monographic literature, this paper offers an analysis of community college funding in the 1990's. In the first section, various stories appearing in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" are highlighted, pointing to such financial problems as state deficits and shrinking educational budgets, no federal increases in…

  9. The Effects of School Vouchers on College Enrollment: Experimental Evidence from New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    In the first study, using a randomized experiment to measure the impact of school vouchers on college enrollment, Matthew Chingos and Paul Peterson, professor of government at Harvard University, examine the college-going behavior through 2011 of students who participated in a voucher experiment as elementary school students in the late 1990s.…

  10. Grouping Colleges by Changes in Enrollment Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    This document discusses the effort to find groupings for the enrollment change in California's community colleges. The new groupings can be utilized by community college strategic planners to improve programs and services based on exploring and analyzing various enrollment shifts. The information can also be used to make enrollment projections for…

  11. The Capacity for Life-Long Learning of College Seniors in the Mid-1980s to the Mid-1990s. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayek, John C.; Kuh, George D.

    This study compared college seniors' self-evaluation of skills considered important for lifelong learning from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. The study used data from the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ), a national database begun in 1983 which includes over 200,000 student records from over 600 colleges and universities. An index…

  12. College Course Grades for Dual Enrollment Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Jill D.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study compared college course grade outcomes, both during and after high school, of dual-enrollment students to those of traditional students. The study was based on a large, multiyear sample of Iowa high school and community college students. The results showed that while in high school, dual-enrollment students consistently outperformed…

  13. Developing Student Potential in the 1990's. A Strategic Plan for Centralia College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centralia Coll., WA.

    This strategic planning report was prepared by Centralia College (CC) in order to assess the college's internal and external environment, identify problems, and prescribe recommendations. Material for the report was compiled by eight committees/task forces concerned with: (1) strategic planning; (2) institutional mission, philosophy, and goals;…

  14. To Increase Enrollment, Community Colleges Add More Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, more than 40 athletics programs have joined the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) ranks. Membership now represents about 500 colleges and the group's executive director expects to keep adding colleges. Membership in the association began declining slightly in the early 1990s, as private two-year colleges, many of…

  15. To Increase Enrollment, Community Colleges Add More Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, more than 40 athletics programs have joined the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) ranks. Membership now represents about 500 colleges, and Wayne Baker, the group's executive director, expects to keep adding colleges. Membership in the association began declining slightly in the early 1990s, as private two-year…

  16. Technical College Enrollments '72. Detailed Report of Nebraska Higher Education Enrollment Statistics, Fall Term 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Higher Education Facilities Commission, Lincoln.

    Enrollment data for technical colleges in Nebraska for the year 1972 are provided. Following a summary that discusses the technical college system, total enrollment, enrollment by academic level, freshmen enrollment, and solutions in reporting, 12 exhibits provide the detailed data. These exhibits are: Nebraska Technical Community Colleges,…

  17. Dual Enrollment Credit and College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzert, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This causal-comparative study researched the effects of dual enrollment and Huskins Bill course experience on traditional-age North Carolina community college students. The study examined course effects on academic success and graduation rate using quantitative statistical measures including parametric and nonparametric means comparisons. The…

  18. Why Enroll? Student Enrollment Strategy in the College of Agriculture and Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, Oren L.

    A study was conducted to investigate the factors related to freshman student enrollment in the College of Agriculture and Home Economics at New Mexico State University. A Likert-type survey instrument was developed and administered to a random sample of 106 freshman students enrolled in the college during the 1989 spring semester, excluding those…

  19. The College Application Gauntlet: A Systematic Analysis of the Steps to Four-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasik, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the steps to college enrollment between college aspiration and college enrollment and how these steps might present a barrier to four-year college enrollment. This study used data from the Education Longitudinal Study: 2002 and employed a multivariate random effects logistic framework to examine the completion of nine…

  20. Can Applying to More Colleges Increase Enrollment Rates? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research brief is to highlight new causal evidence on how the number of colleges to which students apply affects their college enrollment decisions. Using a 2004 sample of students who applied to at least one four-year college, this research brief finds that applying to more colleges causally increases students' probabilities of…

  1. Fall 2004 College and University Enrollment in Connecticut. Comprehensive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Total enrollment at Connecticut's 47 colleges and universities reached an all-time record of 172,740 in fall 2004. A November 2004 report, "Fall 2004 College and University Headcounts in Connecticut," analyzed headcount enrollment by status, level, institution and sector. This broader report discusses general trends in headcount…

  2. Fall 2003 College and University Enrollment in Connecticut: Comprehensive Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Total enrollment at Connecticut's 46 colleges and universities reached an all-time record of 170,624 in fall 2003. A November report titled, "Fall 2003 College and University Headcounts in Connecticut," analyzed headcount enrollment by status, level, institution and sector. This broader report discusses general trends in headcount…

  3. Community College Re-Enrollment after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored predictors of community college re-enrollment after Hurricane Katrina among a sample of low-income women (N = 221). It was predicted that participants' pre-hurricane educational optimism would predict community college re-enrollment a year after the hurricane. The influence of various demographic and additional resources…

  4. Trends in Community College Enrollment and Completion Data, 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszkiewicz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of a series of reports on trends in national community college enrollments. National community college enrollments continue to decrease, with variations at the state and local levels. The report also examines completion rates published by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) based on institutional level reporting, and those…

  5. Community College Enrollment as a Function of Economic Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin L.; McGinty, Dixie; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a study that investigated the ability of national economic trends to predict enrollment in community colleges. Reports that unemployment rate, gross domestic product, dollars disposable income, and personal consumption expenditures are good indicators of trends in community college enrollment, but that consumer price index and average…

  6. Critical Components of Community College Enrollment Management Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Karen Hart

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment management has become a common practice at four-year institutions, but has not been extensively explored at community colleges. As students have more educational options available to them, community colleges have begun to explore ways to grow their enrollment, improve student retention and increase graduation rates. This study explored…

  7. Wyoming Community College System Spring 2004 Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains enrollment information in tabular form from the Wyoming Community College System for the Spring of 2004. Enrollment information on each of the counties in Wyoming can be found in this document. Data is broken down by: college; full-time, part-time, total, and percent credit headcount (includes on-campus, distance education,…

  8. College Choice: Understanding Student Enrollment Behavior. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Michael B.

    This digest summarizes in a question and answer format a full length report of the same title. It addresses trends in college student enrollment patterns with an emphasis on behavior underlying student choice of college. Demographic changes and cuts in important sources of student financial aid brought significant enrollment declines to higher…

  9. Community College Selective Enrollment and the Challenge to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David Brian

    2012-01-01

    The open access mission is central to the community college role and mission in higher education. Although initially implemented by four-year colleges and universities, adoption of formal enrollment management initiatives in community colleges is on the increase. Admission, matriculation, retention, and persistence are affected by enrollment…

  10. What Happens to Community College Dual Enrollment Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Patricia

    As a result of research indicating that the dual enrollment (DE) students at Florida's community colleges experience problems upon transferring to state universities, Pensacola Junior College (PJC) and Tallahassee Community College (TCC) conducted follow-up studies of DE students. PJC examined outcomes for students who successfully completed DE…

  11. Challenges in the 1990s for College Foreign Language Programs. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Sally Seiloff, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Style Wars: Teacher-Student Style Conflicts in the Language Classroom" (Rebecca L. Oxford, Madeline E. Ehrman, and Roberta Z. Lavine); "Articulating Learning in High School and College Programs: Holistic Theory in the Foreign Language Curriculum" (Janet Swaffar);…

  12. Intensive College Counseling and the College Enrollment Choices of Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    While college enrollment among low-income students has increased steadily over the last decade, the share of students from the lowest-income families that enroll in college continues to lag considerably behind college entry rates among the highest income students. Furthermore, gaps in college completion by family income have only widened over…

  13. The Strategic Management of College Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; And Others

    The book provides an examination of research and practice related to enrollment management at institutions of higher education. Part 1 describes enrollment management in the context of strategic planning and presents four organizational approaches. Part 2 focuses on marketing and student recruitment, while Part 3 considers student retention.…

  14. Cuesta College Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends, Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan

    Enrollment at Cuesta College in California is at an all-time high of 10,165 students and it continues to increase. This report discusses student characteristics and enrollment trends for the periods 1997-2001 (5-year analysis) and 1999-2001 (2-year analysis). Highlights include: (1) continuing students constituted only 49% of the 2001 student…

  15. Iowa Community Colleges Fall 2002 Credit Student Enrollment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges.

    The Iowa Community College System transmits fall enrollment data to the Department of Education after the 14th day of the fall term start date. Highlights from this fall 2002 report include: (1) the unduplicated credit headcount enrollment of 73,947 demonstrates an increase of 5,157 (7.5%) over the previous year's unduplicated credit headcount of…

  16. Methodology of Enrollment Projections for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lins, L. J.

    Various methods by which the responsible officials of colleges and universities might make projections of enrollment for their respective institutions are presented in this report. The point is made that institutional enrollment projection is not a simple assignment. Many factors must be considered, analyzed, and, if possible, controlled in order…

  17. Fall 2002 College and University Enrollment in Connecticut. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Governors for Higher Education, Hartford.

    This report presents information about enrollment at public and private institutions of higher education in Connecticut. Total enrollment at Connecticut's colleges and universities reached an all-time record of 170,227 in fall 2002, an increase of 5,550 students (3.4%) over fall 2001. This year also was an all-time record in full-time enrollment,…

  18. An Enrollment Audit of the Public Community and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Auditor's Office, Austin.

    An August 1997 report from the Office of the State Auditor, this document contains the results of an enrollment audit of Texas' Public Community and Technical Colleges. It recommends that no adjustments be made to the Public Community and Technical Colleges' 1998-1999 biennial appropriations, due to the fact that the $7.7 million in errors…

  19. Recent National Community College Enrollment and Award Completion Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszkiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    National community college enrollments continue to decrease. Given the importance of these trends to American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) member institutions--understanding that local changes are ultimately what matters--AACC is providing this report to discuss some of the latest data. It also examines the completion rates that were…

  20. Enrollment Projections for Queensborough Community College: 1986-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Edward G.

    Enrollment projections for Queensborough Community College (QCC) were developed using the cohort survival method to assist the college in more effectively planning for future academic and budgetary needs. In the face of a falling national population of young people in the 16 to 25 age bracket, demographic factors at work in Queens are expected to…

  1. Enrollment-Driven Colleges and the Prospects of State Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benezet, Louis T.; Magnusson, Frances W.

    1981-01-01

    Concern is expressed about the measures that enrollment-driven colleges are taking to survive: destructive competitive practices may result in scrambled curricula and scrambled college identities. State control is an increasingly real possibility if such developments get out of hand. (MSE)

  2. COMMUNITY COLLEGE RE-ENROLLMENT AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    PubMed Central

    LOWE, SARAH R.; RHODES, JEAN E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored predictors of community college re-enrollment after Hurricane Katrina among a sample of low-income women (N = 221). It was predicted that participants’ pre-hurricane educational optimism would predict community college re-enrollment a year after the hurricane. The influence of various demographic and additional resources (e.g., social support, childcare, hours of employment, psychological well-being) was also explored. High levels of pre- and post-hurricane educational optimism were significant predictors of re-enrollment, as were lower post-hurricane psychological distress and fewer post-hurricane hours employed. In addition, experiencing a greater number of moves since the hurricane was a marginally significant predictor of post-hurricane re-enrollment. PMID:23457425

  3. College Enrollment Patterns for Rural Indiana High School Graduates. REL 2015-083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Matthew R.; Davis, Elisabeth; Stephan, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (1) average distances traveled to attend college, (2) presumptive college eligibility, (3) differences between two-year and four-year college enrollment, (4) differences in enrollment related to differences in colleges' selectivity, and (5) degree of "undermatching" (i.e., enrolling in a college less selective than…

  4. Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance—focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

  5. Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?

    PubMed

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance-focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties.

  6. Dual Enrollment: A Strategy to Improve College-Going and College Completion among Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer Dounay

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that students who participate in dual enrollment are more likely than their peers to finish high school, enter college and complete a degree. This means dual enrollment can greatly benefit students in rural areas, which report lower college-going and postsecondary attainment rates than other locales. However, rural areas face unique…

  7. Pima Community College Summary of 2000-2001 Student Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attinasi, Louis; Hennessey, Brendan; Reece, Dee

    This report summarizes the annual unduplicated headcount enrollment and the annual full-time student equivalents (FTSE) generated by students in credit classes and by completers of clock-hour programs during fiscal year 2000-2001 at Pima Community College (Arizona). Highlights include: (1) Pima's total annual unduplicated headcount was 65,221 and…

  8. Lessons from the NFL for Managing College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucido, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    How colleges determine who is recruited, who merits admission, who receives student aid and of what variety, which classes are offered and when, and what kind of assistance is provided to students all comprise a complex system and an emerging field known as enrollment management. Outside of the world of higher education administration, however,…

  9. Chemeketa Community College Developmental Education Enrollment Record Keeping System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemeketa Community Coll., Salem, OR.

    This manual for a management system for student enrollment records in a community college presents and explains the main menu options, print options, and a special menu for English as a second language (ESL) students. Written in BASIC for use on the Apple II Plus microcomputer with 48K memory and two diskette drives with DOS 3.2, the package…

  10. Motivators of Adult Women Enrolled in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Connie Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe what motivates adult women enrolled in a community college to pursue higher education. Utilizing profile analysis and multiple regression analyses, this study investigated the extent to which gender, English as a first language, and age predicted the seven factors of the Education Participation Scale (A-form)…

  11. Coming Home: Student Veterans' Articulation of College Re-Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Wade G.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.; Fleming, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study described student veterans' navigation of college re-enrollment. Fifteen participants interviewed at one institution were less likely to seek academic support and more inclined to pursue social support in the form of associating with fellow veterans with whom they felt more comfortable. They downplayed or hid their veteran status from…

  12. Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Decisions and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldin, Antoinette M.

    2013-01-01

    With the changing landscape in enrollment options for potential community college students, community college administrators are looking for ways to forecast enrollment by using strategic enrollment management models. Today, community colleges' administration is challenged to develop, use, and implement enrollment models that support their…

  13. Effects of College Access Programs on College Readiness and Enrollment: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvill, Eleanor L.; Maynard, Rebecca A.; Nguyen, Hoa T. H.; Robertson-Kraft, Claire; Tognatta, Namrata

    2012-01-01

    For decades, college access programs have aimed to improve college readiness and enrollment rates, particularly for underrepresented populations. Though several published reports have produced comprehensive inventories of college access programs (Gandara, 2001; Perna, 2002; Tierney, Bailey, Constantine, Finkelstein, & Hurd, 2009), no systematic…

  14. Annual Enrollment Report: North Carolina Community College System. Student Enrollment and Full-Time Equivalents, 1985-86. Volume 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges. Div. of Planning and Research Services.

    Official enrollment statistics are presented for the 58 institutions in the North Carolina Community College System, including detailed enrollment data for 1985-86 and summary data for previous years. Following introductory material and a glossary of terms, tables and graphs are presented, covering: (1) student enrollment by institution and…

  15. Contra Costa Community College District Enrollment Report, October 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA.

    This report analyzes enrollment figures for Contra Costa Community College District in 2000-2001. The data for 2002 is compared with the data from 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000. The following are some of the major findings of the report: (1) both resident and non-resident FTES totals have increased over 1995/1996 levels; (2) the growth…

  16. Rural Community College Student Perceptions of Barriers to College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Shanda; Miller, Michael T.; Morris, Adam A.

    2016-01-01

    Rural community college students face unique difficulties in higher education for many reasons, including the resources they typically have access to, their collective histories, and in many cases, the preparation they received in high school. These challenges might be low-performing secondary schools, a lack of tradition and precedence in…

  17. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  18. Iowa Community Colleges Fall Term 2001: Credit Student Enrollment Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges.

    This is a report on the credit student enrollment at Iowa community colleges for the fall 2001 term. Highlights include: (1) the total headcount shows a credit enrollment of 68,790 students, a 5% increase over fall 2000; (2) 58% of the credit students at Iowa community colleges were enrolled in four-year college parallel programs, a 13% increase…

  19. Declining Feeder High School Enrollments at Diablo Valley College, Fall 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les

    Analyses of enrollment figures at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, indicate that the number of students under 20 years of age attending has been declining. DVC's enrollments are dependent on what happens in the college's feeder areas, since the number of recent high school graduates directly affects enrollment at the college. While the…

  20. Who Goes to College? Differential Enrollment by Race and Family Background. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra E.; Sufi, Amir

    While trends in college enrollment for Blacks and Whites have been the subject of study for many years, little attention has been paid to variation in college enrollment by socioeconomic status (SES). It is well documented that, controlling for family background, Blacks are more likely to enroll in college than Whites. This relationship is…

  1. Minority Enrollment Gains Show Region's Progress toward College Completion Goals. Fact Book Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, from 2005 to 2010, 1.6 minority (non-white) students enrolled in college for every additional white student who enrolled. In the SREB (Southern Regional Education Board) region that meant 700,312 more minority college students and 411,915 more white college students. Increases in minority student enrollment accounted for almost…

  2. The Cognitive Experiences of Online Dually Enrolled High School Students in a Community College Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sarah Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Dual-enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college-level classes to gain college and high school credit concurrently. Research on how online, dual-enrolled high school students (DES) construct knowledge when compared with online community college students (CCS) is needed to help administrators determine the design,…

  3. High School Influences on College Enrollment and College Graduation of Dallas Independent School District 2002 Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal for American education under President Barack Obama has been to increase college enrollment and completion rates. The pressure to achieve this goal has been keenly felt in the postsecondary community, especially as federal and state funding have become increasingly tied to achieving higher college completion rates. Yet the…

  4. The Influence of Dual Enrollment on Academic Performance and College Readiness: Differences by Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    I examine the influence of dual enrollment, a program that allows students to take college courses and earn college credits while in high school, on academic performance and college readiness. Advocates consider dual enrollment as a way to transition high school students into college, and they further claim that these programs benefit students…

  5. Community College Enrollment Surge: An Analysis of Estimated Fall 2009 Headcount Enrollments at Community Colleges. Policy Brief 2009-01PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Phillippe, Kent

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand how community colleges responded to the economic maelstrom, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) surveyed its member institutions to examine changes in enrollment, local factors contributing to enrollment shifts, and the lessons learned from their experiences. The authors found the following: (1)…

  6. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study, "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment" examined whether students who enrolled in courses at a high school that combined academics and technical education had higher college enrollment rates than students who did not. The research described in this report does not meet What Works…

  8. College Enrollment and Persistence in Rural Pennsylvania Schools. REL 2015-053

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Caitlin; Johnson, Jerry; Passa, Aikaterini; Uekawa, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college enrollment and persistence rates of rural high schools in Pennsylvania; the types of postsecondary institutions in which students from such schools enroll; and the student, school, and college characteristics associated with enrollment and persistence outcomes. The study used extant data from…

  9. Decisions and Barriers to First-in-Family College Student Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonk, Garrett B.

    2013-01-01

    United States Government scrutiny of enrollment practices at for-profit colleges has caused significant decreases in profitability at career colleges. The phenomenological problem explored in this study was the declining enrollment at career colleges. Systems theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory formed the conceptual framework for this…

  10. Enrollment Trends at Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities, Fall 1990 to Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report provides enrollment trend information for public four-year colleges and universities for the period fall 1990 through fall 1997. Several trends are highlighted: during this period, total enrollment fell 0.5 percent to 5.77 million students; enrollment of racial/ethnic minorities rose 24.5 percent; white enrollment fell 10.8 percent.…

  11. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  12. Faculty Members' Perceptions of Rigor in Dual Enrollment, Accelerated Programs, and Standard Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Colin; Baker, Pete; Burnett, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a study that investigated faculty members' views on the level of academic rigor in three settings at one community college: dual enrollment, accelerated programs, and standard community college courses.

  13. The Future of Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    While the elite private colleges may survive the enrollment declines of the 1980's and 1990's, the less elite, so-called invisible private colleges may have more difficulty. Finance, enrollment, and competition are the three major elements seen to threaten these institutions' futures. They face an uncertain financial future since historically they…

  14. Can High Schools Reduce College Enrollment Gaps with a New Counseling Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Jennifer L.; Rosenbaum, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite planning college, disadvantaged students are less likely to enroll in college, particularly 4-year colleges. Beyond cost and academic achievement, previous research finds that a lack of college-related social resources poses barriers. However, little research investigates whether schools can help. We examine whether, how, and for whom a…

  15. A Descriptive Profile of Returning Students, and the Influences Affecting the Re-Enrollment in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    A study was conducted at a medium-sized California community college to identify the characteristics of students who had previously dropped out of college and then returned to the community college and the influences on their decision to re-enroll for college credit. Surveys were mailed to 396 stopouts, asking them to rate the significance of…

  16. Fall 2005 College and University Enrollment in Connecticut--Comprehensive Report. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Enrollment at Connecticut's 47 colleges and universities reached an all-time record of 174,273 in fall 2005. A November 2005 report titled, "Fall 2005 College and University Headcounts in Connecticut," analyzed headcount enrollment by status, level, institution and sector. This broader report presents general trends in headcount…

  17. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Enrollment and Staffing Report: Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2005 provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2005. In addition to analysis of the system as a whole, this report includes an extensive set of tables by college starting on page 57. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the…

  18. The Effects of Family College Savings on Postsecondary School Enrollment Rates of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Elliott, William

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to examine whether parents' college savings is positively associated with enrollment in postsecondary education of students in special education programs. In addition to examining postsecondary school enrollment among students with disabilities, we also examine whether students' and parents' college expectations act as a…

  19. Estimating College Enrollment Rates for Virginia Public High School Graduates. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holian, Laura; Mokher, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Student Clearinghouse and the Virginia Department of Education, this report examines college enrollment rates overall and by student academic and demographic characteristics for the Virginia public high school class of 2008. College enrollment is an issue of national concern. And many states, including Virginia, use…

  20. City College of San Francisco Academy and Pathway Dual Enrollment Program. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Research Center, Columbia University, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of a dual enrollment program at the City College of San Francisco. The case study describes different aspects of the program, including implementation, student recruitment, enrollment, course offerings, student support services, high school/college collaboration, challenges, and sustainability. (Contains 1…

  1. Analyzing Leadership Practices of Enrollment Management at Fletcher Technical Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rholdon, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The study problem was the lack of available information regarding leadership in enrollment management at community colleges. As legislators continue to increase tuition in Louisiana to offset holes in the state budget, leaders in enrollment management at community colleges are being heavily relied upon to successfully recruit and retain students…

  2. Interinstitutional Collaboration Practices between Virginia Community Colleges and High Schools Involved in Dual Enrollment Articulation Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caradona, Sally Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build on the previous work of articulation practices of Virginia's public school divisions and community colleges participating in dual enrollment partnerships, and to understand the role of the community college in initiating, developing, and implementing dual enrollment programs. The primary focus involved…

  3. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2013" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2013. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  4. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2014" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2014. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  5. Wyoming Community College System Annual Enrollment Report. Academic Year 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an annual look at the summer 2009, fall 2009 and spring 2010 terms' enrollment in categories such as enrollment status, location and demographics of the community college student population. The content and format of this report have been developed through a collaborative effort between the Wyoming Community College Commission…

  6. Economic Diversity among Selective Colleges: Measuring the Enrollment Impact of "No-Loan" Programs. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Students from low-income families are underrepresented in higher education, despite the fact that many of them are well qualified to enroll. When low-income students do enroll in college, they tend to be overrepresented in public community colleges and for-profit institutions, or if they attend four-year institutions, tend to attend regional state…

  7. A National Analysis of Noncredit Community College Education: Enrollment, Funding, Accountability, and Contextual Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Morgan, Grant B.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Adair, J. Lucas; Miller, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Noncredit community college enrollment accounts for approximately 40% of all enrollment in the two-year sector, or five million students (American Association of Community Colleges, 2016). Yet, this population is seldom discussed in the higher education literature due to inconsistent definitions, funding, and data reporting at the state level.…

  8. The Assumed Benefits and Hidden Costs of Adult Learners' College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun; Baker, Rose M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of adults' enrollment in and graduation from a two-year college on their hourly wages and occupational status in U.S. by employing a growth curve model and a piecewise model. College enrollment reduced hourly wages and occupational status by 13.8% and 2.74 points, respectively. Less-educated workers whose wages…

  9. "I Don't Know, I've Never Been to College!" Dual Enrollment as a College Readiness Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence that positive academic outcomes in high school and college are related to dual enrollment participation for middle- and even low-achieving students. But the reality is that most dual enrollment programs are intended for students with at least some basic level of college academic skills, as they require students to meet entry…

  10. An Analysis of Economic Variables Affecting Enrollments in the South Carolina Technical College System and Virginia Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Hope Epps

    2010-01-01

    The idea that high unemployment rates give rise to higher enrollments for community colleges is widely accepted (Sundberg, 1998). However, according to Betts and McFarland (1995), not much is known empirically about the role that economic factors play in determining two-year college enrollment. Only a few states have included cyclical variables in…

  11. Effectiveness and Student Success: Transforming Community Colleges for the 1990's. Proceedings from the Conference (Chicago, Illinois, June 25-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, Dan, Ed.; And Others

    The eight general session, exemplary practice, and roundtable papers contained in this conference proceedings report focus on various aspects of institutional effectiveness and student outcomes. The volume includes: (1) "Effectiveness and Student Success in Community Colleges: Practices, Realities, and Imperatives," by Peter Ewell; (2) "Rhetoric…

  12. Effectiveness and Student Success: Transforming Community Colleges for the 1990's. Proceedings from the Conference. (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 24-26, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, Dan, Ed.; And Others

    The 27 papers included in this proceedings report focus on various aspects of institutional effectiveness and student outcomes. The papers are: (1) "Assessment Update: Ends, Means and Results" (Banta); (2) "The Top Ten Issues Facing America's Community Colleges" (Lorenzo and Banach); (3) "Assessing Institutional Effectiveness in Continuing…

  13. Credit and Non-Credit Community College Enrollment and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frentzos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    Though studies have been conducted to find out the effect of unemployment on credit enrollment in community colleges, none have been done to find the effect of unemployment on non-credit enrollment. The present study explores the following question: "When the economy is on a downward curve, does non-credit enrollment decrease and credit…

  14. Black Students of United Methodist-Related Colleges and Universities: An Enrollment Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Ken

    United Methodist-related colleges and universities maintained black enrollment at 9 percent of the total student body consistently during the period 1976-80, keeping pace with the growth in overall enrollment. Many institutions showed a decline in black student enrollment in 1978, with a significant increase in 1980, particularly in the…

  15. Community Colleges: Enrollment Trends and Marketing Processes--Their Impact on Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatham, Elaine

    With the decline of enrollment at a number of community colleges there is a demand for accurate enrollment projections, yet enrollment is increasingly difficult to forecast. Student body composition has changed markedly from the traditional 18 year old group as the percentage of women and part-time students and students' ages have increased. Also,…

  16. Fall 2008 College and University Enrollment in Connecticut: Comprehensive Report. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Enrollment at Connecticut's 46 colleges and universities reached yet another record of 184,544 in fall 2008. This report presents general trends in headcount enrollment; analyzes full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment; and provides demographic details on residence, race, freshmen, migration of recent high school graduates, gender and age. (Contains…

  17. The Simulation of College Enrollments: A Description of a Higher Education Enrollment Forecasting Model. New York State 1978-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Postsecondary Research, Information Systems, and Institutional Aid.

