Science.gov

Sample records for 1990s measurement distribution

  1. SPRAWL IN THE 1990S Measurement, Distribution, and Trends.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ; Hynes, H Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal.

  2. SPRAWL IN THE 1990S Measurement, Distribution, and Trends

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ, RUSS; HYNES, H. PATRICIA

    2006-01-01

    Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal. PMID:16990927

  3. A data distribution strategy for the 1990s (files are not enough)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankenson, Mike; Wright, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Virtually all of the data distribution strategies being contemplated for the EOSDIS era revolve around the use of files. Most, if not all, mass storage technologies are based around the file model. However, files may be the wrong primary abstraction for supporting scientific users in the 1990s and beyond. Other abstractions more closely matching the respective scientific discipline of the end user may be more appropriate. JPL has built a unique multimission data distribution system based on a strategy of telemetry stream emulation to match the responsibilities of spacecraft team and ground data system operators supporting our nations suite of planetary probes. The current system, operational since 1989 and the launch of the Magellan spacecraft, is supporting over 200 users at 15 remote sites. This stream-oriented data distribution model can provide important lessons learned to builders of future data systems.

  4. Solid Earth science in the 1990s. Volume 3: Measurement techniques and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Reports are contained from the NASA Workshop on Solid Earth Science in the 1990s. The techniques and technologies needed to address the program objectives are discussed. The Measurement Technique and Technology Panel identified (1) candidate measurement systems for each of the measurements required for the Solid Earth Science Program that would fall under the NASA purview; (2) the capabilities and limitations of each technique; and (3) the developments necessary for each technique to meet the science panel requirements. In nearly all cases, current technology or a development path with existing technology was identified as capable of meeting the requirements of the science panels. These technologies and development paths are discussed.

  5. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  6. Estimating changes in ocean ventilation from early 1990s CFC-12 and late 2000s SF6 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, Toste; Waugh, Darryn W.; Bullister, John L.

    2013-03-01

    Transient tracer measurements can constrain the rates and pathways of ocean ventilation and act as proxies for biogeochemically relevant gases such as CO2 and oxygen. Various techniques have deduced changes in ocean ventilation over decadal timescales using transient tracer measurements made on repeat sections, but these require a priori assumptions about mixing in the ocean interior. Here, we introduce a simple, direct observational method that takes advantage of the similar atmospheric increase rates of chlorofluorocarbon-12 and sulfur hexafluoride, but with a time lag (offset) of 14-15 years. Such repeat measurements can be directly compared without prior assumptions about mixing. A difference larger than ~2 years between modern sulfur hexafluoride and historical chlorofluorocarbon-12 tracer ages implies a change in ventilation, although lack of difference does not necessarily imply no change. Several tracer data sets are presented, which suggest changes in ventilation in the South Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans.

  7. Large Permafrost Warming in Northern Alaska During the 1990's Determined from GTN-P Borehole Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior currently maintains 9 automated active-layer monitoring stations and an array of 21 deep boreholes in northern Alaska as part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P). The GTN-P network is used both for climate change detection and for documenting the sensitivity of permafrost to climate change; GTN-P is one component of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), which in turn is part of the long-term Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During August 2002, temperatures were re-measured in the majority of the DOI/GTN-P boreholes to determine the present thermal state of deep permafrost in northern Alaska. A preliminary comparison with earlier temperature logs from the borehole array shows that permafrost on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain and Alaskan Arctic Foothills has warmed ~ 3 K since the late 1980's. This warming of the Arctic cryosphere coincides with the shift in atmospheric dynamics described by the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) that also began in the late 1980's.

  8. Strategies for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1990-01-01

    Eight strategies are recommended to higher education in the 1990s including committing to improving quality; stressing customer service; increasing use of data and analysis in management; developing data on outcomes issues, processes, and behaviors; and working cooperatively with elementary and secondary education. (MLW)

  9. Nutrition: prospects for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1990-01-01

    For many decades there has been adequate information for the elimination of acute dietary deficiency diseases. Scurvy, beri-beri, and pellagra, once serious scourges, are now seen only rarely. The severe forms of protein-energy malnutrition, kwashiorkor and marasmus, have also decreased greatly. Nonetheless, mild to moderate forms of protein-energy deficiency, exacerbated by infection, continue to impair growth and development in a majority of the low-income pre-school age populations of most developing countries. Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are still widespread in developing countries. Fortunately, the success of the WHO/UNICEF "Child Survival and Development Revolution" in persuading most developing countries to introduce expanded programs of immunization, growth monitoring, and appropriate feeding of young children, control of diarrheal disease, and specific campaigns against avitaminosis A, iodine deficiency disorders, and the functional consequences of iron deficiency, will accelerate the decline of acute deficiency diseases in the developing world. Diets are changing among the more affluent in these countries, however, and it is time for them to stress dietary goals for the health of rich and poor alike. For the first time there is enough information regarding dietary risk factors for chronic disease to provide an opportunity in the 1990s to accelerate the dietary changes that have already brought significant health benefits to some populations in North America and Europe. The changes, which include a lower dietary intake of fat, particularly saturated fat, less salt, and more green and yellow vegetable and whole grain cereals, can be expected to influence favorably morbidity from cardiovascular diseases and some kinds of cancer. For maximum benefit, these measures need to be combined with the avoidance of obesity, reasonable physical activity, abstention from, or moderate use of, alcohol, and avoidance of tobacco in any form. Since there is

  10. A turbocharger for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.R. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that the large-bore engines of the 1970s and 1980s have seen tremendous amounts of technological improvements. The key buzzwords were: Lower the emissions, and improve the fuel consumption. As the 1990s approach dramatic improvements in specific outputs along with continued research to further improve emissions and fuel consumption. One of the keys to success will have to be the degree to which the industry responds with improvements in turbocharger performance. In 1985, Cooper Bessemer Rotating Products Division began a program to develop the turbocharger of the 1990s. This paper will describe the development of the CB turbocharger series from concept to early production.

  11. Law Library Service in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "The Bookmark" presents 20 articles focusing on various aspects of law library services in New York State. The articles are: (1) "Law Library Services in the 1990's" (Christine Bain); (2) "A Librarian's View of Legal Publishing Today" (Margaret Maes Axtmann); (3) "Legal Publishing--A Publisher's View" (Kenneth Lee Halajian); (4)…

  12. National security in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Rand Paper contains the text of a speech given at a luncheon co-sponsored by Town Hall of California and the Los Angeles Council of Engineers and Scientists on national security affairs in the 1990s. The speech was given at the Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles, California, on February 19, 1991.

  13. Marketing ambulatory services in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hicks, S

    1992-07-01

    The ability to predict, to adapt to change, and to develop strategic low cost marketing plans are the components essential to remaining financially solvent in today's health care environment. The marketing process is analogous to the nursing process and should support the institution's mission statement, philosophy, and goals. Managers who are able to empower their personnel to become the sales force and implement the marketing plan will be the survivors in the 1990s.

  14. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. This paper will highlight some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's.

  15. Mobile satellite communications in the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jai

    1992-07-01

    The evolution of Inmarsat global services from a single market and single service of the 1980's to all of the key mobile markets and a wide range of new terminals and services in the 1990's is described. An overview of existing mobile satellite services, as well as new services under implementation for introduction in the near and longer term, including a handheld satellite phone (Inmarsat-P), is provided. The initiative taken by Inmarsat in the integration of its global mobile satellite services with global navigation capability derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) and the GLONASS (Russian GPS) navigation satellite systems and the provision of an international civil overlay for GPS/GLONASS integrity and augmentation is highlighted. To complete the overview of the development of mobile satellite services in the 1990's, the known national and regional mobile satellite system plans and the various recent proposals for both orbiting and geostationary satellite systems for proving handheld satellite phone and/or data messaging services are described.

  16. Trend analysis of fertility in China in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Zhang, E; Su, R

    1996-01-01

    This article analyzes Chinese fertility rates during the 1990s. Fertility during the early 1990s dropped below replacement level. The concern is whether delayed marriage and childbearing will result in higher fertility in the mid- and late-1990s. Maintaining replacement level fertility will depend upon continued family planning efforts. Current low fertility is attributed to strong administrative family planning measures and controlled social and economic development. Challenges include the difficulty of providing access to family planning for the floating population, the unevenness of development between regions, the high fertility rates in some backward regions, and the desire among most farmers for two children, including one boy. Family planning workers must adjust strategies to the new socialist market economy in order to maintain effectiveness. The authors view future family planning efforts as "arduous and prolonged." Statistical reporting is still beset with problems of underreporting of births. The 1989 census reports total fertility as 2.25 children/woman, which may be too low by as much as 8%. Estimates for readjustments of data can never be as reliable as precise values. The authors consider that survey data in the 1990s on first marriage and first birth were quite reliable. The State Statistical Bureau reports from population-shift sample surveys that the total fertility rate was 2.01 in 1991, 1.86 in 1992, 1.85 in 1993, and 1.84 in 1994. The authors emphasize that fertility rate has a period effect and that changes must be viewed over a prolonged period of time. Analysis of the period effect reveals that age at first marriage increased during the early 1990s and the total first marriage rate was reduced to 0.90 in 1992. The one-child fertility rate was 0.94 in 1994. The interval to first birth fluctuated but was not significantly extended. Second-child fertility rates are gradually declining. The authors warn of the danger of birth "heaping" after the

  17. Computing possibilities in the mid 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes the kind of computing resources it may be possible to make available for experiments in high energy physics in the mid and late 1990s. We outline some of the work going on today, particularly at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program, that projects to the future. We attempt to define areas in which coordinated R and D efforts should prove fruitful to provide for on and off-line computing in the SSC era. Because of extraordinary components anticipated from industry, we can be optimistic even to the level of predicting million VAX equivalent on-line multiprocessor/data acquisition systems for SSC detectors. Managing this scale of computing will require a new approach to large hardware and software systems. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  19. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  20. Explosive Welding in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalwaney, N. S.; Linse, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive bonding is a unique joining process with the serious potential to produce composite materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials needs of the 1990's. The process has the technological versatility to provide a true high quality metallurgical compatible and incompatible systems. Metals routinely explosively bonded include a wide variety of combinations of reactive and refractory metals, low and high density metals and their alloys, corrosion resistant and high strength alloys, and common steels. The major advantage of the process is its ability to custom design and engineer composites with physical and/or mechanical properties that meet a specific or unusual performance requirement. Explosive bonding offers the designer unique opportunities in materials selection with unique combinations of properties and high integrity bonds that cannot be achieved by any other metal joining process. The process and some applications are discussed.

  1. Nonmetro Poverty: Assessing the Effect of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Dean

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990s, the poverty rate in nonmetropolitan areas declined to a record low of 13.4 percent. Drawing on census data, aspects of nonmetro poverty during the 1990s are outlined, including effects of urbanization, regional differences, racial and ethnic differences, importance of family structure, needs for assistance and human services,…

  2. NASA scientific and technical information for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    Projections for NASA scientific and technical information (STI) in the 1990s are outlined. NASA STI for the 1990s will maintain a quality bibliographic and full-text database, emphasizing electronic input and products supplemented by networked access to a wide variety of sources, particularly numeric databases.

  3. The Bellagio Declaration: overcoming hunger in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F; Arizpe, L; Belford, T S; Clark, J; Csanadi, J; Davies, P J; Emmerij, L; George, S; Hyden, G; Jonsson, U

    1989-01-01

    In November 1989, 23 leading hunger experts met in Bellagio, Italy, issues a document called the "Bellagio Declaration: Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s." The report lists 4 achievable goals: eliminate famine deaths; end hunger in half of the world's poorest households; reduce by half malnutrition of mothers and small children; and eradicate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Famine deaths can be eliminated by setting up early-warning systems and longer-term relief objectives. The only remaining obstacle is how to prevent warring nations from blocking food deliveries and destroying food. Hunger can be eliminated in half the world's poor households by giving the poor access to resources and credit, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, using sustainable farming, and using existing markets to distribute food equitably. Malnutrition can be halved by sustained breastfeeding, and supplementation of food and micronutrients. Iodine and vitamin A deficiencies can be eliminated by giving iodized oil injections, vitamin A capsules and iodized salt. Ways of dealing with obstacles such as population, deforestation, soil and water shortages, pollution, global warming and capital deficits in the South are discussed. There is hope that these goals can be attained because of the outbreak of peace and democracy, freeing up substantial portions of the 1 trillion US dollars spent on defense; abatement of feat of worldwide economic collapse; and evolution of a worldwide logistic system to provide emergency food aid.

  4. The Bellagio Declaration: overcoming hunger in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F; Arizpe, L; Belford, T S; Clark, J; Csanadi, J; Davies, P J; Emmerij, L; George, S; Hyden, G; Jonsson, U

    1989-01-01

    In November 1989, 23 leading hunger experts met in Bellagio, Italy, issues a document called the "Bellagio Declaration: Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s." The report lists 4 achievable goals: eliminate famine deaths; end hunger in half of the world's poorest households; reduce by half malnutrition of mothers and small children; and eradicate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Famine deaths can be eliminated by setting up early-warning systems and longer-term relief objectives. The only remaining obstacle is how to prevent warring nations from blocking food deliveries and destroying food. Hunger can be eliminated in half the world's poor households by giving the poor access to resources and credit, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, using sustainable farming, and using existing markets to distribute food equitably. Malnutrition can be halved by sustained breastfeeding, and supplementation of food and micronutrients. Iodine and vitamin A deficiencies can be eliminated by giving iodized oil injections, vitamin A capsules and iodized salt. Ways of dealing with obstacles such as population, deforestation, soil and water shortages, pollution, global warming and capital deficits in the South are discussed. There is hope that these goals can be attained because of the outbreak of peace and democracy, freeing up substantial portions of the 1 trillion US dollars spent on defense; abatement of feat of worldwide economic collapse; and evolution of a worldwide logistic system to provide emergency food aid. PMID:12343252

  5. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B

    2004-04-23

    Observations of sea surface height reveal that substantial changes have occurred over the past decade in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data show that subpolar sea surface height increased during the 1990s, and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data exhibits declining subpolar gyre circulation. Combining the data from earlier satellites, we find that subpolar circulation may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the weakening circulation trend of the 1990s and, together with hydrographic data, show that the mid- to late 1990s decline extends deep in the water column. Analysis of the local surface forcing suggests that the 1990s buoyancy forcing has a dynamic effect consistent with altimetric and hydrographic observations: A weak thermohaline forcing allows the decay of the domed structure of subpolar isopycnals and weakening of circulation.

  6. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B

    2004-04-23

    Observations of sea surface height reveal that substantial changes have occurred over the past decade in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data show that subpolar sea surface height increased during the 1990s, and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data exhibits declining subpolar gyre circulation. Combining the data from earlier satellites, we find that subpolar circulation may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the weakening circulation trend of the 1990s and, together with hydrographic data, show that the mid- to late 1990s decline extends deep in the water column. Analysis of the local surface forcing suggests that the 1990s buoyancy forcing has a dynamic effect consistent with altimetric and hydrographic observations: A weak thermohaline forcing allows the decay of the domed structure of subpolar isopycnals and weakening of circulation. PMID:15087505

  7. Hospital-physician alignment: the 1990s versus now.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Clayton

    2011-04-01

    Although the employment model was a bust in the 1990s, it can be successful today if hospitals: Allow physicians to shape health system strategy. Engage physicians and offer opportunities for leadership. Develop best practices to share across physician practices. Use management services organizations to add efficiency and profitability. Use technology wisely.

  8. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  9. Shakespeare for the 1990s: A Multicultural Tempest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "The Tempest" is the play that is best suited for the high school English curriculum of the 1990s. Discusses historical and critical aspects the play's key themes. Shows ways of using the play in high school classes, and describes 19 works to read alongside of"The Tempest." (HB)

  10. Education and Inequalities in Rural Vietnam in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of children's schooling during the 1990s in rural areas of Vietnam. It focuses on the impact of family attributes on the likelihood of children remaining in school or leaving during the primary and secondary school years. Using data from the Vietnam Living Standard Survey (VLSS) of 1992-93 and 1997-98, the…

  11. Transpersonal Social Work: A Theory for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Au-Deane S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that transpersonal psychology contains growing body of literature and theory related to spiritual dimension of human nature and higher states of consciousness. Sees this approach as especially relevant for social work practitioners who are combating social ills of 1990s that manifest as violence, addiction, and spiritual malaise. (Author/NB)

  12. Changing Contexts for Counselor Preparation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold, Ed.

    The five chapters in this monograph provide guidelines for counselors in the 1990s who will be faced with such societal issues as substance abuse, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), teenage pregnancy, youth unemployment, homelessness, crime and delinquency, and school dropouts. "The Contemporary Counselor in a Changed World" (Harold…

  13. Overcoming Learned Helplessness: Managerial Strategies for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Rose Marie; Razak, W. Nevell

    1991-01-01

    Discusses problems of work force quality in the United States in the 1990s, strategies for managerial response to these problems, and sources of employee resistance to change. Notes that business and industry may be forced to hire minorities and women with orientations to self and work different from those held by white middle-class men.…

  14. Prospects for Physics in the 1990's Surveyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    A National Academy of Science report ("Physics Through the 1990's") says that American physics has been a highly diversified and productive enterprise, but continued excellence cannot be taken for granted. Progress in six subfields (elementary particle, nuclear, condensed-matter, atomic/molecular, plasma/fluid, and gravitation/cosmology physics)…

  15. Education in the 1990's: A Demographic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ernest F.

    Since 1975, the United States has experienced the largest wave of immigration since the beginning of the century. This demographic fact holds important implications for education in the 1990s. First, because the birthrate among recent immigrants is relatively high, an increasing number of first generation Americans will enter the school system. As…

  16. Improved zircon iron corals for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, C. )

    1992-03-01

    CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors is dedicated to the research and development of consistent and cost-effective ceramic stains for the whitewares industry. After identifying the trends in color for the 1990s. CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors initiated an extensive R D project to improve zircon ion corals for the whitewares industry. These color trends indicated a need for stronger and cleaner zircon iron corals. This paper discusses the chemistry and crystal structure of zircon iron corals. A historical review of Drakenfeld corals will also be presented. The most recent development in Drakenfeld corals will then be compared to other commercially available zircon iron corals. Taking into consideration these comparisons, conclusions will be drawn suggesting the coral of choice for the 1990s.

  17. Flux-vector splitting for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleer, Bram

    1991-01-01

    The development of flux-vector splitting through the 1970s and 1980s is reviewed. Attention is given to the diffusive nature of flux-vector splitting, which makes it an undesirable technique for approximating the inviscid fluxes in a Navier-Stokes solver. Several proposed improvements, including a brand new one, are discussed and illustrated by a simple, yet revealing, numerical test case. Finally, an outlook for flux-vector splitting in the 1990s is presented.