    A highly technical report describes higher education forecasting procedures used by the State Education Department of New York at Albany to project simulated college enrollments for New York State from 1978-1994. Basic components of the projections--generated for full- and part-time undergraduates, full- and part-time graduates, and…

  18. Strategic Enrollment Management for Chief Enrollment ­Officers: Practical Use of Statistical and Mathematical Data in Forecasting First Year and Transfer College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Randall; Wyant, Robert; Scheid, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Both an art and a science, enrollment projections have become a major component to effective college and university fiscal planning. With stagnant or declining state budget support for public higher education along with an increasing emphasis on revenue generation, never before has predicting the size of an entering class become more imperative.…

  19. Black Students Enrolled in White Colleges and Universities: Their Attitudes and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Larry G.

    A sample of 2,564 black college students attending 19 predominantly white colleges in the south were surveyed to determine their attitudes and opinions about their institutions. The students were generally female, under 21 years of age, single, and enrolled full-time. The survey focused on four areas: campus life and activities, college choice,…

  20. Administrators' Perceptions of the Enrollment Management Practices at the Comprehensive Public Associate's Colleges in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abston, Byron O.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment management is a major component within the organizational structure of most four-year universities today. However, this is not necessarily the case with community colleges. With the continual decrease in public funding and increased competition with private colleges and universities, public community colleges are now being forced to…

  1. Young Adults' Fertility Expectations and Events: Associations with College Enrollment and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, R. Kelly; Kim, Yujin; Daniels, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The analyses described in this article investigated the association between adolescent fertility expectations and college enrollment (N = 7,838). They also explored the potential impact of fertility expectations and events on college persistence among 4-year (n = 2,605) and 2-year (n = 1,962) college students. The analysis, which used data from…

  2. The Growth of International Student Enrollment at Community Colleges and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anayah, Bernadette; Kuk, Linda

    2015-01-01

    An emerging trend today is the increased enrollment of international students at community colleges. International students look to American community colleges as a steppingstone to achieving an education that might otherwise be beyond their reach. They are attracted to the community college by the lower tuition costs, opportunities for guaranteed…

  3. The Small College Enrollment Officer: Relationship Marketing at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective college students regularly read in promotional literature that the college experience is personal and unique to each individual. However, if their experience in the recruitment process proves otherwise it is difficult to convince students that they can each have a personal relationship with the institution. Small colleges can overcome…

  4. Open Enrollment: Challenge to the College Reading/Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstiens, Gene

    The procedure for determining, by computer-programing, English sections according to test results at El Camino College, California, is described. El Camino College is a large community college in the Los Angeles area, admission to which is based solely on a high school diploma and residence in the district. As a result of entrance test scores on…

  5. Equilibrium Tuition, Applications, Admissions and Enrollment in the College Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Chao

    2010-01-01

    I develop and structurally estimate an equilibrium model of the college market. Students, who are heterogeneous in both abilities and preferences, make college application decisions, subject to uncertainty and application costs. Colleges observe only noisy measures of student ability and set up tuition and admissions policies to compete for more…

  6. Enrollments in Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy, 1986-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penna, Richard P.; Sherman, Michael S.

    1987-01-01

    National survey data on pharmaceutical education enrollment rates and trends at all degree levels include information on full- and part-time enrollments, student gender and ethnic characteristics, patterns of specialization, sources of previous degrees, student country of origin, and fellowships. (MSE)

  7. The Mixmasters: A Smart Marketing Mix Helps a Small College Dramatically Increase Student Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, R. Dana; Stark, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Adrian College's steady increase and confidence in enrollment projections stem from a research-based, thoughtfully planned, carefully implemented, highly controlled marketing programs. Four major elements of a successful marketing mix are identified: product, price, place, promotion. (MLW)

  8. An Evaluation of Enrollment Management Models of the 28 Florida Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoBasso, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which enrollment management models have been successfully implemented within the 28 Florida community colleges. The study also sought to determine when enrollment management structures began and whether expected benefits were achieved. Analysis of the data collected in this study indicated…

  9. Report on 2012 Distance Education Offerings and Enrollments at Maryland Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Maryland's postsecondary colleges and universities serve more than 350,000 students and enrollments are expected to increase in the coming years. Along with growth in enrollment, the state expects to see an increasingly diverse student body. The 2013-2017 Maryland State Plan for Higher Education, "Maryland Ready," highlights the…

  10. Trends in Black Students' College Enrollments And Participation Rates in Pennsylvania, 1980 to 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    This report examines the trends in Black undergraduate enrollments at Pennsylvania colleges and universities and postsecondary education participation rates for Pennsylvania's Black high school graduating classes for the 1980s. Enrollment trends for all undergraduates, full-time undergraduates, first-time undergraduates and for part-time…

  11. San Bernardino Valley College Strategic Enrollment Management Plan: Recruitment and Retention, 2000-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, David T., Ed.

    The San Bernardino Valley College (California) Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Plan was developed to specifically increase student enrollment and to improve retention over 2000-2002, and thereafter. Presents the SEM plan in two parts: recruitment and retention. The date, description, action, person responsible, date needed, date completed,…

  12. The Response of US College Enrollment to Unexpected Changes in Macroeconomic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Kris M.; Beckert, Kim A.; Ewing, Bradley T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the extent and magnitude of US college and university enrollment responses to unanticipated changes in macroeconomic activity. In particular, we consider the relationship between enrollment, economic growth, and inflation. A time series analysis known as a vector autoregression is estimated and impulse response functions are…

  13. Enrollment and Persistence of Female STEM Majors at a 2-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Jerrold Lee

    2009-01-01

    This study examined Hocking College female students who were enrolled engineering majors from 2001-2007, and comparatively examined female students who were enrolled in different programs within other majors. Specifically examined were student persistence two quarters postengineering studies, student persistence to graduation, student persistence…

  14. Community-College Enrollments Are up, but Institutions Struggle to Pay for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushong, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The downturn in the economy has coincided with enrollment increases at many community colleges. However, although enrollment at two-year institutions is up, several states have trimmed--or even chopped--appropriations for higher education. Florida, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Tennessee have each cut financing for 2009 by at least 5 percent,…

  15. Delayed Enrollment and College Plans: Is There a Postponement Penalty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance--focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student…

  16. Enrollment Management, Institutional Resources, and the Private College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph A.; Coomes, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews issues involved in shaping institutional financial aid policy, including tuition discounting, student aid packaging policy, and merit scholarships. States policymakers cannot ignore the trend towards reducing public subsidies. Suggests colleges and policymakers: (1) develop new ways to make college more affordable; (2) give families…

  17. Is a Dream Deferred a Dream Denied? College Enrollment and Labor Market Search. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Arce, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    A public college in Mexico City randomly assigns applicants into a group that can immediately enroll and a group that can only do so after one year. The author shows that the standard model of educational decisions predicts no (or minimal) effect of deferral on educational attainment. He surveyed the applicants to this college for the 2007/2008…

  18. Exploring Retention from Perceptions of Nontraditional Students Enrolled in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Tara Camille

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges serve a vital role within the American education system and as the number of nontraditional students increase, further research is warranted in understanding how these particular students can be retained. Nontraditional student enrollment is highest at community colleges; however, they have the lowest rates in being retained.…

  19. Los Angeles Community College District Feeder High School Student Characteristics and Enrollment Patterns, 1983-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Jeanne T.

    A study was conducted by the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) to examine rates of matriculation from the Los Angeles Unified School District's (LAUSD's) 64 high schools to the LACCD and to develop recommendations for expanding college-going rates. An analysis of enrollment and flow patterns revealed the following: (1) LAUSD high…

  20. Student Success Courses in the Community College: Early Enrollment and Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Virginia Community College System and building upon prior Florida-based research, this study examines whether student success course enrollment, as well as student and institutional characteristics, has positive associations with shorter-term student outcomes, including earning any college credits within the first year and…

  1. Factors and Characteristics Influencing the College Enrollment, Retention, and Graduation of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilborn, Willie J.

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, Black male students have been enrolling in college in growing numbers. They have also been dropping out of college, prior to graduation, in high numbers. These trends have generated concern among educators and policymakers about the economic future of the Black community. Despite these concerns, most of the research on this…

  2. Junior College Directory, 1965. Period Covering June 1963-May 1964 and Fall Enrollments for 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Based on a survey conducted by the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC), this directory provides information on 719 non-profit, public and private two-year colleges in the United States and its territories, including statistics on 1963-64 enrollments and personnel. Following material on the scope and compilation of the directory,…

  3. Junior College Directory, 1966. Period Covering September 1964-August 1965 and Fall Enrollments for 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Based on a survey conducted by the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC), this directory provides information on 771 non-profit, public and private two-year colleges in the United States and its territories, including statistics on 1964-65 enrollments, personnel, and student costs. Following material on the scope and compilation of the…

  4. Junior College Directory, 1967. Period Covering September 1965-August 1966 and Fall Enrollments for 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, William A., Ed.

    Based on a survey conducted by the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC), this directory provides information on 837 non-profit, public and private two-year colleges in the United States and its territories, including statistics on 1965-66 enrollments, personnel, and student costs. Following material on the scope and compilation of the…

  5. Junior College Directory, 1968. Period Covering September 1966-August 1967 and Fall Enrollments for 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, William A., Ed.

    Based on a survey conducted by the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC), this directory provides information on 912 non-profit, public and private two-year colleges in the United States and its territories, including statistics on 1966-67 enrollments, personnel, and student costs. Following material on the scope and compilation of the…

  6. An Enrollment Analysis of El Camino College Students, Fall 1975. OIR-76-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Jerry C.

    In order to provide a basis for enrollment projection, curriculum development, and overall college planning, the Office of Research at El Camino College analyzed various characteristics of the fall 1975 student population according to age. The eight graphs presented in this report provide the following information: (1) distributions of percent of…

  7. Annual Student Enrollments and Completions in the Illinois Community College System, Fiscal Year 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The colleges in the Illinois Community College System submit detailed credit student records twice during each fiscal year. This year's report is based on fiscal year 2005 enrollments and completions. Comparative information is supplied from four previous fiscal years (2001-2004). Detailed tables comparing fiscal year 2004 and fiscal year 2005…

  8. Annual Student Enrollments and Completions in the Illinois Community College System, Fiscal Year 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The colleges in the Illinois Community College System submit detailed student records twice during each fiscal year. This report is based on fiscal year 2004 enrollments and completions and comparative information is supplied from the four previous fiscal years (2000-2003) are also presented. Detailed tables comparing fiscal year 2003 and fiscal…

  9. Does College Enrollment and Bachelor's Completion by Mothers Impact Children's Educational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, David

    2017-01-01

    Today, many undergraduates are themselves raising children. But does college-going by parents improve their offspring's educational attainment? I address this question using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--1979 and linked Children and Young Adults Survey. I first model postnatal college enrollment and bachelor's completion by…

  10. The SOURCE Demonstration Project: Helping Disadvantaged High School Students Enroll in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Johannes; Berman, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    The primary research question for this project was whether a streamlined, relatively inexpensive, counseling-based program that assists low-income high school students with the college and financial application processes can significantly increase college enrollment rates. The intervention was designed to test the hypothesis that lack of…

  11. College Completion: Comparing AP®, Dual-Enrolled, and Nonadvanced Students. Research Report 2014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly; Matos-Elefonte, Haifa; Ewing, Maureen; Patel, Priyank

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here is an investigation and comparison of the relationships between the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) and dual-enrolled high school courses and college outcomes. Previous research provides evidence that participation in AP, and subsequent success on AP Exams, is positively related to various college outcomes including an…

  12. Community College Presidents' Perspectives of Dichotomous Events: The Consequences of the Great Recession & Coincidental Increased Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Corey W.

    2013-01-01

    The community college, like all of higher education, has been significantly impacted by the Great Recession and coincidental increased enrollment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the decision making processes of community college presidents as related to resource allocation and the impact of these decisions on the…

  13. Dual Enrollment in Times of Financial Constraint: A Community College Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockley, Lori White

    2013-01-01

    Community college leaders today must contend with a formidable challenge: dwindling state funding and declining resources. Increased enrollments without proportional increases in state and local financial support have placed colleges in the unenviable position of needing to do more with less--or in some cases, simply do less. Despite the…

  14. College and Academic Self-Efficacy as Antecedents for High School Dual-Credit Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmun, Cliff D.

    2013-01-01

    Do high school students who are predisposed to enroll in dual-credit courses already possess high levels of motivation or college and academic self-efficacy? Students in this study reported being academically motivated, but they did not report high levels of confidence in their ability to perform certain college-associated tasks. Of 52 items…

  15. Past Performance, Quantitative Models, and the Prediction of Community College Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, M. Stephen

    Several models for enrollment projections have been developed based on past performance. One of these, a computer-assisted model developed at the California State University at Northridge, was tested for possible use at Los Angeles Pierce College (LAPC). From three to five previous comparable college terms are used in the model to predict…

  16. Annual Student Enrollments and Completions in the Illinois Community College System, Fiscal Year 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The colleges in the Illinois Community College System submit detailed credit student records twice during each fiscal year. This year's report is based on fiscal year 2006 enrollments and completions. Comparative information is supplied from four previous fiscal years (2002-2005). Detailed tables comparing fiscal year 2005 and fiscal year 2006…

  17. The Relation of Early Adolescents' College Plans and Both Academic Ability and Task-Value Beliefs to Subsequent College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Vida, Mina N.; Barber, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    Although it is likely that plans to attend a 4-year college are made much earlier than the last 2 years of high school, few researchers have assessed the pre-high school factors that influence high school performance and course-enrollment decisions, which, in turn, affect college attendance. The data presented in this article were collected as…

  18. Variation across Hispanic Immigrant Generations in Parent Social Capital, College-Aligned Actions, and Four-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah; Ream, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Not beginning college at a four-year institution has been demonstrated as one key obstacle to equitable rates of bachelor's degree attainment among Hispanic individuals in the United States. Drawing on nationally representative longitudinal data and social capital theory, this research investigates the process of four-year college enrollment among…

  19. Abstract of the American College Testing Class Profile for 1977-78 Freshmen Enrolled in Illinois Public Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Data from 18,385 first-time full-time students, approximately 10% of total freshmen enrolled during 1977-78 at Illinois public community colleges, who took the American College Testing Program (ACT) test showed average ACT composite scores of 16.7 and average high school grade point averages (GPA) of 2.6, compared with national norms for entering…

  20. College to High School: Kentucky's Dual Enrollment Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of results from a recent qualitative study of two Middle College High Schools in Kentucky. The qualitative study utilized Rapid Assessment Process to identify essential elements needed to implement and maintain educational partnerships.

  1. A Community College Roadmap for the Enrollment Management Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Institutions across the nation have strengthened their enrollments through such strategies and tactics as coordination of recruitment activities, enhancement of financial aid processing, implementation of effective retention strategies, development of new instructional programs, a focus on intensive marketing activities, creation of one-stop…

  2. College Enrollment and Work Activity of 2006 High School Graduate. Bureau of Labor Statistics News. USDL 07-0604

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In October 2006, 65.8 percent of high school graduates from the class of 2006 were enrolled in colleges or universities, according to data released by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics. Since 2001, the college enrollment rate for recent high school graduates has been trending upward. Information on school enrollment and…

  3. Social Interactions and College Enrollment: A Combined School Fixed Effects/Instrumental Variables Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides some of the first evidence of peer effects in college enrollment decisions. There are several empirical challenges in assessing the influences of peers in this context, including the endogeneity of high school, shared group-level unobservables, and identifying policy-relevant parameters of social interactions models. This paper addresses these issues by using an instrumental variables/fixed effects approach that compares students in the same school but different grade-levels who are thus exposed to different sets of classmates. In particular, plausibly exogenous variation in peers’ parents’ college expectations are used as an instrument for peers’ college choices. Preferred specifications indicate that increasing a student’s exposure to college-going peers by ten percentage points is predicted to raise the student’s probability of enrolling in college by 4 percentage points. This effect is roughly half the magnitude of growing up in a household with married parents (vs. an unmarried household). PMID:26004476

  4. Social interactions and college enrollment: A combined school fixed effects/instrumental variables approach.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides some of the first evidence of peer effects in college enrollment decisions. There are several empirical challenges in assessing the influences of peers in this context, including the endogeneity of high school, shared group-level unobservables, and identifying policy-relevant parameters of social interactions models. This paper addresses these issues by using an instrumental variables/fixed effects approach that compares students in the same school but different grade-levels who are thus exposed to different sets of classmates. In particular, plausibly exogenous variation in peers' parents' college expectations are used as an instrument for peers' college choices. Preferred specifications indicate that increasing a student's exposure to college-going peers by ten percentage points is predicted to raise the student's probability of enrolling in college by 4 percentage points. This effect is roughly half the magnitude of growing up in a household with married parents (vs. an unmarried household).

  5. Goodbye to Summer Vacation? The Effects of Summer Enrollment on College and Employment Outcomes. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Vivian Yuen Ting

    2016-01-01

    Despite rich evidence on the benefit of summer enrollment at the K-12 level, the college completion literature has so far focused on college readiness, remediation, and financial aid, and has largely overlooked the potential benefits of taking summer courses among college students. Academic momentum theory suggests that summer enrollment may…

  6. Colleges Are Wary of Global Economy's Effect on Foreign Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…

  7. In an Uncertain Summer, Colleges Try to Control Enrollment "Melt"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Each year, admissions officers know that a small percentage of admitted applicants who sent deposits will not show up. The phenomenon, known as "summer melt," has many causes. Students might change their plans because they suddenly get off their first-choice college's waiting list--or because they opt to spend a year caring for penguins in…

  8. Rekindling Minority Enrollment. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Dan, Ed.; Barrera, Adriana, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of community college programs and services designed to enhance minority student participation and success in higher education are described in this volume. Issues related to minority student recruitment, retention, and transfer to four-year institutions, and to minority staff professional development are explored in the following 15…

  9. The Effect of Florida's Bright Futures Program on College Enrollment and Degree Production: An Aggregated-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Hu, Shouping; Sensenig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of the Bright Futures Scholarship Program on college enrollment and degree production in Florida by using IPEDS enrollment, migration, and completion data. Results suggest large and significant enrollment effects at Florida's public 4- and 2-year institutions, for both full-time and part-time enrollment.…

  10. College Competition: The Effects of the Expansion of For-Profit Colleges on Student Enrollments and Outcomes at Public Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliz, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges enrolled 37 percent of students attending Title IV-eligible, degree-granting institutions in 2000, but by 2012, this had dropped to 33 percent (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2013). At least some of this decline is hypothesized to be due to the rise of for-profit institutions, which enrolled approximately 9…

  11. Adjustment Issues of International Students Enrolled in American Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Abrahao Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature concerning the adjustment issues experienced by international students enrolled in American colleges and universities. Convergent findings indicated that English fluency, social support, length of stay in the U.S., perceived discrimination or prejudice, establishing relationships with Americans, and…

  12. Logit Estimation of a Gravity Model of the College Enrollment Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppel, Karen

    1993-01-01

    A study investigated the factors influencing students' decisions about attending a college to which they had been admitted. Logit analysis confirmed gravity model predictions that geographic distance and student ability would most influence the enrollment decision and found other variables, although affecting earlier stages of decision making, did…

  13. High School and Community College Dual Enrollment: Issues of Rigor and Transferability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Patricia

    In December 1993, the University of Florida issued a report that found that the vast majority of students who had taken chemistry courses in dual enrollment programs at a community college and who did not meet standard admissions requirements were required to retake their courses at the University. In response to the report, the state's Community…

  14. Gender Gaps in College Enrollment: The Role of Gender Sorting across Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Dylan; Long, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses Florida administrative data to evaluate the role that public high schools play in the growing female advantage in college enrollment. We first show evidence of gender sorting across public high schools that is beyond what one would observe if students were randomly assigned to their schools. Using regression and decomposition…

  15. The Effects of the Introduction of Bachelor Degrees on College Enrollment and Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horstschräer, Julia; Sprietsma, Maresa

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the short-term effects of the introduction of the Bachelor degree system in Germany, a change in degree regulations such that students need less time to earn a first degree, on college enrollment and dropout rates. We use variation in the timing of the reform at the university department level to identify the effects of the reform…

  16. Are State Non-Need, Merit-Based Scholarship Programs Impacting College Enrollment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Patricia L.; Kienzl, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether non-need, merit-based scholarship programs are effective in encouraging students to enroll in postsecondary education and, more specifically, attend an in-state college. National residence and migration data from 1992 to 2004 (alternating even years) were used within a fixed effect regression framework. This approach,…

  17. Universal SAT® Policy Boosts 4-Year College Enrollment. Info to Go™ 2015-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Maine replaced its existing high school statewide assessment with the SAT® and administered the exam to almost all public high school juniors. A primary goal of this policy change was to increase 4-year college enrollment by public school students in Maine. This brief report provides an overview of the data, research methodology employed, as well…

  18. A Study to Determine Student Goals for Students Enrolled in a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Ann McGee

    As part of an effort to include student educational objectives in the institutional planning process, a Student Goals Inventory (SGI) was administered during registration in Fall 1979 to the total population of students enrolled in credit courses at Florida Keys Community College. The SGI requested students to rank order the importance of goal…