  18. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  19. Will there be a 14C minimum in the tropical Pacific in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Toggweiler, J.R. )

    1990-01-09

    14C distributions measured during GEOSECS showed large minima in bomb 14C levels in the tropical belts of the major ocean basins. Broecker et al. (1978, JGR, 83) attributed the minima to upwelling of deep water which was free of bomb 14C. Wyrtki (1981, JPO, 11) countered that heat budgets constrain the water upwelling the the equator to be from the upper themocline. Druffel (1987, JMR, 45) built a model of the Pacific upwelling system incorporating Wyrtki's description of the upwelling system. Druffel showed that the GEOSECS 14C minimum could be reproduced with upwelled upper thermocline water because bomb 14C levels were still relatively low in the tropical thermocline at the time of GEOSECS. Druffel went on to predict that mid latitude and tropical surface 14C levels would approach a common value before the 1990s and upper thermocline water masses acquired more bomb 14C and atmospheric 14C levels declined. By studying pre-bomb coral 14C records and a model simulation in Toggweiler et al. (1989, JGR, 94), I have found confirmation that some older and colder water upwells in the tropical Pacific. Upper thermocline (22-24C) water has about the same pre-bomb 14C content as pre-bomb surface waters and cannot generate a low 14C singal prior to the bomb test. The appearance of the oldest upwelled water in the coral data is correlated in time with the cold phase of the ENSO cycle. Most of the low 14C water moves southward into the South Pacific. I will argue that intensified upwelling during the cold phase of ENSO pulls up 12-14C water from the lower layers of the Equatorial Undercurrent. Upwelling from this layer may represent an important closure mechanism for mode waters formed in the subantarctic. A source of older water makes it certain that the tropical 14C minimum will persist through the 1990s and the remainder of the post-bomb era.

  20. Red blood cell transfusion practices in very low birth weight infants in 1990s postsurfactant era.

    PubMed Central

    Beeram, M. R.; Krauss, D. R.; Riggs, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the practice of red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (between 501 to 1500 g) during the postsurfactant era of the 1990s; and (2) to evaluate if there is a decreasing trend in red cell transfusions in the 1990s. Database and medical records of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1990 and December 1995 at Scott & White Clinic, Temple, Texas, were reviewed. Five hundred twenty-seven infants were admitted to the NICU, excluding 5 infants that were transferred out for possible cardiac surgery or for other reasons. Fifty one (9.7%) of these infants died prior to discharge. Hence, data from 476 survivors were reviewed for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Transfusions were given at the discretion of the attending neonatologist. None of the infants received erythropoietin. Of the 476 infants, 289 (61%) received RBC transfusions during the hospital stay, with 2.7+/-3.6 transfusions per infant with a volume of 40.5+/-50.4 mL/kg. Smaller infants required significantly more transfusions compared to larger infants when divided into 250-g subgroups. No statistically significant difference was noted in the number of RBC transfusions per infant or number of infants transfused during the 6-year period from year to year. We conclude that VLBW infants in the 1990s postsurfactant era required 2.7 RBC transfusions per infant, on average, with the smallest infants requiring the most transfusions. These data will be helpful to counsel mothers in preterm labor regarding the need of transfusions for each birth weight category. Red cell transfusion practice has not changed over this 6-year period in the 1990s. Additional measures such as erythropoietin or even stricter transfusion criteria may be necessary to decrease transfusions further. However, safety of such measures should be carefully evaluated. PMID:11688921

  1. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  2. Helioseismology in the 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.

    2014-02-01

    Over more than twenty years, Wojtek Dziembowski and I collaborated on nearly fifty papers, which were concentrated in helioseismology through the 1980s and 1990s, but extended early into the new century. In this review, I discuss the most significant results of this collaboration and some of the underlying sociology that contributed to the intensity and longevity of our collaboration. Our work began with placing limits on the Sun's buried magnetic field and ended with extracting from the solar-cycle dependent oscillation frequency changes the roles (and net result) of competing dynamical drivers of changes in the solar diameter.

  3. Mission Control Center enhancement opportunities in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for understanding the major enhancement opportunities for Air Force Mission Control Center/Test Support Centers (MCC's/TSC's) in the 1990's. Much of this paper is based on the findings of Study 232 and work currently underway in Study 2-6 for the Air Force Systems Command, Space System Division, Network Program Office. In this paper, we will address MCC/TSC enhancement needs primarily from the operator perspective, in terms of the increased capabilities required to improve space operations task performance.

  4. Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Amato, P R

    2001-09-01

    The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.

  5. Three challenges of China's population in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z

    1991-10-01

    China will encounter 3 challenges of its population problem in the 1990s. The 1st is the huge number of people born or population increase each year. The 3rd baby boom, which started at the mid-1980s, will last until abound 1997. The women entering into the age of peak childbearing (23 years old) exceed 11 million each year with an upper range of about 13 million. IN 1992, the number of women of fecund ages (22-29) in the whole country will reach 124 million, the largest number of fertile women in history. The net increase of population will be from 15.5 to 17.0 million for each hear. What is more serious is that the momentum of population increase will continue, instead of being checked by the year 2000. The next are the continuous increase of the aged population of 65 and over and the growing tendency of population aging ahead of economic development. China is a developing socialist country, huge in population, weak in economic development, with less-developed science, culture, and education. However, as a result of the decline in the proportion of children to the total population due to the decline in the birth rate in the 1970s, China's population has become an adult population from a young one in terms of the age structure, and will be an aged one very soon. China is facing the challenge of aging under economically less developed conditions. For developed countries, it took 80 years for the proportion of the aged population of 65 and over to increase from 7% to 17%; for China, it has taken only 40 years. It will certainly bring about a series of problems and difficulties upon the society to cope with such a huge number of elderly in an underdeveloped economy. The 3rd challenge is the increasing pressure on employment due to the continuous growth of working-age population (15-64). It is estimated that the working-age population will increase to 858 million by 2000, 20 million more than the sum of working-age population in all of the developed countries; and to

  6. ACTS Multibeam Communications Package - Technology for the 1990S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graebner, John C.; Cashman, William F.

    1990-01-01

    To maintain its competitive position in the 1990s, satellite communications must evolve to provide new services and to reduce the costs of supplying existing services. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is directed toward developing the technology base that will support this evolution. The ACTS communications payload is optimized for digital communications using a time-division multiple access format. Scanning spot-beam antennas provide high-performance on-demand service to the earth communication stations. On-board processing and switching allow full connectivity in a single-hop network architecture. ACTS employs Ka-band (30/20 GHz) links for communications traffic and includes techniques for mitigating rain fades. Scheduled to be launched by a Space Shuttle in 1992, ACTS will provide in-orbit technology verification and support experimental communications networks for up to four years.

  7. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  8. Optical surveillance equipment for the late 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for optical surveillance and storage in the last two decades have been mainly centered first around film cameras and then around video cameras and time lapse video tape recorders. There is every indication that these technologies will have vanished by the end of the 1990's. The evolution of video technology is taking place at a staggering pace driven by the new solid state devices being produced by the semiconductor industry. While the safeguards industry may be quite satisfied with the performance of the present image hardware available to them, the obsolescence of today's technology will occur rapidly. This paper will look at the development trends in today's technology and see what they indicate for image surveillance developments in next few years. 3 figs.

  9. Future proton and electron colliders: Dreams for the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper I have reviewed the possibilities for new colliders that might be available in the 1990's. One or more new proton should be available in the late-90s based on plans of Europe, the US and the USSR. The two very high energy machines, LHC and SSC, are quite expensive, and their construction will be more decided by the politicians' view on the availability of resources than by the physicists' view of the need for new machines. Certainly something will be built, but the question is when. New electron colliders beyond LEP II could be available in the late 1990's as well. Most of the people who have looked at this problem believe that at a minimum three years of RandD are required before a proposal can be made, two years will be required to convince the authorities to go ahead, and five years will be required to build such a machine. Thus the earliest time a new electron collider at high energy could be available is around 1988. A strong international RandD program will be required to meet that schedule. In the field of B factories, PSI's proposal is the first serious step beyond the capabilities of CESR. There are other promising techniques but these need more RandD. The least RandD would be required for the asymmetric storage ring systems, while the most would be required for high luminosity linear colliders. For the next decade, high energy physics will be doing its work at the high energy frontier with Tevatron I and II, UNK, SLC, LEP I and II, and HERA. The opportunities for science presented by experiments at these facilities are very great, and it is to be hoped that the pressure for funding to construct the next generation facilities will not badly affect the operating budgets of the ones we now have or which will soon be turning on. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, S. O.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries. In some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, these declines in mortality among children have slowed and are now increasing again. Internationally comparable data derived from survey programmes, such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) programme, are available both to document the changes that have occurred in mortality and to provide insight into some of the factors that may explain these trends in mortality. The factors found in repeated DHS programmes that explain these trends fall into five categories: fertility behaviour; nutritional status, breastfeeding, and infant feeding; the use of health services by mothers and for children; environmental health conditions; and socioeconomic status. Both simple analyses and multivariate analyses of changes in these factors between surveys indicate that all factors affected the mortality trends. However, to explain trends in mortality, the variables themselves had to have changed over time. During the 1990s fertility behaviour, breastfeeding, and infant feeding have changed less than other factors and so would seem to have played a smaller role in mortality trends. This study confirms that trends in mortality during the 1990s were related to more than just a handful of variables. It would, therefore, be a mistake to concentrate policy actions on one or a few of these while forsaking others. Countries with the largest decreases in mortality have had substantial improvements in most of the factors that might be used to explain these changes. In some countries mortality has risen. In part these increases can be explained by the factors included in this study, such as deterioration in seeking medical care for children with fever. Other factors that were not measured, such as the increasing resistance of malaria to drug treatment and the increased prevalence of parental HIV/AIDS, may be contributing

  11. Computerized structural mechanics for 1990's: Advanced aircraft needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Backman, B. F.

    1989-01-01

    The needs for computerized structural mechanics (CSM) as seen from the standpoint of the aircraft industry are discussed. These needs are projected into the 1990's with special focus on the new advanced materials. Preliminary design/analysis, research, and detail design/analysis are identified as major areas. The role of local/global analyses in these different areas is discussed. The lessons learned in the past are used as a basis for the design of a CSM framework that could modify and consolidate existing technology and include future developments in a rational and useful way. A philosophy is stated, and a set of analyses needs driven by the emerging advanced composites is enumerated. The roles of NASA, the universities, and the industry are identified. Finally, a set of rational research targets is recommended based on both the new types of computers and the increased complexity the industry faces. Computerized structural mechanics should be more than new methods in structural mechanics and numerical analyses. It should be a set of engineering applications software products that combines innovations in structural mechanics, numerical analysis, data processing, search and display features, and recent hardware advances and is organized in a framework that directly supports the design process.

  12. Cardiac Exposures in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy: 1950s-1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carolyn W. Nisbet, Andrew; McGale, Paul; Darby, Sarah C.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the doses to the heart and coronary arteries from common breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) regimens used worldwide from the 1950s to the 1990s. Methods and Materials: Virtual simulation and computed tomography planning were used to reconstruct the megavoltage and electron regimens. Manual planning was used for the orthovoltage and brachytherapy regimens. Several sources of variability associated with the dose estimates were assessed. Results: Breast or chest wall RT resulted in whole heart doses of 0.9-14 Gy for left-sided and of 0.4-6 Gy for right-sided irradiation. Internal mammary chain RT delivered heart doses of 3-17 Gy and 2-10 Gy for left- and right-sided irradiation, respectively. For most regimens, the dose to the left anterior descending coronary artery was greater than the heart dose. Scar boost, supraclavicular fossa, and axillary RT delivered mean cardiac doses of {<=}3 Gy. The greatest source of variability in estimating dose from a given regimen was patient anatomy. Conclusion: For most techniques, the greatest radiation doses were received by the anterior part of the heart and the left anterior descending coronary artery, a common site of atherosclerosis causing myocardial infarction. Irradiation of these structures might have contributed to the excess risk of death from heart disease seen after some past breast cancer RT regimens.

  13. Childbirth education in the 1990s and beyond.

    PubMed

    Zwelling, E

    1996-06-01

    Childbirth education has been evolving for centuries. It has been a part of the experience of pregnancy and birth since the beginning of time, although it did not exist in the formal structure that exists today. It began in response to a need to improve prenatal care and maternal-infant outcomes. It experienced an awakening fueled by the women's movement and the grass roots consumer movement between 1960 and 1980 and had an impact on the development of family-centered maternity care. It has been influenced by institutional control in the 1980s and 1990s. Throughout these decades the goals of childbirth education have changed and evolved. As we near the year 2000, childbirth education approaches a crossroads and faces many challenges for the future. A number of factors will influence the direction that childbirth education takes in the next century. These factors include demographic trends, health care reform, the philosophy of health care providers, goals and responsibilities of consumers, goals of educational programs, consumer access to education programs, the philosophy and role of childbirth educators, research, and standards of practice. PMID:8791230

  14. Can the world do better in the 1990s?

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1989-12-01

    To reduce further environmental damage to our planet, fossil fuels must no longer form the basis of the world economy. Further, nuclear power is proving to be too cost prohibitive. Society already pays tremendous amounts for building nuclear power plants, but also billions of US dollars to dismantle them and to safely dispose of their contents and building materials. Society must also address the problems of nuclear weapons production. Based on these factors, the Worldwatch Institute concludes that the only way we can live in an environmentally sustainable and politically acceptable future is to base our world economy on solar energy. Presently Japan operates under 1 of the most energy efficient systems in the world. The United States (US) requires almost twice the energy to produce a dollar's worth of gross national product than does Japan. Even if world land productivity could increase during the 1990s as fast as Japan raised its land productivity during the 1970s and 1980s, food output growth will still only be about half the projected rate of population growth. In addition, by boosting living conditions, Japan and China reduced their population growth rate in half within a decade and without today's contraceptives. Therefore by increasing the status of women and social and political commitment, developing countries (where populations often grow exponentially) can also do so. Environmental deterioration, as evidenced by soil erosion and deforestation, limits food production while the world's population grows. The US, a major world grain producer, has lost 11% of its total cropland, mainly due to overplowing in the 1970s. Japan should use its economic resources and experiences to lead the world in reducing population growth. PMID:12316166

  15. Astronomical computing in the 1990s - The Bahcall Committee report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarr, Larry L.; Press, William H.

    1991-04-01

    Some of the findings and recommendations of the Bahcall Committee in the area of computing are reviewed. The Committee's deliberations on this subject were in large measure guided by the separate report of a subsidiary Panel on Astronomical Computing. Major recommendations of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee and its Panel on Astronomical Computing regarding computation are summarized. Among the recommendations are the suggestion that digital data archives, encompassing ground-based and space-based observations, should be established and made available over high-speed national networks; that individual workstations and departmental mini-supercomputers should be acquired, providing a distributed network for astronomical computing; that the NSF should encourage the development of high-speed national networks by funding links to widely-used observatories; and that NASA should increase its role in furthering the development of community software and standards.

  16. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  17. The NASA cosmic ray program for the 1990's and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Binns, W. R.; Cherry, M. L.; Gaisser, T. K.; Jones, W. V.; Ling, J. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Muller, D.; Ormes, J. O.; Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    The interim report of the 1989 NASA Cosmic Ray Program Working Group is presented. The report summarizes the cosmic ray program for the 1990's, including the recently approved ACE, Astromag, HNC, POEMS, and SAMPEX missions, as well as other key elements of the program. New science themes and candidate missions are identified for the first part of the 21st century, including objectives that might be addressed as part of the Human Exploration Initiative. Among the suggested new thrusts for the 21st century are: an Interstellar Probe into the nearby interstellar medium; a Lunar-Based Calorimeter to measure the cosmic ray composition near 10 exp 16 eV; high-precision element and isotope spectroscopy of ultraheavy elements; and new, more sensitive studies of impulsive solar flare events.

  18. Gendered Patterns in Computing Work in the Late 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panteli, Niki; Stack, Janet; Ramsay, Harvie

    2001-01-01

    Data on information technology employment in Britain and interviews in four companies depicted experiences of women in computing. Gender disparities in numbers and distribution, salaries, division of labor, and career progression were found. Masculine values in computing culture, gender differences in working style, and attitudes toward computers…

  19. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  20. Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, C T; Sandstead, H H; Prasad, A S; Newberne, P M; Fraker, P J

    1994-01-01

    This review critically summarizes the literature on the spectrum of health effects of zinc status, ranging from symptoms of zinc deficiency to excess exposure. Studies on zinc intake are reviewed in relation to optimum requirements as a function of age and sex. Current knowledge on the biochemical properties of zinc which are critical to the essential role of this metal in biological systems is summarized. Dietary and physiological factors influencing the bioavailability and utilization of zinc are considered with special attention to interactions with iron and copper status. The effects of zinc deficiency and toxicity are reviewed with respect to specific organs, immunological and reproductive function, and genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, key questions are identified where research is needed, such as the risks to human health of altered environmental distribution of zinc, assessment of zinc status in humans, effects of zinc status in relation to other essential metals on immune function, reproduction, neurological function, and the cardiovascular system, and mechanistic studies to further elucidate the biological effects of zinc at the molecular level. PMID:7925188

  1. Tobacco Institute lobbying at the state and local levels of government in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Morley, C; Cummings, K; Hyland, A; Giovino, G; Horan, J

    2002-01-01

    Independent variable: Data for this study came from the TI's State Activities Division (SAD) annual budgets for the years 1991-97, excluding 1993. These data include budgetary information pertaining to state and local lobbying activity and special projects reported by state. Dependent variables: The following measures of state tobacco control activity during the period 1991 to 1997 were considered: (1) American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) funding; (2) voter initiatives to raise cigarette taxes; (3) cigarette excise tax level; (4) workplace smoking restrictions; (5) the intensification of smoke-free air laws covering private worksites, government worksites, and restaurants; (6) the intensification of strength of sales to minors laws; (7) the intensification of strength of laws that punish minors for possessing, purchasing, and/or using cigarettes; (8) state status as a major grower of tobacco; (9) partisan control of state government, 1996; and (10) an overall composite index reflecting a state's strength of tobacco control, combining cigarette prices with workplace and home smoking bans. Results: The overall annual budget for the TI declined steadily during the 1990s, from $47.7 million in 1991 to $28.1 million by 1996. The proportion of the TI's budget allocated to the SAD remained relatively stable at about 30%. TI expenditures for lobbyists were highest in California where tobacco control activity has been strong for the past decade. We found significant associations between TI SAD expenditures and cigarette excise tax levels, the status of a state as a recipient of federal ASSIST funds, and changes in the strength of statewide laws that penalise minors for possessing, purchasing, and/or using cigarettes. We found little or no association between state and local lobbying budgets of the TI and changes in statewide smoke-free air laws, although we did find evidence of TI special project expenditures earmarked to specific states and localities to

  2. Health and the environment in the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R

    1992-01-01

    Expectation of life at birth provides a simple measure of the state of health of a country. Differences in the expectation are examined in the United States over time and between males and females and Whites and non-Whites, and worldwide between market and nonmarket developed countries, and between developed and developing countries. The principal factors responsible for the trends and the current differences are changes in the social and physical environment, in personal behavior, and in medical care, and their relative importance is assessed. It is concluded that, at present, the principal environmental hazards worldwide are those associated with poverty of individuals within the market economies and of communities in the developing countries and that in the future, they will be the effects of overpopulation and the production of greenhouse gases. PMID:1609912

  3. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  4. Health and the environment in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Doll, R

    1992-07-01

    Expectation of life at birth provides a simple measure of the state of health of a country. Differences in the expectation are examined in the United States over time and between males and females and Whites and non-Whites, and worldwide between market and nonmarket developed countries, and between developed and developing countries. The principal factors responsible for the trends and the current differences are changes in the social and physical environment, in personal behavior, and in medical care, and their relative importance is assessed. It is concluded that, at present, the principal environmental hazards worldwide are those associated with poverty of individuals within the market economies and of communities in the developing countries and that in the future, they will be the effects of overpopulation and the production of greenhouse gases. PMID:1609912

  5. Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. H.; Elmendorf, A. E.; Kandola, K.; Chellaraj, G.