  19. A Report on the Effects of Environmental and Institutional Factors on College and University Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack Y.; Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The effects of five environmental and five institutional factors on college and university enrollments during the period between 1975-1976 and 1980-1981 were studied with a sample of 2,101 institutions. The environmental factors were federal student aid, state student aid, number of 18-year-olds, unemployment, and level of economic wealth as…

  20. Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino College Enrollment: Student, School, and State-Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Kim, Dongbin

    2012-01-01

    Latinos' college enrollment rates, particularly in four-year institutions, have not kept pace with their population growth in the United States. Using three-level hierarchical generalized linear modeling, this study analyzes data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine the influence of high school and state contexts, in addition…

  1. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  2. The Pell and the Poor: A Regression-Discontinuity Analysis of On-Time College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rachel B.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I capitalize on a natural experiment to examine the effect of federal Pell Grant eligibility on college enrollment for students who graduated from high school in spring 2004 and who completed the "Free Application for Federal Student Aid" (FAFSA). Data from the "Education Longitudinal Study of 2002" are used to…

  3. Career Indecision Levels of Students Enrolled in a College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Levon T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of career indecision of students enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University. A primary goal of this research was to explore the construct of career indecision using the three factor structure identified by Kelly and Lee (2002). The factors of interest in…

  4. Desperately Seeking Students: Several Public Flagships Attempt to Reverse Disturbing Declines in Black Student College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    As high-school seniors begin to choose colleges in the coining months, officials at many public flagships nervously hope that their renewed outreach to Black students reverses steep and disappointing enrollment drops. Those declines, some of them by double-digit percentages, have caused extensive soul searching and near panic among academia's…

  5. Degrees Granted and Enrollment Trends in Historically Black Colleges: An Eight-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Elias, Jr.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study looks at two indexes of growth and development of black colleges: trends in student enrollment and trends in the awarding of degrees. This 8-year study covers the period 1966-1973. There are 98 of the 107 historically black schools including 86 4-year schools, 50 private schools, and 36 public. Results indicated that baccalaureate…

  6. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  7. Early College and Dual Enrollment Challenges: Inroads and Impediments to Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee; Howley, Marged D.; Howley, Craig B.; Duncan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, some school reformers have come to see early college and dual enrollment as mechanisms for increasing the academic engagement and performance of a range of students beyond those exhibiting high academic achievement or ability. Despite purported benefits, research on the dynamics of such programs is limited. This case study adds to…

  8. Attitudes of College Students Enrolled in 2-Year Health Care Programs towards Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Dalya

    2012-01-01

    Colleges offering 2-year diplomas to high-school graduates were among the forefront leaders in online learning however studies illustrating appropriate course construction for such student populations are scarce. Pharmacy Math (MATH16532) is a core course for students enrolled in the Practical Nursing (PN) and Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs at…

  9. Examining the Role of Advanced Placement[R] Exam Participation in 4-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajewski, Michael; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and enrollment in a 4-year postsecondary institution. A positive relationship was expected given that the primary purpose of offering AP courses is to allow students to engage in college-level academic work while in high school, and…

  10. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  11. Improving the Cultural Acclimation of International Students Enrolled in American Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the importance of helping international students acclimate to their American campus culture in order to meet the aspirations of international education. The study includes a comprehensive overview of international student enrollment in American colleges and universities. It also identifies the many benefits, including…

  12. Orientation Booklet for Parents Enrolled in Parent Education Cooperative Groups. Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others

    This booklet provides parents with information to help them get the most from their enrollment in parent education cooperative groups. Orientation information is presented for both the Parent Walkabout/Parent Toddler Programs and the Parent Cooperative Preschool Programs at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. Informative material on the…

  13. High School Career and Technical Education Participation and Initial College Enrollment: Evidence from Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Shaun M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses rich administrative data from Arkansas to understand whether and how high school career and technical education (CTE) programs are related to initial enrollment in college after high school. This descriptive work is designed to inform how other state and local policymakers understand the potential role of high school CTE…

  14. Better Late Than Never? Delayed Enrollment in the High School to College Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozick, Robert; DeLuca, Stefanie

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the antecedents and consequences of timing in the transition from high school to college. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), we find that 16 percent of high school graduates postpone enrollment by seven months or more after completing high school. Delayers tend to have some common…

  15. Essays on the Economics of Education: Structured Transfer Programs, Enrollment Patterns, and Efficiency at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosta, Peter Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, community colleges serve nearly half of the 18 million students enrolled in postsecondary education. However, it has only been the last decade or so where these public, two-year institutions have claimed substantial attention from the research community. This dissertation consists of three essays that focus on aspects of the…

  16. Early College Academic Performance: Studying the Effects of Earning College Credits from Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jermaine F.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact of Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) on early college academic performance by analyzing and comparing first year and sophomore year persistence rates and grade point averages (GPAs) of four student cohorts who began their education at a large urban research I university in fall 2007. These…

  17. The Effect of Transition Planning Participation and Goal-Setting on College Enrollment among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Wagner, Mary; Hudson, Laura; Yu, Jennifer W.; Javitz, Harold

    2016-01-01

    This study used propensity score techniques to assess the relationship between transition planning participation and goal-setting and college enrollment among youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Using data from Waves 1 through 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, this study found that 2- or 4-year college enrollment rates were…

  18. Impact of Inclusive College Programs Serving Students with Intellectual Disabilities on Disability Studies Interns and Typically Enrolled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, Margo Vreeburg; Shuman, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm and extend prior research on the attitudes and experiences of typical college students towards students with intellectual disabilities who were enrolled in an inclusive postsecondary program. College students enrolled in a Disability Studies Internship class completed surveys, journals, and participated in…

  19. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "The Impact of Dual Enrollment on College Degree Attainment: Do Low-SES Students Benefit?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study reviewed in this report used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) to examine the effects of dual enrollment programs for high school students on college degree attainment. The study further reported on whether the impacts of dual enrollment were different for first generation college students. Dual enrollment…

  20. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "The Impact of Dual Enrollment on College Degree Attainment: Do Low-SES Students Benefit?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) to examine the effects of dual enrollment programs for high school students on college degree attainment. The study further reported on whether the impacts of dual enrollment were different for first generation college students. Dual enrollment…

  1. College Enrollment and Work Activity of 2005 High School Graduates. Bureau of Labor Statistics News. USDL 06-514

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In October 2005, 68.6 percent of high school graduates from the class of 2005 were enrolled in colleges or universities, according to data released on March 24, 2006 by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics. The college enrollment rate for recent high school graduates was a historical high for the series dating back to 1959.…

  2. A Guide to Enrollment Growth Management in the California Community Colleges: A "How To Do It" Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. League of California, Sacramento. Commission on Education Policy.

    Intended as a guide to help California Community College administrators plan for and manage enrollment growth, this document provides information on preparing enrollment growth plans, recruiting and marketing, and developing financial resources. Following a preface, background information is provided on enrollment growth management (EGM), defining…

  3. The Pursuit of Excellence: An Analysis of the Honors College Application and Enrollment Decision for a Large Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Tang, Hui-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Honors colleges housed in public universities began only in the last half century, but have become nearly ubiquitous over the last 20 years. This paper, using recent data from the oldest stand-alone honors college in the country, is the first to study how the application and enrollment decisions of honors college students differ from the general…

  4. A Strategic Enrollment Management Approach to Studying High School Student Transition to a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Ye, Feifei; Pilarzyk, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study used a strategic enrollment management (SEM) approach to studying high school students' transition to a two-year college and their initial college success. Path analyses suggested two important findings: (a) clear career choices among students, family influence, academic preparedness, and college recruitment efforts predicted earlier…

  5. Law Library Service in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "The Bookmark" presents 20 articles focusing on various aspects of law library services in New York State. The articles are: (1) "Law Library Services in the 1990's" (Christine Bain); (2) "A Librarian's View of Legal Publishing Today" (Margaret Maes Axtmann); (3) "Legal Publishing--A Publisher's View" (Kenneth Lee Halajian); (4)…

  6. Introduction: Themes for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul A.; Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the following themes that pervade individual articles in this volume: (1) critical reasoning; (2) inductive anthropology; (3) active learning; (4) discovery; (5) open versus closed anthropology; (6) reflexivity; (7) cross-cultural comparisons; (8) films; (9) holism; and (10) problems in the 1990s. Suggests that these themes will be at…

  7. College Student Experiences Questionnaire: Norms for the Third Edition, 1990. Part One: Tentative Norms for the 1990s. Part Two: Comparable Responses from the 1980s. Part Three: Bibliography [and] Psychometric Supplement to the CSEQ, Third Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, C. Robert; Swayze, Susan

    This document presents tentative 1990-91 norms for the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ).The norms are based on student (n=20,513) questionnaires which gathered data from 18 doctoral universities, 21 general liberal arts colleges, 19 comprehensive colleges and universities, and 5 highly selective liberal arts colleges. Data are…

  8. The Relationship between Local Wealth and Dual Enrollment Participation in Virginia's Community Colleges: Rural, Urban, and Suburban Patterns and Subsequent Postsecondary Enrollment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ellen Richardson

    2013-01-01

    In Virginia, the availability of dual enrollment classes for high school students has varied, depending on the interest of the local school division and the community college's president in whose service region the school division is located. HB 1184, which passed in the 2012 session of the Virginia General Assembly, stipulates that the…

  9. The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SAT®. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage…

  10. Marketing ambulatory services in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hicks, S

    1992-07-01

    The ability to predict, to adapt to change, and to develop strategic low cost marketing plans are the components essential to remaining financially solvent in today's health care environment. The marketing process is analogous to the nursing process and should support the institution's mission statement, philosophy, and goals. Managers who are able to empower their personnel to become the sales force and implement the marketing plan will be the survivors in the 1990s.

  11. The Financial Impact of Part-Time Enrollments on Two-Year Colleges: A Marginal-Cost Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.

    In light of the increasing enrollment of part-time students at public two-year colleges, the question arises whether the conventional ratio (3:1 or so) for converting part-time to full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment accurately represents the actual costs of providing services to part-time versus full-time students. A study was conducted to…

  12. Joint Enrollment Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Education collects information on joint enrollment in Iowa's 15 community colleges. Jointly enrolled students are high school students enrolled in community college credit coursework. Most jointly enrolled students enroll through Senior Year Plus (SYP) programs such as Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) and concurrent…

  13. Stepping Stones to a Degree: The Impact of Enrollment Pathways and Milestones on Community College Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calcagno, Juan Carlos; Crosta, Peter; Bailey, Thomas; Jenkins, Davis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of the experiences and outcomes of older and younger community college students. We developed a discrete-time hazard model using longitudinal transcript data on a cohort of first-time community college students in Florida to compare the impact of enrollment pathways (such as remediation) and enrollment…

  14. Considerations and Recommendations for Implementing a Dual-Enrollment Program: Bridging the Gap between High School and College Level Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-enrollment (DE) science courses offer a way to strengthen the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics pipeline between high school and college. These courses offer high school students the opportunity to experience college science in a more supported environment, allowing them to adjust to the different academic and social demands…

  15. A Comparison of the College Outcomes of AP® and Dual Enrollment Students. Research Report 2015-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Patterson, Brian F.; Di Giacomo, F. Tony

    2015-01-01

    Educators are increasingly focused on ensuring that students experience a rigorous curriculum in high school and graduate college and career ready. One way of introducing rigorous course work is to have students take college-level work, often in the form of either an AP® course and exam or a dual enrollment course. This study compared the outcomes…

  16. Increasing College Enrollment among Low- and Moderate-Income Families: An Intervention to Improve Information and Access to Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Eric P.; Long, Bridget Terry; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Higher education plays an increasingly important role in helping individuals attain social and economic success. Yet, despite decades of financial aid policy, substantial gaps in college access remain by income level and race. One major impediment to increasing college enrollment among low-income students is the lack of information about financial…

  17. High-school seniors' college enrollment goals: Costs and benefits of ambitious expectations.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Brandilynn J; Heckhausen, Jutta; Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-12-01

    High school students with high long-term educational expectations attain higher levels of education than those with lower expectations. Less studied is the role of students' short-term college enrollment expectations for the year after high school graduation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the costs and benefits of ambitious short-term expectations and the impact of falling short of these expectations on mental health, motivation, and educational outcomes. Over 1000 youth with expectations to attend college were surveyed during their senior year of high school, one year later, and four years later. Participants who did not achieve their short-term expectations had lower educational attainment four years later but were not less satisfied with their educational progress. The negative consequences of falling short of one's expectations were restricted to individuals with less ambitious short-term expectations. Thus, the benefits of ambitious short-term expectations for youth may outweigh the costs.

  18. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. This paper will highlight some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's.

  19. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1991-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. Some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's are highlighted.

  20. Systems for Offering Concurrent Enrollment at High Schools and Community Colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 113. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Piedad F., Ed.; Chapman, Brian G., Ed.; Gaskin, Fred, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The spring 2001 issue of "New Directions for Community Colleges" discusses concurrent enrollment programs and the challenges and issues associated with developing and maintaining such programs. Chapters include: (1) "State Policy and Postsecondary Enrollment Options: Creating Seamless Systems" (Katherine Boswell); (2) "A…

  1. Dual enrollment as a factor for women transitioning into STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakes, Penny Jane

    The purpose of this non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was to describe the impact high school dual enrollment coursework has had on initial enrollment of women with STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges. The study was designed to find whether or not differences existed for access (initial enrollment), persistence (to third semester), and success (associate's degree, certificate, or transfer to a four-year institution within 150% of program length). The literature review highlighted the need for studies to address the issue of few women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. One goal of dual enrollment in Montana is to ease transitions from high school to college, including underrepresented populations such as women in STEM fields. The scope of this study was to collect, organize, and interpret data to describe the effect of that effort for women enrolling in STEM majors at two-year colleges in Montana. Baseline information established the demographics of young women who participated in dual enrollment in Montana high schools during 2007-2009. Data analysis described results using attributes of gender, dual enrollment, access, persistence, and success for those enrolled in STEM fields. Results indicated more young women than young men take advantage of dual enrollment in high school and more women than men with dual-enrollment credit initially enroll in college. More men than women major in a STEM field and more men persist and graduate within the STEM fields. Data indicated that 221 students enrolled in a Montana two-year college with DE/DC credit during 2007-2009. Of those, eight women chose STEM majors, six persisted to the third semester, and two completed. It is recommended that a mixed-methods study be conducted to give a deeper level of understanding for enrollment trends and career choice. Longitudinal studies should also be conducted as dual enrollment grows within the state of Montana. Further studies

  2. Tracking 2003 ACT[R]-Tested High School Graduates: College Readiness, Enrollment, and Long-Term Success. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between multiple measures of college readiness and success in college. Outcomes included enrollment in college immediately after high school, retention in college, and degree completion. College readiness indicators at time of high school graduation included ACT[R] scores and Benchmark attainment, high school…

  3. Perceptions on Intelligence and Self-Efficacy: A Qualitative Study of Students Enrolled in Transitional Education Reading Courses in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Acquelnetta Yvette

    2014-01-01

    It is vital for adults to have a college degree to sustain or improve their quality of life (Broad, 2010). It is during the college enrollment process that many adults discover they are underprepared for college-level coursework. Consequently, they are required to enroll in transitional education courses in math, writing, and/or reading to prepare…

  4. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A.…

  5. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  6. Examining the College Preparation and Intermediate Outcomes of College Success of Avid Graduates Enrolled in Universities and Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Jeffery; Watt, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study examined first-year university and community college students who were former Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) high school students. Participants in this study were students from groups that are underrepresented in higher education. In the first sample of 329 graduates, grade point average and college credit…

  7. A Study of Mississippi Community and Junior College Dual Enrollment Collaboration Practices with Secondary Schools and Parents of Home-Schooled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellum, LaNell Bagwell

    2009-01-01

    This study provides data from an existing review of secondary data and a survey of dual enrollment managers on the topic of Mississippi community and junior colleges' dual enrollment collaborations with secondary schools and parents of home-schooled students. Dual enrollment, also known as dual credit, concurrent enrollment, and credit based…

  8. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  9. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  10. Explosive Welding in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalwaney, N. S.; Linse, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive bonding is a unique joining process with the serious potential to produce composite materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials needs of the 1990's. The process has the technological versatility to provide a true high quality metallurgical compatible and incompatible systems. Metals routinely explosively bonded include a wide variety of combinations of reactive and refractory metals, low and high density metals and their alloys, corrosion resistant and high strength alloys, and common steels. The major advantage of the process is its ability to custom design and engineer composites with physical and/or mechanical properties that meet a specific or unusual performance requirement. Explosive bonding offers the designer unique opportunities in materials selection with unique combinations of properties and high integrity bonds that cannot be achieved by any other metal joining process. The process and some applications are discussed.

  11. Computing possibilities in the mid 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes the kind of computing resources it may be possible to make available for experiments in high energy physics in the mid and late 1990s. We outline some of the work going on today, particularly at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program, that projects to the future. We attempt to define areas in which coordinated R and D efforts should prove fruitful to provide for on and off-line computing in the SSC era. Because of extraordinary components anticipated from industry, we can be optimistic even to the level of predicting million VAX equivalent on-line multiprocessor/data acquisition systems for SSC detectors. Managing this scale of computing will require a new approach to large hardware and software systems. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Factors that promote success in women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural North Carolina community colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, Shannon D.

    Women have historically been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields). The underrepresentation of women in STEM may be attributable to a variety of factors. These may include different choices men and women typically make in response to incentives in STEM education. For example, STEM career paths may be less accommodating to people who are less resilient. Another factor may be that there are relatively few female STEM role models. Perhaps strong gender stereotypes discourage women from pursuing STEM education and STEM jobs. The factors that contribute to success and the barriers that impeded success must be identified before any steps can be taken to improve the educational outcomes for women in STEM disciplines. Consequently, relatively little is known about the role of resilience in academically successful adult women in rural community colleges enrolled in STEM disciplines and the mechanisms that underlie the performance deficits that occur as a result of stereotype threat effect. This mixed method study addressed those knowledge gaps by determining: (1) if high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and (2) if stereotype threat effect is a risk factor for these women. Quantitative data were collected by using "The Resilience Scale" (Wagnild & Young, 1987) and through examination of grade point average of students from Datatel data management software. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings from this study indicate high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and stereotype threat effect was a risk factor for low-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores less than 121 and grade point averages lower than 2.70) and was not a

  13. The motivations and experiences of students enrolled in online science courses at the community college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Urbi

    An important question in online learning involves how to effectively motivate and retain students in science online courses. There is a dearth of research and knowledge about the experiences of students enrolled in online science courses in community colleges which has impeded the proper development and implementation of online courses and retention of students in the online environment. This study sought to provide an understanding of the relationships among each of the following variables: self-efficacy, task value, negative-achievement emotions, self-regulation learning strategies (metacognition), learning strategy (elaboration), and course satisfaction to student's performance (course final grade). Bandura's social-cognitive theory was used as a framework to describe the relationships among students' motivational beliefs (perceived task value, self-efficacy, and self-regulation) and emotions (frustration and boredom) with the dependent variables (elaboration and overall course satisfaction). A mixed-method design was used with a survey instrumentation and student interviews. A variety of science online courses in biology, genetics, astronomy, nutrition, and chemistry were surveyed in two community colleges. Community colleges students (N = 107) completed a questionnaire during enrollment in a variety of online science online courses. Upon course completion, 12 respondents were randomly selected for follow-up in-depth interviews. Multiple regression results from the study indicate perceived task value and self-regulatory learning strategies (metacognition) were as important predictors for students' use of elaboration, while self-efficacy and the number of prior online courses was not significant predictors for students' elaboration when all four predictors were included. Frustration was a significant negative predictor of overall course satisfaction, and boredom unexpectedly emerged as a positive predictor when frustration was also in the model. In addition, the

  14. Mars exploration in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Science objectives for a Mars exploration program in the 1990s, set forth by NASA's Committee on Planetary Exploration, are presented. They include: an intensive study of the Martian surface, the exploration of the structure and general circulation of the atmosphere, the exploration of the nature and dynamics of the planet's interior, the nature of Mars's magnetic field, the character of the upper atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind, and the establishment of the global chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian surface. Several low cost missions, which have been suggested by the Committee for NASA's CORE program, such as the Mars Geoscience Climatology Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Orbiter, and the Mars Surface Network and Surface Probing missions are also covered. Direct Entry-Direct Return and Out-of-Orbit Entry-Orbital Rendezvous and Docking are two versions of a Mars Rover and Sample Return (MRSR) mission discussed in detail. It is concluded that a MRSR mission will require the combination of full Centaur capability, aerocapture at Mars and earth, and direct return to earth to meet major scientific goals. Further studies should be made in orbit assembly, fuel transfer technology, aeromaneuvering, terminal guidance, rover technology, and robotics.

  15. Comparison of High School Dual-Enrollment and Traditional First-Term General/Organic/Biochemistry College Chemistry Class Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Daniel R.; Eames, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Student performance in a high school dual-enrollment chemistry course was compared with student performance in the corresponding traditional college course. The two courses were taught by the same instructor and evaluated using the same American Chemical Society (ACS) standardized examination. Interestingly, the high school dual-enrollment…

  16. Using Community College Prior Academic Performance to Predict Re-Enrollment at a Four-Year Online University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasen, Denise; List, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Students' re-enrollment in the subsequent semester after their first semester at a four-year institution is a strong predictor of retention and graduation. This is especially true for students who transfer from a community college to a four-year institution because of the many external or non-academic factors influencing a student's decision to…

  17. Advanced Placement versus Dual Enrollment: Making the Best Choice for College Selection, Persistence, Early Success, and Time to Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial amount of research examines the benefits of high school college-credit attainment programs against non-participation. The growth in popularity of these programs, particularly Advanced Placement (AP) and dual enrollment (DE), has them competing against one another for student attention. However, students, schools, and policymakers do…

  18. Using Dual Enrollment Policy to Improve College & Career Readiness: A Web Tool for Decision Makers. A Policy Brief. Design Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Diane S.; Vargas, Joel

    2012-01-01

    As demand for a highly educated and skilled workforce grows, many governors have made student college and career readiness a priority in 2012. In their State of the State addresses, governors in Mississippi, Missouri, Virginia, and Wisconsin promoted the expansion of dual enrollment programs as a key strategy for strengthening academic…

  19. From Middle School to College: Developing Aspirations, Promoting Engagement, and Indirect Pathways from Parenting to Post High School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Wang, Ming-Te

    2015-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal sample of 1,452 African American and European American adolescents and their parents, parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, warmth, and autonomy support) at 7th grade had significant indirect effects on college enrollment 3 years post high school, through their effects on aspirations, school engagement, and grade point…

  20. Enrollment Management Professionals in Community Colleges: An Exploratory Study of Their Influence on Student Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tracy A.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders rely on enrollment management professionals (EMPs) to recruit and retain students, but research does not report the attributes these professionals should possess to contribute to student recruitment and retention. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if characteristics exist among EMPs that contribute to…

  1. Hispanic High School Graduates Pass Whites in Rate of College Enrollment: High School Drop-out Rate at Record Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard; Taylor, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A record seven-in-ten (69%) Hispanic high school graduates in the class of 2012 enrolled in college that fall, two percentage points higher than the rate (67%) among their white counterparts, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of new data from the U.S. Census Bureau. This milestone is the result of a long-term increase in Hispanic…

  2. Serving Their Share: Some Colleges Could Be Doing a Much Better Job Enrolling and Graduating Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colleen; Voight, Mamie

    2015-01-01

    The report outlines ways colleges and universities can improve access and attainment for underserved students, particularly Pell Grant recipients, who come from low-income backgrounds. "Serving Their Share" lists 10 prominent public institutions who are failing to enroll as many low-income, high-achieving students as they could, based on…

  3. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Lumina's Merisotis on Increasing College Enrollment and Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    "New Directions for Higher Education" examines emerging issues, trends, and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs, and practices. In this article, DiSalvio inteviews Jamie P. Merisotis, president and CEO of Lumina Foundation, about Lumina's commitment to enrolling and graduating more students from college, and…

  4. Mission, Enrollment and Staffing Patterns, Funding Procedures, and Administration and Governance. The North Carolina Community College Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Junius A.; And Others

    The study described in this report was conducted by by the Research Triangle Institute as an inquiry into the staffing patterns, funding allocation formulas and procedures, enrollment trends, and mission and governance of the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) and its 58 institutions. Section I of the report provides an introduction…

  5. CTE Dual Enrollment: A Strategy for College Completion and Workforce Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer Dounay

    2014-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs are expanding and so are dual enrollment programs with a career and technical education (CTE) focus. Recent data available from the National Center on Education Statistics show that 82 percent of high schools had students enrolling in dual enrollment coursework in 2010-11. Nearly half of the schools had students…

  6. Comparisons of Adult and Traditional College-Age Student Mothers: Reasons for College Enrollment and Views of How Enrollment Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are an increasingly large presence in undergraduate education, and many female students are mothers in addition to their role as college students. To compare and contrast 2 groups of student mothers (adult and traditional college-age), we administered a 39-item survey to 95 student mothers. We assessed demographic variables, reasons for…

  7. Fuel for Success: Academic Momentum as a Mediator between Dual Enrollment and Educational Outcomes of Two-Year Technical College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-yu; Phelps, L. Allen; Washbon, Janet I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fairly substantial body of literature devoted to understanding whether dual enrollment programs are related to academic success in college, less is known regarding how dual enrollment transmits its potentially positive influence, especially among two-year college students. In this study, we fill this gap by delving into the…

  8. The Relative Effect of Selected Practices and Media Upon Student Enrollment in Industrial-Technical and Engineering Technician Programs at the Junior College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejcie, Robert V.