    2000-01-01

    There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries. PMID:10916913

  6. An unexpected rise in strontium-90 in US deciduous teeth in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Joseph J; Gould, Jay M; Sternglass, Ernest J; Sherman, Janette D; McDonnell, William

    2003-12-30

    For several decades, the United States has been without an ongoing program measuring levels of fission products in the body. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) concentrations in 2089 deciduous (baby) teeth, mostly from persons living near nuclear power reactors, reveal that average levels rose 48.5% for persons born in the late 1990s compared to those born in the late 1980s. This trend represents the first sustained increase since the early 1960s, before atmospheric weapons tests were banned. The trend was consistent for each of the five states for which at least 130 teeth are available. The highest averages were found in southeastern Pennsylvania, and the lowest in California (San Francisco and Sacramento), neither of which is near an operating nuclear reactor. In each state studied, the average Sr-90 concentration is highest in counties situated closest to nuclear reactors. It is likely that, 40 years after large-scale atmospheric atomic bomb tests ended, much of the current in-body radioactivity represents nuclear reactor emissions.

  7. Dynamic-analogue correction of the decadal change of East Asian summer precipitation in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiqiang; Li, Shangfeng; Hu, Po; Shen, Baizhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    This paper systematically evaluates the deviations that appear in the hindcasts of the East Asian summer precipitation (EASP) decadal change in the late 1990s in two global coupled models (BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM). The possible causes for the deviations between the model hindcasts and observations are analyzed. The results show that the hindcasts of EASP by BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM deviate from observations, with the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) being -0.01 and -0.09 for the two models, respectively. The SST anomalies in North and West Pacific and the SST index values predicted by the two models also deviate from the observations, indicating that inconsistent SST fields may be the key factor leading to the deviation in the prediction of the EASP decadal shift. Thus, a dynamic-analogue scheme is proposed to correct the precipitation hindcasts by using SSTs, where SST and EASP are highly correlated, to select historical analogue cases. Cross validations show that the average ACC of the temporal-latitude distribution of the EASP between the corrected hindcasts and observations is 0.18 for BCC_CGCM and 0.02 for BCC_CSM; both are much higher than the uncorrected hindcasts. Applying the dynamic-analogue correction scheme in both models successfully improves prediction of the EASP decadal change in the late 1990s.

  8. Equality, Diversity and Opportunity: Civil Rights and Affirmative Action in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    Challenges to civil rights and affirmative action in the 1990s are identified. Five cases of racial, sex, ethnic, and reverse discrimination behind the Civil Rights bills of 1990 and 1991 are discussed. The ultimate challenge is to demonstrate that if civil rights litigants win, others need not lose. (SLD)

  9. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  10. Take a Field Trip through the 1990's. Celebrate the Century Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal Service, Washington, DC.

    Using the "Celebrate the Century" stamp series, this U.S. Postal Service series commemorates the 20th-century and teaches students about the people, places, and events that have shaped this nation during the past 100 years. Each kit is designed to be taught as a complete and independent unit. This kit, which focuses on the 1990s, contains: (1) 10…

  11. Putting Children First: A Progressive Family Policy for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarck, Elaine Ciulla; Galston, William A.

    Four policy papers delineate a progressive family policy for the 1990s that makes the family central among social issues and children central in families. An extensive introduction delineates the split between leaders' and ordinary citizens' views on the family and provides a summary of the papers. The first paper offers an economic review of the…

  12. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A. Adams,…

  13. Technology Teaching or Mediated Learning, Part II, 1990s: Literacy Linkages and Intervention Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coufal, Kathy L.

    2002-01-01

    Themes during the 1990s included the bootstrapping effects between oral and literate language, importance of supporting emergent literacy, parallels between oral language impairment and academic failure, and challenges in facilitating language learning. This article addresses questions posed in Part I related to use of computer technology for…

  14. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  15. 73. Photocopy of original drawing, author unknown, late 1990's (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Photocopy of original drawing, author unknown, late 1990's (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), bridge elevation - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  16. Issues and Concerns for Local Government: Virginia in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    Many challenges face local governments in Virginia and nationwide in the 1990s. As federal funding has decreased, local governments have been forced to take on greater responsibilities. This increased workload has created a greater demand for resources and forced many localities to raise taxes. Citizens have often voiced opposition to these tax…

  17. Food for Thought: Children's Diets in the 1990s. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip; Suitor, Carol

    Since the late 1980s, identifying nutritional problems in children's and adults' diets and developing initiatives to help Americans improve what they eat have received considerable attention. This policy brief summarizes 2 studies of children's nutrition with the objectives of describing the diets of school-age children as of the mid-1990s,…

  18. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  19. The Social Equation of Life, Be It the 1950s or the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    In "Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment," James Garbarino's nostalgic recollection of family, school, and neighborhood life in the 1950s becomes the utopian antecedent for a comparative bashing of contemporary times. Although racial stratification and social/economic marginality compromise 1990s families' child-raising efforts, it was…

  20. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  1. Strategies for Children in the 1990s. A UNICEF Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This policy review presents the views and proposals of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) concerning development goals and strategies for the 1990s. A brief review of the previous development decades in the first section is followed by an overview of the evolution of the situation of children in the 1980s. The third section summarizes the…

  2. Information Systems in the University of Saskatchewan Libraries: A Vision for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon. Libraries.

    This report describes the vision of the Information Systems Advisory Committee (ISAC) of an Information Systems Model for the 1990s. It includes an evaluation of the present automation environment at the university, a vision of library automation at the University of Saskatchewan between 1994 and 1999, and specific recommendations on such issues…

  3. A Just Transition? Lessons from Defense Worker Adjustment in the 1990s. Technical Paper No. 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laura; Markusen, Ann

    A study examined the experiences of some 1.4 million American defense industry workers, displaced in the wake of the Cold War, as a way of reviewing and evaluating national policies toward worker adjustment and re-employment as they have evolved in the 1990s. The study found that the federal government, through the Department of Labor,…

  4. Instructional Leaders for the 1990s: Improving the Analysis of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    Arguing that instructional leadership changes are inevitable during the 1990s, this Bulletin explores instructional leaders' roles and functions, along with some leadership styles, strategies, and skills, and proposes an administrator training program. Chapter 1 introduces six "organizers" for examining instructional leadership: setting,…

  5. Rethinking School Finance: An Agenda for the 1990s. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan R., Ed.

    This book lays the groundwork for rethinking school finance in the context of new educational policy directions for the 1990s. Proposed educational reforms have created several school finance issues: (1) the linkage between the basic school finance structure, educational goals, and the cost of effective schoolwide strategies; (2) site-based…

  6. Into the Video Age: Open University Television in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Adrian

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of developments in British television broadcasting that affect educational television focuses on Open University television productions. Topics discussed include advantages of broadcasting for distance education; growth in the use of video cassettes; current access to video equipment; and possible future developments for the 1990s.…

  7. El Nino During the 1990's: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  8. El Nino During the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  9. El Nino during the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990s has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein, however, appear to mitigate this belief. For example, regarding the frequency and severity of El Nino, the decade of the 1990s is found to compare quite favorably with that of preceding decades. Hence, the 1990s probably should not be regarded as being anomalous. On the other hand, the number of El Nino-related months per decade has sharply increased during the 1990s, as compared to the preceding four decades, hinting of a marginally significant upward trend. Perhaps, this is an indication that the Earth is now experiencing an ongoing global climatic change. Continued vigilance during the new millennium, therefore, is of paramount importance for determining whether or not this "hint" of a global change is real or if it merely reflects a normal fluctuation of climate.

  10. Factors affecting Yukon teen pregnancy decline in the mid and late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Jeff

    2002-11-01

    Teen pregnancy has declined throughout North America in the 1990s. In Yukon Territory, Canada, teen pregnancy in the late 1990s was almost 40% lower than in the early 1990s. This rate of decline is significantly greater than most recently reported national rates of teen pregnancy decline in Canada and United States. Identifying possible causes of the Yukon decline may help policy makers and program managers plan and implement teen pregnancy prevention strategies. Data on Yukon teen pregnancy prevention initiatives were collected through numerous discussions and interviews with Yukon service providers, teens, and the general public between 1994 and 2001. Analysis of data demonstrates that multiple new initiatives spanning many sectors were implemented in the mid and late 1990s that could have contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. A multi-dimensional approach to teen pregnancy prevention that included researching and evaluating family planning programs and policies before, during, and after implementation, increasing access to longer-acting hormonal contraceptives, providing continuing family planning medical education to health care providers and other youth service providers, subsidization of contraceptives, delivery of innovative family planning mass media campaigns, and delivery of ongoing sexual health education programs may have significantly contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. Collaboration among service providers across many service sectors (clinical, public health, education, First Nations, government communication and policy, grassroots) facilitated coordination of the multi-dimensional approach.

  11. The Role of Communication Satellites in Education and Training: The 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polcyn, Kenneth A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of satellite technology and trends in its use, reviews the evolution of education and training applications of communication satellites, and prognosticates about the possible national and international uses during the 1990s. A bibliography of 26 items is included. (CHC)

  12. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  13. Widespread reductions in haze across the United States from the early 1990s through 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Malm, W. C.; Copeland, S.; Molenar, J. V.; Frank, N.; Pitchford, M.

    2014-09-01

    Visibility has improved significantly at many remote areas across the United States since the early 1990s. Trends in visibility were calculated using ambient light extinction coefficients (bext) estimated from speciated particulate concentrations measured by the IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network. The 20% haziest bext levels were computed for each year following Regional Haze Rule guidelines and aggregated over three major regions of the United States. Over the last two decades (1992-2011) the regional mean 20% haziest bext dropped by 52% (-2.6% yr-1, p < 0.01) in the eastern United States, and by 20% (-1.0% yr-1, p = 0.08) for sites along the West Coast. However, in the Intermountain/Southwest region, the trend was insignificant (-0.2% yr-1, p = 0.36). Over the last decade (2002-2011) the haziest bext in the Intermountain/Southwest region decreased by 15% (-1.5% yr-1, p = 0.09), compared to a decrease of 35% (-3.5% yr-1, p = 0.06) in the West Coast region and 50% (-5.0% yr-1, p = 0.02) in the East. A novel aspect to this study is the visualization of trends through the simulation of images of national parks and other remote areas for early and current haziest conditions. These images are an effective means for communicating trends and illustrate the dramatic improvement in visibility, especially in the East, where reductions in sulfate concentrations and sulfur dioxide emissions have had a positive impact on visibility degradation. However, while conditions are clearer for regions in the West, less improvement points to the need for understanding the influences on the trends in haziest conditions in those regions.

  14. The Reform of Secondary Education in Indonesia during the 1990s: Basic Education Expansion and Quality Improvement through Curriculum Decentralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Min-Ho; Acedo, Clementina; Utomo, Erry

    2002-01-01

    Case study of two main secondary education reforms in Indonesia in the 1990s: Expansion of basic education and the decentralization of curriculum. Discusses the social, political, and economic trends in the 1990s, context of the secondary education reforms, and the rationale for the reforms. Focuses on the curriculum decentralization design and…

  15. Accelerated deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Sexton, Joseph O.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-05-01

    Using a consistent, 20 year series of high- (30 m) resolution, satellite-based maps of forest cover, we estimate forest area and its changes from 1990 to 2010 in 34 tropical countries that account for the majority of the global area of humid tropical forests. Our estimates indicate a 62% acceleration in net deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s, contradicting a 25% reduction reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment. Net loss of forest cover peaked from 2000 to 2005. Gross gains accelerated slowly and uniformly between 1990-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010. However, the gains were overwhelmed by gross losses, which peaked from 2000 to 2005 and decelerated afterward. The acceleration of humid tropical deforestation we report contradicts the assertion that losses decelerated from the 1990s to the 2000s.

  16. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  17. Transformational leaders. Ten practices to help executives meet the challenges of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Woodard, D A

    1992-11-01

    Today, healthcare chief executive officers (CEOs) face many pressing issues. To survive the 1990s, CEOs must master "transformational practices" such as continuous quality improvement. CEOs can adopt the following 10 practices to help them become transformational leaders: Establish and act on key commitments. Form teams. Establish a job shadow program. Brainstorm more. Befriend the opposition. Communicate more. Wipe out gossip. Look for breakdowns. Revise the appraisal system.

  18. NASA plans and opportunities. [space flight activities throughout the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA plans for the Life Science program of a series of space flight activities throughout the decade of the 1990s are discussed with particular attention given to the NASA life science goals and objectives and to the particular space missions which will carry out these objectives. These space missions and specially designed facilities for experiments in space include Space Station Freedom, Space Biology Initiative, Gravitational Biology Facility, Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems Test Facility, and Exobiology Facility.

  19. Decadal changes in tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haozhe; Yang, Jing; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Wang, Yuqing; Gao, Miaoni

    2015-12-01

    A pronounced decadal change in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the late 1990s was identified. Based on a comparison of the two epochs that occurred before and after the late 1990s, the TC genesis number exhibited an evident decrease over the southern WNP (S-WNP: 5°-20°N, 105°-170°E) and an increase over the northern WNP (N-WNP: 20°-25°N, 115°-155°E), which partly corresponded to a significant northward migration in the seasonal mean latitudinal location of TC genesis, i.e., from 17.2°N to 18.7°N. After the late 1990s, the northwestward-moving track became the most dominant track mode, accompanied by the weakening of both the westward-moving track and the northeastward-recurving track. Meanwhile, the TC occurrence frequency (TCF) experienced evident increases over southeastern China and the Okinawa islands, while prominent decreases occurred over the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Japan and east of Japan. Changes in the TCF were determined by TC genesis changes, TC track shifts and variations in regional TC durations, which were all ascribed to the decadal change in tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature. The full picture on the decadal changes in the WNP TC activity revealed in this study may provide useful guidance for regional TC seasonal forecasts and future projections.

  20. Problems, policies and politics: A comparative case study of contraband tobacco from the 1990s to the present in the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, Teela

    2010-09-01

    Contraband tobacco has been and continues to be a global public health policy concern, with special manifestations in Canada. Over the past 20 years, in two noteworthy instances the Canadian government has battled contraband - in the early 1990s, and for much of the past decade. In the 1990s, when contraband cigarettes flooded the Canadian market, the government rapidly responded, using policy measures such as implementing a tobacco export tax and cutting domestic sales tax. Unfortunately, contraband made a strong comeback in recent years, but this time the government has hesitated to act, owing to a change in the source of the contraband. Using John Kingdon's streams theory to frame our arguments, we suggest that lack of congruence between different policy stakeholder groups' perceptions of the problem, policy solutions, and political feasibility has road-blocked the implementation of anti-contraband policy in the 2000s.

  1. Demographic momentum. International population assistance should be a continued priority during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Merrick, T W

    1992-08-01

    . Although the needs for population assistance have changed over 29 years, there is still a need to give population the highest priority due to its impact on economic development. Maintaining the present levels and exceeding those levels are crucial for the 1990s. 9-10 billion dollars is an estimate of need. PMID:12343899

  2. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  3. Phase-OFDR for distributed disturbance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liehr, Sascha; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique based on intensity modulation frequency sweep measurement for distributed disturbance measurement in optical fibres. By evaluating interferometric Rayleigh scattering changes along the fibre, strain and temperature changes are detected with 100 n(epsilon) sensitivity and 10 mK resolution. The vibration frequencies for low frequencies and up to the kHz-range can be obtained from power change evaluation in the spatial domain. This novel OFDR approach is a low-cost alternative for distributed disturbance measurement up to distances of several kilometres.

  4. Acoustical concept for measuring particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, D.S.; Kaufman, M.

    1981-02-01

    A new concept is investigated for measuring particle size and distribution for air pollution control applications. This study illustrates that the proposed device--the Acoustic Particulate Monitor (APM)--can measure total mass loading, mean particle diameter, and width of particle size distributions on an in-situ basis. The concept for such an instrument is based upon experimental and theoretical observations that the presence of dust in air causes a reduction in the speed of sound as a function of the transmitted frequency. These percentage reductions in the speed of sound are small and the research results illustrate how the accompanying shift in the acoustical phase is a highly sensitive method for detecting such effects. The magnitudes of the phase shift are related to mass loading. The frequency associated with the maximum phase shift is defined as the acoustic frequency, fA. Experimentally determining fA provides a measure of the mean particle size of the distribution. The detailed shape of the phase shift as a function of frequency is a measure of the spread in the size distribution of the entrained particulate. Experiments were performed using several configurations. Results were verified using direct mass measurements and microphotographs.

  5. How have hospitals faced the pricing issues of the 1990's?

    PubMed

    Kleimenhagen, A; Naidu, G M; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    National health care expenditures are rising rapidly, bringing on a health care financing crisis. For this reason, it is useful to see how hospitals are facing the price issues of the 1990's. This study examines the price strategies hospitals follow and analyzes their observations on price sensitivity and payer mix. The results clearly show that hospitals have not given much attention to the pricing variable. The study suggests that marketing and finance will have to work closely together in developing future pricing strategies. PMID:10137167

  6. Solid earth science in the 1990s. Volume 1: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is volume one of a three volume series. A plan for solid earth science research for the next decade is outlined. The following topics are addressed: scientific requirements; status of current research; major new emphasis in the 1990's; interagency and international participation; and the program implementation plan. The following fields are represented: plate motion and deformation; lithospheric structure and evolution; volcanology; land surface (processes of change); earth structure and dynamics; earth rotation and reference frames; and geopotential fields. Other topics of discussion include remote sensing, space missions, and space techniques.

  7. Lunar and interplanetary explorations by electric propulsions in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, Kyoichiro; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science has undertaken an evaluation of electric (rather than chemically-fueled) propulsion systems for lunar and planetary missions in the 1990s. A lunar-penetrator and a Venus orbiter mission are taken as baselines against which to determine the characteristics and evaluate the implementation constraints of realistic electrically propelled vehicles. Attention is given to dc arcjet thrusters. It is suggested that solar cell output should be shared through the spacecraft power bus rather than dedicated to propulsion.

  8. Measurements of Coronal Proton Velocity Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Panasyuk, A.; Cranmer, S. R.; Gardner, L. D.; Raymond, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    The Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory is being used to measure precise coronal H I Ly-alpha spectral line profiles out to several Doppler half widths. Such observations can be used to reveal the proton velocity distribution along the line-of-sight. Departures from a Maxwellian distribution are believed to be needed for the acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) by coronal mass ejection (CME) shocks. Our initial attempt to measure suprathermal proton velocity distributions has been described by Kohl et al. (2006). We have made considerable additional progress on such measurements since then. Improvements include the following: a much more accurate instrument spectral line profile, an increase in the wavelength range used for the observations, an increase in the statistical accuracy of the observations by increasing the observation time, and inclusion of a background measurement as part of every set of observations. We have also investigated the sensitivity to the detector high voltage, investigated the effects of diffraction in the instrument, determined the stray light effects and the Thompson scattering effects, which both turn out to be small except for scattering of Si III 120.6 nm. That scattered light is out of the primary wavelength range of interest. We believe that we have now demonstrated that UVCS has the sensitivity to distinguish between a Gaussian coronal velocity distribution and a kappa = 4 or smaller distribution. It is generally believed that the required seed particle population needed to produce SEPs of interest with a CME shock would have a velocity distribution with 0.001 to 0.01 of the particles with speeds that exceed 1000 km/s. Assuming a kappa distribution that is symmetric in the tangential plane and Maxwellian in the radial direction, this would correspond to a distribution with kappa = 3.5 or smaller. This paper will report the results of examining a fairly large body of new

  9. Study of a tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 1: User community characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreary, T.

    1981-01-01

    Projected 1990's experiments; navigation requirements and potentials; communications requirements associated with space experiments; alternative forecast options; and operational impacts on experiments are covered. A baseline of plans for the TDAS User Community, including a set of generic experiments developed to supplement existing planning for the 1990's time frame is generated. It includes extensive summaries of collected data, and a bibliography. The data are representative of inputs obtained from NASA planning sources through September 1981.

  10. Adequacy of dietary intakes and poverty in India: trends in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mahal, Ajay; Karan, Anup K

    2008-03-01

    Linear programming methods, indicators of nutritional adequacy from the Indian Council of Medical Research and household expenditure survey data from the National Sample Survey Organization were used to construct poverty lines for India. Poverty ratios were calculated for 1993--1994 and 1999--2000 on the basis of nutritional adequacy poverty lines and compared to official estimates of poverty based on energy requirements. Nutritional adequacy poverty lines are higher than official poverty lines, particularly in rural areas. The application of nutritional adequacy poverty lines points to greater rural-urban poverty differences than in official estimates. Declines in rural poverty during the 1990s were also slower under the nutritional adequacy definition, especially in south India. There is a greater degree of rural-urban and regional bias in nutritional adequacy poverty reduction than suggested by official data. Inter-state variations in changes in nutritional poverty and official poverty in the 1990s are largely explained by differences in assumptions on overall price movements. However, relative price movements in food items also played a role, particularly the slow increase in prices of cereals and edible oils in comparison to the prices of pulses, and in some southern states, compared to milk and vegetable prices as well.

  11. Welfare and poverty in the Europe of the 1990s: social progress or social dumping?

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, P E

    1991-01-01

    Social policy in Europe is changing fundamentally from a system of public (government) support to a welfare pluralism, or a "welfare mix" supported by the private and public sectors and by voluntary agencies. The overall tendencies are privatization, decentralization, and debureaucratization. With the prospect of a single-market economy within the European Communities in 1993, the fight against poverty in member nations may lead to "social dumping." Two major problems are identified: the lack of guaranteed minimum income schemes in the so-called "Latin Rim" countries, and the effect on workers' and citizens' rights in an integrated Europe. The fight against poverty is--despite some efforts from the Commission of the European Communities--basically left to the individual member states. This portends a gloomy scenario for the poorer populations of Europe in the 1990s. The author examines welfare state types within clusters of countries: the modern (Scandinavia), the corporatist (Federal Republic of Germany), the residual (Britain), and the rudimentary (Latin Rim). The conclusion, unfortunately, is that future overall development of European welfare systems in the 1990s will probably be toward "Americanization," with a move away from the modern, or Scandinavian, model toward a corporatist model for welfare policy.

  12. Alternative agendas. System priorities for the 1990s will differ from those of the last decade.

    PubMed

    Coyle, M; Koebel, C

    1990-12-01

    The Sisters of Charity Health Care Systems (SCHCS) was established in 1979 in response to changes in the U.S. healthcare system and to new needs of sponsors and Catholic healthcare facilities. However, the agenda that SCHCS leaders (and leaders of other systems) set at that time must now give way to an agenda that will address the new challenges and responsibilities facing the Catholic healthcare ministry in the 1990s. In its first decade of existence, SCHCS established and fulfilled a number of goals: It strengthened governance relationships, helped systems and sponsors better identify with local communities, enabled facilities to steward resources more effectively, and facilitated members' understanding of mission and sponsorship values. In the 1990s, however, systems will have to create more opportunities for regional, collaborative, and networking relationships among member facilities and between members and non-members. To achieve this, they will have to reevaluate their structures, find ways to faciliatate collaboration, make resources available to institutions outside the system, and develop an overall philosophy that enhances both the fiscal and spiritual well-being of member facilities.

  13. Welfare and poverty in the Europe of the 1990s: social progress or social dumping?

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, P E

    1991-01-01

    Social policy in Europe is changing fundamentally from a system of public (government) support to a welfare pluralism, or a "welfare mix" supported by the private and public sectors and by voluntary agencies. The overall tendencies are privatization, decentralization, and debureaucratization. With the prospect of a single-market economy within the European Communities in 1993, the fight against poverty in member nations may lead to "social dumping." Two major problems are identified: the lack of guaranteed minimum income schemes in the so-called "Latin Rim" countries, and the effect on workers' and citizens' rights in an integrated Europe. The fight against poverty is--despite some efforts from the Commission of the European Communities--basically left to the individual member states. This portends a gloomy scenario for the poorer populations of Europe in the 1990s. The author examines welfare state types within clusters of countries: the modern (Scandinavia), the corporatist (Federal Republic of Germany), the residual (Britain), and the rudimentary (Latin Rim). The conclusion, unfortunately, is that future overall development of European welfare systems in the 1990s will probably be toward "Americanization," with a move away from the modern, or Scandinavian, model toward a corporatist model for welfare policy. PMID:2071305

  14. Oil and gas markets, companies, and technology in the 1990`s and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    During the late 1990`s and beyond, oil prices will be stagnant while costs increase, competition for markets and capital will be fierce, funds available for exploration and development will be limited, and environmental extremists will keep prospective areas off-limits. Higher taxes will limit growth in oil and gas demand and reapportion energy market shares. And a campaign to brand oil use as an ``addiction`` that must be cured will gather steam. But opportunities abound, too, even in the US High-quality properties are available throughout the US, independents can find and develop reserves cheaper than the majors, and new tools are available to reduce risks both in the field and in the market. Gas prices are firming and natural gas is often labeled the ``fuel of the future.`` To succeed in the petroleum industry of the 1990`s, all companies must accept change, be creative, and take initiative. To prosper, oil and gas producers and refiners and those who supply and serve the industry must face the new realities of the market. They cannot mark time until the return of 4,000 active rigs and $40/bbl oil. those days are never coming back. Never.

  15. Incomplete fusion dynamics by spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, B. P.; Babu, K. Surendra; Sinha, Rishi K.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2010-02-15

    Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 124}Sn at 6.3 MeV/nucleon have been measured, using charged particles (Z=1,2)-{gamma} coincidence technique. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with 'fast'{alpha}- and 2{alpha}-emission channels observed in the 'forward cone' are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. Moreover, 'fast'{alpha}-particles that arise from larger angular momentum in the entrance channel are populated at relatively higher driving input angular momentum than those produced through complete fusion. The incomplete fusion residues are populated in a limited, higher-angular-momentum range, in contrast to the complete fusion products, which are populated over a broad spin range.

  16. EPRI distribution engineering workstation and measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Broadwater, R.; Shaalan, H.; Dolloff, P.

    1994-12-31

    The Electric Power Research Institute Distribution Engineering Workstation is a software package which provides the user with an integrated data and applications environment. Analysis, design, and operation modules access database data and exchange data through common data areas. The workstation has an open architecture that allows external application modules to be added by any user. Furthermore, it allows external measurements such as voltage, current, and temperature to be imported and displayed on the circuit schematic. These imported variables are made available to any application program running within the workstation. Design concepts, user interactions, measurement interfaces, and data structures are presented.

  17. Understanding Coronal Heating with Emission Measure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchik, James A.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Bradshaw, Stephen J.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cross-field spatial scale of coronal heating is small, so that the fundamental plasma structures (loop strands) are spatially unresolved. We therefore must appeal to diagnostic techniques that are not strongly affected by spatial averaging. One valuable observable is the emission measure distribution, EM(T), which indicates how much material is present at each temperature. Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on the Hinode mission, we have determined emission measure distributions in the cores of two active regions. The distributions have power law slopes of approximately 2.4 coolward of the peak. We compare these slopes, as well as the amount of emission measure at very high temperature, with the predictions of a series of models. The models assume impulsive heating (nanoflares) in unresolved strands and take full account of non equilibrium ionization. A variety of nanoflare properties and initial conditions are considered. We also comment on the selection of spectral lines for upcoming missions like Solar Orbiter.

  18. Atmospheric methane isotopic record favors fossil sources flat in 1980s and 1990s with recent increase.

    PubMed

    Rice, Andrew L; Butenhoff, Christopher L; Teama, Doaa G; Röger, Florian H; Khalil, M Aslam K; Rasmussen, Reinhold A

    2016-09-27

    Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 ((13)C/(12)C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984-2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y(-1) CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust.

  19. Atmospheric methane isotopic record favors fossil sources flat in 1980s and 1990s with recent increase.

    PubMed

    Rice, Andrew L; Butenhoff, Christopher L; Teama, Doaa G; Röger, Florian H; Khalil, M Aslam K; Rasmussen, Reinhold A

    2016-09-27

    Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 ((13)C/(12)C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984-2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y(-1) CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust. PMID:27621453

  20. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth.

  1. Enforcement in the 1990's project: Recommendations of the analytical work groups

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Enforcement has re-emerged as a leading tool of environmental policy in recent years. In the Fall of 1989, the Agency's Enforcement Management Council undertook to develop specific ideas for improving the enforcement process, with particular emphasis upon strengthening the intergovernmental relationship and reviewing the EPA enforcement management systems to better assess the environmental impact of the enforcement program. In order to capture a wide range of experiences and perspectives, the Council surveyed approximately 50 environmental officials inside and outside of the Agency. In addition to the two subjects identified initially, the interviewees solicited their opinions about other enforcement issues that warranted analysis. Ultimately, the Council identified the six discrete enforcement topics which are addressed in the workgroup reports of the Enforcement in the 1990's Project.

  2. The practice of infectious diseases in the 1990s: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Schlech, W F

    1995-02-01

    A survey of the members of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society was carried out to determine the content of an infectious diseases consultative practice in the 1990s. Respondents were asked to identify all new inpatient, outpatient, and telephone consultations during a 1-week period in 1990. Consultations were categorized by the infectious disease syndrome of the patient and by the microorganism that was identified. Bacterial infections were the most common cause of inpatient consultations, while viral infections were more common in outpatients. Consultations for parasitic infections were primarily for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "Newer" infectious disease syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, and Lyme disease were all represented in the responses for the 1-week study period. The significant impact of HIV infection on the overall consultative load suggests that there will be a continuing need for newly trained infectious disease consultants into the 21st century.

  3. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth. PMID:12285940

  4. The "Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy" of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease.

    PubMed

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a "multifactorial" etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  5. The impact of mood stabilizers on bipolar disorder: the 1890s and 1990s compared.

    PubMed

    Harris, Margaret; Chandran, Summit; Chakraborty, Nabonita; Healy, David

    2005-12-01

    This study comparing patterns of service utilization by bipolar patients in North-West Wales found a greater prevalence of service utilization in the 1990s compared with the 1890s. In the pre-lithium era, admissions for bipolar disorders occurred at a rate of 4 every 10 years; they now occur at a rate of 6.3 every 10 years. Where 100 years ago, there were 16 bipolar patients per million population resident per day in hospital, there are now 24 per million resident in acute service beds and more in non-acute beds. These data are incompatible with simple claims that mood stabilizing drugs 'work'. An alternative is that these agents have treatment effects, and further research is needed to match treatments to patients in order to optimize outcomes.

  6. Clinical technology assessment, cost-effective adoption, and quality management by hospitals in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, S; Saver, C L

    1990-06-01

    Technology assessment in the 1990s must become an integral part of a hospital's strategic priority goals, with active participation of physicians and top management. Technology assessment should involve a wide range of criteria and health care consumer expectations, so that the appropriateness, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and quality improvement aspects of new technologies are all considered. Mount Carmel Health's Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), established in 1986, monitors significant developments in new technologies and performs technology and outcomes assessments. ATBI activities, which have facilitated adoption of 35 treatment-based projects, are integrated into the existing QA structure of Mount Carmel hospitals. Through resolution of identified problems, quality care can be promoted, while providing patients innovative medical treatments.

  7. Aeronautical research in the United States - Challenges for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Richard H.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA R&D initiatives in air transportation technologies that will dominate its efforts through the 1990s. These efforts are to be concentrated in (1) advanced subsonic transports with greater fuel economy, passenger capacity, and control effectiveness, whose design will be undertaken with state-of-the-art CFD and CAD/CAM systems; (2) a second-generation SST whose propulsion system will be substantially more fuel-efficient than that of Concorde and have far lower atmospheric emissions; and (3) a hypersonic transport predicated on the results of research into materials, cryogenic fuels, propulsion cycles, and propulsion/airframe aerodynamics integration, which will be undertaken in connection with the X-30 testbed.

  8. Halo-orbit and lunar-swingby missions of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    A significant number of spacecraft are planning to use halo orbits and lunar-swingby trajectories in the next decade. Four spacecraft will be placed into halo orbits around the earth's sunward libration point, while two others will be stationed near the sun-earth L2 libration point in the distant geomagnetic tail. Six spacecraft, including two of the aforementioned halo orbiters, will make use of lunar-swingby maneuvers to fulfill their mission objectives. Thus, a total of ten spacecraft, five from the Soviet Union, two from Japan, two from the United States, and one from the European Space Agency, will employ halo orbits and/or lunar-swingby trajectories in the 1990's. Pertinent facts are presented for each of these missions.

  9. Tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 7: TDAS space technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatri, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the TDAS and user spacecraft technology assessment effort are provided. For each TDAS Satellite enhancement and user spacecraft element previously enumerated, the technology issues are identified and the R&D needed to resolve these issues is delineated. Subsequently, taking into account developments taking place elsewhere, the addition unique TDAS satellite module and user spacecraft element R&D efforts needed are identified, and conclusions are drawn in each case. From these conclusions, it is evident that with additional unique R&D efforts carried out for TDAS and appropriate user spacecraft elements the desired TDAS' capabilities for the 1990's can be realized and user spacecraft can be implemented that adequately interface with the projected TDAS.

  10. [Flame temperature distribution measurement of solid propellants].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhu, Shu-guang; Li, Yan; Fang, Zhong-yan; Yang, Rong-jie; Li, Yu-ping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yun-fei

    2004-09-01

    Many high temperature bodies such as flame, in which chemical reactions are very complex, emit their own spectra. These emission spectra usually consist of the spectral lines, spectral bands and the continuous spectra. In some cases, the spectral lines gather together. It is very difficult to find the right single spectral line when the spectral line intensity method is used. To deal with this problem, the idea that the single spectral line intensity is replaced by the total intensity of many spectral lines to measure the temperature is mentioned. And the relative intensity method is also changed to deal with this idea. The measurement of the temperature distribution based on this improved method is successful, and the measurement results are compared with the results of the thermocouple method.

  11. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  12. A new paradigm for the predominance of standing Central Pacific Warming after the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Baoqiang; Wang, Bin; Li, Tim

    2013-07-01

    Canonical El Niño has a warming center in the eastern Pacific (EP), but in recent decades, El Niño warming center tends to occur more frequently in the central Pacific (CP). The definitions and names of this new type of El Niño, however, have been notoriously diverse, which makes it difficult to understand why the warming center shifts. Here, we show that the new type of El Niño events is characterized by: 1) the maximum warming standing and persisting in the CP and 2) the warming extending to the EP only briefly during its peak phase. For this reason, we refer to it as standing CP warming (CPW). Global warming has been blamed for the westward shift of maximum warming as well as more frequent occurrence of CPW. However, we find that since the late 1990s the standing CPW becomes a dominant mode in the Pacific; meanwhile, the epochal mean trade winds have strengthened and the equatorial thermocline slope has increased, contrary to the global warming-induced weakening trades and flattening thermocline. We propose that the recent predominance of standing CPW arises from a dramatic decadal change characterized by a grand La Niña-like background pattern and strong divergence in the CP atmospheric boundary layer. After the late 1990s, the anomalous mean CP wind divergence tends to weaken the anomalous convection and shift it westward from the underlying SST warming due to the suppressed low- level convergence feedback. This leads to a westward shift of anomalous westerly response and thus a zonally in-phase SST tendency, preventing eastward propagation of the SST anomaly. We anticipate more CPW events will occur in the coming decade provided the grand La Niña-like background state persists.

  13. Tobacco lobby political influence on US state legislatures in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Givel, M.; Glantz, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Throughout the 1990s the tobacco lobby was a potent political force in US state legislatures advancing its pro-tobacco agenda.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the market and political motivations of the tobacco lobby and the strategies they use to achieve these goals in US state legislatures.
DESIGN—This study is a content analysis and summary overview of recently released historical tobacco industry documents; tobacco related government documents; and recent state tobacco control policy reports.
RESULTS—In the 1990s, the tobacco lobby engaged in a comprehensive and aggressive political effort in state legislatures to sell tobacco with the least hindrance using lobbying, the media, public relations, front groups, industry allies, and contributions to legislators. These efforts included campaigns to neutralise clean indoor air legislation, minimise tax increases, and preserve the industry's freedom to advertise and sell tobacco. The tobacco lobby succeeded in increasing the number of states that enacted state pre-emption of stricter local tobacco control laws and prevented the passage of many state tobacco control policies. Public health advocates were able to prevent pre-emption and other pro-tobacco policies from being enacted in several states.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco lobby is a powerful presence in state legislatures. Because of the poor public image of the tobacco lobby, it seeks to wield this power quietly and behind the scenes. State and local health advocates, who often have high public credibility, can use this fact against the tobacco lobby by focusing public attention on the tobacco lobby's political influence and policy goals and expose links between the tobacco lobby and its legislative supporters.


Keywords: political lobbying; state legislatures; industry PMID:11387532

  14. Comparison of carbon chemistry data in the East China Sea between the 1990s and 2000s: implications for the impact of eutrophication from the Changjiang River (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Gong, G.; Tseng, C.; Hung, C.

    2010-12-01

    The nutrient loads exported from the Changjiang River into the East China Sea (ECS) has increased over 10-fold since the 1960s because of anthropogenic disturbance such as intensive use of chemical fertilizers and the discharge of industrial and municipal waste waters. Elevated nutrient discharge causes eutrophication of the coastal waters, and stimulates harmful algal blooms and hypoxia events, both of which have been observed with increased frequently on the inner shelf off Changjiang River. To the best of our knowledge, there is, however, no study to date addressing the potential impacts of this eutrophication on carbonate chemistry in the ECS. In this study, we investigated the spatial distributions of dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2 in the entire ECS shelf in winter 2008, and compared the present results with previously published datasets. Results showed that pCO2 was negatively correlated with temperature for surface waters lower than 20oC in 2008, in contrast to the positive correlation found in the 1990s. Moreover, the wintertime ΔpCO2 in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary has appreciably decreased since the early 1990s, suggesting a decline of CO2 sequestration capacity in this region. These changes can be explained by the seasonal overturn of enhanced summer accumulation of respired CO2 in bottom waters between the 1990s and the 2000s, which may be associated with the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary over recent decades. Considering the high intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations in the ECS, more long-term studies are, therefore, certainly needed to unveil the fundamental relationship between the changes in the CO2 sequestration capacity and the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the ECS.