    The purposes of this study were to ascertain those practices and media that induced students to enroll in technician programs, to identify practices and media used by junior colleges to promote enrollment, and to determine the relationships between effective and ineffective practices and media. Data were collected from 79 junior colleges which…

  9. WWC Review of the Report "Looking beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Looking Beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation," examined whether eligibility for the Florida Student Access Grant (FSAG), a need-based grant for low-income students in Florida, affects college enrollment, credit accumulation, persistence over time in…

  10. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  11. Aerosol Blanket Likely Thinned During 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Each day, a blanket of tiny particles drifting through the Earth's atmosphere filters out some of the sunlight headed for the planet's surface. These aerosols, including dust, smoke, and human-produced pollution, can reflect incoming light or absorb it, directly affecting the Earth's energy balance and climate. Aerosols also influence the climate indirectly, by affecting the brightness and amount of clouds. Research by NASA scientists on global aerosol patterns since the 1990s indicate the global aerosol blanket has likely thinned, allowing more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface over the past decade. The thinning of the blanket is shown by this trio of images based on satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness, a measurement that scientists use to describe how much the aerosols filter the incoming sunlight. Higher optical thickness (orange and red) means more sunlight blocking. The globes show average aerosol optical thickness for 1988-1991 (top), 2002-2005 (middle), and the change between the two time periods (bottom). Overall, the 1988-1991 image appears redder, a sign that aerosols were blocking more incoming sunlight; the 2002-2005 image has more light yellow areas. In the bottom image, small pockets of red (increased aerosol optical thickness), mostly near land masses in the Northern Hemisphere, are far outnumbered by blue areas (decreased aerosol optical thickness). Because they block incoming sunlight from reaching Earth's surface, aerosols may counterbalance greenhouse gas warming. The decline in the dimming power of aerosols over the past decade may have made the greenhouse warming trend more evident in the past decade than in previous decades. The scientists describe their results as a 'likely' trend because the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite sensors they used in their analysis were not specifically designed to observe aerosols, and may contain some errors. However, specific, major aerosol events, such as large

  12. Course Selection Theory and College Transition Seminars: An Adaptation of College Choice Models to Explain First-Year Students' Course Enrollment Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Curt Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the course-enrollment behavior of first-year students at a public Midwestern university. Using the student choice construct, modern college choice theory, and the constructs of habitus, human capital, financial capital, social capital, cultural capital, along with background variables such as gender and locus of control,…

  13. ACE Report: Minority College Enrollment Climbs, but Gaps Persist--The Number of Minority Full-Time Faculty Also Increases while Minority College Presidencies See Minimal Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Students of color continue to make significant gains in college enrollment, but still lag behind their White counterparts in the rates at which they pursue a higher education, according to the "Minorities in Higher Education Twenty-First Annual Status Report (2003-2004)" released recently by the American Council on Education (ACE). The report…

  14. Enrollment of Blacks in College: Is the Supply of Black High School Graduates Adequate? Is the Demand for College by Blacks Weakening? Research and Development Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbeiter, Solomon

    Factors that have affected the decline in black college enrollments in the 1980s are explored. Demographics of the teenage cohort during 1973-1983 are reviewed, and attributes of blacks and whites are compared to determine any significant changes among or between the black and white teenage populations that would account for the decline in black…

  15. The Impact of Full Time Enrollment in the First Semester on Community College Transfer Rates: New Evidence from Texas with Pre-College Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent developments in state-level policy have begun to require, incentivize, and/or encourage students at community colleges to enroll full time in an effort to increase the likelihood that students will persist and transfer to four-year institution where they will be able to complete their bachelor's degree. Often, these…

  16. Nonmetro Poverty: Assessing the Effect of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Dean

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990s, the poverty rate in nonmetropolitan areas declined to a record low of 13.4 percent. Drawing on census data, aspects of nonmetro poverty during the 1990s are outlined, including effects of urbanization, regional differences, racial and ethnic differences, importance of family structure, needs for assistance and human services,…

  17. NASA scientific and technical information for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    Projections for NASA scientific and technical information (STI) in the 1990s are outlined. NASA STI for the 1990s will maintain a quality bibliographic and full-text database, emphasizing electronic input and products supplemented by networked access to a wide variety of sources, particularly numeric databases.

  18. The Academic Consequences of Employment for Students Enrolled in Community College. CCRC Working Paper No. 46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadgar, Mina

    2012-01-01

    College students are increasingly combining studying with paid employment, and community college students tend to work even longer hours compared with students at four-year colleges. Yet, there is little evidence on the academic consequences of community college students' term-time employment. Using a rare administrative dataset from Washington…

  19. Overcoming Barriers to College Enrollment, Persistence, and Perceptions for Urban High School Students in a College Preparatory Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Schardt, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Although research shows college preparatory programs' effectiveness regarding academic achievement and college awareness, much less is known about whether programs affect college attendance and persistence. GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) and other college preparatory programs claim that this is a primary…

  20. Enrollment or "Enrolment": Strategic Enrollment Management in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clayton; Gottheil, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Canadian registrars, admissions officers and student affairs professionals have traveled to U.S.-based conferences in search of the holy grail of enrollment management, finding it at the AACRAO Annual Meeting, AACRAO Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Conference, and other meetings sponsored by Noel-Levitz, SEM Works, the…

  1. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  2. Discounting toward Disaster: Tuition Discounting, College Finances, and Enrollments of Low-Income Undergraduates. New Agenda Series[TM], Volume 3, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    To study the effects of college tuition discounting, data from annual Institutional Student Aid Surveys of private colleges and universities were compared to enrollment and Pell Grant data from the U.S. Department of Education. Findings indicated that: (1) at least one quarter of the colleges and universities used discounting strategies that…

  3. Investigating Developmental and College-Level Course Enrollment and Passing before and after Florida's Developmental Education Reform. REL 2017-203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping; Park, Toby J.; Woods, Chenoa S.; Tandberg, David A.; Richard, Keith; Hankerson, Dava

    2016-01-01

    Developmental education courses in college--defined as classes taken in college that are below college level (Bautsch, 2013)--have come under increased scrutiny in recent years. Concerns focus on the large number of students enrolled in developmental education courses, the high cost of providing them, and the low success rates among students who…

  4. Term-to-Term Retention. Prince George's Community College Office of Institutional Research and Analysis. Enrollment Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    A study was undertaken at Maryland's Prince George's Community College to determine term-to-term retention rates for the four cohorts of first-time freshmen entering in fall 1990 (n=2,643), fall 1991 (n=2,251), fall 1992 (n=2,563), and fall 1993 (n=2,419). Two measures of retention were determined: the percentage of students who enrolled the…

  5. The Retention Problem: An Analysis of Enrolment Attrition at a Canadian College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Sheldon B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of undergraduates at Scarborough College (Canada) shows that students withdraw because jobs become available and not because of educational costs. Lessening of commitment to a college education is also a factor. (MSE)

  6. Holland's SDS Applied to Chinese College Students: A Revisit to Cross-Culture Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Jin; Xu, Yonghong Jade; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, data collected from 875 college freshman and sophomore students enrolled in a 4-year university in central China are used to examine the applicability and validity of a Chinese version of Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS) that was adapted in the 1990s. The total sample was randomly divided into two groups. Data from the first…

  7. Role of Community Colleges in the Implementation of Postsecondary Education Enrollment Policies for Undocumented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhusser, H. Kenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the case of how the City University of New York (CUNY)--its central administrative offices and two of its community colleges--has addressed the issue of college access for undocumented immigrants in its implementation of New York's college in-state resident tuition (ISRT) policy for this population. It highlights the role of…

  8. College Enrollment and Completion among Nationally Recognized High-Achieving Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurantz, Oded; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Hispanic high school graduates have lower college completion rates than academically similar white students. As Hispanic students have been theorized to be more constrained in the college search and selection process, one potential policy lever is to increase the set of colleges to which these students apply and attend. In this paper, we…

  9. Early Entrance to College and Self-Concept: Comparisons across the First Semester of Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Samuel J.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Doobay, Alissa F.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared self-report ratings of self-concept before and after the first semester of college among a group of 21 early entrance college students. Results indicated that students maintained their overall level of self-concept following their first semester of college. Mild increases in self-concept were noted in the domains of Physical…

  10. Analyzing Marketing Strategies Designed To Increase Minority Student Enrollment at Selected Urban Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, James D.

    A study was conducted to identify the most effective marketing techniques used by urban community colleges to recruit minority students. A 16-item, open-ended questionnaire was used in telephone interviews with marketing officials at 24 colleges. The colleges selected for the survey served an urban community of 100,000 or more residents, had a…

  11. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  12. The Impact of Tuition Pricing Changes on the Balance of Enrollment among Christian Religious Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohern, Saundra

    2010-01-01

    The problem addressed in the current study was an enrollment decline for numerous private institutions. Using data obtained from the United States Department of Education's Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, the purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to examine the impact of enrollment substitution within peer…

  13. Dual Credit Enrollment and GPA by Ethnicity and Gender at Texas 2-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which differences were present in dual credit course enrollment. Specifically examined were whether differences were present in the first semester GPA and at the end of the first two semesters for students who enrolled in dual credit courses while in high school from…

  14. Impact of the Adoption of Tobacco-Free Campus Policies on Student Enrollment at Colleges and Universities, North Carolina, 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kimberly D.; Yu, Dongqing; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Ranney, Leah M.; Simons, Daniel J.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: College and university administrators have expressed concern that adoption of tobacco-free policies may reduce applications and enrollment. This study examines adoption and implementation of 100% tobacco-free campus policies by institutions of higher education on applications and enrollment. Participants: North Carolina private colleges…

  15. Stepping Stones to a Degree: The Impact of Enrollment Pathways and Milestones on Older Community College Student Outcomes. CCRC Brief Number 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calcagno, Juan Carlos; Crosta, Peter; Bailey, Thomas; Jenkins, Davis

    2006-01-01

    This Brief reports on a new study that begins to fill this research gap. Using longitudinal unit record transcript data on a cohort of first-time community college students in Florida, the study sought to determine whether remedial pathways, such as enrolling in a developmental math course, and enrollment milestones, such as completing a certain…

  16. A Demographic Study of Students Enrolled in Library-Based Courses at Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, June 1, 1975, to February 3, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary A.

    This study surveys student characteristics of age, sex, use of veterans' benefits, employment and enrollment status, and residence for students enrolled in Black Hawk College's cooperative program with the River Bend Library System to offer individualized courses, primarily on videocassette, in area public libraries. It concludes that the program…

  17. Why Are Recent College Graduates Underemployed? University Enrollments and Labor-Market Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of recent college graduates are ending up in relatively low-skilled jobs that, historically, have gone to those with lower levels of educational attainment. This study examines this phenomenon in some detail, concluding: (1) About 48 percent of employed U.S. college graduates are in jobs that the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)…

  18. Washington State Community College Program and Enrollment Plan, 1985-90. Management Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Olympia.

    This planning report provides information about the types and magnitude of educational services to be provided by Washington State's community colleges from 1985 to 1900. The purpose of the plan, the planning process, and the report's format are presented and the mission of the community colleges in providing transfer/vocational education, basic…

  19. Dual Enrollment Programs: A Comparative Study of High School Students' College Academic Achievement at Different Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L. Acker

    2012-01-01

    The "ex post facto" causal-comparative study examined the academic achievement of high school students who took their dual credit English or mathematics college credit-bearing course in two different environments, namely, the college setting and the high school setting. Due to non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences…

  20. Creating College Opportunity: School Counselors and Their Influence on Postsecondary Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are the primary facilitators of college transition for many students, yet little is known about their influence on college-going behavior. Analyzing data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study employs coarsened exact matching and multilevel modeling to examine the effects of student-counselor visits on…

  1. Dual Enrollment: An Integration Strategy for College Persistence and Achievement among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Alisha Renee

    2015-01-01

    Educational and political leaders across the nation seek to create a more educated population in order to compete in a global technology-oriented society and to increase earning potential of workers. Colleges and universities are currently seeking ways to increase persistence and achievement in order to produce more college graduates. Georgia's…

  2. Community College Funding 2008-09. Enrollment Growth Outpaces Resources. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian; Leichty, Julian

    2009-01-01

    California community colleges are expected to provide a broad range of affordable educational opportunities to an increasing number of students, but the current system does not have sufficient funding to serve them all well. This report describes present budgetary sources and explains that colleges receive mostly discretionary funding. With the…

  3. Rape on the Campus: The Prevalence of Sexual Assault while Enrolled in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Colleen; Corty, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 531 college students to examine prevalence of campus sexual assault. Found that one in six women reported assault, with no difference in rate between first- and upper-year women. Alcohol was more commonly involved than was force. Nonconsensual intercourse increased over time in college. Concluded that universities need carefully timed and…

  4. Why Do Colleges become Universities? Mission Drift and the Enrollment Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquette, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes mission drift in baccalaureate colleges. "Becoming a university," defined as a change in organizational name (e.g., Aurora College becomes Aurora University), symbolizes the transition from a liberal arts mission to a comprehensive university mission. Mission drift is conceptualized as a form of "divergent…

  5. Why Do Saudi High Schools' Graduates Enroll in the Colleges of Technology: A Case Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trabelsi, Ali Chedli; Bezzina, Smain

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at elaborating a strategy regarding students' admission at the colleges of technology in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Purposely, the study surveys the opinion of the students attending the Jeddah College of Technology (J.C.T) and reports on seven socio-economic factors, specifically, the "J.C.T. evaluation system,"…

  6. Increased Enrollments in Online Courses in a Community College and the Impact on Faculty Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    The site of this study is a community college in Southwestern Pennsylvania where a two-fold problem exists: The administration increased class size in online courses with no faculty input, and the current collective bargaining between the union faculty and the college administration does not address online teaching as separate from teaching in the…

  7. Dual Enrollment Lessons and the Development of The New Community College at CUNY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    In March 2008, The City University of New York (CUNY) Chancellor Matthew Goldstein formally launched an initiative to create the university's seventh community college. The development of the concept for this new college is informed in part by the knowledge and practices acquired through working with high school and GED students. Specifically,…

  8. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B

    2004-04-23

    Observations of sea surface height reveal that substantial changes have occurred over the past decade in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data show that subpolar sea surface height increased during the 1990s, and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data exhibits declining subpolar gyre circulation. Combining the data from earlier satellites, we find that subpolar circulation may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the weakening circulation trend of the 1990s and, together with hydrographic data, show that the mid- to late 1990s decline extends deep in the water column. Analysis of the local surface forcing suggests that the 1990s buoyancy forcing has a dynamic effect consistent with altimetric and hydrographic observations: A weak thermohaline forcing allows the decay of the domed structure of subpolar isopycnals and weakening of circulation.

  9. Stemming the Tide of Summer Melt: An Experimental Study of the Effects of Post-High School Summer Intervention on Low-Income Students' College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Arnold, Karen; Lynk Wartman, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The summer after high school graduation is a largely unexamined stage of college access among underrepresented populations in higher education. Yet two recent studies revealed that anywhere from 10% to 40% of low-income students who have been accepted to college and signaled their intent to enroll reconsider where, and even whether, to matriculate…

  10. A Benefit/Cost Analysis of Three Student Enrollment Behaviors at a Community College: Dropout, Transfer and Completion of an Associate's Degree/Certificate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, G. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to increase our understanding of the factors that lead to student success at community colleges. Using data on a cohort of students enrolled at a two-year college, this dissertation presents the results of a longitudinal analysis. Citing the results of several persistence studies as well as the literature on…

  11. Learning in the Shadows and in the Light of Day: A Commentary on "Shadow Education, American Style: Test Preparation, the SAT and College Enrollment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Buchmann, Condron and Roscigno argue in their article, "Shadow Education, American Style: Test Preparation, the SAT and College Enrollment," that the activities in which students engage to prepare for college entrance exams are forms of shadow education, a means by which more advantaged parents seek to pass their privileged status along…

  12. Stepping Stones to a Degree: The Impact of Enrollment Pathways and Milestones on Community College Student Outcomes. CCRC Working Paper Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calcagno, Juan Carlos; Crosta, Peter; Bailey, Thomas; Jenkins, Davis

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of the experiences and outcomes of older and younger community college students. We developed a discrete-time hazard model using longitudinal transcript data on a cohort of first-time community college students in Florida to compare the impact of enrollment pathways (such as remediation) and enrollment…

  13. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Looking Beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether eligibility for the Florida Student Access Grant, a need-based grant for low-income students in Florida, affects college enrollment, credit accumulation, persistence over time in college, and, eventually, graduation. The sample for this study included seniors in Florida public high schools in 1999-2000 who submitted a…

  14. Findings From the Early College High School Initiative: A Look at Best Practices and Lessons Learned Regarding a Dual Enrollment Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National High School Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This research brief on the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI), examines lessons learned and best practices gleaned from an evaluation specific to the ECHSI, "Early College High School Initiative 2003-2005 Evaluation Report." These findings help inform those interested in developing or implementing dual enrollment programs as a strategy…

  15. What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey. Four-Year Colleges & Universities with Twenty Percent or More Hispanic Students Enrolled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the findings for colleges and universities with twenty percent or more Hispanic students enrolled that participated in ACT's 2010 What Works in Student Retention survey. The report contains information pertinent to only these institutions. Appendices include: (1) Data for Four-Year Colleges/Universities with greater than or…

  16. How Late Is Too Late? The Influence of Summer Outreach on FAFSA Completion and College Enrollment for the Uncommitted High School Graduate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Laura; Bettinger, Eric; Long, Bridget Terry; Oreopoulos, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Despite increases in postsecondary enrollment at American universities and colleges, there are still significant gaps in who matriculates to college and persists through graduation. Low-income students and students of color continue to be underrepresented in institutions of higher education; for many of these students, a lack of awareness of…

  17. Problems and Prospects of Turkey in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    sianificant pillar of the European economic. deience. and social structure. VI - 2 NOTES 1. Karabulut, Orhan . "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s." NATO’s...Kamran. "The South-East Anatolia Project." Turkish Review (Spring 1989) Ankara-Turkey Karabulut, Orhan . Adm. "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s.0 NATO’s...SCALE 1 :25SO0000 PROJECTION UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR ULTM) 2𔃼*24, 25- 6 27* 2. I.to Im,wiaa Weua (AWin 871 %)I B U L G A R IA 6*4 wwa j*am.Ap

  18. Oil demand and prices in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.; Phillips, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    Current oil prices are too low to be sustained in the 1990s. The authors forecast that by the year 2000, the price of oil (in 1988 dollars) could reach $30 to $40 per barrel; adjusted for inflation, these prices are about 60 to 80% of the peak price established in early 1981. They find that during the 1980s a slow adjustment process, encouraged by OPEC actions, reduced oil demand and put downward pressure on prices. They expect reversal of that process in the 1990s will work, with world economic expansion to boost oil demand and prices. 10 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  19. The Nature of Discourse throughout 5E Lessons in a Large Enrolment College Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Vanmali, Binaben H.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2013-01-01

    Large enrolment science courses play a significant role in educating undergraduate students. The discourse in these classes usually involves an instructor lecturing with little or no student participation, despite calls from current science education reform documents to elicit and utilize students' ideas in teaching. In this study, we used the 5E…

  20. The Development of a Mathematical Model to Project Enrollments in a Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, John L.

    Because of increased competition for funds, educational leaders are now recommending use of systematic planning techniques such as Planning-Programming-Budgeting (PPB). Effective implementation of such a procedure calls for a data base of enrollment of students in a program, retention rates, and costs per instructional hour. The intent of this…

  1. For-Profit Colleges and Universities and the Latina/o Students Who Enroll in Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Malagon, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    Although for-profit institutions continue to enroll large numbers of students, less is known about the for-profit institution itself, the reasons for its proliferation, or even students' impetus for selecting for-profit options over not-for-profit options. This statement is particularly true for the Latina/o student population despite their…

  2. Making Marketing Work: How a Coordinated Approach Improved a College's Enrollment, Retention, and Public Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Through a coordinated approach, Evergreen State achieved three goals--enrollment growth, increased student retention, and greater public awareness. Six steps to develop a marketing plan are identified: review the institution's position; establish administrative leadership, adapt educational services; and prepare, coordinate, carry out, and…

  3. An Approach to Engaging Students in a Large-Enrollment, Introductory STEM College Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swap, Robert J.; Walter, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While it is clear that engagement between students and instructors positively affects learning outcomes, a number of factors make such engagement difficult to achieve in large-enrollment introductory courses. This has led to pessimism among some education professionals regarding the degree of engagement possible in these courses. In this paper we…

  4. Factors That Militate against Non-Traditional, Technical College Students Enrolling in an Initial Remedial Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandau, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    While there has been a substantial amount of research focused on underprepared non-traditional students who have withdrawn or persisted in remedial education coursework, little research has been conducted on underprepared, non-traditional students who choose not to enroll after being referred to remedial studies. In light of this gap in the…

  5. Noncredit Education in Community College: Students, Course Enrollments, and Academic Outcomes. CCRC Working Paper No. 84

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Ran, Xiaotao

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a noticeable increase in noncredit instructional offerings in postsecondary education. While noncredit programs have been advocated as a promising way to address educational equity, knowledge about the noncredit sector, such as the types of students enrolled in noncredit courses and their academic outcomes, is…

  6. Modeling Comparative Daily Enrollment Indicators To Aid Intelligent College Decisions. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajubutu, Oyebanjo A.

    This paper shows how three critical enrollment indicators drawn from a relationship database were used to guide planning and management decisions. The paper discusses the guidelines for the development of the model, attributes needed, variables to be calculated, and other issues that may improve the effectiveness and efficiency of daily enrollment…

  7. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The

  8. Starting the Race Right: A Case Study of a First-Year Program Aimed at Increasing Persistence among Urban College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Brian Murphy

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 1990s, the City of Boston has made substantial progress in increasing the number of graduates from its school system who go on to college. However, while the Boston Public School system's postsecondary enrollment rate exceeds national averages, the system faces a serious issue in that the vast majority of its…

  9. Shakespeare for the 1990s: A Multicultural Tempest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "The Tempest" is the play that is best suited for the high school English curriculum of the 1990s. Discusses historical and critical aspects the play's key themes. Shows ways of using the play in high school classes, and describes 19 works to read alongside of"The Tempest." (HB)

  10. Prospects for Physics in the 1990's Surveyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    A National Academy of Science report ("Physics Through the 1990's") says that American physics has been a highly diversified and productive enterprise, but continued excellence cannot be taken for granted. Progress in six subfields (elementary particle, nuclear, condensed-matter, atomic/molecular, plasma/fluid, and gravitation/cosmology physics)…

  11. Women's Studies in the 1990s: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judith

    1991-01-01

    This speech examines women's studies in Australia in the 1970s and 1980s, limitations and problems facing women's studies in the 1990s, and prospects. Discussed are effects of the "Dawkins Revolution," women's studies and feminist scholarship, women's studies curricula, institutional problems, political problems, and the changing faculty…

  12. Transpersonal Social Work: A Theory for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Au-Deane S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that transpersonal psychology contains growing body of literature and theory related to spiritual dimension of human nature and higher states of consciousness. Sees this approach as especially relevant for social work practitioners who are combating social ills of 1990s that manifest as violence, addiction, and spiritual malaise. (Author/NB)

  13. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  14. Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Yun Suk

    2011-01-01

    Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational…

  15. Changing Contexts for Counselor Preparation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold, Ed.

    The five chapters in this monograph provide guidelines for counselors in the 1990s who will be faced with such societal issues as substance abuse, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), teenage pregnancy, youth unemployment, homelessness, crime and delinquency, and school dropouts. "The Contemporary Counselor in a Changed World" (Harold…

  16. The Impact of the Texas Top 10 Percent Law on College Enrollment: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny Xinchun; Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We use regression discontinuity methods on a representative survey of Texas high school seniors to discern the impact on flagship-enrollment behavior of the Texas top 10 percent law, which guarantees admission to any Texas public university to students who graduate in the top decile of their class. By comparing students at and immediately below the cut-point for automatic admission, we find that the top 10 percent law affects flagship enrollment of Hispanic students eligible for the admission guarantee, as well as rank-eligible graduates from high schools where minority students predominate and from high schools with the state average share of economically disadvantaged students. Our findings are robust to various model specifications and different bandwidth choices using local linear estimation. PMID:26568648

  17. The Impact of the Texas Top 10 Percent Law on College Enrollment: A Regression Discontinuity Approach.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sunny Xinchun; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We use regression discontinuity methods on a representative survey of Texas high school seniors to discern the impact on flagship-enrollment behavior of the Texas top 10 percent law, which guarantees admission to any Texas public university to students who graduate in the top decile of their class. By comparing students at and immediately below the cut-point for automatic admission, we find that the top 10 percent law affects flagship enrollment of Hispanic students eligible for the admission guarantee, as well as rank-eligible graduates from high schools where minority students predominate and from high schools with the state average share of economically disadvantaged students. Our findings are robust to various model specifications and different bandwidth choices using local linear estimation.