  15. Comparison of strain rates during the historical (1880s-1990s) and GPS periods over Northeastern Honshu before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Segall, P.

    2012-12-01

    Crustal deformation rates provide one of the most fundamental pieces of information for understanding earthquake cycles as well as for long-term earthquake forecasts. In the Northeastern Honshu, Japan, GPS measurements since 1996 indicated that the region was compressed in EW direction at a rate of ~100 nanostrain/year before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. On the other hand, strain rates during the 100-year period before the GPS era, measured by historical triangulation and trilateration surveys through 1880s to 1990s, remain uncertain. Some studies argued that the EW compression was weak, while others argued that this apparent weak compression resulted from errors in baseline distance measurements. Since the accuracy of baseline measurements during triangulation surveys is questioned, we focus on the shear strains. In particular, we take the x-axis to N110E, perpendicular to the Japan trench, and the y-axis to N20E, parallel to the trench, and focus on the shear strain component γ1 = ɛxx-ɛyy. This strain γ1 is negative when compressed perpendicular to the trench. When the plate interface is coupled to some depth, it is expected that the onshore part of the overriding plate will be compressed. Therefore, the γ1 strain is a useful indicator of the degree of coupling. We compared the historical geodetic and recent GPS data in the following manner. First, we obtained the γ1 strain rate of 1880s-1990s period from the directions of the principal axes and principal values made available by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Then, we interpolated the GPS velocities for the period 2000-2005 to the triangulation points and calculated the γ1 strain rate for each triangle. The results show that, for both periods of 1880s - 1990s and 2000 - 2005, Northeastern Honshu (latitude range of 36.5 - 41.5) compressed in the direction of plate subduction. The mean strain rate for the northern half (latitude 39.0 - 41.5) was -50 and -70 nanostrains/year for the

  16. Past Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone Part 1: Measurement Techniques, Uncertainties and Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; Maziere, M. De; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrola, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  17. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; De Mazière, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Stiller, G.; Tamminen, J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Urban, J.; van der A, R. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Vigouroux, C.; von Clarmann, T.; von Savigny, C.; Walker, K. A.; Weber, M.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  18. Measurement of Atomic-Oxygen Flux Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisashiba, Takuya; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Masui, Hirokazu; Iwata, Minoru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Cho, Mengu

    Since material surfaces on the outside of spacecraft are exposed directly to the space environment, material having high tolerance to atomic oxygen, ultraviolet rays and radiation are preferred for long time spacecraft operation. In order to examine the influence of atomic oxygen (AO) on space grade materials, an atomic oxygen simulation chamber was developed. A system was developed that generates AO using a laser detonation method. A CO2 gas laser (5 J) irradiates the oxygen gas in a vacuum chamber (2 MPa) to dissociate the molecular oxygen into atomic. The velocity of AO can be controlled based on the timing between the laser and the gas pulse valve that injects oxygen gas into the chamber. The AO velocity generated by this system is measured using a QMASS (Quadruple Mass Spectrometer) and found to be 8 km/s. It was necessary to measure the AO flux distribution in the chamber at the location where the material samples are exposed to AO. The AO flux distribution was evaluated by measuring the mass gain on a QCM (QuartzCrystal Microbalance) coated with a silver film upon exposure to the AO.

  19. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  20. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.; Habib, Emad; Kasparis, Takis

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004-06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been observed at two different sites. High concentrations of small and/or midsize drops were observed in the presence or absence of large drops. Even in the presence of large drops, the maximum drop diameter rarely exceeded 4 mm. These characteristics of raindrop size distribution were observed in all stages of tropical cyclones, unless the storm was in the extratropical stage where the tropical cyclone and a midlatitude frontal system had merged. The presence of relatively high concentrations of large drops in extratropical cyclones resembled the size distribution in continental thunderstorms. The integral rain parameters of drop concentration, liquid water content, and rain rate at fixed reflectivity were therefore lower in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones. In tropical cyclones, at a disdrometercalculated reflectivity of 40 dBZ, the number concentration was 700 plus or minus 100 drops m(sup -3), while the liquid water content and rain rate were 0.90 plus or minus 0.05 g m(sup -3) and 18.5 plus or minus 0.5 mm h(sup -1), respectively. The mean mass diameter, on the other hand, was 1.67 plus or minus 0.3 mm. The comparison of raindrop size distributions between Atlantic tropical cyclones and storms that occurred in the central tropical Pacific island of Roi-Namur revealed that the number density is slightly shifted toward smaller drops, resulting in higher-integral rain parameters and lower mean mass and maximum drop diameters at the latter site. Considering parameterization of the raindrop size distribution in tropical cyclones, characteristics of the normalized gamma distribution parameters were examined with respect to reflectivity. The mean mass diameter increased rapidly with reflectivity, while the normalized

  1. [Prevalence of tobacco use in Switzerland in the 1990's--estimation of consumption trends based on 2 methods].

    PubMed

    Gmel, G

    2000-01-01

    Smoking prevalence rates in Switzerland in the 1990s++ have been estimated from Perma data, which have been available quarterly since 1991, as well as from the data of the first and second Swiss Health Surveys, conducted in 1992/93 and 1997. Both sources--each providing data on more than 10,000 respondents--have been large-scale surveys that have used different but complementary survey designs. The probabilistic sampling design of the Health Surveys assures representative findings; the Perma data, although obtained through a non-probabilistic sampling design, permits trend analysis as Perma uses multiple measurement points and therefore time-series methodology can be applied. Both Perma and the Health Surveys yielded approximately the same prevalence of 37% male smokers in 1992/93 and 39% in 1997. For females Perma gave 4% higher prevalence rates than the Health Surveys (Surveys 1992/93: 24%; 1997: 31%). For both sexes the increase in total smoking prevalence was accounted for mainly by adolescents and young adults. Whereas the Surveys showed an increase from 29% to 41% (18% to 39%) in males (females) aged 15 to 19 years, the corresponding increase derived from Perma was 50% less. Except for this youngest age-group, differences between the methods remained within standard statistical norms. There is no doubt, however, that smoking in adolescents increased between 1992/93 and 1997.

  2. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing

    2012-03-30

    How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors.

  3. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing

    2012-03-30

    How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686

  4. The spatio-temporal dynamic pattern of rural residential land in China in the 1990s using Landsat TM images and GIS.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guangjin; Yang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yaoqi

    2007-11-01

    Through interpreting Landsat TM images, this study analyzes the spatial distribution of rural settlements in China in 2000. It calculates rural residential land percentage for every 1-km(2) cell. The entire country is divided into 33 regions to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamic patterns of rural residential land during the 1990s. According to the remote sensing survey, the rural residential land increased by 7.88 x 10(5) ha in the 1990s. The increment of rural residential land was 0.55 million ha in 1990-1995 and 0.23 million ha in 1995-2000. In 1990-1995, rural residential land increased dramatically in the eastern regions such as the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and North China Plain, accounting for 80.80% of the national growth; the expansion in the western regions was much more moderate. In 1995-2000, the expansion of rural residential land in eastern regions slowed, accounting for only 58.54% of the increase at the national level, whereas the expansion in the western regions accelerated. Rapid rural residential development resulted from increasing home construction and the limited control on rural land. The great regional disparity reflected the regional economic development and land-use policy change. Our finding shows that nearly 60% of the rural residential area came from cropland.

  5. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  6. Ultraviolet, visible, and gravity astrophysics: A plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) receives advice on scientific strategy and priorities from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Guidance to the OSSA Astrophysics Division, in particular, is provided by dedicated academy committees, ad hoc study groups, and, at ten-year intervals, by broadly mandated astronomy and astrophysics survey committees charged with making recommendations for the coming decade. Many of the academy's recommendations have important implications for the conduct of ultraviolet and visible-light astronomy from space. Moreover, these areas are now poised for an era of rapid growth. Through technological progress, ultraviolet astronomy has already risen from a novel observational technique four decades ago to the mainstream of astronomical research today. Recent developments in space technology and instrumentation have the potential to generate comparably dramatic strides in observational astronomy within the next ten years. In 1989, the Ultraviolet and Visible Astrophysics Branch of the OSSA Astrophysics Division recognized the need for a new, long-range plan that would implement the academy's recommendations in a way that yielded the most advantageous use of new technology. NASA's Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravity Astrophysics Management Operations Working Group was asked to develop such a plan for the 1990's. Since the branch holds programmatic responsibility for space research in gravitational physics and relativity, as well as for ultraviolet and visible-light astrophysics, missions in those areas were also included. The working group met throughout 1989 and 1990 to survey current astrophysical problems, assess the potential of new technologies, examine prior academy recommendations, and develop the implementation plan. The present report is the product of those deliberations. Key astrophysical questions to be addressed cover topics such as the structure and evolution of the early universe, energetics of active

  7. Flaw length distribution measurement in brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Zlotnikov, R.; Bahat, D.

    2000-06-01

    A technique was developed in an experiment of fractured soda-lime glass which yielded a wide mist zone. This technique enabled us to measure the lengths of a large number (≈ 12 000) of secondary cracks (SC) in this zone. Statistical analysis of these lengths across the mist as a function of distance from fracture origin revealed some unexpected results. (a) The total number of SC remains constant for ≈ 40% of the width of the mist zone and subsequently decreases monotonically down to ≈ 50% of the initial number towards the end of this zone. (b) The length distribution of SC can be interpreted as constituting of two populations: (1) A nucleated SC population which remains unchanged across the whole mist. This distribution consists of two subpopulations: (i) half Gaussian (around 84%), and (ii) decaying exponential (around 16%). (2) A rather small portion of the nucleated population of SC (≈ 9% throughout) which grow monotonically by a factor of up to 40 with distance across the mist. (c) This factor agrees well with our theoretical calculation of the growth mode, and yields a reasonable estimate of the radius of the initial critical flaw (1.85 mm).

  8. Measuring astatine-211 distributions with SPECT.

    PubMed

    Turkington, T G; Zalutsky, M R; Jaszczak, R J; Garg, P K; Vaidyanathan, G; Coleman, R E

    1993-08-01

    We have investigated standard SPECT techniques (rotating gamma cameras, multi-hole collimators, and filtered backprojection reconstruction) for imaging astatine-211 distributions. Since 211At emits alpha particles, this nuclide has potential for use in radiotherapy. The capability of imaging this nuclide would allow in vivo evaluation of the distribution and stability of potential 211At-labelled radiotherapeutic agents. 211At decay yields x-rays in the 77-92 keV range in addition to 500-900 keV gamma rays. This study evaluates the feasibility of SPECT imaging using the x-ray emissions of 211At. We have evaluated several collimators, with the determination that the medium-energy collimators we used are suitable, with 7% penetration (uncollimated counts versus collimated counts). Several phantoms were imaged and attenuation coefficients were measured (narrow-beam mu = 0.182 cm-1 for 77-80 keV x-rays in water). Reconstructed images demonstrate qualitative capabilities and a simple quantitative study demonstrates good correction for attenuation and scatter (approximately 10% error), at low count densities, at least for the phantom geometries used in this study.

  9. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Czerny, B.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.

  10. Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Herwaldt, B L

    2000-10-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a coccidian parasite that causes protracted, relapsing gastroenteritis, has a short recorded history. In retrospect, the first 3 documented human cases of Cyclospora infection were diagnosed in 1977 and 1978. However, not much was published about the organism until the 1990s. One of the surprises has been the fact that a parasite that likely requires days to weeks outside the host to become infectious has repeatedly caused foodborne outbreaks, including large multistate outbreaks in the United States and Canada. In this review, I discuss what has been learned about this enigmatic parasite since its discovery and what some of the remaining questions are. My focus is the foodborne and waterborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis that were documented from 1990 through 1999. The occurrence of the outbreaks highlights the need for health care personnel to consider that seemingly isolated cases of infection could be part of widespread outbreaks and should be reported to public health officials. Health care personnel should also be aware that stool specimens examined for ova and parasites usually are not examined for Cyclospora unless such testing is specifically requested and that Cyclospora infection is treatable with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:11049789

  11. Toward Expanding Tremor Observations in the Northern San Andreas Fault System in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiao, L. G.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.; Taira, T.; Guilhem, A.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The connection between tremor activity and active fault processes continues to expand our understanding of deep fault zone properties and deformation, the tectonic process, and the relationship of tremor to the occurrence of larger earthquakes. Compared to tremors in subduction zones, known tremor signals in California are ~5 to ~10 smaller in amplitude and duration. These characteristics, in addition to scarce geographic coverage, lack of continuous data (e.g., before mid-2001 at Parkfield), and absence of instrumentation sensitive enough to monitor these events have stifled tremor detection. The continuous monitoring of these events over a relatively short time period in limited locations may lead to a parochial view of the tremor phenomena and its relationship to fault, tectonic, and earthquake processes. To help overcome this, we have embarked on a project to expand the geographic and temporal scope of tremor observation along the Northern SAF system using available continuous seismic recordings from a broad array of 100s of surface seismic stations from multiple seismic networks. Available data for most of these stations also extends back into the mid-1990s. Processing and analysis of tremor signal from this large and low signal-to-noise dataset requires a heavily automated, data-science type approach and specialized techniques for identifying and extracting reliable data. We report here on the automated, envelope based methodology we have developed. We finally compare our catalog results with pre-existing tremor catalogs in the Parkfield area.

  12. Decadal increase in Ningaloo Niño since the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Hendon, Harry H.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Marshall, Andrew G.; Schiller, Andreas; Kosaka, Yu; Caputi, Nick; Pearce, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Niño refers to the episodic occurrence of anomalously warm ocean conditions along the subtropical coast of Western Australia (WA). Ningaloo Niño typically develops in austral spring, peaks in summer, and decays in autumn, and it often occurs in conjunction with La Niña conditions in the Pacific which promote poleward transport of warm tropical waters by the Leeuwin Current. Since the late 1990s, there has been a marked increase in the occurrence of Ningaloo Niño, which is likely related to the recent swing to the negative phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and enhanced El Niño-Southern Oscillation variance since 1970s. The swing to the negative IPO sustains positive heat content anomalies and initiates more frequent cyclonic wind anomalies off the WA coast so favoring enhanced poleward heat transport by the Leeuwin Current. The anthropogenically forced global warming has made it easier for natural variability to drive extreme ocean temperatures in the region.

  13. Federal roles to realize national energy-efficiency opportunities in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Eric

    1989-10-01

    Improving energy efficiency throughout the U.S. economy is a vital component of our nation's energy future, with many benefits. Improving efficiency can: save money consumers, increase economic productivity and international competitiveness, reduce oil and gas prices by reducing the demand for foreign oil, enhance national security by lowering oil imports, reduce the adverse environmental consequences of fuel cycles, especially acid rain and global warming, add diversity and flexibility to the nation's portfolio of energy resources, respond to public interest in, and support of, energy efficiency. The primary purpose of this report is to suggest expanded roles for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in improving energy efficiency during the 1990s. In an ideal world, the normal workings of the market place would yield optimal energy-efficiency purchase and operating decisions. Unfortunately, distortions in fuel prices, limited access to capital, misplaced incentives, lack of information, and difficulty in processing information complicate energy-related decision making. Thus, consumers in all sectors of the economy underinvest in energy-efficient systems. These market barriers, coupled with growing concern about environmental quality, justify a larger Federal role.

  14. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  15. Gay and bisexual men's use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach. PMID:24754360

  16. Foul weather friends: big business and health care reform in the 1990s in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Peter; Greer, Scott

    2002-08-01

    Existing accounts of the Clinton health reform efforts of the early 1990s neglect to examine how the change in big business reform interests during the short period between the late 1980s and 1994 might have altered the trajectory of compulsory health insurance legislation in Congress. This article explores evidence that big employers lost their early interest in reform because they believed their private remedies for bringing down health cost inflation were finally beginning to work. This had a discouraging effect on reform efforts. Historical analysis shows how hard times during the Great Depression also aligned big business interests with those of reformers seeking compulsory social insurance. Unlike the present case, however, the economic climate did not quickly improve, and the social insurance reform of the New Deal succeeded. The article speculates, therefore, that had employer health expenditures not flattened out, continuing and even growing big business support might have neutralized small business and other opposition that contributed heavily to the failure of reform. Thus in light of the Clinton administration's demonstrated willingness to compromise with business on details of its plan, some kind of major reform might have succeeded.

  17. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  18. Hydrocarbon occurrences in igneous and metamorphic rocks: Plays of the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Harrelson, D.W.

    1989-09-01

    A review of available geologic literature has indicated numerous references detailing the occurrences of hydrocarbon in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Notable among these references is a paper by Chung-Hsiang P'an and a group of papers edited by Sidney Powers. Collectively, these papers conclude a biogenic source for hydrocarbons, most of which occur in (1) weathered igneous and metamorphic reservoir rocks that are higher than the source rocks (e.g., Amarillo field) or (2) igneous and metamorphic rocks that exert structural or stratigraphic control on the reservoir or source rocks (e.g., Jackson dome and the Wiggins anticline-Hancock ridge). It should be noted that a new twist on the abiogenic origin of some inert hydrocarbon gases (i.e., helium and nitrogen) proposes a degassing of igneous and metamorphic rocks from sources in the underlying mantle. Recent european super-deep tests (e.g., the Siljan Ring and the Kola SG-3 testholes) have attempted, with mixed results, to verify this theory. Drilling for these deep igneous and metamorphic prospects today is considered at or below economic basement or worse - a rank wildcat. However, these plays should become increasingly commercial in the 1990s as deeper drilling technology progresses, the current oil glut is eliminated, and more exotic deep gas prospects become accepted.