  18. Growing Enrollment with Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Earl E.

    2015-01-01

    "While community college enrollment has generally declined by about 2 or 3 percent annually in recent years--due to some extent to the improving economy--some colleges have bucked the trend" (Ashford 2015). What made the difference? Like many community colleges, College of DuPage has been concerned with access and affordability. The…

  19. Ambitions in Action: Investigating College Enrollment Among Hispanic Youth Who Expect to Complete a Bachelor's Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the "Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002" and structural equation modeling techniques, this study focuses on the unique experiences of Hispanic adolescents who maintain bachelor's degree expectations through the end of high school. Results indicate that the degree to which Hispanic students' college expectations are…

  20. Improving College Enrollment of At-Risk Students at the School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Ryan N.; Li, Wei; Broda, Michael; L. Johnson, Heather; Schneider, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many federal, state, and local education policy priorities are aimed at preparing high school students, especially those at risk, to be college- and career-ready when they graduate from high school. A number of programs across different institutional entities have been initiated to achieve these goals, encompassing individual partnerships with…

  1. Dual Enrollment: Breaking the Mold for College Readiness and Persistence in an Urban Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Robert Lemoyne

    2011-01-01

    In the later part of the twentieth century, the continued growth in high school and college dropout rates led to the development of educational reform measures that would address an education model that was seen as applicable to a disproportionate percentage of the nation's students, thereby leaving the majority of schools and their students…

  2. A Model Comparison of Career Indecision among Females Enrolled in Vocational and College Preparatory Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Mary Beth; Ethington, Corinna A.

    1999-01-01

    A path model study of 167 high school females in college prep and 133 in vocational education identified career self-efficacy as the only variable with direct effect on career indecision in both groups. Self-efficacy was also the primary mediator of the indirect effects of other variables. (SK)

  3. The Role of Online Homework in Low-Enrollment College Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarova, Krassi

    2015-01-01

    Studying physics for nonphysics majors at college level is usually a process of learning new problem-solving skills and sometimes seems a frustrating experience. In an attempt to provide students with more learning resources, online homework was required to supplement the instruction. This study reveals the role of the online homework assignments…

  4. Shadow Education, American Style: Test Preparation, the SAT and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Claudia; Condron, Dennis J.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-national research finds that "shadow education"--educational activities outside of formal schooling--tends to confer advantages on already privileged students. Shadow education in the United States, such as test prep for college entrance exams, has received considerably less attention. Drawing on the National Education Longitudinal…

  5. A Demographic and Student Outcomes Profile of AFDC Students Enrolled in Los Rios Colleges: Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith; La, Minh

    The four reports collected in this document describe the characteristics and academic outcomes of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients attending California's Los Rios Community College District as of the end of fall 1996. The first report describes the characteristics of AFDC recipients and legal immigrant AFDC recipients…

  6. College Student Perceptions of Psychology as a Science as a Function of Psychology Course Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Brenneman, Miranda M.; Glass, Jamie N.; Brito, Gabriela R.; Terranova, Andrew M.; Kim, JongHan; Meyersburg, C. A.; Piroch, Joan

    2015-01-01

    College students (N = 297) completed a perceptions of psychology as a science survey before and after completion of psychology courses. Psychology as a science scores increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the research methods courses, but scores in introductory psychology courses did not change and scores for students in…

  7. Handbook for Parents Enrolled in Parent Education Cooperative Groups. Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook is intended for parents in the Parent Education Program at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. It is designed to help them learn about their role as a participating parent, as an assistant teacher, as a group member, and as a student in a parent education cooperative group. The importance of parent education is emphasized. A…

  8. Beyond Access: How Texas and California Are Accommodating Increased Hispanic College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Adapting campuses, classes, and processes to better serve Hispanic students will be a crucial step toward meeting national attainment goals. Since fall 2000, the number of Hispanic students in public colleges has effectively doubled. However, due to a Congressional ban on a student-level data system, the federal government is flying blind when it…

  9. A Descriptive Look at College Enrollment and Degree Completion of Baltimore City Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Westlund, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Earning a college degree increases a person's life outcomes in income, employment, health, and quality of life. The average person with a bachelor's degree earns almost twice as much as a high school graduate and nearly triple that of someone who did not finish high school. The unemployment rate for people with bachelor's degrees is about…

  10. Supply and Demand in the Higher Education Market: College Enrollment. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Amal; Hurwitz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the United States is a complex and multilayered system where open-access community colleges coexist with highly selective, 4-year institutions to which only a handful of students each year gain access. Each institution plays a unique role in this marketplace, and students across the spectrum engage with the system at…

  11. Toward Mastery Leadership: Issues and Challenges for the 1990s. Summary Report of the Annual National Council on Student Development Leadership Colloquium (7th, Hilton Head, South Carolina, October 24-27, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Deborah L., Ed.

    This summary of a colloquium on leadership issues and challenges for the 1990's is comprised of six chapters addressing different colloquium themes. Chapter 1, "The National Agenda for Community College Student Affairs: Addressing Priorities for the 1990s," by Deborah L. Floyd, describes the Leadership Agenda developed by representatives from the…

  12. Information Systems Enrollments: Challenges and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Mary J.; Dick, Geoffrey; Jacobson, Carolyn McKinnell; Van Slyke, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, enrollments in Information Technology and Information Systems-related academic programs have declined sharply. This paper addresses possible causes of the enrollment decline, and some of the "myths" regarding careers in IT/IS are dispelled. A number of efforts underway at various universities and professional organizations in…

  13. Improved zircon iron corals for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, C. )

    1992-03-01

    CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors is dedicated to the research and development of consistent and cost-effective ceramic stains for the whitewares industry. After identifying the trends in color for the 1990s. CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors initiated an extensive R D project to improve zircon ion corals for the whitewares industry. These color trends indicated a need for stronger and cleaner zircon iron corals. This paper discusses the chemistry and crystal structure of zircon iron corals. A historical review of Drakenfeld corals will also be presented. The most recent development in Drakenfeld corals will then be compared to other commercially available zircon iron corals. Taking into consideration these comparisons, conclusions will be drawn suggesting the coral of choice for the 1990s.

  14. Comparison of Career Concerns among College Women and Men Enrolled in Biological and Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, Maria

    The underrepresentation of women enrolled in the physical sciences continues to challenge academic leaders despite over 40 years of programming to promote gender equity within these curricula. This study employed a quantitative, causal comparative method to explore if and to what extent career concerns differed among female and male undergraduate physical and biological science students. The theory of planned behavior and life-span, life-space theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Quantitative survey data were collected from 43 students at four institutions across the United States. The findings indicated that undergraduate women in physical science programs of study had a significantly different level of concern about the Innovating sub-category of the third stage of career development, Maintenance, as compared to undergraduate women in biological science curricula [F(1,33) = 6.244, p = 0.018]. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between female undergraduate physical science students and undergraduate male science students in the sub-categories of Implementation [F(1,19) = 7.228, p = 0.015], Advancing [F(1,19) = 11.877, p = 0.003], and Innovating [F(1,19) = 11.782, p = 0.003] within the first three stages of career development (Exploration, Establishment, and Maintenance). The comparative differences among the study groups offers new information about undergraduate career concerns that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women enrolled in the physical sciences. Suggestions for future research and programs within higher education targeted at reducing the career concerns of current and prospective female students in physical science curricula are discussed.

  15. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  16. A Strategic Planning Process for NATO for the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    This thesis deals with the possible shifts in NATO’s strategy for the rest of the 1990s. It uses a strategic planning model to explore these possible...shift’s in strategy. Strategic planning is a systematic process of defining the mission and the objectives and creating action plans, policies and...resource allocations to achieve them. Every organization should initiate strategic planning in order to address the evolving needs of its stakeholders

  17. Child Labor and School Enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2003-01-01

    Traces recent trends in child labor, conditions of employment, and schooling in Thailand. Finds, for example, that children withdraw from school and enter labor force because families cannot afford the cost of education. Describes the effect of education subsidies on poor families. Discusses policies and practices to eliminate exploitative forms…

  18. College-Going Benefits of High School Sports Participation: Race and Gender Differences over Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2015-05-01

    The long touted athlete advantage in college enrollment has been tempered by assertions that this advantage is actually due to characteristics that precede participation. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the benefits of sports extend into contemporary times, and apply equally to female and racial minority athletes. This study uses three nationally representative longitudinal datasets of students who were 10(th) graders in 1980, 1990, and 2002. We find that high school sports participation was positively associated with college enrollment, even with the utilization of propensity score modeling, for white boys and girls, black boys, and Latino boys and girls during the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. The most important gender and race differences include black female athletes' college-going disadvantage in the 1980s and 1990s, and girls' persistently lower rates of high school sports participation than boys'.

  19. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history…

  20. The Effects of a Combined Reading and Group Counseling Program on Community College Students Enrolled in Reading Improvement Classes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, David T.

    The effects of group counseling upon the reading improvement of students attending a college reading-improvement class were investigated. All students enrolled in the class (56) were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. Pretest and post-test measures were taken using the following instruments: The Diagnostic Reading Tests, Survey…

  1. A Study Examining the Impact of Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Growth and Acquisition of Adults Enrolled in a Community College Developmental Reading Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Jodi McGeary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four instructional methods--context clues, definition, elaboration technique, or word parts and word families--on the vocabulary growth and acquisition of adults enrolled in a community college developmental reading course. The study investigated whether performance in any or all of the four…

  2. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. REL 2015-082

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history requirements necessary to obtain Parental Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS). The study used institution-level data to examine…

  3. The Development and Implementation of an Applied Psychology Course Utilizing Behavior Modification Procedures to Supplement a Community College Reading Program for Open Enrollment Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Gloria Batkin

    This study attempted to assess the effect of behavior modification techniques on community college open enrollment students with severe educational deficits. Of 30 suburban New York members of a reading class, half were exposed to direct teaching, instructor praise, peer partners, self and peer ratings, role playing, Premack contracts,…

  4. Experimentally Estimated Impacts of School Vouchers on College Enrollment and Degree Attainment. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 15-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first experimental estimates of the long-term impacts of a voucher to attend private school by linking data from a privately sponsored voucher initiative in New York City, which awarded the scholarships by lottery to low-income families, to administrative records on college enrollment and degree attainment. We find no significant…

  5. A Study of the Relationship between High School Dual Enrollment Participation and College Persistence, Including Potential Intervening Variables, in Southeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kimberly G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the research body of literature regarding dual enrollment, the impact and effectiveness of the program, and its relationship to college persistence. The goal was to provide information useful to governing bodies, educational leaders, parents and students. The theoretical construct, defined through the…

  6. Taking College Courses in High School: A Strategy Guide for College Readiness--The College Outcomes of Dual Enrollment in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struhl, Ben; Vargas, Joel

    2012-01-01

    States and school districts are searching for strategies to raise the college and career readiness of high school graduates--imperative in an era when postsecondary credentials are the key to good jobs, better pay, and stronger economies. The creation and implementation of higher graduation standards aligned to college and career expectations is…

  7. When everyone goes to college: the causal effect of college expansion on earnings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seongsoo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we estimate the causal effect of college expansion on earnings using the example of South Korea in the 1990s where the college enrollment rate increased from just over thirty percent to over eighty percent over a fifteen years period. We compare the pre-expansion cohort and the post-expansion cohort in order to identify those who would attend college because of the expansion but would not attend otherwise (compliers). We, then, estimate compliers' earnings gain from the college expansion relative to the earnings changes of two control groups: those who either would or would not go to college regardless of college expansion (always-takers and never-takers). We find a striking gendered pattern; for men, the earnings return to college expansion is moderate and mostly driven by the increasing skill price, whereas, for women, the return is significantly large even net of the skill price change.

  8. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  9. Education of clinical engineers in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of the terms bioengineering, biomedical engineering and clinical engineering. These definitions lead to the conclusion that clinical engineers must be individuals with at least a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering specialty who are also well versed in the design, modification and testing of medical instrumentation. Educational programs for clinical engineers in the 1990s must be based upon clear definitions of these professionals' roles. Clinical engineering education should include direct professional experience obtained through internship programs similar to the program described here.

  10. Mission Control Center enhancement opportunities in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for understanding the major enhancement opportunities for Air Force Mission Control Center/Test Support Centers (MCC's/TSC's) in the 1990's. Much of this paper is based on the findings of Study 232 and work currently underway in Study 2-6 for the Air Force Systems Command, Space System Division, Network Program Office. In this paper, we will address MCC/TSC enhancement needs primarily from the operator perspective, in terms of the increased capabilities required to improve space operations task performance.

  11. Helioseismology in the 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.

    2014-02-01

    Over more than twenty years, Wojtek Dziembowski and I collaborated on nearly fifty papers, which were concentrated in helioseismology through the 1980s and 1990s, but extended early into the new century. In this review, I discuss the most significant results of this collaboration and some of the underlying sociology that contributed to the intensity and longevity of our collaboration. Our work began with placing limits on the Sun's buried magnetic field and ended with extracting from the solar-cycle dependent oscillation frequency changes the roles (and net result) of competing dynamical drivers of changes in the solar diameter.

  12. Creating Effective Enrollment Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don

    A guide to the development and operation of a college enrollment management system is presented for college administrators. After describing current issues that affect traditional student enrollments, the concept of enrollment management is defined, and its basic elements are introduced, along with broader organizational perspectives such as…

  13. Predicting success for college students enrolled in an online, lab-based, biology course for non-majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Regina

    Online education has exploded in popularity. While there is ample research on predictors of traditional college student success, little research has been done on effective methods of predicting student success in online education. In this study, a number of demographic variables including GPA, ACT, gender, age and others were examined to determine what, if any, role they play in successfully predicting student success in an online, lab-based biology for non-majors course. Within course variables such as participation in specific categories of assignment and frequency of online visits were also examined. Groups of students including Native American/Non-Native American and Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives and others were also examined to determine if overall course success differed significantly. Good predictors of online success were found to be GPA, ACT, previous course experience and frequency of online visits with the course materials. Additionally, students who completed more of the online assignments within the course were more successful. Native American and Non-Native American students were found to differ in overall course success significantly as well. Findings indicate student academic background, previous college experience and time spent with course materials are the most important factors in course success. Recommendations include encouraging enrollment advisors to advise students about the importance of maintaining high academic levels, previous course experience and spending time with course materials may impact students' choices for online courses. A need for additional research in several areas is indicated, including Native American and Non-Native American differences. A more detailed examination of students' previous coursework would also be valuable. A study involving more courses, a larger number of students and surveys from faculty who teach online courses would help improve the generalizability of the conclusions.

  14. Increasing Enrollment through Profit Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czach, Marie; Aldrich, Bruce H.

    2005-01-01

    Located 25 miles south of Chicago in South Holland, Illinois, South Suburban College (SSC) is one of Illinois's larger community colleges--and one of its more financially challenged. Because tuition dollars and the state reimbursement generated by student enrollment are key to a college's solvency, a slow, steady decline in enrollment was cause…

  15. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  16. ACTS Multibeam Communications Package - Technology for the 1990S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graebner, John C.; Cashman, William F.

    1990-01-01

    To maintain its competitive position in the 1990s, satellite communications must evolve to provide new services and to reduce the costs of supplying existing services. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is directed toward developing the technology base that will support this evolution. The ACTS communications payload is optimized for digital communications using a time-division multiple access format. Scanning spot-beam antennas provide high-performance on-demand service to the earth communication stations. On-board processing and switching allow full connectivity in a single-hop network architecture. ACTS employs Ka-band (30/20 GHz) links for communications traffic and includes techniques for mitigating rain fades. Scheduled to be launched by a Space Shuttle in 1992, ACTS will provide in-orbit technology verification and support experimental communications networks for up to four years.

  17. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  18. Enrollment Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

    A set of tables is provided summarizing fall enrollment from 1979 through 1988 in the university system of Georgia. The following types of data are provided: headcount enrollment; joint enrollment; developmental studies, freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors, graduate students, professional enrollment, transients, others, EFT enrollment, entering…

  19. Cardiac Exposures in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy: 1950s-1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carolyn W. Nisbet, Andrew; McGale, Paul; Darby, Sarah C.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the doses to the heart and coronary arteries from common breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) regimens used worldwide from the 1950s to the 1990s. Methods and Materials: Virtual simulation and computed tomography planning were used to reconstruct the megavoltage and electron regimens. Manual planning was used for the orthovoltage and brachytherapy regimens. Several sources of variability associated with the dose estimates were assessed. Results: Breast or chest wall RT resulted in whole heart doses of 0.9-14 Gy for left-sided and of 0.4-6 Gy for right-sided irradiation. Internal mammary chain RT delivered heart doses of 3-17 Gy and 2-10 Gy for left- and right-sided irradiation, respectively. For most regimens, the dose to the left anterior descending coronary artery was greater than the heart dose. Scar boost, supraclavicular fossa, and axillary RT delivered mean cardiac doses of {<=}3 Gy. The greatest source of variability in estimating dose from a given regimen was patient anatomy. Conclusion: For most techniques, the greatest radiation doses were received by the anterior part of the heart and the left anterior descending coronary artery, a common site of atherosclerosis causing myocardial infarction. Irradiation of these structures might have contributed to the excess risk of death from heart disease seen after some past breast cancer RT regimens.

  20. The Bellagio Declaration: overcoming hunger in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F; Arizpe, L; Belford, T S; Clark, J; Csanadi, J; Davies, P J; Emmerij, L; George, S; Hyden, G; Jonsson, U

    1989-01-01

    In November 1989, 23 leading hunger experts met in Bellagio, Italy, issues a document called the "Bellagio Declaration: Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s." The report lists 4 achievable goals: eliminate famine deaths; end hunger in half of the world's poorest households; reduce by half malnutrition of mothers and small children; and eradicate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Famine deaths can be eliminated by setting up early-warning systems and longer-term relief objectives. The only remaining obstacle is how to prevent warring nations from blocking food deliveries and destroying food. Hunger can be eliminated in half the world's poor households by giving the poor access to resources and credit, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, using sustainable farming, and using existing markets to distribute food equitably. Malnutrition can be halved by sustained breastfeeding, and supplementation of food and micronutrients. Iodine and vitamin A deficiencies can be eliminated by giving iodized oil injections, vitamin A capsules and iodized salt. Ways of dealing with obstacles such as population, deforestation, soil and water shortages, pollution, global warming and capital deficits in the South are discussed. There is hope that these goals can be attained because of the outbreak of peace and democracy, freeing up substantial portions of the 1 trillion US dollars spent on defense; abatement of feat of worldwide economic collapse; and evolution of a worldwide logistic system to provide emergency food aid.

  1. Computerized structural mechanics for 1990's: Advanced aircraft needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Backman, B. F.

    1989-01-01

    The needs for computerized structural mechanics (CSM) as seen from the standpoint of the aircraft industry are discussed. These needs are projected into the 1990's with special focus on the new advanced materials. Preliminary design/analysis, research, and detail design/analysis are identified as major areas. The role of local/global analyses in these different areas is discussed. The lessons learned in the past are used as a basis for the design of a CSM framework that could modify and consolidate existing technology and include future developments in a rational and useful way. A philosophy is stated, and a set of analyses needs driven by the emerging advanced composites is enumerated. The roles of NASA, the universities, and the industry are identified. Finally, a set of rational research targets is recommended based on both the new types of computers and the increased complexity the industry faces. Computerized structural mechanics should be more than new methods in structural mechanics and numerical analyses. It should be a set of engineering applications software products that combines innovations in structural mechanics, numerical analysis, data processing, search and display features, and recent hardware advances and is organized in a framework that directly supports the design process.

  2. Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan

    Cuesta College's (California) Five-year Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends (1996-2000) report provides tables and figures that show student demography and enrollment status. Tables 1 through 11 present data for the entire college. Table 1 shows that enrollment at Cuesta College continues to increase and is now at an all-time high of…

  3. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  4. Can the world do better in the 1990s?

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1989-12-01

    To reduce further environmental damage to our planet, fossil fuels must no longer form the basis of the world economy. Further, nuclear power is proving to be too cost prohibitive. Society already pays tremendous amounts for building nuclear power plants, but also billions of US dollars to dismantle them and to safely dispose of their contents and building materials. Society must also address the problems of nuclear weapons production. Based on these factors, the Worldwatch Institute concludes that the only way we can live in an environmentally sustainable and politically acceptable future is to base our world economy on solar energy. Presently Japan operates under 1 of the most energy efficient systems in the world. The United States (US) requires almost twice the energy to produce a dollar's worth of gross national product than does Japan. Even if world land productivity could increase during the 1990s as fast as Japan raised its land productivity during the 1970s and 1980s, food output growth will still only be about half the projected rate of population growth. In addition, by boosting living conditions, Japan and China reduced their population growth rate in half within a decade and without today's contraceptives. Therefore by increasing the status of women and social and political commitment, developing countries (where populations often grow exponentially) can also do so. Environmental deterioration, as evidenced by soil erosion and deforestation, limits food production while the world's population grows. The US, a major world grain producer, has lost 11% of its total cropland, mainly due to overplowing in the 1970s. Japan should use its economic resources and experiences to lead the world in reducing population growth.

  5. U.S. Hispanics: challenging issues for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, R; Davis, C

    1988-12-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority in the US after blacks and, as a poor and disadvantaged minority, face many problems and challenges with which they must deal in the future. There has been a 34% increase in the US Hispanic population from 1980-1988 due to heavy immigration and high birth rates, resulting in a young age structure for Latinos with a median age of 25.5 years vs. the US median of 32.2 years. US Latinos are a very diverse group which includes Mexicans (62%), Puerto Ricans (13%), Cubans (5%), and Central and South Americans (12%), although they tend to be clustered in very few states. Discrimination has plagued this population because of illegal immigration concerns and illegal drug flow problems. Hispanics continue to suffer from poor educational achievement, language barriers, low-paying jobs, and poverty. Cubans have made the most progress so far in all of these areas. Poverty will likely persist into the 1990's. Bilingualism is and will be prevalent as long as immigration continues, but future generations will begin to use English as their 1st language. 17 states, however, have adopted "official English" laws in order to decrease the use of funds for Spanish language services. Using Spanish in school is a very divided issue--some favor bilingual education, some favor the shot-gun English approach. As Hispanics grow into work force age, lack of education will prevent entry into skilled labor. Corporations, however, are taking a bigger interest in bilingual workers. Nationally, Hispanics are beginning to matter as an electorate. The number of Latino elected officials has doubled from 1974 to 1988. The 1990 census may show us that we have been underestimating the number of Hispanics in the US. A higher percentage of future Latin immigrants will be better educated. Policymakers should recognize Hispanic problems and help to promote solutions, in the interest of the American people as a whole.

  6. Enrollment Projections: Template and Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlen, George L.

    Small community colleges with enrollments between 500 and 2,500 students have traditionally been unable to afford to hire an institutional researcher or to lease sophisticated statistical packages to perform enrollment analyses, though their needs for enrollment projections are the same as those of larger institutions. Fortunately, with a personal…

  7. The Relationship of High School Preparation in Mathematics to the Enrollment of College Freshman in Postsecondary Developmental Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Erick

    2012-01-01

    A student's mathematical preparation is important in readiness for postsecondary study and ultimately success in a global job market. Nationally, a significant number of students are leaving high school unprepared for college-level course work in mathematics. A 2008 National Center for Educational Statistics report on Community Colleges indicates…

  8. A Case Study Examining the Influence of Dual Enrollment and High School Advising on Student Persistence in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raia-Taylor, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative,descriptive single case study describes the problem of student persistence in college through the theoretical lens of Alexander Astin's Theory of Student Involvement, and Vincent Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The decline in the college retention rate in the United States over the last twenty years and the high…

  9. Diversity, Situated Social Contexts, and College Enrollment: Multilevel Modeling to Examine Student, High School, and State Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbin; Nuñez, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Whether and where students begin college after high school profoundly affects their degree completion and ultimate educational attainment. Students' college access is influenced not only by individual characteristics, but also by economic, social, and schooling contexts. Accordingly, using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, 2002…

  10. Teaching College Writing in a High School Setting: The Impact of Concurrent Enrollment on Teacher Learning and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirking, Cornelia Anne

    2016-01-01

    In today's educational climate, in which preparing all K-12 students to succeed in college and career is paramount, a prominent concern is to ensure that students leave high school with "college level" writing skills. Notably, these discussions revolve around ensuring students are ready to "cross the threshold" between high…

  11. For-Profit Schools: Experiences of Undercover Students Enrolled in Online Classes at Selected Colleges. A Report to the Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. GAO-12-150

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Once comprised of local, sole-proprietor ownership, the nation's for-profit institutions now range from small, privately owned schools to publicly traded corporations. Enrollment in such colleges has grown far faster than in traditional higher-education institutions. Moreover, during the 2009-2010 school year, for-profit colleges received almost…

  12. Thinking about American Higher Education: The 1990s and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, J. Wade

    This book explores three major imperatives of American higher education in the decades ahead. First, colleges and universities must respond to six critical challenges: minority participation; financing quality education; replacing quality faculty; affordability; institutional ethics; and national competitiveness. Second, strong leadership is…

  13. The Public Secondary School and Teacher in American Films of the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Arleen B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how public secondary schools and educators were portrayed in American films of the 1990s. Thirty films were selected for study that were produced and released in the decade of the 1990s. Content analysis and a "Film Analysis Form" produced answers to eight questions regarding the learning environments, portrayal of…

  14. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  15. Medical and Health Evaluation Upon Enrollment in College: A Foundation for the Ideal Program in Student Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyn, Hery B.

    1969-01-01

    Presented before the combined session of the Section on Administration and the Section on Clinical Medicine, American College Health Association, Forty-sixth Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota May 3, 1968.

  16. Recent Enrollment Trends in American Soil Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Abit, Sergio; Brown, David; Dolliver, Holly; Hopkins, David; Lindbo, David; Manu, Andrew; Mbila, Monday; Parikh, Sanjai J.; Schulze, Darrell; Shaw, Joey; Weil, Ray; Weindorf, David

    2015-04-01

    Soil science student enrollment was on the decline in the United States from the early 1990s through the early 2000s. Overall undergraduate student enrollment in American colleges and universities rose by about 11% over the same time period. This fact created considerable consternation among the American soil science community. As we head into the International Year of Soil, it seemed to be a good time to revisit this issue and examine current enrollment trends. Fourteen universities that offer undergraduate and/or graduate programs in soil science were surveyed for their enrollments over the time period 2007-2014 (the last seven academic years). The 14 schools represent about 20% of the institutions that offer soil science degrees/programs in the United States. Thirteen institutions submitted undergraduate data and 10 submitted graduate data, which was analyzed by individual institution and in aggregate. Simple linear regression was used to find the slope of best-fit trend lines. For individual institutions, a slope of ≥ 0.5 (on average, the school gained 0.5 students per year or more) was considered to be growing enrollment, ≤ -0.5 was considered shrinking enrollment, and between -0.5 and 0.5 was considered to be stable enrollment. For aggregated data, the 0.5 slope standard was multiplied by the number of schools in the aggregated survey to determine whether enrollment was growing, shrinking, or stable. Over the period of the study, six of the 13 schools reporting undergraduate data showed enrollment gains, five of the 13 showed stable enrollments, one of the 13 showed declining enrollments, and one of the 13 discontinued their undergraduate degree program. The linear regression trend line for the undergraduate schools' composite data had a slope of 55.0 students/year (R2 = 0.96), indicating a strong overall trend of undergraduate enrollment growth at these schools. However, the largest school had also seen large growth in enrollment. To ensure that this one

  17. Breaking the Boundaries: Decision Factors That Lead Male Students to Enroll in Associate Degree Nursing Programs in Illinois Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resurreccion, Leandro Alcovendaz

    2013-01-01

    Male nurses are but a small percentage of the total nurse population in the United States, and most certainly have potential to increase in numbers if the profession appeared more attractive as a career option for men. The purpose of this research was to discover the decision factors used by males that led them to enroll in Associate Degree…

  18. Systematic review of articles describing experience and supports of individuals with autism enrolled in college and university programs.

    PubMed

    Gelbar, Nicholas W; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this article reports the results of a systematic review of the literature concerning college students with ASD. Overall, 20 articles describing 69 individuals met the inclusion criteria. This small number of articles and participants indicates the scarcity of research on this topic and only two of these studies were experimental in nature. These studies described a video-self modeling intervention and a counseling intervention respectively. Eighteen "case studies" were also present in the literature that described difficulties ranging from anxiety to housing concerns. This review deliniates the limitation of our understanding of effective college programming for individuals with ASD.

  19. Minority Enrollments Rose in 1995, Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    1997-01-01

    College student enrollment from the four largest minority groups (American Indians, Asians, Blacks, Hispanics) rose by 2.9% in 1995, accounting for one-quarter of all students. White student enrollments accounted for an overall enrollment decline of 1%, although the proportion of whites aged 18-24 in college reached an all-time high, 43%. Blacks…

  20. High School Predictors of College Readiness: Determinants of Developmental Course Enrollment and Second-Year Postsecondary Persistence in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Marshall; LaTurner, Jason; Herrera, Angelica Ware; Ware, Anne; Jonas, Deborah; Dougherty, Chrys

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Virginia Board of Education directed the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) to study academic indicators that are associated with high school students' successful preparation for college and careers. VDOE then embarked on a multi-year effort to identify available data sources and conduct research on high school indicators that…

  1. It's All Relative: The Role of Parents in College Financing and Enrollment. New Agenda Series. Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, William L.; Cunningham, Alisa F.; O'Brien, Colleen T.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    This report presents a comprehensive overview of the parental role in higher education. It is on various data sources, including a nationally representative survey of 750 parents of current college students. The report addresses issues ranging from selecting an institution, to paying tuition, to patterns of saving and borrowing, to the demographic…

  2. Academic College Readiness Indicators of Seniors Enrolled in University-Model Schools® and Traditional, Comprehensive Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, Sharon Christian

    2013-01-01

    This correlational study examined the relationship between type of high school a senior attends (University-Model SchoolRTM (UMS RTM) or traditional, comprehensive Christian) and academic college readiness, when controlling for prior academic achievement and gender. The study compared archival data from Christian school graduates from six schools…

  3. Problems of International Students Enrolled in Texas Public Community Colleges as Perceived by International Students and International Student Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Roy H.

    This study investigates student personnel problem perceptions of international students and international student advisors on selected community college campuses in Texas. The International Student Problem Inventory (ISPI) was administered to 220 international students and 30 international student advisors. Percentages were utilized to identify…

  4. Internet as an Information Source: Attitudes and Usage of Students Enrolled in a College of Agriculture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Emily B.; Irani, Tracy; Telg, Ricky; Myers, Brian E.

    2008-01-01

    With Internet usage in the United States at an all-time high, information technology use in education has continued to increase. Research has shown that many students are utilizing these materials to search out information and assist with completing class assignments. Many college students have described the Internet as a functional tool that…

  5. Qualitative Perspectives of Factors Influencing Community College Students' Stated Motivation to Enroll in Future Foreign Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The qualitative research describes the experience of an instructor, participants, and researcher in a community college-based Chinese language class. Tse's (2000) Foreign Language Autobiographies (FLA), classroom observations, student vignette interviews and observations accompanied by field notes were the sources of data for this study.…

  6. Why the Boys Are Missing: Using Social Capital to Explain Gender Differences in College Enrollment for Public High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevan, Sarah; Weinberg, Sharon L.; Middleton, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1960, over 60 % of bachelor degrees were awarded to men. However, the rate of women's college completion has steadily risen and, by 2004, women received nearly 60 % of bachelor degrees. Drawing on the theoretical contributions of James Coleman, this paper examines the ability of social capital to explain observed differences in college…

  7. In Search of a Proper Role for First-Year Composition in the Two-Year Open-Enrollment College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The search for a common model of instruction in first-year composition began in the 1960s when composition first began to separate from literature in college English departments. Because writing is essentially a methods course with no standard curriculum as one might find in physics or economics, common model has been elusive. A sign that…

  8. Systematic Review of Articles Describing Experience and Supports of Individuals with Autism Enrolled in College and University Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this…

  9. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  10. 2014 Fall Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jennifer; Williams, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To improve student access and success in North Dakota University System (NDUS) institutions, the State Board of Higher Education has implemented enrollment policies that better reflect the differentiated missions of research universities, regional universities, and community colleges. This report addresses the transition in policy by grouping data…

  11. The Missing Enrollment Meltdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawley, Kathleen; Epstein, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Shifting economic winds over the past year brought an end to a powerful, healthy wave that many higher education institutions rode successfully in recent years. While the work of college and university enrollment leaders and organizational executive teams is never easy, the recent student demographic spike, the abundance of online admission…

  12. Tidal Wave II Revisited: A Review of Earlier Enrollment Projections for California Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Gerald C.; Breneman, David W.; Estrada, Leobardo F.

    This report examined enrollment projections for higher education institutions in California in relation to earlier projections conducted in the mid-1990s that forecasted steep declines in enrollment. It notes that California's remarkable economic recovery over the last several years has allowed it to fund higher education enrollment growth at a…

  13. The Determinants of Postsecondary Enrollment Rates in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, David K.; Pervin, Barry

    1983-01-01

    Application of economic theories of educational supply and demand to Ontario postsecondary enrollments show that community college enrollments are more income-sensitive than university enrollments, and graduate enrollments are more price sensitive than undergraduate enrollments. No competition effects between community colleges and universities…

  14. A Preliminary Assessment of the Cost and Benefit of the North Carolina's Early College High School Model and Its Impact on Postsecondary Enrollment and Earned College Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Fatih; Edmunds, Julie; Fesler, Lily; Glennie, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The changing nature of the U.S. economy has fostered concerns that too few students are successfully completing postsecondary education (Achieve, 2004). Three quarters of those who enter high school graduate within four years, with approximately 70 percent of those graduates enrolling immediately in some form of postsecondary education (Ross et…

  15. High School Predictors of College Readiness: Determinants of High School Graduates' Enrollment and Successful Completion of First-Year Mathematics and English College Courses in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Deborah; Dougherty, Chrys; Herrera, Angelica Ware; LaTurner, Jason; Garland, Marshall; Ware, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Virginia Board of Education directed the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) to study academic indicators that are associated with high school students' successful preparation for college and careers. VDOE then embarked on a multi-year effort to identify available data sources and conduct research on high school indicators that…

  16. Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    This "Focus On" first considers the role two-year colleges (TYCs) play in post-secondary physics education. In their 2007 Survey of Undergraduate Seniors in degree-granting physics departments, the authors asked students if they had begun their post-secondary education at a TYC. Nine percent of the physics undergraduate seniors in 2007…

  17. Does the Level of Alignment between Student College Expectations and Preparation Mediate the Influence of Parent Resources on College Enrollment among Latino and Non-Latino White Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Inasmuch as current U.S. population projections indicate that Latino students will comprise over half the growth in the college-age population during the coming decades, the puzzle of Latino educational attainment presents perhaps one of the most critical policy concerns relevant to any efforts targeted at increasing U.S. levels of educational…

  18. Enrollment Analysis, 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    A series of tables are presented, providing a 15-year analysis of enrollment, student demographic characteristics, and first census weekly student contact hours (WSCH) by division at College of the Sequoias (COS). Data indicate: (1) total enrollment increased from 5,447 in 1970 to 7,587 in 1985, peaking in 1981 with a high of 7,625 students; (2)…

  19. The Impact of the Promise of Scholarships and Altering School Structure on College Plans, Preparation, and Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Herting, Jerald R.; Hirschman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Achiever (WSA) program was a large-scale educational intervention of scholarships, mentoring, and school redesign designed to encourage students from moderate and low income families to attend college in Washington State. Using a quasi-experimental design based on pre- and post-intervention surveys of high school seniors in program and non-program schools, we find a significant WSA effect on educational outcomes, net of the demographic and socioeconomic composition of students across schools. Across the three intervention high schools, the program is strongly significant in one school, significant after a lag in another school, and not significant in a third. We speculate about the potential reasons for the differential program effect across high schools. PMID:23017860

  20. The impact of the promise of scholarships and altering school structure on college plans, preparation, and enrollment.

    PubMed

    Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Herting, Jerald R; Hirschman, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The Washington State Achiever (WSA) program was a large-scale educational intervention of scholarships, mentoring, and school redesign designed to encourage students from moderate and low income families to attend college in Washington State. Using a quasi-experimental design based on pre- and post-intervention surveys of high school seniors in program and non-program schools, we find a significant WSA effect on educational outcomes, net of the demographic and socioeconomic composition of students across schools. Across the three intervention high schools, the program is strongly significant in one school, significant after a lag in another school, and not significant in a third. We speculate about the potential reasons for the differential program effect across high schools.

  1. Policy Transparency and College Enrollment: Did the Texas Top 10% Law Broaden Access to the Public Flagships?

    PubMed

    Long, Mark C; Saenz, Victor B; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-04

    By guaranteeing college admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class, H.B. 588 replaced an opaque de facto practice of admitting nearly all top 10% graduates with a transparent de jure policy that required public institutions to admit all applicants eligible for the guarantee. The transparency of the new admission regime sent a clear message to students attending high schools that previously sent few students to the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. Using 18 years of administrative data to examine sending patterns, we find a sizeable decrease in the concentration of flagship enrollees originating from select feeder schools and growing shares of enrollees originating from high schools located in rural areas, small towns, and midsize cities, as well as schools with concentrations of poor and minority students. We also find substantial year-to-year persistence in sending behavior once a campus becomes a sending school, and this persistence increased after the top-10% policy was implemented.

  2. Policy Transparency and College Enrollment: Did the Texas Top 10% Law Broaden Access to the Public Flagships?

    PubMed Central

    Long, Mark C.; Saenz, Victor B.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    By guaranteeing college admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class, H.B. 588 replaced an opaque de facto practice of admitting nearly all top 10% graduates with a transparent de jure policy that required public institutions to admit all applicants eligible for the guarantee. The transparency of the new admission regime sent a clear message to students attending high schools that previously sent few students to the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. Using 18 years of administrative data to examine sending patterns, we find a sizeable decrease in the concentration of flagship enrollees originating from select feeder schools and growing shares of enrollees originating from high schools located in rural areas, small towns, and midsize cities, as well as schools with concentrations of poor and minority students. We also find substantial year-to-year persistence in sending behavior once a campus becomes a sending school, and this persistence increased after the top-10% policy was implemented. PMID:23436938

  3. Pre-Enrollment Considerations of Undergraduate Wheelchair Users and Their Post-Enrollment Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Roger D.; Jones, Darolyn; Blanch, Christina L.; Markle, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pre-enrollment considerations of undergraduate wheelchair users (i.e., the decision to attend college, college selection factors) and their post-enrollment transitions (i.e., adjustments from high school to college, academic and social integration). Qualitative ethnographic research methodology was used…

  4. Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends, 1995-1999. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta Coll., San Luis Obispo, CA. Matriculation and Research Services.

    This report contains 22 tables and 25 figures showing student characteristics and enrollment trends from 1995 to 1999 for Cuesta College. Section 1 presents five-year student characteristics and enrollment trends; Section 2 outlines enrollment by Cuesta College educational region, 1998-99. Both sections contain data on enrollment status, course…

  5. Administration and the Challenge of Open Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabeau, Roch L.

    The many problems connected with successful implementation of community college open enrollment involve students, faculty, college resources and basic processes. Together they constitute the challenge posed by open enrollment to administrators. Problems relative to students include low reading and writing abilities, low levels of preparedness and…

  6. Enrollment Profile Report, Fall Semester 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    In this study, the enrollment distribution of students attending New York City Community Colleges is examined and evaluated. The introductory section presents briefly the national enrollment picture for two-year and four-year colleges, enumerates the various projections that have been developed by federal and state agencies, and evaluates the…

  7. Cheating in College Is for a Career: Academic Dishonesty in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephen F.

    Academic dishonestly appears to be a perennial problem associated with higher education. The analysis presented in this paper is a composite of the results of two questionnaires administered to students at a variety of institutions--large state schools, medium state schools, large private schools, small private schools, as well as several two-year…

  8. World Agriculture: Review and Prospects into the 1990s. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winrock International Livestock Research & Training Center. Morrilton, AR.

    The four chapters of this analysis of world agriculture deal with production, consumption, and world trade. World food production and consumption continued to grow rapidly in the 1970's, but at a rate somewhat slower than in the 1960's. It is projected that for the 1990's consumption will increase faster than production in most of the world's…

  9. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  10. Blueprints for Indian Education: Research and Development Needs for the 1990s. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahape, Patricia

    Two landmark efforts to describe the condition of American Indian and Alaska Native education nationwide and to call for specific solutions took place in the early 1990s. These efforts were the Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the White House Conference on Indian Education. This digest summarizes Task Force and Conference recommendations…

  11. El Nino During the 1990's: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  12. El Nino During the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  13. Putting Children First: A Progressive Family Policy for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarck, Elaine Ciulla; Galston, William A.

    Four policy papers delineate a progressive family policy for the 1990s that makes the family central among social issues and children central in families. An extensive introduction delineates the split between leaders' and ordinary citizens' views on the family and provides a summary of the papers. The first paper offers an economic review of the…

  14. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  15. Food for Thought: Children's Diets in the 1990s. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip; Suitor, Carol

    Since the late 1980s, identifying nutritional problems in children's and adults' diets and developing initiatives to help Americans improve what they eat have received considerable attention. This policy brief summarizes 2 studies of children's nutrition with the objectives of describing the diets of school-age children as of the mid-1990s,…

  16. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  17. Issues and Concerns for Local Government: Virginia in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    Many challenges face local governments in Virginia and nationwide in the 1990s. As federal funding has decreased, local governments have been forced to take on greater responsibilities. This increased workload has created a greater demand for resources and forced many localities to raise taxes. Citizens have often voiced opposition to these tax…

  18. Take a Field Trip through the 1990's. Celebrate the Century Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal Service, Washington, DC.

    Using the "Celebrate the Century" stamp series, this U.S. Postal Service series commemorates the 20th-century and teaches students about the people, places, and events that have shaped this nation during the past 100 years. Each kit is designed to be taught as a complete and independent unit. This kit, which focuses on the 1990s,…

  19. El Nino during the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990s has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein, however, appear to mitigate this belief. For example, regarding the frequency and severity of El Nino, the decade of the 1990s is found to compare quite favorably with that of preceding decades. Hence, the 1990s probably should not be regarded as being anomalous. On the other hand, the number of El Nino-related months per decade has sharply increased during the 1990s, as compared to the preceding four decades, hinting of a marginally significant upward trend. Perhaps, this is an indication that the Earth is now experiencing an ongoing global climatic change. Continued vigilance during the new millennium, therefore, is of paramount importance for determining whether or not this "hint" of a global change is real or if it merely reflects a normal fluctuation of climate.

  20. Parents and Schooling in the 1990s. Parent Involvement at the Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This theme issue is devoted to the topic of "Parent Involvement in Education" and contains three principal articles: "Parents and Schooling in the 1990s," by Erwin Flaxman and Morton Inger; "Parent…

  1. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  2. Instructional Leaders for the 1990s: Improving the Analysis of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    Arguing that instructional leadership changes are inevitable during the 1990s, this Bulletin explores instructional leaders' roles and functions, along with some leadership styles, strategies, and skills, and proposes an administrator training program. Chapter 1 introduces six "organizers" for examining instructional leadership: setting,…

  3. The Role of Communication Satellites in Education and Training: The 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polcyn, Kenneth A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of satellite technology and trends in its use, reviews the evolution of education and training applications of communication satellites, and prognosticates about the possible national and international uses during the 1990s. A bibliography of 26 items is included. (CHC)

  4. Factors affecting Yukon teen pregnancy decline in the mid and late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Jeff

    2002-11-01

    Teen pregnancy has declined throughout North America in the 1990s. In Yukon Territory, Canada, teen pregnancy in the late 1990s was almost 40% lower than in the early 1990s. This rate of decline is significantly greater than most recently reported national rates of teen pregnancy decline in Canada and United States. Identifying possible causes of the Yukon decline may help policy makers and program managers plan and implement teen pregnancy prevention strategies. Data on Yukon teen pregnancy prevention initiatives were collected through numerous discussions and interviews with Yukon service providers, teens, and the general public between 1994 and 2001. Analysis of data demonstrates that multiple new initiatives spanning many sectors were implemented in the mid and late 1990s that could have contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. A multi-dimensional approach to teen pregnancy prevention that included researching and evaluating family planning programs and policies before, during, and after implementation, increasing access to longer-acting hormonal contraceptives, providing continuing family planning medical education to health care providers and other youth service providers, subsidization of contraceptives, delivery of innovative family planning mass media campaigns, and delivery of ongoing sexual health education programs may have significantly contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. Collaboration among service providers across many service sectors (clinical, public health, education, First Nations, government communication and policy, grassroots) facilitated coordination of the multi-dimensional approach.

  5. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  6. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  7. Student Perspectives on Enrolling in Undergraduate Forestry Degree Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharik, Terry L.; Frisk, Stacey L.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate U.S. forestry degree programs experienced a steady decline in enrollments over a decade beginning in the mid-1990s. This decline prompted a survey of students enrolled in these programs to determine what factors led to their decisions to matriculate there and conversely, what may have made them hesitant to do so. The sample…

  8. Predictors of Long-Term Enrollment and Degree Outcomes for Community College Students: Integrating Academic, Psychosocial, Socio-Demographic, and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porchea, Sameano F.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve; Phelps, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of student (academic preparation, psychosocial, socio-demographic, and situational) and institutional characteristics on long-term enrollment outcomes. We tracked enrollments and degrees awarded for students who originally enrolled at two-year institutions across five years. Our findings have implications for identifying…

  9. Reinventing the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1990s, community colleges will be faced with a real challenge and an opportunity: to become marketing-oriented institutions. Marketing is crucial to reinventing the colleges as institutions that are capable of contributing to the education of an underskilled workforce and a significant underclass--an endeavor vital to the nation's…

  10. Community Colleges in Shanghai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyi, Tao

    This report offers a commentary on the recent development of community colleges in Shanghai (China). The seven institutions were established in the early 1990s to provide community education to local residents in hopes of facilitating mass higher education in China. The report describes important characteristics the colleges seek to impart…

  11. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  12. Accelerated deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Sexton, Joseph O; Townshend, John R

    2015-05-16

    Using a consistent, 20 year series of high- (30 m) resolution, satellite-based maps of forest cover, we estimate forest area and its changes from 1990 to 2010 in 34 tropical countries that account for the majority of the global area of humid tropical forests. Our estimates indicate a 62% acceleration in net deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s, contradicting a 25% reduction reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment. Net loss of forest cover peaked from 2000 to 2005. Gross gains accelerated slowly and uniformly between 1990-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010. However, the gains were overwhelmed by gross losses, which peaked from 2000 to 2005 and decelerated afterward. The acceleration of humid tropical deforestation we report contradicts the assertion that losses decelerated from the 1990s to the 2000s.