  19. USNRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer: Engineering simulation capabilities into the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAP5 series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. The NPA first became operational at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in 1983. Since then, the NPA system has been used for a number of key reactor safety-related tasks ranging from plant operator guidelines evaluation to emergency preparedness training. The NPA system is seen by the NRC as their vehicle to maintain modern, state-of-the-art simulation capabilities for use into the 1990s. System advancements are envisioned in two areas: first, software improvements to existing and evolving plant simulation codes utilized by the NPA through the use of such techniques as parallel and vector processing and artificial intelligence expert systems, and second, advanced hardware implementations using combinations of super-, minisuper-, supermini-, and supermicrocomputer system and satellite data communications networks for high flexibilty and greatly increased NPA system performance. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Did the elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA in the 1990s?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for the hypothesis that a decline in all types of crime since the early 1990s in the USA was a consequence of removing lead from petrol between 1975 and 1985. It describes ecological and econometric studies that have generally but not always found correlations between lead exposures in childhood and some types of crime 20 years later; a small number of epidemiological studies that have found a dose-response relationship between lead exposure in childhood and self-reported and officially recorded criminal offences in young adulthood; and evidence for the biological plausibility of a causal relationship. Lead exposure in childhood may have played a small role in rising and falling crime rates in the USA but it is unlikely to account for the very high percentage of the decline suggested by the ecological studies. The major anomaly in the evidence is that the associations reported in ecological studies are much stronger (explaining 56-90% of the variation in crime rates) than the weaker relationships found in the cohort studies (that typically explain less than 1% of the variance in offending).  Suggestions are made for research that will better assess the contribution that reduced lead exposure has made to declining crime rates in the USA. PMID:24555074

  1. Reality in the 1990s and beyond-more with less.

    PubMed

    Lane, P A

    1995-01-01

    It is no secret that the pharmaceutical industry is undergoing rapid and revolutionary change. The impact of managed care and threatened pricing caps by the US Congress on new products has caused many companies to re-evaluate their short and long term business and research strategies. In too many cases, this has resulted in down-sizing by both lay-offs and attrition. For most analytical laboratories, this has meant doing more with less resources. There are several major 'realities' that are having a significant influence on the amount and type of analytical support required to bring a new product to the market place in today's regulatory climate. They are pre-approval inspections, the Barr decision and the proposed ICH guidelines. Other realities of the 1990s are also influencing the operation of the analytical laboratory. To cope with these realities, wise use of resources is mandatory. The strategies employed by each company differ, but laboratory automation is usually one of the important elements of the equation. Other elements include contract laboratories, consultants and temporaries. Each of these elements provides part of the solution to doing more with less, but each has its own positives and negatives which must be considered. This paper looks at the relationships between these factors and their impact on the analytical laboratory.

  2. Health policy in the Baltic countries since the beginning of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Bankauskaite, Vaida; O'Connor, Julia S

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this article is to compare the development of health policies in three Baltic countries, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the period from 1992 to 2004 and reflect on whether key dimensions of these policies are developing in parallel, diverging or even converging in some respects. The paper identifies the similarity in the overall goals and compares the policy content in primary health care, the hospital sector and financing. We conclude that health policy in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been progressing in parallel towards a Western European social insurance funding model, developing a primary care system anchored on a general practitioner service and lessening the hospital orientation of the pre-1990s system. There is evidence of both convergence and divergence across the three countries and of progress in the direction of EU15 in key health policy and outcome characteristics. These patterns are explained partly by differing starting points and partly by political and economic factors over the 1992-2004 period. PMID:18485520

  3. Forces of change in the health care system. Implications for cancer care in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, W H

    1991-03-15

    Dramatic changes will occur in the health care system during the 1990s which will profoundly affect the delivery of care for cancer. Perhaps the most important factor is the aging of the population. As the proportion of people who achieve old age increases, the absolute prevalence and incidence of cancer will increase despite improved treatment techniques. This phenomenon will increase health care expenditures despite ongoing efforts to control costs. Second, there will be continuing efforts at cost control and increased emphasis on quality assurance and outcomes by third party payers. Providers will be scrutinized and compared with one another. The large payers of the nation's health care bills will demand proof of outcome and cost leading to bidding by providers and payment only to those who have the best outcome for the least money. Third, there will be an increasing emphasis on prevention and screening, in public health policy, an approach that may conflict with personal freedom. Fourth, there will be increasing deliberations and questions about the ethics of the health care system and treatment decisions. There will be continuing debate about the need for a rationing of health care and the right of individual privacy versus the states' right to preserve life. These changes will impact on all health care professionals whose practice includes patients with cancer. PMID:2001566

  4. Gay and bisexual men's use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach.

  5. Institutional Research Productivity in Science Education for the 1990s: Top 30 Rankings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Settlage, John; Germann, Paul J.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major science education programs in the United States, where the science education researchers published their research. This research is the first study of the scholarly productivity of science education programs at domestic institutions of higher education. Each issue of the eight research journals ( Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Science Teacher Education, School Science and Mathematics, Journal of Computers in Math and Science Teaching, Journal of Science Education and Technology, and Journal of Elementary Science Education) published in the 1990s provided the author(s) and their institutional affiliation. The resultant ranking of raw and weighted counts for the top 30 science educations programs shows variation in journals where research was published. Overall, regardless whether the total number of publications (raw) or weighted rating there was 90% agreement among top 10 and 70% agreement among the bottom 10. Potential explanations for variations and uses for rankings are discussed.

  6. Particle astrophysics - The NASA cosmic ray program for the 1990s and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V. (Editor); Kerr, Frank J. (Editor); Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on particle astrophysics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: the NASA cosmic ray (CR) program for the 1990s and beyond, SAMPEX Mission overview, the Advanced Composition Explorer, Positron Electron Magnet Spectrometer for the Eos Mission, Heavy Nucleus Collector for Space Station, the Astromag Facility, Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag, the Solar Probe Mission, the Mercury Dual Orbiter Mission, CRs in the heliosphere, origin of high-energy Galactic CRs, CR studies with the Gamma-Ray Observatory, gamma-ray astronomy at 1 TeV, experimental search for point sources above 1 TeV, the UMC Extensive Air Shower Array, status of the MACRO experiment. Also discussed are: CRs above 1 TeV/n and neutrino astronomy, abundance of ultraheavy nuclei in solar energetic particles, CR studies with an interstellar probe, isotopic composition of CR nuclei beyond the iron peak, experimental studies of CR isotopic composition up to Zr-40, use of accelerators in particle astrophysics, development of long-duration ballooning in Antarctica, Lunar-Based Heavy Nucleus Detector, neutrino astronomy on the moon, gamma rays at airplane altitudes, source composition of CRs.

  7. SBUV Version 4 PMC Data and Trend Analysis: Did the Trend Change in the mid-1990's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLand, M. T.; Thomas, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an updated Version 4 (V4) polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) data set from 35 years of SBUV measurements. The detection threshold has been revised to better represent the expected variation of PMC brightness with scattering angle. We now recommend the use of 273 nm directional albedo values to reduce uncertainties associated with instrument noise. We present our analysis of the V4 PMC data set in terms of ice water content (IWC), using a parameterization of regression results from a microphysical model to determine IWC from observed albedo. While we derive a local time adjustment as a function of IWC in order to use all SBUV measurements, we also find that our long-term trend analysis is insensitive to the nature of this function. In contrast to our earlier published work assuming a linear long-term trend of the SBUV time series, our new multiple linear regression results indicate that the anti-correlated response to solar activity and the increasing trend were both stronger in the first part of our data record (through ~1996) compared to the latter part. The use of a two-part linear trend for this analysis provides a long-term forcing similar to observed variations in upper stratospheric ozone and lower stratospheric temperature, as suggested earlier by Lübken et al [2011]. The fraction of total variance in the IWC time series explained by the multiple regression model is significantly smaller for all Southern Hemisphere latitudes compared to the corresponding Northern Hemisphere latitude. This suggests that interannual variability (not captured by our simple model) plays a larger role in the Southern Hemisphere. Possible explanations for the mid-1990's 'break' in the long-term record are offered. Lübken, F.-J., and U. Berger (2011), Latitudinal and interhemispheric variation of stratospheric effects on mesospheric ice layer trends, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00P03, doi:10.1029/2010JD015258.

  8. Peace Education in the 1990s. A Guide to Five Conference Reports from PEC. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    This bibliography lists and indexes a total of 124 papers presented during five international conferences held during the 1990s on the topic of peace education. This miniprint aims to make it easier for peace researchers and peace educators to locate conference contributions of special interest to them. The guide has been organized into three…

  9. The Quality of Life of Hong Kong's Poor Households in the 1990s: Levels of Expenditure, Income Security and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the quality of life of poor households in Hong Kong in the late 1990s by analyzing their levels of expenditure, income security and poverty before and after 1997. Though there have been significant increases in the levels of expenditure among CSSA recipients, the expenditure among these poorest households in Hong…

  10. Development Goals and Strategies for Children in the 1990s. A UNICEF Policy Review. Executive Board Decision 1990-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This document presents proposals for goals and strategies for children and development in the 1990s that were approved by the UNICEF Executive Board in April, 1990. The paper proposes that developing human capabilities and meeting basic human needs should be the focus of the UNICEF contribution to the fourth United Nations developmental decade.…

  11. Market Forces in Higher Education--Chinese and British Experience between Mid-1980s and Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaonan

    2010-01-01

    This paper tries to examine how higher education in China and Britain has been affected by market forces between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, from three major issues. Comparing the experiences of both places, the paper argues that unlike the case of British counterpart, where marketisation of education has shifted to a corporate management…

  12. Constructivism and the Neoliberal Agenda in the Spanish Curriculum Reform of the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the assumption underlying most education reforms that constructivism is politically neutral and intrinsically democratic. It makes this argument by examining the curriculum reform in Spain during the 1980s and 1990s in light of the neoliberal politics that the country was experiencing at that time. This study employs the…

  13. Determinants of Police Strength in Large U.S. Cities during the 1990s: A Fixed-Effects Panel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, William P.; Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    The 1990s represented a unique decade in which to analyze the determinants of police strength in the United States. This decade was a time in which crime initially increased, then substantially decreased. Furthermore, this decade also was characterized by increases in the minority population throughout large American cities. Finally, the 1990s…

  14. From Moscow: Living and Teaching among the Russians in the 1990s. Russian Memoirs Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dora

    This book recounts events in a Russian school during the 1990s when Russia itself was in transition. The book tells the story of an English teacher who dreamed of working in Russia and nearly 30 years later saw her dream come true. Old ways run in parallel with new Western-inspired methods. The outlooks of different generations more than ever…

  15. Turning Points: Books and Reports that Reflected and Shaped U.S. Education, 1749-1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This document explores a selection influential books and reports on U.S. education that appeared between 1749 and the 1990s. The analysis begins with Benjamin Franklin's "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania", early writings on women's and adult education, the McGuffey reader of the mid-nineteenth century, and Charles…

  16. MEASUREMENT OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION MAINS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of measurements of methane emissions from underground distribution mains and services. In the program, leakage from underground distribution systems is estimated by combining leak measurements with historical leak record data and the length of undergroun...

  17. History of regulatory requirements for poultry biologics in the United States, 1970s to 1990s.

    PubMed

    Espeseth, David A; Lasher, Hiram

    2013-06-01

    By the end of the 1960s, The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) had established the basic purity and safety standards for poultry biologics in the United States and had licensed products to address many of the major poultry diseases of concern at that time. The emergence of new diseases, advances in scientific technology, and changes in poultry husbandry practices that occurred in the 1970s to the 1990s required the development of many new and amended regulatory requirements to keep abreast of the changing needs of the poultry industry. Veterinary Services often approved the use of special or conditional licensing procedures to shorten the time to license products needed to address emerging diseases. Infectious bronchitis, bursal disease, fowl cholera, duck virus enteritis, avian influenza, and other vaccines were rapidly licensed to address emerging disease problems using this procedure. Changes in labeling and packaging requirements were made to address changing vaccination practices. Veterinary Services permitted diluents to be shipped separate from product, first for Marek's disease vaccine and later for vaccines recommended for administration by automatic vaccinating machines. The maximum number of doses permitted to be in one container and package were also amended to address the increased size of poultry flocks. Veterinary Services also approved the use of split manufacturing procedures that permitted two or more licensed manufacturers to work together in the production of a product. This innovative use of licensing products for further manufacture allowed the industry to use production facilities more efficiently and provided a wider variety of combination products. In 1985, Congress passed an amendment to the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act that gave USDA the authority to regulate all veterinary biological products shipped in or from the United States. This amendment brought intrastate biologics manufacturers under federal jurisdiction and ensured all

  18. The United States Supreme Court and psychiatry in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, J R

    1999-03-01

    In the 1990s, the Supreme Court has decided several cases that have had an impact on psychiatry and psychiatric patients in the criminal justice system, on psychiatric hospitalization, and on psychotherapist-patient privilege. Of the seven cases discussed in this article, Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justice Scalia voted similarly in all seven cases. Since joining the court, Justice Thomas has voted with them. Justice Scalia interprets the Constitution, using what has been termed "textualism": avoid reference to legislative history, and interpret the Constitution according to the plain language meaning of the relevant section. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia and Thomas are inclined to protect states' rights from court decisions that expand US Constitutional power in cases involving civil plaintiffs and criminal defendants. They seek to protect states from being sued in federal courts, and, if there is doubt, lean toward not interfering with state prerogatives. They tend to not find unenumerated rights and prefer clear-cut rules over amorphous standards. Justices Kennedy and O'Connor, at times joined by Justice Souter in the middle of the court, provide the deciding votes in many cases. They seem to prefer a case-by-case pragmatism over a global jurisprudential philosophy. Approaching cases one at a time, they usually avoid broad philosophic pronouncements when they join with Chief Justice Rehnquist. Justice Stevens, joined by Justices Breyer and Ginsburg since they have been appointed to the court, is more likely to favor a broader reading of the 14th Amendment's Due Process and Equal Protection clauses. Of the seven cases, Kennedy and O'Connor voted with the majority in five cases, the dissent in one case (Zinermon v Burch), and split their votes in one case (Foucha v Louisiana, with O'Connor siding with the Court and Kennedy with the dissent). Commager, a noted historian, believed that political issues can be explored, explained, and debated and that

  19. Outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Fanaroff, A A

    2000-05-01

    Advances in perinatal care have improved the chances for survival of extremely low birthweight (<800 grams) and gestational age (<26 weeks) infants. A review of the world literature reveals that among regional populations, survival at 23 weeks' gestation ranges from 2 to 35%, at 24 weeks' gestation 17 to 62% and at 25 weeks' gestation 35 to 72%. These wide variations may be accounted for by differences in population descriptors, in the criteria used for starting or withdrawing treatment, in the reported duration of survival and differences in care. Major neonatal morbidity increases with decreasing gestational age and birthweight. At 23 weeks' gestation, chronic lung disease occurs in 57 to 86% of survivors, at 24 weeks in 33 to 89% and at 25 weeks' gestation in 16 to 71% of survivors. The rates of severe cerebral ultrasound abnormality range from 10 to 83% at 23 weeks' gestation, 9 to 64% at 24 weeks and 7 to 22% at 25 weeks' gestation Of 77 survivors at 23 weeks' gestation, 26 (34%) have severe disability (defined as subnormal cognitive function, cerebral palsy, blindness and/or deafness). At 24 weeks' gestation, the rates of severe neurodevelopmental disability range from 22 to 45%, and at 25 weeks' gestation 12 to 35%. When compared with children born prior to the 1990s, the rates of neurodevelopmental disability have, in general, remained unchanged. We conclude that, with current methods of care, the limits of viability have been reached. The continuing toll of major neonatal morbidity and neurodevelopmental handicap are of serious concern.

  20. A Premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Pollay, R; Dewhirst, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace. Setting: Court proceedings assessing the constitutionality of Canada's Tobacco Act, which substantially restricts cigarette advertising. The 2002 Quebec Superior Court trial yielded a new collection of internal documents from Imperial Tobacco Ltd (ITL), including several about the development and marketing of Player's Premiere. Method: Trial testimony and corporate documents were reviewed to determine the validity of the industry representations about the new cigarette product development process, focusing on the case history of Player's Premiere. Results: In direct contradiction to industry testimony, the documentary evidence demonstrates that (1) communications for Player's Premiere, which claimed less irritation, were developed long before finding a product that could deliver on the promise; (2) ITL did not sell a "less irritating" product that matched its promotional promise; (3) the advertising and other communications for Player's Premiere were extensive, relying on the hi-tech appearances ("tangible credibility") of a "unique" filter, yet were uninformative and vague; and (4) Player's Premiere failed in the marketplace, despite extensive advertising and retail support, because it was an inferior product that did not live up to its promotional promise, not because of regulation of commercial speech. Conclusions: New product development entails extensive consumer research to craft all communications tools in fine detail. In the case of Player's Premiere, this crafting created a false and misleading

  1. Gay and Bisexual men's use of the Internet: Research from the 1990s through 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging into the World Wide Web via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social and sexual networking via a handheld device. In kind, researchers too have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men, though not at the same rapid pace at which technology (and its users) have advanced. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions with gay and bisexual men. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The urgent need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. Moving forward, a more holistic understanding of gay and bisexual men's sexual behavior might be warranted to address continued HIV and STI disparities. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide rapidly evolving outreach to gay and bisexual men. PMID:24754360

  2. Ecology and habitat of breeding Northern Goshawks in the inland Pacific Northwest: A summary of research in the 1990s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; McGrath, M.T.; Daw, S.K.; Desimone, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, we conducted research on the distribution, productivity, and habitat relationships of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in eastern Oregon and Washington. Our research was initiated primarily in response to concerns raised about the status of Northern Goshawks in the western US, and coincided with early attempts to list the species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act and the publication of management guidelines for goshawks in the southwestern US. To develop baseline information on the status, distribution, and habitat relationships of goshawks in eastside forests (i.e., east of the Cascade Mountain Range) in the Pacific Northwest, we established study areas on three national forests in eastern Oregon in 1992, adding a fourth study area in central Washington in 1994. We focused on the breeding season and nesting habitat because of its primary importance to goshawk ecology and the logistical feasibility of finding nests. Density of breeding pairs ranged from 0.03-0.09/100 ha, and annual productivity ranged from 0.3-2.2 young fledged/nest. Goshawks selected forest stands with trees of larger diameter and greater canopy closure for nesting than available in the landscape. Occasionally nests could be found in large trees in open-canopied stands. As distance increased from the nest site, forest type and structure became more heterogeneous and the prevalence of older-seral-stage forest declined. Dry or wet openings were present in most territories, often within close proximity to nest stands. Goshawks ate a variety of mammalian and avian prey. Mammal species made up a larger portion of prey biomass on two of the national forests, but avian species appeared to be more prevalent in the diet of goshawks in the most northern study area. We recommend that the existing management guidelines for goshawks in the Southwest form a basis for management in the inland Pacific Northwest, particularly with regard to nested spatial concepts

  3. Outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Fanaroff, A A

    1999-01-01

    Advances in perinatal care have improved the chances for survival of extremely low birthweight (< 800 g) and gestational age (< 26 weeks) infants. A review of the world literature and our own experience reveals that at 23 weeks gestation survival ranges from 2% to 35%. At 24 weeks gestation the range is 17% to 58%, and at 25 weeks gestation 35% to 85%. Differences in population descriptors, in the initiation and withdrawal of treatment and the duration of survival considered may account for the wide variations in the reported ranges of survival. Major neonatal morbidity increases with decreasing gestational age and birthweight. The rates of severe cerebral ultrasound abnormality range at 23 weeks gestation from 10% to 83%, at 24 weeks from 17% to 64% and at 25 weeks gestation from 10% to 22%. At 23 weeks gestation, chronic lung disease occurs in 57% to 70% of survivors, at 24 weeks in 33% to 89%, and at 25 weeks gestation in 16% to 71% of survivors. When compared to children born prior to the 1990's, the rates of neurodevelopmental disability have, in general, remained unchanged. Of 30 survivors reported at 23 weeks gestation nine (30%) are severely disabled. At 24 weeks gestation the rates of severe neurodevelopmental disability (including subnormal cognitive function, cerebral palsy, blindness and deafness) range from 17% to 45%, and at 25 weeks gestation 12% to 35% are similarly affected. In Cleveland, Ohio, we compared the outcomes of 114 children with birthweight 500-749 g born 1990-1992 to 112 infants born 1993-1995. Twenty month survival was similar (43% vs 38%). The use of antenatal and postnatal steroids increased (10% vs 54% and 43% vs 84%, respectively, P< 0.001), however the rates of chronic lung disease increased from 41% to 63% (P = 0.06). There was a significant increase in the rate of subnormal cognitive function at 20 months corrected age (20% vs 48%, P < 0.02) and a trend to an increase in the rate of cerebral palsy (10% vs 16%) and

  4. Distribution of pregnancy-related weight measures

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Christy; Dodds, Linda; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the distribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and interpregnancy weight change. Design Descriptive epidemiologic study using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Setting Nova Scotia, 2003 to 2013. Participants Included were 63 355 pregnancies in women aged 20 years and older. Analyses of gestational weight gain were restricted to 54 289 singleton pregnancies. Analyses of interpregnancy weight change included 22 890 pairs of successive pregnancies. Main outcome measures Prepregnancy BMI; gestational weight gain (the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight adjusted for length of gestation); and interpregnancy weight change (the difference in prepregnancy weight between successive pregnancies). Results The median (interquartile range [IQR]) prepregnancy BMI was 24.7 kg/m2 (21.7 to 29.4 kg/m2). Fewer than half (48.5%) of the pregnancies were in normal-weight women, 24.6% were in overweight women, and 23.0% were in obese women. The median (IQR) weight loss needed for women who entered pregnancy overweight or obese to be within the normal range was 13.2 kg (5.7 to 25.2 kg). The median (IQR) gestational weight gain was 14.9 kg (11.0 to 19.1 kg). Inadequate weight gain was observed in 15.8% of women and of these women, half were below the recommended amount by at least 2.2 kg. Excess gestational weight gain was observed in 57.9% of pregnancies, and among these, half were above the recommended amount by at least 4.8 kg. The median (IQR) interpregnancy weight change was 2.3 kg (−0.9 to 6.8 kg). Most (57.2%) women gained more than 1 kg between pregnancies and 24.6% lost 1 kg or more between pregnancies. Conclusion In Nova Scotia, both inadequate and excess pregnancy-related weight are prevalent, although the latter is more common than the former. Strategies are needed to promote healthier weight in reproductive-aged women, optimize gestational weight gain, and support postpartum weight management.