  13. United States-Japanese National Interests in Asia: Security in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    National Security," in International Security, Vol. II, No. 2, Fall 1986, for a critique and rebuttal of the Maritime Strategy. 3 ’Julian S . Corbett...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Distribution is unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6a. NAME OF...Interests in Asia: Security in the 1990s 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Staples, Mark T. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (year, month, day

  14. The Next Energy Crisis: U.S. National Security Vulnerability in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Vulnerability in the 1990s 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...threat, and the ~ nternational and domestic actions needed to provide an adequate margin of energy security. THE 0I~ MARKET: CRISIS IN THE 1970~ In...the 1973 embargo, President Nixon launched Project Independence with a stated goal of eliminating oil imports in seven years. The plan placed heavy

  15. NASA plans and opportunities. [space flight activities throughout the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA plans for the Life Science program of a series of space flight activities throughout the decade of the 1990s are discussed with particular attention given to the NASA life science goals and objectives and to the particular space missions which will carry out these objectives. These space missions and specially designed facilities for experiments in space include Space Station Freedom, Space Biology Initiative, Gravitational Biology Facility, Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems Test Facility, and Exobiology Facility.

  16. Red blood cell transfusion practices in very low birth weight infants in 1990s postsurfactant era.

    PubMed Central

    Beeram, M. R.; Krauss, D. R.; Riggs, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the practice of red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (between 501 to 1500 g) during the postsurfactant era of the 1990s; and (2) to evaluate if there is a decreasing trend in red cell transfusions in the 1990s. Database and medical records of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1990 and December 1995 at Scott & White Clinic, Temple, Texas, were reviewed. Five hundred twenty-seven infants were admitted to the NICU, excluding 5 infants that were transferred out for possible cardiac surgery or for other reasons. Fifty one (9.7%) of these infants died prior to discharge. Hence, data from 476 survivors were reviewed for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Transfusions were given at the discretion of the attending neonatologist. None of the infants received erythropoietin. Of the 476 infants, 289 (61%) received RBC transfusions during the hospital stay, with 2.7+/-3.6 transfusions per infant with a volume of 40.5+/-50.4 mL/kg. Smaller infants required significantly more transfusions compared to larger infants when divided into 250-g subgroups. No statistically significant difference was noted in the number of RBC transfusions per infant or number of infants transfused during the 6-year period from year to year. We conclude that VLBW infants in the 1990s postsurfactant era required 2.7 RBC transfusions per infant, on average, with the smallest infants requiring the most transfusions. These data will be helpful to counsel mothers in preterm labor regarding the need of transfusions for each birth weight category. Red cell transfusion practice has not changed over this 6-year period in the 1990s. Additional measures such as erythropoietin or even stricter transfusion criteria may be necessary to decrease transfusions further. However, safety of such measures should be carefully evaluated. PMID:11688921

  17. Relationship between the Pacific and Atlantic stepwise climate change during the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Y.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.; Ishii, M.; Mochizuki, T.

    2012-11-01

    A linkage between climate change in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans during the 1990s is investigated using three versions of the coupled climate model MIROC and CMIP5 multi-model ensemble. From the early 1990s to the early 2000s, the observed sea surface temperature (SST) shows warming in the North Atlantic and a La Niña-like pattern in the Pacific. Associated with the SST pattern, the observations indicate a strengthened Walker circulation in the tropical Pacific and enhanced precipitation in the tropical Atlantic. These SST and precipitation patterns are simulated well by hindcast experiments with external forcing and an initialized ocean anomaly state but are poorly simulated by uninitialized simulation with external forcing only. In particular, the observed La Niña-like SST pattern becomes prominent in ensemble members with large amplitudes of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index during 1996-1998. Our results suggest that ocean initialization in both the Pacific and the Atlantic plays an important role in predicting the Pacific stepwise climate change during the 1990s, which contributes to the accurate estimation of global temperature change in the coming decade. Forecasting typhoon frequency or marine fisheries production in the coming decade may be possible by improving the predictive skill of stepwise climate change.

  18. Decadal changes in tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haozhe; Yang, Jing; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Wang, Yuqing; Gao, Miaoni

    2015-12-01

    A pronounced decadal change in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the late 1990s was identified. Based on a comparison of the two epochs that occurred before and after the late 1990s, the TC genesis number exhibited an evident decrease over the southern WNP (S-WNP: 5°-20°N, 105°-170°E) and an increase over the northern WNP (N-WNP: 20°-25°N, 115°-155°E), which partly corresponded to a significant northward migration in the seasonal mean latitudinal location of TC genesis, i.e., from 17.2°N to 18.7°N. After the late 1990s, the northwestward-moving track became the most dominant track mode, accompanied by the weakening of both the westward-moving track and the northeastward-recurving track. Meanwhile, the TC occurrence frequency (TCF) experienced evident increases over southeastern China and the Okinawa islands, while prominent decreases occurred over the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Japan and east of Japan. Changes in the TCF were determined by TC genesis changes, TC track shifts and variations in regional TC durations, which were all ascribed to the decadal change in tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature. The full picture on the decadal changes in the WNP TC activity revealed in this study may provide useful guidance for regional TC seasonal forecasts and future projections.

  19. Strengthened relationship between the Antarctic Oscillation and ENSO after the mid-1990s during austral spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Wang, Huijun; Sun, Jianqi

    2017-01-01

    This paper documents a decadal strengthened co-variability of the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and ENSO in austral spring after the mid-1990s. During the period 1979-93, the ENSO (AAO) spatial signatures are restricted to the tropics-midlatitudes (Antarctic-midlatitudes) of the Southern Hemisphere (SH), with a weak connection between the two oscillations. Comparatively, after the mid-1990s, the El Ni˜no-related atmospheric anomalies project on a negative AAO pattern with a barotropic structure in the mid-high latitudes of the SH. The expansion of El Ni˜no-related air temperature anomalies have a heightened impact on the meridional thermal structure of the SH, contributing to a weakened circumpolar westerly and strengthened subtropical jet. Meanwhile, the ENSO-related southern three-cell circulations expand poleward and then strongly couple the Antarctic and the tropics. Numerical simulation results suggest that the intensified connection between ENSO and SST in the South Pacific since the mid-1990s is responsible for the strengthened AAO-ENSO relationship.

  20. Decadal change of Tropical Cyclone Activity over western North Pacific around late-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Yang, J.; Mao, R.; Wang, Y.; Gong, D.

    2014-12-01

    A pronounced decadal change of tropical cyclone (TC) activity was identified over western North Pacific (WNP) around late-1990s. After late-1990s, the WNP total TC genesis number exhibited an evident decrease, particularly over southern WNP region (S-WNP: 5oN-20oN), which was mainly caused by reduced vorticity and descending anomalies. We also detected a significant northward migration of TC genesis from 17.2°N to 18.7°N. The above TC genesis change is attributed to the weakening of monsoon trough and local Hadley cell that is associated with sea surface temperature climate shift around the late-1990s. In terms of three prevailing TC tracks changes, the northwestward-moving track (II) became the most dominant prevailing track mode while the westward-moving track (I) became weaker, and the northeastward-recurving track (III) had a westward shift. The track shifts primarily resulted from the large-scale steering flows change, which also had played a vital role in the modulation of TC regional duration. Thus, the subtropical East Asia tended to have a higher risk of encountering TC while the Southern China had a lower risk. Additionally, a visual reduction was seen in both number and proportion of typhoons reaching categories 1 and 2, and a remarkable poleward migration was also recognized in the average latitudes where TCs have achieved their lifetime-maximum intensity.

  1. THE AGRICULTURAL STUDENT, A RESTUDY OF STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED AS FRESHMEN, FALL, 1960, IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, S. F.; THOMPSON, O. E.

    OF 196 COLLEGE FRESHMEN STUDIED IN 1960, 147 WERE INCLUDED IN A RESTUDY TO--(1) DETERMINE IF COMMITMENT TO THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND OTHER STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS ARE RELATED TO CONTINUATION IN AGRICULTURE, CHANGES IN MAJOR, SCHOLASTIC RECORD, OR WITHDRAWAL FROM COLLEGE, (2) DETERMINE PRESENT STATUS OF 1960 FRESHMEN, AND (3) COMPARE STUDENTS…

  2. Fall 2011: Estimated Headcount Enrollment and Pell Grant Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Phillippe, Kent

    2011-01-01

    After a number of years of enrollment growth at the nation's community colleges, total headcount enrollments leveled off in fall 2011 from the previous year. A collaborative analysis of the American Association of Community Colleges and the National Student Clearinghouse shows an enrollment decrease of almost 1% from fall 2010 to 2011. Despite…

  3. Forecasting Enrollment: An Extrapolative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenbaum, Lester; Ricci, Raymond

    1982-01-01

    An enrollment projection model designed and implemented at LaSalle College had five phases: establishing clear goals, model construction, model implementation, model estimation and validation, and using the forecast. The history of LaSalle's model and the elements in decision making are outlined. (MSE)

  4. Enrollment Management: Demographic Changes. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribbons, Barry C.; Meuschke, Daylene M.

    The Office of Institutional Development and Technology and the Public Information Office created this report that identifies several topics of research in order to inform marketing efforts associated with enrollment management. The report is based upon demographic studies done at the College of Canyons to measure things such as changes in the size…

  5. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  6. SCUP 32: Comprehensive Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    Comprehensive enrollment management (CEM) ensures that academic, student, and fiscal planning are done in concert in order to acknowledge the turbulence confronting an institution. A four-phase model of CEM has been developed that can be replicated at any college or university. In phase 1 of the model, the past 25 years of institutional enrollment…

  7. Panorama 2000: Student Enrollment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jeffrey M.

    Panorama 2000 presents information on Palm Beach Community College's (PBCC's) Florida, enrollment characteristics for the 1999-2000 reporting year. In addition, this report serves to support PBCC's commitment to collect and provide useful data that is systematic, broad-based and interrelated for the purpose of educational decision-making. The…

  8. Ontario Postsecondary Enrolment Report, 1977-81: Universities, Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology, Other Postsecondary Institutions = Rapport sur l'effectif des etablissements postsecondaires de l'Ontario, 1977-1981: Universites, colleges d'arts appliques et de technologie, et autres etablissements postsecondaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Toronto.

    Enrollment Data for 1977-1981 full- and part-time students in postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, are presented in response to information needs of institutions and the Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities. The introduction, highlights of findings, and statistical tables are presented in both French and English. Analysis is…

  9. Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, S. O.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries. In some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, these declines in mortality among children have slowed and are now increasing again. Internationally comparable data derived from survey programmes, such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) programme, are available both to document the changes that have occurred in mortality and to provide insight into some of the factors that may explain these trends in mortality. The factors found in repeated DHS programmes that explain these trends fall into five categories: fertility behaviour; nutritional status, breastfeeding, and infant feeding; the use of health services by mothers and for children; environmental health conditions; and socioeconomic status. Both simple analyses and multivariate analyses of changes in these factors between surveys indicate that all factors affected the mortality trends. However, to explain trends in mortality, the variables themselves had to have changed over time. During the 1990s fertility behaviour, breastfeeding, and infant feeding have changed less than other factors and so would seem to have played a smaller role in mortality trends. This study confirms that trends in mortality during the 1990s were related to more than just a handful of variables. It would, therefore, be a mistake to concentrate policy actions on one or a few of these while forsaking others. Countries with the largest decreases in mortality have had substantial improvements in most of the factors that might be used to explain these changes. In some countries mortality has risen. In part these increases can be explained by the factors included in this study, such as deterioration in seeking medical care for children with fever. Other factors that were not measured, such as the increasing resistance of malaria to drug treatment and the increased prevalence of parental HIV/AIDS, may be contributing

  10. Solid earth science in the 1990s. Volume 1: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is volume one of a three volume series. A plan for solid earth science research for the next decade is outlined. The following topics are addressed: scientific requirements; status of current research; major new emphasis in the 1990's; interagency and international participation; and the program implementation plan. The following fields are represented: plate motion and deformation; lithospheric structure and evolution; volcanology; land surface (processes of change); earth structure and dynamics; earth rotation and reference frames; and geopotential fields. Other topics of discussion include remote sensing, space missions, and space techniques.

  11. Analyses of the lunar surface with advanced remote sensors: Expectations for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Today's advanced sensor capabilities provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration that mesh well with the science requirements for a sophisticated integration of several types of remotely acquired information. Science priorities for the 1990's include an evaluation of the global composition and structure of the primordial lunar crust in order to model its origin and evolution, using the Moon as a natural laboratory to study the impact process and time-cumulative events at 1 AU, and, ultimately, constraining the origin of the Moon and its relation to Earth.

  12. Solid Earth science in the 1990s. Volume 3: Measurement techniques and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Reports are contained from the NASA Workshop on Solid Earth Science in the 1990s. The techniques and technologies needed to address the program objectives are discussed. The Measurement Technique and Technology Panel identified (1) candidate measurement systems for each of the measurements required for the Solid Earth Science Program that would fall under the NASA purview; (2) the capabilities and limitations of each technique; and (3) the developments necessary for each technique to meet the science panel requirements. In nearly all cases, current technology or a development path with existing technology was identified as capable of meeting the requirements of the science panels. These technologies and development paths are discussed.

  13. How have hospitals faced the pricing issues of the 1990's?

    PubMed

    Kleimenhagen, A; Naidu, G M; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    National health care expenditures are rising rapidly, bringing on a health care financing crisis. For this reason, it is useful to see how hospitals are facing the price issues of the 1990's. This study examines the price strategies hospitals follow and analyzes their observations on price sensitivity and payer mix. The results clearly show that hospitals have not given much attention to the pricing variable. The study suggests that marketing and finance will have to work closely together in developing future pricing strategies.

  14. Latin American social medicine: roots, development during the 1990s, and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-12-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time.

  15. Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  16. Flight management - Pilot procedures and system interfaces for the 1980-1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wempe, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    In the air transportation system of the 1980-1990's, aircraft must perform with greater precision in time and position than is possible today. Rapid development in electronics technology makes renovation in airborne-system concepts feasible. The Ames Research Center is conducting research on pilot procedures and pilot-system interfaces for such systems. Research on various pilot-system interface devices and manned simulations was conducted to study rules of distributed decision making authority among pilots and controllers with various airborne display concepts, and a pilot-oriented command logic for the control of avionic systems was studied. Results are summarized, and ongoing work and future research plans described.

  17. A Study to Determine the Influence of Certain Non-Cognitive Factors on Achievement of Freshmen Students Enrolled in a Predominantly Black State Supported College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Christus N.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the effects of the following variables on the academic avhievement of freshmen in a predominantly Black College: (1) size of the high schools from which they graduated; (2) parents' educational backgrounds; (3) proposed college major; (4) employment status; and (5) residential status. Found no statistically significant relationship between…

  18. Looking beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation. An NCPR Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Long, Bridget Terry

    2013-01-01

    Gaps in average college success among students of differing backgrounds have persisted in the United States for decades. One of the primary ways governments have attempted to ameliorate such gaps is by providing need-based grants, but little evidence exists on the impacts of such aid on longer term outcomes such as college persistence and degree…

  19. Looking beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation. NBER Working Paper No. 19306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Long, Bridget Terry

    2013-01-01

    Gaps in average college success among students of differing backgrounds have persisted in the United States for decades. One of the primary ways governments have attempted to ameliorate such gaps is by providing need-based grants, but little evidence exists on the impacts of such aid on longer-term outcomes such as college persistence and degree…

  20. The Effects of a Computerized-Algebra Program on Mathematics Achievement of College and University Freshmen Enrolled in a Developmental Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Judy M.

    2008-01-01

    We face a world in which a college degree increasingly dictates the likelihood of life success. At the same time, there has been an ever increasing population of students who have not been prepared adequately through their high school education to meet the rigors of college/university-level content. The present study investigated the effects of a…

  1. The Ways and Means: A Study of the Needs and Resources of Students Enrolled in United Negro College Fund Member Institutions. Research Report Vol. 2, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry S.; Kirschner, Alan H.

    A study funded by the Southern Education Foundation had as its purpose to identify, describe, and assess: (1) the costs of education to United Negro College Fund (UNCF) students in 1975-76; (2) the resources available to meet those costs; (3) the need for additional aid resources; and (4) some major relationships among college costs, financial aid…

  2. Study of a tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 1: User community characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreary, T.

    1981-01-01

    Projected 1990's experiments; navigation requirements and potentials; communications requirements associated with space experiments; alternative forecast options; and operational impacts on experiments are covered. A baseline of plans for the TDAS User Community, including a set of generic experiments developed to supplement existing planning for the 1990's time frame is generated. It includes extensive summaries of collected data, and a bibliography. The data are representative of inputs obtained from NASA planning sources through September 1981.

  3. Alternative agendas. System priorities for the 1990s will differ from those of the last decade.

    PubMed

    Coyle, M; Koebel, C

    1990-12-01

    The Sisters of Charity Health Care Systems (SCHCS) was established in 1979 in response to changes in the U.S. healthcare system and to new needs of sponsors and Catholic healthcare facilities. However, the agenda that SCHCS leaders (and leaders of other systems) set at that time must now give way to an agenda that will address the new challenges and responsibilities facing the Catholic healthcare ministry in the 1990s. In its first decade of existence, SCHCS established and fulfilled a number of goals: It strengthened governance relationships, helped systems and sponsors better identify with local communities, enabled facilities to steward resources more effectively, and facilitated members' understanding of mission and sponsorship values. In the 1990s, however, systems will have to create more opportunities for regional, collaborative, and networking relationships among member facilities and between members and non-members. To achieve this, they will have to reevaluate their structures, find ways to faciliatate collaboration, make resources available to institutions outside the system, and develop an overall philosophy that enhances both the fiscal and spiritual well-being of member facilities.

  4. Oil and gas markets, companies, and technology in the 1990`s and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    During the late 1990`s and beyond, oil prices will be stagnant while costs increase, competition for markets and capital will be fierce, funds available for exploration and development will be limited, and environmental extremists will keep prospective areas off-limits. Higher taxes will limit growth in oil and gas demand and reapportion energy market shares. And a campaign to brand oil use as an ``addiction`` that must be cured will gather steam. But opportunities abound, too, even in the US High-quality properties are available throughout the US, independents can find and develop reserves cheaper than the majors, and new tools are available to reduce risks both in the field and in the market. Gas prices are firming and natural gas is often labeled the ``fuel of the future.`` To succeed in the petroleum industry of the 1990`s, all companies must accept change, be creative, and take initiative. To prosper, oil and gas producers and refiners and those who supply and serve the industry must face the new realities of the market. They cannot mark time until the return of 4,000 active rigs and $40/bbl oil. those days are never coming back. Never.

  5. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  6. IAEA Safeguards and technical support programs: POTAS in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, C.J. . Office of Nuclear Technology and Safeguards); Reisman, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) has since 1978 provided technology and technical assistance to the IAEA to support its nuclear safeguards activities. The present level of support, $6.9 million per year, equals 10% of the Department of Safeguards annual budget. During the next decade, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will face new technical challenges in carrying out its verification activities. To help the IAEA acquire the technology and other technical support that it will require in the 1990s, POTAS expects to continue its assistance, both in the areas established in the past and in additional areas dictated by newly identified IAEA safeguards requirements. This paper will look at the political and policy context within which the Department of Safeguards, and hence POTAS, operates, and how that context is expected to evolve over the next decade. The roles and functions of POTAS will be identified and discussed in terms of their historical evolution. Lastly, the paper will consider how POTAS is expected to change during the 1990s, both to maintain effectiveness in existing roles and functions, and to meet the challenge of the changing policy context. 5 refs.

  7. Urban versus Rural: Part-Time Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Michael; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Waller, Lee Rusty; Waller, Sharon Kay

    2008-01-01

    The researchers examined part-time enrollment within public two-year, degree-granting community colleges by the degree of urbanization classifications of city, suburban, town, and rural for fall 2003 and 2005. Findings indicate no statistical differences in part-time enrollment between city and suburban institutions. No statistical differences…

  8. Enrollment Management as a Portfolio Investment Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an information technology model designed to enable the consideration of enrollment management decisions in a portfolio context. Annual enrollment management decisions represent an important investment in a college's reputation. While the short run imperative to fill each incoming class is important, the long run implications of each…

  9. Minority Enrollment Report, Fall Semester 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Ronald B.

    This report displays longitudinal data on minority enrollment at Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC), and examines trends that may affect minority enrollment in the future. A record number of minority students attended PVCC for the fall semester 1999. Slightly over two-thirds of all minority students attending PVCC were African-American.…

  10. Community College Strategies: Developments in Community College Accountability--California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard C.

    2008-01-01

    Accountability efforts at California's community colleges gained prominence in the 1990s under an agreement known as Partnership for Excellence (PFE) that involved the chancellor's office, the legislature, and the governor's office. This agreement was the first wide-ranging accountability effort undertaken by the state's community college system.…

  11. Prospects for the Faculty Labor Market in the 1990s: A Clemson University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley

    Through a faculty retirement survey and a review of the literature, Clemson University, South Carolina, studied the future labor market for college faculty. The survey was administered to 1,250 faculty at the university in Fall, 1991. Fifty-six responded with data indicating that the College of Sciences, and the College of Agricultural Sciences…

  12. Innovation in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    An analysis is provided of the innovations that have marked the community college movement during the 1980s, including speculations about their effect on postsecondary education in the 1990s. The authors of the 13 chapters of the book were directed to cite examples of innovative practices from a range of community colleges to illustrate their…

  13. National Comparison of Jointly Enrolled Students. Factsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document contains data from the Community College Management Information System and other sources with summative data on topics of interest. Data gathered through the Division of Community College's Management Information System (MIS) indicates that in the 2013-14 academic year 42,996 students enrolled in almost 337,000 credit hours through…

  14. Are International Students Cash Cows? Examining the Relationship between New International Undergraduate Enrollments and Institutional Revenue at Public Colleges and Universities in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the business of international education. It is often assumed that universities seek international students as a means of generating revenue. The broad purpose of this study was to understand the effects of increased international student enrollment on net tuition revenue. Informed by resource dependency and…

  15. Tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 7: TDAS space technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatri, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the TDAS and user spacecraft technology assessment effort are provided. For each TDAS Satellite enhancement and user spacecraft element previously enumerated, the technology issues are identified and the R&D needed to resolve these issues is delineated. Subsequently, taking into account developments taking place elsewhere, the addition unique TDAS satellite module and user spacecraft element R&D efforts needed are identified, and conclusions are drawn in each case. From these conclusions, it is evident that with additional unique R&D efforts carried out for TDAS and appropriate user spacecraft elements the desired TDAS' capabilities for the 1990's can be realized and user spacecraft can be implemented that adequately interface with the projected TDAS.

  16. Halo-orbit and lunar-swingby missions of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    A significant number of spacecraft are planning to use halo orbits and lunar-swingby trajectories in the next decade. Four spacecraft will be placed into halo orbits around the earth's sunward libration point, while two others will be stationed near the sun-earth L2 libration point in the distant geomagnetic tail. Six spacecraft, including two of the aforementioned halo orbiters, will make use of lunar-swingby maneuvers to fulfill their mission objectives. Thus, a total of ten spacecraft, five from the Soviet Union, two from Japan, two from the United States, and one from the European Space Agency, will employ halo orbits and/or lunar-swingby trajectories in the 1990's. Pertinent facts are presented for each of these missions.

  17. Instrument pointing technology for spaceborne science missions of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskin, R. A.; Sirlin, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The technologies which will permit sub-0.1 arcsec pointing accuracies on spacecraft in the 1990s are examined, along with the accuracies required and the current state of the art. Of particular interest are multi-mission spacecraft. Pointing accuracy can only be obtained by integrating the instrument (telescope) as part of the spacecraft, minimizing disturbances and using reaction wheels for pointing. The pointer could be isolated from complex spacecraft disturbances by soft mechanical mounts, e.g., inflatible tethers, guy-wire suspension and fluidic pointing systems. All design options are being explored for the Space Station, Earth Observing System, Co-orbiting platform and GEO platform spacecraft, and for near-term planetary spacecraft which will employ nuclear electric propulsion.