  5. Australia's Youth: Reality and Risk. A National Perspective on Developments That Have Affected 15-19 Year Olds during the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusseldorp Skills Forum, Inc., Sydney (Australia).

    This first annual report by the Dusseldorp Skills Forum on the situation of young Australians provides a national perspective on developments that have affected 15-19 year olds during the 1990s. An overview chapter, "Youth: The Rhetoric and the Reality of the 1990s" (Richard Sweet), addresses these topics: education-work transition; the labor…

  6. Variability of the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index across the north slope of Alaska in the 1990s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, D.; Daeschner, S.; Hope, A.; Douglas, D.; Petersen, A.; Myneni, R.; Zhou, L.; Oechel, W.

    2003-01-01

    The interannual variability and trend of above-ground photosynthetic activity of Arctic tundra vegetation in the 1990s is examined for the north slope region of Alaska, based on the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index (SINDVI) derived from local area coverage (LAC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. Smaller SINDVI values occurred during the three years (1992-1994) following the volcanic eruption of Mt Pinatubo. Even after implementing corrections for this stratospheric aerosol effect and adjusting for changes in radiometric calibration coefficients, an apparent increasing trend of SINDVI in the 1990s is evident for the entire north slope. The most pronounced increase was observed for the foothills physiographical province.

  7. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  8. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  9. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  10. Contribution of the phase transition of Pacific Decadal Oscillation to the late 1990s' shift in East China summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhu, yali

    2016-04-01

    Based on our previous study, the interdecadal changes in summer rainfall over East China in the late 1990s are further explored here. The increased local rising motion is implicated as the dominant factor of increased rainfall in the lower Huang-Huai River valley (LHR). Both the observation and numerical experiments using Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 suggest that the negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) mode can result in rising anomalies and thus more rainfall in the LHR. The East Asian westerly jet stream (EAWJS) is suggested as a bridge to link the Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies and East Asian summer rainfall. Model results reveal that the negative PDO mode can lead to significant easterly anomalies over East Asia. As a result, the EAWJS is weakened and shifts poleward, which coincides with observed changes in EAWJS after the late 1990s. In addition, weakened and poleward shifted EAWJS can result in an anomalous ascending motion to its south (in the LHR) by modulating the jet-related secondary meridional-vertical circulation. Consequently, rainfall increased in the LHR after the late 1990s. Besides, the positive Atlantic Meridional Oscillation can only induce insignificant changes over East Asia and partly counteract the negative PDO effect there.

  11. Commodities consumed in Italy, Greece and other Mediterranean countries compared with Australia in 1960s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Noah, Ann; Truswell, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Consumption figures for 15 major commodities (cereals, wheat, rice, maize, potato, pulses, olive oil, other vegetable oils, vegetables, fruits, wine, meats, animal fats, milk + products, and fish + seafood) were collected from FAO Food Balance Sheets during the 1960s (1961-1969) and late 1990s (1995-1999). For some nutritionists the "model Mediterranean diet" is the Italian or Greek diet of the 1960s, for others the concept of Mediterranean countries is more general. Analysis shows: (1) In the 1960s, Australia consumed more meat, milk, animal fat than Italy or Greece and less cereals, wheat, pulses, olive oil, vegetables, fruits and wine. (2) In the 1960s, Australia's olive oil, vegetables, fruits and wine consumption were within the range for all 18 Mediterranean countries (i.e. Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco). (3) In the 1990s, food consumptions have evolved; Australia's wine and milk consumption is now similar to Italy and Greece; consumption of wheat, olive oil, vegetables, fruits and fish are lower; consumption of potato, pulses, other vegetable oils and meat are higher than Italy or Greece. (4) Australia's consumption of the 15 commodities is within the range of all Mediterranean countries in the late 1990s, except wheat consumption was lower. PMID:12737007

  12. Clouds of venus: particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Knollenberg, R G; Hunten, D M

    1979-02-23

    Data from the Pioneer Venus cloud particle size spectrometer experiment has revealed the Venus cloud system to be a complicated mixture of particles of various chemical composition distinguishable by their multimodal size distributions. The appearance, disappearance, growth, and decay of certain size modes has aided the preliminary identification of both sulfuric acid and free sulfur cloud regions. The discovery of large particles > 30 micrometers, significant particle mass loading, and size spectral features suggest that precipitation is likely produced; a peculiar aerosol structure beneath the lowest cloud layer could be residue from a recent shower.

  13. Measurements of Fast Ion Distribution in ICRF Heated Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, A.; Sears, J.; Bonoli, P.; Granetz, R.; Parker, R.; Wukitch, S.

    2009-11-26

    Alcator C-Mod uses ICRF for the bulk auxiliary heating and relies primarily on hydrogen minority heating scenarios. Measuring the resulting hydrogen ion distribution provides an opportunity to validate upgraded ICRF simulation capability that includes non-Maxwellian ions. The Compact Neutral Particle Analyzer (CNPA) is a diagnostic employed on Alcator C-Mod to measure this fast ion distribution function. The diagnostic can measure the energy distribution of the fast ion tail, serving as a benchmark for simulation results and allowing for an assessment of the simulation algorithm and physics kernel. In this poster, we will present results from the detector in the most recent campaigns. We will discuss the calculation of the fast ion distribution from the measured CNPA distribution and the resulting effective temperature from applying a Stix fit to this distribution.

  14. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-02

    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  15. Marital decision-making and the timing of first birth in rural China before the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ying

    2006-11-01

    Using a sample of couples drawn from the three provinces of Guangdong, Shandong, and Shaanxi, we investigated whether couples' increasing freedom to choose whom to marry influenced the timing of first birth in rural China during the four decades before the 1990s. The shortening of first-birth intervals in the period is found to be associated with the shift from arranged to free-choice marriages. The association is attributed largely to increased intimacy and coital frequency after marriage together with postponement of age at first marriage.

  16. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  17. Abrupt summer warming and changes in temperature extremes over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s: Drivers and physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong; Lu, Riyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the drivers and physical processes for the abrupt decadal summer surface warming and increases in hot temperature extremes that occurred over Northeast Asia in the mid-1990s. Observations indicate an abrupt increase in summer mean surface air temperature (SAT) over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s. Accompanying this abrupt surface warming, significant changes in some temperature extremes, characterized by increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature (Tmax), daily minimum temperature (Tmin), annual hottest day temperature (TXx), and annual warmest night temperature (TNx) were observed. There were also increases in the frequency of summer days (SU) and tropical nights (TR). Atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and anthropogenic aerosol (AA) forcing, relative to the period 1964-93, reproduced the general patterns of observed summer mean SAT changes and associated changes in temperature extremes, although the abrupt decrease in precipitation since the mid-1990s was not simulated. Additional model experiments with different forcings indicated that changes in SST/SIE explained 76% of the area-averaged summer mean surface warming signal over Northeast Asia, while the direct impact of changes in GHG and AA explained the remaining 24% of the surface warming signal. Analysis of physical processes indicated that the direct impact of the changes in AA (through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions), mainly related to the reduction of AA precursor emissions over Europe, played a dominant role in the increase in TXx and a similarly important role as SST/SIE changes in the increase in the frequency of SU over Northeast Asia via AA-induced coupled atmosphere-land surface and cloud feedbacks, rather than through a direct impact of AA changes on cloud condensation nuclei. The modelling results also imply

  18. An Ultrasonic Circulation Measurement Technique for Spatial Lift Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiankun; Olinger, David J.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental investigation of the mean spanwise lift distribution for flow over inclined flat plates with sinusoidal trailing edges has been conducted. The stationary plates were vertically aligned in a low-speed wind tunnel with Reynolds number based on chord length of about 30,000. Three distinct flow patterns; streamlined flow, stalled flow and bluff body flow, were studied by varying plate angle of attack between 6 and 45 degrees. A novel ultrasonic technique based on determining the fluid circulation around a path enclosing the flat plate was utilized to measure the lift distribution. In order to correlate the measured lift distribution with wake structures, smoke-wire flow visualization was also performed. The lift distributions for the sinusoidal trailing edge case varied significantly from the nominal 2-D distributions based on local chord length. Preliminary extensions of the ultrasonic method to measure instantaneous lift distributions during an entire shedding cycle on vibrating plates and flexible cables are also discussed.

  19. Accountable care organizations may have difficulty avoiding the failures of integrated delivery networks of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawton R; Pauly, Mark V

    2012-11-01

    Accountable care organizations are intended to improve the quality and lower the cost of health care through several mechanisms, such as disease management programs, care coordination, and aligning financial incentives for hospitals and physicians. Providers employed several of these mechanisms in forming the integrated delivery networks of the 1990s. The networks failed, however, because of heavy financial losses stemming from hospitals' purchase of physician practices and their inability to align incentives, garner capitated contracts, and develop the infrastructure to manage risk. Although the current mechanisms underlying accountable care organizations continue to evolve, whether and how they will have an impact on quality and costs remains open to question. Care coordination and information technology are proving more complicated and expensive to implement than anticipated, providers may lack the ability to implement these mechanisms, and primary care providers are in short supply. As in the 1990s, success depends on targeting specific populations, such as people with multiple chronic conditions who need and may benefit from coordinated care.

  20. Nature of Persecutors and Their Behaviors in the Delusions of Schizophrenia: Changes between the 1990s and the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Young; Kim, Daeho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that the contents of delusions in schizophrenia are influenced by culture and social environment. However, few studies have investigated the chronological change of such delusions within a society. To investigate specifically the changes in the persecutory delusions of schizophrenia that have occurred over time, we compared the nature of the persecutors and their persecutory behaviors among inpatients with schizophrenia. Methods All admissions to the psychiatric unit of Hanyang University Guri Hospital with discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia during two different five-year time frames (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were reviewed. From their inpatient medical records, we investigated the descriptions of persecutors and their persecutory behaviors in the delusions of 124 patients (54 in the1990s and 72 in the 2000s). Results Overall, persecutory behaviors and nature of persecutors in the delusions of schizophrenia did not differ between the two time frames. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in women but not in men, rejection as a persecutory behavior was significantly higher in the 1990s (p<0.05). Conclusion The ten-year time interval may be too short to find significant changes in delusional content in general. However, our additional finding in women may be a result of the tremendous change in status of Korean women during the last decade. PMID:23251194

  1. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  2. Direct measurement of quasiprobability distributions in cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez-Amaro, Raul; Moya-Cessa, Hector

    2003-08-01

    We show that the set of s-parametrized quasiprobability distribution functions corresponding to an electromagnetic field in a cavity subject to dissipation can be directly measured. Such distributions contain whole information of the quantum state, therefore making it possible to recover information after losses have occurred.

  3. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  4. Optical heterodyne measurement of cloud droplet size distributions.

    PubMed

    Gollub, J P; Chabay, L; Flygare, W H

    1973-12-01

    Optical heterodyne spectra of laser light quasi-elastically scattered by falling water droplets (1-10-micro radius) in a diffusion cloud chamber were used to determine the droplet size distribution. The rate of fall depends on radius in a known way, thus yielding a heterodyne spectrum manifesting a distribution of Doppler shifts. This spectrum, in conjunction with the calculated Mie scattering intensity as a function of droplet radius, provides a direct measure of the droplet size distribution for droplets large enough that Brownian motion is negligible. The experiments described in this paper demonstrate the technique and establish the potential for further more quantitative studies of size distributions.

  5. Determination of aerosol size distributions from spectral attenuation measurements.

    PubMed

    Grassl, H

    1971-11-01

    An iteration method for the determination of size distributions of aerosols from spectral attenuation data, similar to the one previously published for clouds, is presented. The basis for this iteration is to consider the extinction efficiency factor of particles as a set of weighting functions covering the entire radius region of a distribution. The weighting functions were calculated exactly from the Mie theory. Aerosol distributions are shown derived from tests with analytical size distributions and also generated from measured aerosol extinction data in seven spectral channels from 0.4-microto 10-micro wavelength in continental aerosols. The influence of relative humidity on the complex index of refraction is also discussed.

  6. Superthermal electron distribution measurements from polarized electron cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, T.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fisch, N.J.

    1988-06-01

    Measurements of the superthermal electron distribution can be made by observing the polarized electron cyclotron emission. The emission is viewed along a constant magnetic field surface. This simplifies the resonance condition and gives a direct correlation between emission frequency and kinetic energy of the emitting electron. A transformation technique is formulated which determines the anisotropy of the distribution and number density of superthermals at each energy measured. The steady-state distribution during lower hybrid current drive and examples of the superthermal dynamics as the runaway conditions is varied are presented for discharges in the PLT tokamak. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  8. Optical and Radar Measurements of the Meteor Speed Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, A. V.; Brown, P. G.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Kingery, A.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The observed meteor speed distribution provides information on the underlying orbital distribution of Earth-intersecting meteoroids. It also affects spacecraft risk assessments; faster meteors do greater damage to spacecraft surfaces. Although radar meteor networks have measured the meteor speed distribution numerous times, the shape of the de-biased speed distribution varies widely from study to study. Optical characterizations of the meteoroid speed distribution are fewer in number, and in some cases the original data is no longer available. Finally, the level of uncertainty in these speed distributions is rarely addressed. In this work, we present the optical meteor speed distribution extracted from the NASA and SOMN allsky networks [1, 2] and from the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory (CAMO) [3]. We also revisit the radar meteor speed distribution observed by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) [4]. Together, these data span the range of meteoroid sizes that can pose a threat to spacecraft. In all cases, we present our bias corrections and incorporate the uncertainty in these corrections into uncertainties in our de-biased speed distribution. Finally, we compare the optical and radar meteor speed distributions and discuss the implications for meteoroid environment models.

  9. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Marwan; Dawns, Jesse; Meyerson-Knox, Sonya; Yamout, Rouham

    2008-01-01

    Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI). Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural) and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP), female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners. PMID:19021903

  10. Three optical methods for remotely measuring aerosol size distributions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Herman, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    Three optical probing methods for remotely measuring atmospheric aerosol size distributions are discussed and contrasted. The particular detection methods which are considered make use of monostatic lidar (laser radar), bistatic lidar, and solar radiometer sensing techniques. The theory of each of these measurement techniques is discussed briefly, and the necessary constraints which must be applied to obtain aerosol size distribution information from such measurements are pointed out. Theoretical and/or experimental results are also presented which demonstrate the utility of the three proposed probing methods.

  11. Causes of the Decline in Cigarette Smoking Among African American Youths From the 1970s to the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Adult cigarette smoking prevalence trends among African Americans (AAs) and Whites are similar. However, during the decline in youth smoking that occurred between the mid-1970s and the early 1990s, the drop in smoking rates among AA adolescents was more than double that among Whites. We examined the evidence for potential explanations for this phenomenon. On the basis of our findings, we propose that racial differences in parental attitudes, religious ties, negative perceptions and experiences of the health effects of smoking, worsening poverty, increased use of food stamps, and price sensitivity were major factors contributing to the more rapid decrease in and continued lower rates of smoking among AA youths. PMID:21852655

  12. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  13. State policy decisions in the 1990s with implications for the financial well-being of later-life families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gretchen J

    2006-01-01

    This study explores trends and patterns in states' policy decisions affecting the economic well-being of later-life individuals and families in the United States in recent decades, focusing on the 1990s. Rules were selected from the areas of inheritance, estate taxes, homestead exemptions, Medicaid eligibility, estate recovery, and filial responsibility. Results indicate an increasing use of a broad definition of family, one implying that spouses, the nuclear family, extended kin, step-relations, and sometimes in-laws constitute an ongoing collective whose members share economic resources and risks over their lives and beyond. Despite this global trend, states varied in their rules addressing intrafamilial financial obligations and families' accountability to states. While some seemed interested in facilitating the conservation of familial resources, others seemed willing to minimize public assistance while coercing kin into accepting financial responsibility for one another. Research was suggested to answer questions raised by this study.

  14. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs.

  15. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  16. The “Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy” of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease

    PubMed Central

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a “multifactorial” etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  17. When 'drugs' become 'drugs': issues of pharmaceutical abuse in France from the 1960s to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, media frenzies about drug addiction have focused mainly on illicit drugs taken by rebellious or marginalised addicts, relegating iatrogenic drug abuse, and policies and problems linked to psychotropic pharmaceuticals available by prescription or over-the-counter to the shadows. In this article I go beyond the division between illicit drugs and medicines still configuring both public representations and historiography: using archival materials from the 1960s-1990s in France, I highlight some blind spots in drug history. Firstly I demonstrate the role of pharmaceutical abuse in the career of addicts, and then examine regulation policies, which are the dark side, however complementary, of drug policies and prohibition. Finally, I analyse the role of physicians and pharmacists in this control, and discuss the various professional debates relating to the legal supply of psychoactive drugs. In all these issues, the frame of the Cold War context will also be highlighted. PMID:26054215

  18. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.