  18. Mental health policy for the 1990s: tinkering in the interstices.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M G; Cournos, F

    1990-01-01

    That public policy has abysmally failed the chronically mentally ill seems beyond genuine dispute. Successive reforms have foundered on the familiar shoals of overblown expectations and insufficient resources. In this paper, we review current policies affecting the chronic and disabled mentally ill, and we consider some approaches to reform. We begin by trying to identify and characterize the chronically mentally ill and their disabilities. Next, we consider the chaotic patchwork of federal and state programs that has come to replace the asylum. We then criticize several competing models of reform that we believe fail to make an empathic connection with the mentally ill. Finally, we urge a strategy of limited reform consistent with available empirical data about program effectiveness and sensitive to the likely economic, political, and legal constraints of the 1990s.

  19. Clinical technology assessment, cost-effective adoption, and quality management by hospitals in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, S; Saver, C L

    1990-06-01

    Technology assessment in the 1990s must become an integral part of a hospital's strategic priority goals, with active participation of physicians and top management. Technology assessment should involve a wide range of criteria and health care consumer expectations, so that the appropriateness, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and quality improvement aspects of new technologies are all considered. Mount Carmel Health's Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), established in 1986, monitors significant developments in new technologies and performs technology and outcomes assessments. ATBI activities, which have facilitated adoption of 35 treatment-based projects, are integrated into the existing QA structure of Mount Carmel hospitals. Through resolution of identified problems, quality care can be promoted, while providing patients innovative medical treatments.

  20. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  1. Possible causes of the interdecadal transition of the Somali jet around the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Shi, Wenjing; Yang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    This observational study demonstrates that the Somali jet (SMJ) experienced a notable interdecadal transition in not only its lower-level parts (< 850 hPa) but also its higher-level parts (850-600 hPa) in the late 1990s. The results also show that the jet at higher level is more significantly related to East Asian monsoon rainfall than that at lower level. Thus, a new whole-layer SMJ (WSMJ) index which includes variations of the higher-level jet is defined based on the average meridional wind speed at five levels (1000-600 hPa). The interdecadal transition of the SMJ can be mainly attributed to the meridional thermal contrast anomalies near the equator which are associated with the three-pole pattern of the southern Indian Ocean.

  2. A data distribution strategy for the 1990s (files are not enough)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankenson, Mike; Wright, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Virtually all of the data distribution strategies being contemplated for the EOSDIS era revolve around the use of files. Most, if not all, mass storage technologies are based around the file model. However, files may be the wrong primary abstraction for supporting scientific users in the 1990s and beyond. Other abstractions more closely matching the respective scientific discipline of the end user may be more appropriate. JPL has built a unique multimission data distribution system based on a strategy of telemetry stream emulation to match the responsibilities of spacecraft team and ground data system operators supporting our nations suite of planetary probes. The current system, operational since 1989 and the launch of the Magellan spacecraft, is supporting over 200 users at 15 remote sites. This stream-oriented data distribution model can provide important lessons learned to builders of future data systems.

  3. Aeronautical research in the United States - Challenges for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Richard H.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA R&D initiatives in air transportation technologies that will dominate its efforts through the 1990s. These efforts are to be concentrated in (1) advanced subsonic transports with greater fuel economy, passenger capacity, and control effectiveness, whose design will be undertaken with state-of-the-art CFD and CAD/CAM systems; (2) a second-generation SST whose propulsion system will be substantially more fuel-efficient than that of Concorde and have far lower atmospheric emissions; and (3) a hypersonic transport predicated on the results of research into materials, cryogenic fuels, propulsion cycles, and propulsion/airframe aerodynamics integration, which will be undertaken in connection with the X-30 testbed.

  4. Changes in the North Pacific wave climate since the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Wataru

    2014-11-01

    Since the mid-1990s, ocean wave reanalysis and in situ wave observations have revealed marked downward trends in wave height, exceeding -0.1 m per decade in the midlatitude North Pacific. The wave period in the tropical Pacific is also on a downward trend, exceeding -0.4 s per decade during this period. These changes in wave climate in the Pacific are attributable to recently strengthened trade winds and La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific. The downward trend in significant wave height in the midlatitude North Pacific is due to strengthening of the negative phase of the Pacific-North American teleconnection. Numerical experimentations with a wave model also showed that the downward trend in the wave period in the eastern equatorial Pacific was induced not only by increased wind waves due to strengthened trade winds but also by weakened propagating swells from the midlatitude North Pacific.

  5. Predicted solar flare activity for the 1990s - Possible effects on navigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kunches, J.M.; Hirman, J.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The current solar cycle, which began in September 1986, may prove to be the highest ever, as measured by sunspot numbers and radio flux. The cycle's frequent and strong solar flare activity can be illustrated by the March 1989 episode, which caused many problems for navigation systems. Flares and the geomagnetic storms that sometimes accompany them can disrupt low-frequency systems such as Loran-C, as well as the satellite-borne GPS. Although the maximum of the solar cycle is expected during the first quarter of 1990, flare activity is likely to persist at high levels for a few years to follow. Geomagnetic activity may occur at any time in the cycle, and thus geomagnetic disruptions are possible at any point in the 1990s. 5 refs.

  6. Impact of bankruptcy through asset portfolios. Network analytic solution unveils 1990s Japanese banking crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Vodenska, I.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the Japanese banking crisis in the late 1990s with a simple network based mathematical model, which allows us to simulate the crisis as well as to obtain new perspective through analytic solution of our network model. We effectively identify the actual bankrupted banks and the robustness of the banking system using a simulation model based on properties of a bi-partite bank-asset network. We show the mean time property and analytical solution of the model revealing aggregate time dynamics of bank asset prices throughout the banking crisis. The results disclose simple but fundamental property of asset growth, instrumental for understanding the bank crisis. We also estimate the selling pressure for each asset type, derived from a Cascading Failure Model (CFM), offering new perspective for investigating the phenomenon of banking crisis.

  7. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth.

  8. HEPAP Subpanel on the US High Energy Physics Research Program for the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The entire community of high energy physicists looks expectantly to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) era. The SSC is the highest priority in the US high energy physics (HEP) program, and physics at the SSC will increasingly become its focus. In this report, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) Subpanel on the US High Energy Physics Research Program for the 1990's examines how the National HEP program can go forward vigorously in the period of preparation for the SSC. The Subpanel concluded early that a viable and productive physics research program in the next decade on a range of promising fronts is essential for this field to continue to attract and educate scientists of great creativity. The Subpanel found that such a program requires both exploiting existing opportunities and undertaking some new initiatives. The recommendations are based on the constant budget scenario,'' which the Subpanel interprets as averaging the FY 1991 budget level over the next decade.

  9. Integrated remote sensing of the earth from low earth orbit in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Trends in the areas of science, data systems, instruments and space technologies and their related infrastructures that will be experienced in earth remote sensing activities from LEO in the 1990s are discussed. Interdisciplinary studies will examine the flow of energy through the earth system, encompassing surveys of atmospheric and ocean circulations, the hydrologic cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. Mainframe computer assimilation of large data inputs will be associated with distributed microcomputer processing and analyses. Single satellite antennas will scan several microwave frequencies simultaneously, e.g., taking data on vegetation, water, and ice. Broadening the range of simultaneous observations will require multiinstrumented free-flying platforms, placed in orbit, repaired and/or retrieved by the Shuttle. Future instrumentation will include visible/IR imagers and the multifrequency microwave sounders with capabilities mainly limited by the availability of sufficient data-handling facilities.

  10. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2009-06-30

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people's needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities.

  11. The NASA cosmic ray program for the 1990's and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Binns, W. R.; Cherry, M. L.; Gaisser, T. K.; Jones, W. V.; Ling, J. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Muller, D.; Ormes, J. O.; Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    The interim report of the 1989 NASA Cosmic Ray Program Working Group is presented. The report summarizes the cosmic ray program for the 1990's, including the recently approved ACE, Astromag, HNC, POEMS, and SAMPEX missions, as well as other key elements of the program. New science themes and candidate missions are identified for the first part of the 21st century, including objectives that might be addressed as part of the Human Exploration Initiative. Among the suggested new thrusts for the 21st century are: an Interstellar Probe into the nearby interstellar medium; a Lunar-Based Calorimeter to measure the cosmic ray composition near 10 exp 16 eV; high-precision element and isotope spectroscopy of ultraheavy elements; and new, more sensitive studies of impulsive solar flare events.

  12. Universal health insurance: lessons of the 1970s, prospects for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L

    1990-01-01

    In the 1970s, proposals for universal health insurance were not successful. Health care providers, insurers, and others negotiating in the political process foresaw a better future without such legislation. Today, the growth of health insurance coverage has unmistakably reversed. Moral discomfort and self-interest shape the new politics of universal health insurance for the 1990s. Hospitals, physicians, insurers, employers, and tens of millions of individuals would benefit from a universal health insurance plan that was mindful of their concerns and interests. Proposals that require employers to provide insurance for full-time employees and expand public programs to cover to cover other uninsured persons now have the greatest chances for enactment. As leaders, health services and health insurance executives should be in the vanguard of efforts to enact universal health insurance.

  13. Computer-aided analysis at NASA Langley Research Center - Looking toward the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Aerospace research is inextricably intertwined with the programmable digital computer. Engineers and scientists at NASA Langley Research Center are requiring ever-increasing computing resources to carry out basic and applied research on problems and complex systems that would have been unthinkable Just ten years ago. The rapid changes in computer technology make planning for the future especially difficult, even five years in advance. In this paper, the evolution of computer resources and usage in research at Langley are briefly considered over the past thirty years, followed by a snapshot of the present. Finally, an extrapolation to the 1990's computer environment is made, with some thoughts on the tasks that engineers might face, and the background they will probably need.

  14. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  15. Freshening of the upper ocean in the South China Sea since the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Feng; Yu, Fei; Xue, Huijie; Zeng, Lili; Wang, Dongxiao; Yang, Shilun; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong

    2016-12-01

    Ocean salinity is often used as a dynamical tracer for investigating the Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS). In this study, we found that the upper-ocean water in the SCS had a freshening trend since the early 1990s. Salinity in the upper 100 m of the SCS (SSCS) decreased by 0.24 psu in the period 1993-2012, yielding a negative trend of -0.012 psu yr-1. The maximum freshening occurred in the surface layer west of the Luzon Strait, and freshening gradually lessened from northeast to southwest and with depth, indicating the important influence of the Kuroshio intrusion. Quantitative analysis of salinity budget from the surface to 100 m depth in the SCS suggests that the weakened Kuroshio intrusion is the leading factor controlling the SSCS freshening, while the increased air-sea freshwater flux plays a minor role. Based on GODAS (Global Ocean Data Assimilation System) model output, the Luzon Strait transport (LST) in the upper 100 m decreased in a negative trend of -0.12 Sv yr-1 (1 Sv=106 m3 s-1) from 1993 to 2012, corresponding to a freshening trend of the SSCS at a rate of -0.011 psu yr-1. Both the LST and SSCS changes are closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Our findings demonstrate that the strength of the Kuroshio intrusion into the SCS weakened markedly since the PDO phase shifted in 1990s, which resulted in the pronounced freshening of the SCS water.

  16. Tobacco lobby political influence on US state legislatures in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Givel, M.; Glantz, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Throughout the 1990s the tobacco lobby was a potent political force in US state legislatures advancing its pro-tobacco agenda.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the market and political motivations of the tobacco lobby and the strategies they use to achieve these goals in US state legislatures.
DESIGN—This study is a content analysis and summary overview of recently released historical tobacco industry documents; tobacco related government documents; and recent state tobacco control policy reports.
RESULTS—In the 1990s, the tobacco lobby engaged in a comprehensive and aggressive political effort in state legislatures to sell tobacco with the least hindrance using lobbying, the media, public relations, front groups, industry allies, and contributions to legislators. These efforts included campaigns to neutralise clean indoor air legislation, minimise tax increases, and preserve the industry's freedom to advertise and sell tobacco. The tobacco lobby succeeded in increasing the number of states that enacted state pre-emption of stricter local tobacco control laws and prevented the passage of many state tobacco control policies. Public health advocates were able to prevent pre-emption and other pro-tobacco policies from being enacted in several states.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco lobby is a powerful presence in state legislatures. Because of the poor public image of the tobacco lobby, it seeks to wield this power quietly and behind the scenes. State and local health advocates, who often have high public credibility, can use this fact against the tobacco lobby by focusing public attention on the tobacco lobby's political influence and policy goals and expose links between the tobacco lobby and its legislative supporters.


Keywords: political lobbying; state legislatures; industry PMID:11387532

  17. Fertility postponement is largely due to rising educational enrolment.

    PubMed

    Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire; Beaujouan, Eva

    2012-11-01

    The rise in educational enrolment is often cited as a possible cause of the trend to later childbearing in developed societies but direct evidence of its contribution to the aggregate change in fertility tempo is scarce. We show that rising enrolment, resulting in later ages at the end of education, accounts for a substantial part of the upward shift in the mean age at first birth in the 1980s and 1990s in Britain and in France. The postponement of first birth over that period has two components: a longer average period of enrolment and a post-enrolment component that is also related to educational level. The relationship between rising educational participation and the move to later fertility timing is almost certainly causal. Our findings therefore suggest that fertility tempo change is rooted in macro-economic and structural forces rather than in the cultural domain.

  18. Generational differences in American students' reasons for going to college, 1971-2014: The rise of extrinsic motives.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Donnelly, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    We examined generational differences in reasons for attending college among a nationally representative sample of college students (N = 8 million) entering college between 1971-2014. We validated the items on reasons for attending college against an established measure of extrinsic and intrinsic values among college students in 2014 (n = 189). Millennials (in college 2000s-2010s) and Generation X (1980s-1990s) valued extrinsic reasons for going to college ("to make more money") more, and anti-extrinsic reasons ("to gain a general education and appreciation of ideas") less than Boomers when they were the same age in the 1960s-1970s. Extrinsic reasons for going to college were higher in years with more income inequality, college enrollment, and extrinsic values. These results mirror previous research finding generational increases in extrinsic values begun by GenX and continued by Millennials, suggesting that more recent generations are more likely to favor extrinsic values in their decision-making.

  19. A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Two Bayesian Models for Predicting the Academic Successes of Selected Allied Health Students Enrolled in the Comprehensive Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Dennis; Houston, Charles A.

    The purpose of this study was to present and evaluate Bayesian-type models for estimating probabilities of program completion and for predicting first quarter grade point averages of community college students entering certain allied health fields. Two Bayesian models were tested. Bayesian Model 1--Estimating Probabilities of Program…

  20. New Haven Promise: An Early Look at College Preparation, Access, and Enrollment of New Haven Public School Students (2010-2013). Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Daugherty, Lindsay; Scherer, Ethan; Singh, Reema; Suárez, Mónica Jacobo; Ryan, Sarah; Schweig, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In New Haven, stakeholders looking to enhance the city's economic development, attract more residents, reduce crime and incarceration, and improve residents' quality of life embarked on a new scholarship program that seeks to build a college-going culture for local students and the community as an avenue to achieve these goals. Recognizing that…

  1. An Investigation of the Factors Contributing to Successful Completion of Undergraduate Degrees by the Students Enrolled in the College Assistance Migrant Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escamilla, Anna; Trevino, Nicole Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Students from farmworker families are often cited as having deficits that prohibit completion of undergraduate degree program. Statistics regarding graduates of the College Assistance Migrant Program in a southwestern university have shown graduation rates that are similar to the general population of graduates at that university. This qualitative…

  2. The Adaptation of Four Year Undergraduate Colleges to Current Fiscal and Enrollment Pressures: An Exploration of Critical Event Cycles at Seventeen Campuses. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin; Farrar, David

    The results of analyzing institutional change profiles for 17 four-year undergraduate colleges are discussed. Using critical event cycles as a unit of analysis, attention was focused on distinctive patterns of institutional adaptation. Based on site visits, a list of 33 critical events at the 17 campuses was developed, from which 13 critical event…

  3. CCLC Commission on the Future: An Update. Increasing College Preparation and Completion through Concurrent Enrollment--The Next Steps. 2020 Vision: Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the initial report of the League's Commission on the Future (COTF), there have been many reports written and the California Community Colleges have taken many steps to improve student success and completion. However, there is still much to do. This paper will provide a brief assessment of where we are--in relation to…

  4. Using a Merit-Based Scholarship Program to Increase Rates of College Enrollment in an Urban School District: The Case of the Pittsburgh Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozick, Robert; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Engberg, John

    2015-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Promise is a scholarship program that provides $5,000 per year toward college tuition for public high school graduates in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who earned a 2.5 GPA and a 90% attendance record. This study used a difference-in-difference design to assess whether the introduction of the Promise scholarship program directly…

  5. A Comparison of College Readiness among Students Enrolled in Texas Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Academies and Traditional Comprehensive High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if differences existed in the performance of Texas Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (T-STEM) academy programs and the performance of traditional Texas comprehensive high school programs on seven indicators of college readiness defined in the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS)…

  6. Access to Dual Enrollment Courses and School-Level Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretlow, Joshua; Wathington, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the percentage of adults with a college credential is paramount to sustaining our economic competitiveness. One strategy that has potential to help achieve the goal of increased postsecondary degree production is dual enrollment, which allows high school students to enroll in college-level courses for credit that can be applied…

  7. The Inside Track: Two Experts Discuss Dual Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll., Laguna Hills, CA.

    In this paper, the Vice President for Instruction at Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) in North Carolina, and the president of Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) in Utah discuss the dual-enrollment programs at their institutions. Central Piedmont's 15-year-old concurrent enrollment (CE) system encompasses two programs: Concurrent…

  8. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  9. Optimism in Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buster-Williams, Kimberley

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment managers, like most managers, have goals that must be focused on with precision, excitement, and vigor. Enrollment managers must excel at enrollment planning. Typically, enrollment planning unites undergraduate and graduate recruitment plans, out-of-state recruitment plans, marketing plans, retention plans, international enrollment…

  10. Ultraviolet, visible, and gravity astrophysics: A plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) receives advice on scientific strategy and priorities from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Guidance to the OSSA Astrophysics Division, in particular, is provided by dedicated academy committees, ad hoc study groups, and, at ten-year intervals, by broadly mandated astronomy and astrophysics survey committees charged with making recommendations for the coming decade. Many of the academy's recommendations have important implications for the conduct of ultraviolet and visible-light astronomy from space. Moreover, these areas are now poised for an era of rapid growth. Through technological progress, ultraviolet astronomy has already risen from a novel observational technique four decades ago to the mainstream of astronomical research today. Recent developments in space technology and instrumentation have the potential to generate comparably dramatic strides in observational astronomy within the next ten years. In 1989, the Ultraviolet and Visible Astrophysics Branch of the OSSA Astrophysics Division recognized the need for a new, long-range plan that would implement the academy's recommendations in a way that yielded the most advantageous use of new technology. NASA's Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravity Astrophysics Management Operations Working Group was asked to develop such a plan for the 1990's. Since the branch holds programmatic responsibility for space research in gravitational physics and relativity, as well as for ultraviolet and visible-light astrophysics, missions in those areas were also included. The working group met throughout 1989 and 1990 to survey current astrophysical problems, assess the potential of new technologies, examine prior academy recommendations, and develop the implementation plan. The present report is the product of those deliberations. Key astrophysical questions to be addressed cover topics such as the structure and evolution of the early universe, energetics of active

  11. Will there be a 14C minimum in the tropical Pacific in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Toggweiler, J.R. )

    1990-01-09

    14C distributions measured during GEOSECS showed large minima in bomb 14C levels in the tropical belts of the major ocean basins. Broecker et al. (1978, JGR, 83) attributed the minima to upwelling of deep water which was free of bomb 14C. Wyrtki (1981, JPO, 11) countered that heat budgets constrain the water upwelling the the equator to be from the upper themocline. Druffel (1987, JMR, 45) built a model of the Pacific upwelling system incorporating Wyrtki's description of the upwelling system. Druffel showed that the GEOSECS 14C minimum could be reproduced with upwelled upper thermocline water because bomb 14C levels were still relatively low in the tropical thermocline at the time of GEOSECS. Druffel went on to predict that mid latitude and tropical surface 14C levels would approach a common value before the 1990s and upper thermocline water masses acquired more bomb 14C and atmospheric 14C levels declined. By studying pre-bomb coral 14C records and a model simulation in Toggweiler et al. (1989, JGR, 94), I have found confirmation that some older and colder water upwells in the tropical Pacific. Upper thermocline (22-24C) water has about the same pre-bomb 14C content as pre-bomb surface waters and cannot generate a low 14C singal prior to the bomb test. The appearance of the oldest upwelled water in the coral data is correlated in time with the cold phase of the ENSO cycle. Most of the low 14C water moves southward into the South Pacific. I will argue that intensified upwelling during the cold phase of ENSO pulls up 12-14C water from the lower layers of the Equatorial Undercurrent. Upwelling from this layer may represent an important closure mechanism for mode waters formed in the subantarctic. A source of older water makes it certain that the tropical 14C minimum will persist through the 1990s and the remainder of the post-bomb era.

  12. A Short-Term Forecasting Procedure for Institution Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfitzner, Charles Barry

    1987-01-01

    Applies the Box-Jenkins time series methodology to enrollment data for the Virginia community college system. Describes the enrollment data set, the Box-Jenkins approach, and the forecasting results. Discusses the value of one-quarter ahead enrollment forecasts and implications for practice. Provides a technical discussion of the model. (DMM)

  13. PVCC Minority Enrollment Report, Fall Semester 2000. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Ronald B.

    This report shows longitudinal data on minority enrollment at Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) and examines trends that may affect minority enrollment in the future. It includes demographic characteristics by race and enrollment characteristics by race. Highlights for fall semester 2000 include: (1) out of a total of 4,470 students, 872…

  14. Enrollment Management: Perspectives on Student Retention (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Hossler, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Among the earliest principles and premises of enrollment management as it evolved in concept and practice was that student retention is as critical as new student recruitment in achieving an institution's preferred enrollment profile. Over recent decades, student retention has been one of the most studied aspects of college enrollment dynamics,…

  15. Revisiting the effectiveness of methadone treatment on crime reductions in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Rothbard, A; Alterman, A; Rutherford, M; Liu, F; Zelinski, S; McKay, J

    1999-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between methadone treatment and the criminal activity of 126 individuals participating in treatment during the early 1990s. The primary question addressed is to what extent is methadone maintenance treatment associated with reductions in crime? Although prior studies in the 1970s and early 1980s showed significant decreases in crime for individuals in treatment programs, criteria for remaining in this treatment modality have changed in recent years, particularly with the advent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the need to reduce intravenous drug use. A pre-post study design is employed spanning a 6-year time period of subject recruitment and follow-up (1987-1993). Uniform administrative records on arrests are used for the analyses. A multiple regression model is employed to explain the variance in the number of arrests 2 years following program admission, with prior criminal history, prior and current drug treatment, and current cocaine use employed as explanatory variables. Results indicate that treatment retention has only a slight, though significant, effect on reducing criminal activity during treatment. Two other factors that appear to increase arrest activity are the use of cocaine and prior criminal history. The fact that arrests did not decrease during a treatment period of 18 months on average requires more investigation in light of the increase in cocaine use in this population.

  16. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  17. Gay and bisexual men's use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach.

  18. Hydrocarbon occurrences in igneous and metamorphic rocks: Plays of the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Harrelson, D.W.

    1989-09-01

    A review of available geologic literature has indicated numerous references detailing the occurrences of hydrocarbon in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Notable among these references is a paper by Chung-Hsiang P'an and a group of papers edited by Sidney Powers. Collectively, these papers conclude a biogenic source for hydrocarbons, most of which occur in (1) weathered igneous and metamorphic reservoir rocks that are higher than the source rocks (e.g., Amarillo field) or (2) igneous and metamorphic rocks that exert structural or stratigraphic control on the reservoir or source rocks (e.g., Jackson dome and the Wiggins anticline-Hancock ridge). It should be noted that a new twist on the abiogenic origin of some inert hydrocarbon gases (i.e., helium and nitrogen) proposes a degassing of igneous and metamorphic rocks from sources in the underlying mantle. Recent european super-deep tests (e.g., the Siljan Ring and the Kola SG-3 testholes) have attempted, with mixed results, to verify this theory. Drilling for these deep igneous and metamorphic prospects today is considered at or below economic basement or worse - a rank wildcat. However, these plays should become increasingly commercial in the 1990s as deeper drilling technology progresses, the current oil glut is eliminated, and more exotic deep gas prospects become accepted.

  19. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  20. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.