  19. The `hockey stick' and the 1990s: a statistical perspective on reconstructing hemispheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Nychka, Douglas W.; Ammann, Caspar M.

    2007-10-01

    The short instrumental record of about 100-150 yr forces us to use proxy indicators to study climate over long timescales. The climate information in these indirect data is embedded in considerable noise, and the past temperature reconstructions are therefore full of uncertainty, which blurs the understanding of the temperature evolution. To date, the characterization and quantification of uncertainty have not been a high priority in reconstruction procedures. Here we propose a new statistical methodology to explicitly account for three types of uncertainties in the reconstruction process. Via ensemble reconstruction, we directly obtain the distribution of decadal maximum as well as annual maximum. Our method is an integration of linear regression, bootstrapping and cross-validation techniques, and it (1) accounts for the effects of temporal correlation of temperature; (2) identifies the variability of the estimated statistical model and (3) adjusts the effects of potential overfitting. We apply our method to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) average temperature reconstruction. Our results indicate that the recent decadal temperature increase is rapidly overwhelming previous maxima, even with uncertainty taken into account, and the last decade is highly likely to be the warmest in the last millennium.

  20. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed. PMID:22849001

  1. The 1990s Warming in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre in Hindcasts of the MiKlip Decadal Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschel, Ines; Grieger, Jens; Rust, Henning; Ulbrich, Uwe; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The oceans and their multiyear variability are a crucial factor for decadal predictions. The focus of the presentation is on the observed shift in the sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre during the 1990s from cooler conditions in the preceding decade to warmer conditions thereafter. This increase of up to 1°C is linked to changes in the mean climate over the North Atlantic region. Therefore, it is a suitable test case for decadal prediction systems. We examine, whether ensemble predictions from the German decadal prediction system MiKlip reproduce the shift in SST and the associated impacts on the mean conditions of temperature, sea level pressure and precipitation. The MiKlip-system is based on the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM6/MPI-OM. Ensemble predictions from four versions of the system are analyzed. They differ in resolution, in the assimilated data for the initial conditions and in the initialization scheme. A variety of reanalysis and observational data sets are used for verification to account for uncertainties in the reference data. The initialized decadal predictions reproduce the shift in the 1990s of about the right amplitude at different lead times while the uninitialized simulations produce a cooling of the subpolar gyre. Compared to observations, the region with the strongest warming in the North Atlantic is located too far to the east and the warming hole is too narrow and shifted northwards. The observations show an associated pattern in the Pacific SST which resembles a la Nina-like pattern or a cool phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. This Pacific pattern is reproduced by the MiKlip-system, but not in all ensemble predictions.

  2. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  3. Non-Gaussian Error Distributions of LMC Distance Moduli Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-12-01

    We construct error distributions for a compilation of 232 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance moduli values from de Grijs et al. that give an LMC distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 18.49 ± 0.13 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error). Central estimates found from weighted mean and median statistics are used to construct the error distributions. The weighted mean error distribution is non-Gaussian—flatter and broader than Gaussian—with more (less) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of unaccounted-for systematic uncertainties. The median statistics error distribution, which does not make use of the individual measurement errors, is also non-Gaussian—more peaked than Gaussian—with less (more) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of publication bias and/or the non-independence of the measurements. We also construct the error distributions of 247 SMC distance moduli values from de Grijs & Bono. We find a central estimate of {(m-M)}0=18.94+/- 0.14 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error), and similar probabilities for the error distributions.

  4. Important recent advances in the practice of health risk assessment: Implications for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Health risk assessments have been so widely adopted in the United States that their conclusions are a major factor in many environmental decisions. The procedure by which these assessments are conducted is one which has evolved over the past 10-15 years and a number of short-comings have been widely recognized. Recent significant advances for more accurately estimating the risks posed by environmental chemicals are likely to have a dramatic effect on the regulation of many substances. Each of the four portions of risk assessment (hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) has undergone significant refinement since 1985. This paper reviews some of the specific changes and explains the likely benefits as well as the implications. Emphasis is placed on the improved techniques for (a) identifying those chemicals which may pose a human cancer or developmental hazard, (b) using statistical approaches which account for the distribution of interindividual biological differences, (c) using lognormal statistics when interpreting environmental data, (d) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for estimating delivered dose and for scaling up rodent data, (e) using biologically based cancer models to account for the seven or more apparently different mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, (f) describing the severity of the public health risks by considering those portions of the population exposed to various concentrations of a contaminant, and (g) reviewing how criteria for acceptable risk have been influenced by the number of exposed persons. The net benefit of these improvements should be a reduction in the uncertainty inherent in current estimates of the health risks posed by low level exposure to carcinogens and developmental toxicants.233 references.

  5. Important recent advances in the practice of health risk assessment: implications for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, D J

    1989-12-01

    Health risk assessments have been so widely adopted in the United States that their conclusions are a major factor in many environmental decisions. The procedure by which these assessments are conducted is one which has evolved over the past 10-15 years and a number of short-comings have been widely recognized. Unfortunately, improvements in the process have often occurred more slowly than advancements in technology or scientific knowledge. Recent significant advances for more accurately estimating the risks posed by environmental chemicals are likely to have a dramatic effect on the regulation of many substances. Each of the four portions of risk assessment (hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) has undergone significant refinement since 1985. This paper reviews some of the specific changes and explains the likely benefits as well as the implications. Emphasis is placed on the improved techniques for (a) identifying those chemicals which may pose a human cancer or developmental hazard, (b) using statistical approaches which account for the distribution of interindividual biological differences, (c) using lognormal statistics when interpreting environmental data, (d) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for estimating delivered dose and for scaling up rodent data, (e) using biologically based cancer models to account for the seven or more apparently different mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, (f) describing the severity of the public health risks by considering those portions of the population exposed to various concentrations of a contaminant, and (g) reviewing how criteria for acceptable risk have been influenced by the number of exposed persons. The net benefit of these improvements should be a reduction in the uncertainty inherent in current estimates of the health risks posed by low level exposure to carcinogens and developmental toxicants.

  6. Satellite Laser Ranging in the 1990s: Report of the 1994 Belmont Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    An international network of 43 stations in 30 countries routinely collects satellite ranging data which is used to study the solid Earth and its interactions with the oceans, atmosphere, and Moon. Data products include centimeter accuracy site positions on a global scale, tectonic plate motions, regional crustal deformation, long wavelength gravity field and geoid, polar motion, and variations in the Earth's spin rate. By calibrating and providing precise orbits for spaceborne microwave altimeters, satellite laser ranging also enables global measurement of sea and ice surface topography, mean sea level, global ocean circulation, and short wavelength gravity fields and marine geoids. It provides tests of general relativity and a means or subnanosecond time transfer. This workshop was convened to define future roles and directions in satellite laser ranging.

  7. A strategy for space biology and medical science for the 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A guideline is provided for developing NASA's long-term mission plans and a rational, coherent research program. Ten topical areas for research are addressed: developmental biology, gravitropism in plants, sensorimotor integration, bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular/pulmonary function, muscle remodeling, nutrition, human reproduction, space anemia, and human behavior. Scientific goals, objectives, and required measurements and facilities for each of the major areas of space biology and medicine are identified and described along with primary goals and objectives for each of these disciplines. Proposals are made concerning the use of scientific panels to oversee the implementation of the strategy, life sciences' need for continuous access to spaceflight opportunities, the advantages of a focused mission strategy, certain design features that will enhance spaceflight experimentation, and general facilities. Other topics that are considered include mission planning, crew selection and training, and interagency and international cooperation.

  8. Measured quantum probability distribution functions for Brownian motion

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2007-10-15

    The quantum analog of the joint probability distributions describing a classical stochastic process is introduced. A prescription is given for constructing the quantum distribution associated with a sequence of measurements. For the case of quantum Brownian motion this prescription is illustrated with a number of explicit examples. In particular, it is shown how the prescription can be extended in the form of a general formula for the Wigner function of a Brownian particle entangled with a heat bath.

  9. Challenging the Future - Journey to Excellence. Aeropropulsion strategic plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Over the past several months, the Lewis Aeropropulsion Management Council (AMC) has conducted a critical assessment of its strategic plan. This assessment clearly indicated a need for change, both in the aeropropulsion program emphasis and in the approach to carrying out that program. Customers sent a strong message that the program must improve the timeliness of research and technology products and services and must work more closely with them to develop and transfer new technology. The strategic plan defines AMC's vision for the future and underlying organizational values. It contains a set of broad strategies and actions that point the way toward achieving the goals of customer satisfaction, organizational effectiveness, and programmatic excellence. Those strategies are expected to form the basis for the development of specific tactical plans by Lewis aeropropulsion thrust teams, divisions, and branches. To guide tactical planning of the aeropropulsion program, this strategic plan outlines the agency's strategic directions and long-range aeronautics goals, the aeropropulsion goals and key objectives for achieving them, projections of Lewis aeropropulsion budgets, planned allocations of resources, and the processes that will be used to measure success in carrying out the strategic plan.

  10. Challenging the Future - Journey to Excellence. Aeropropulsion strategic plan for the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Over the past several months, the Lewis Aeropropulsion Management Council (AMC) has conducted a critical assessment of its strategic plan. This assessment clearly indicated a need for change, both in the aeropropulsion program emphasis and in the approach to carrying out that program. Customers sent a strong message that the program must improve the timeliness of research and technology products and services and must work more closely with them to develop and transfer new technology. The strategic plan defines AMC's vision for the future and underlying organizational values. It contains a set of broad strategies and actions that point the way toward achieving the goals of customer satisfaction, organizational effectiveness, and programmatic excellence. Those strategies are expected to form the basis for the development of specific tactical plans by Lewis aeropropulsion thrust teams, divisions, and branches. To guide tactical planning of the aeropropulsion program, this strategic plan outlines the agency's strategic directions and long-range aeronautics goals, the aeropropulsion goals and key objectives for achieving them, projections of Lewis aeropropulsion budgets, planned allocations of resources, and the processes that will be used to measure success in carrying out the strategic plan.

  11. Prospects For Measurements Of Generalized Parton Distributions At COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Neyret, Damien

    2007-06-13

    The concept of Generalized Parton Distributions extends classical parton distributions by giving a '3-dimensional' view of the nucleons, allowing to study correlations between the parton longitudinal momentum and its transverse position in the nucleon. Measurements of such generalized distributions can be done with the COMPASS experiment, in particular using Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering events. They require to modify the set-up of COMPASS by introducing a recoil proton detector, an additional electromagnetic calorimeter and a new liquid hydrogen target. These upgrades are presently under study, and the first data taking could take place in 2010.

  12. An Industrial Gauge for Measuring The Phase Distribution of Galvanneal

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher BUrnett; Roland Gouel; James R. Phillips

    1996-01-19

    Augmentation of the internal software of a commercial x-ray fluorescence gauge is shown to enable the instrument to extend its continuous on-line real-time measurements of a galvanneal coating's total elemental content to encompass similar measurements of the relative thickness of the coating's three principal metallurgical phases. The mathematical structure of this software augmentation is derived from the theory of neural networks. The empirical basis for the numerics embedded in the software's decision logic is presented. The performance of the augmented gauge is validated by comparing the gauge-implied real-time phase distribution with the phase distribution independently measured off-line on time-tagged samples drawn from the galvanneal production line where the measurement gauge had been installed. The performance validation is shown to demonstrate good agreement between the gauge and laboratory measurements and to suggest preferred approaches to be followed in future applications of the augmented gauge.

  13. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  14. Measurement of Species Distributions in Operating Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Parks, II, James E; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2004-10-01

    Measurement and understanding of transient species distributions across and within fuel cells is a critical need for advancing fuel cell technology. The Spatially Resolved Capillary Inlet Mass Spectrometer (SpaciMS) instrument has been applied for in-situ measurement of transient species distributions within operating reactors; including diesel catalyst, air-exhaust mixing systems, and non-thermal plasma reactors. The work described here demonstrates the applicability of this tool to proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) research. Specifically, we have demonstrated SpaciMS measurements of (1) transient species dynamics across a PEM fuel cell (FC) associated with load switching, (2) intra-PEM species distributions, and transient species dynamics at SOFC temperatures associated with FC load switching.

  15. Photochemistry in Power Plant and Urban Plumes over Forested and Agricultural Regions during SOS (1990s) and SENEX (2013) field intensives (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Flocke, F. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Nenes, A.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W.; Atlas, E. L.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kaiser, J.; Lee, Y.; Brock, C. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Liao, J.; Welti, A.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive forested regions of the southeastern United States show high emissions of biogenic reactive hydrocarbons such as isoprene, while emissions of these compounds are typically much lower from agricultural areas. The Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) field intensives during the 1990s contributed to an improved understanding of ozone (O3) formation resulting from nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from urban areas and power plants in the presence and absence of the biogenic hydrocarbons. Decreases in NOx emissions from power plants and urban areas have contributed to the widespread reduction of ambient O3 over the southeastern US during the past two decades. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), NOx, and their reaction products made at successive distances downwind of emission sources during the SOS (1999) and the Southeast Nexus (SENEX, 2013) campaigns reflect the modulation of the photochemical processing of biogenic VOCs by ambient NOx concentrations. The results constrain the ambient levels of HOx radicals as a function of NOx, and they reflect the mechanisms of the coupling between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions that form species such as ozone, formaldehyde, PeroxyAcetic Nitric anhydride (PAN), nitric acid, as well as, inorganic and organic aerosols.

  16. Variations and climatology of CI0 in the polar lower stratosphere from UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Water, J. W.; Livesey, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measured the global distribution of stratospheric ClO over annual cycles for much of the 1990s, albeit with reduced sampling frequency in the latter half of the decade. Here we present an overview of the interannual and interhemispheric variations in the distribution of ClO derived from UARS MLS measurements, with a particular emphasis on enhancements in the winter polar lower stratosphere.

  17. Risk assessment of distribution coefficient from 137Cs measurements.

    PubMed

    Külahci, Fatih; Sen, Zekai

    2009-02-01

    Classically distribution coefficient is defined as the ratio of solid total element concentration to surface water total concentration. This coefficient is obtained from the ion measurements in the Keban Dam, Turkey, which supplies water for domestic, irrigation and hydroelectric energy generation purposes. The measurements of 137Cs are carried out in 40 different sites and the general risk formulation and application is achieved for the distribution coefficient. The models are of exponential type and the spatial independence of the data is considered. Various charts are prepared for a set of risk levels as 5%, 10%, 20%, 25%, and 50%.

  18. Study of indoor radon distribution using measurements and CFD modeling.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R P; Joshi, M; Agarwal, T K; Aggarwal, Praveen; Sahoo, B K

    2014-10-01

    Measurement and/or prediction of indoor radon ((222)Rn) concentration are important due to the impact of radon on indoor air quality and consequent inhalation hazard. In recent times, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement CFD based modeling for studying indoor radon gas distribution. This study focuses on comparison of experimentally measured and CFD modeling predicted spatial distribution of radon concentration for a model test room. The key inputs for simulation viz. radon exhalation rate and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study. Validation experiments were performed by measuring radon concentration at different locations of test room using active (continuous radon monitor) and passive (pin-hole dosimeters) techniques. Modeling predictions have been found to be reasonably matching with the measurement results. The validated model can be used to understand and study factors affecting indoor radon distribution for more realistic indoor environment.

  19. Determination and optimization of spatial samples for distributed measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Xiaoming; Tran, Hy D.; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Kim, Heeyong

    2010-10-01

    There are no accepted standards for determining how many measurements to take during part inspection or where to take them, or for assessing confidence in the evaluation of acceptance based on these measurements. The goal of this work was to develop a standard method for determining the number of measurements, together with the spatial distribution of measurements and the associated risks for false acceptance and false rejection. Two paths have been taken to create a standard method for selecting sampling points. A wavelet-based model has been developed to select measurement points and to determine confidence in the measurement after the points are taken. An adaptive sampling strategy has been studied to determine implementation feasibility on commercial measurement equipment. Results using both real and simulated data are presented for each of the paths.

  20. Thermal electron energy distribution measurements in the ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P. B.; Nagy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    A recoverable payload instrumented for twilight airglow studies was launched by an Aerobee 150 from the White Sands Test Range on Feb. 8, 1971 at 13.56 UT. The payload included a low energy electron spectrometer (HARP) and a cylindrical Langmuir probe. The HARP electron spectrometer is a new device designed to make high resolution differential electron flux measurements. Measurements of ionospheric electron energy distribution in the range from about 0.2 to 4.0 eV are presented.

  1. Non-Gaussian error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Houston, Stephen; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-07-01

    We construct the error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements for 66 observations (with error bars) used by Spite et al. (2012) that give A(Li) = 2.21 ± 0.065 (median and 1σ symmetrized error). This error distribution is somewhat non-Gaussian, with larger probability in the tails than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution. The 95.4% confidence limits are 3.0σ in terms of the quoted errors. We fit the data to four commonly used distributions: Gaussian, Cauchy, Student’s t and double exponential with the center of the distribution found with both weighted mean and median statistics. It is reasonably well described by a widened n = 8 Student’s t distribution. Assuming Gaussianity, the observed A(Li) is 6.5σ away from that expected from standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) given the Planck observations. Accounting for the non-Gaussianity of the observed A(Li) error distribution reduces the discrepancy to 4.9σ, which is still significant.

  2. Diaphony, a measure of uniform distribution, and the Patterson function.

    PubMed

    Hornfeck, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the number-theoretic concept of diaphony, a measure of uniform distribution for number sequences and point sets based on a Fourier theory approach, and its relation to crystallographic concepts like the largest interplanar spacing of a lattice, the structure-factor equation and the Patterson function. PMID:26131895

  3. Precision measurements of momentum distribution of Tonks-Girardeau gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joshua M.; Xia, Lin; Xu, Wei; Malvania, Neel; Zundel, Laura A.; Rigol, Marcos; Weiss, David S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on precision measurements of the momentum distributions of 1D Bose gases over a range of initial temperatures and coupling strengths. We compare our results with unbiased quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We use the comparison with theory to understand the nature of the adiabatic loading from a Bose-Einstein Condensate in 3D to an array of 1D tubes.

  4. Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule.

    PubMed

    Temirov, Jamshid P; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Werner, James H

    2008-11-15

    Single molecule fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots to individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.

  5. Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M; Werner, James H; Temirov, Jamshid

    2008-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence mIcroscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots with individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.

  6. Pension benefits among the aged: conflicting measures, unequal distributions.

    PubMed

    Woods, J R

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of total benefits paid by employer sponsored pension plans seem to vary widely between different data sources and measures. Such discrepancies have been used to support differing conclusions about the effectiveness of the pension system. This article examines several measures of aggregate pension benefits in 1990, a year particularly rich in available data. Exploratory analysis suggests that the greatest source of discrepancy lies in differing treatments of lump-sum distributions, although the study also identifies several other types of payments that are variously, and erroneously, counted as pension income. Age of recipients is an important factor in analyzing different measures of aggregate pension benefits; discrepancies are much smaller among the aged than in the population as a whole. The analysis also provides new evidence about the unequal distribution of pension benefits among the aged, confirming from two data sources that benefits are heavily concentrated among higher income groups.

  7. Distribution of lead in human bone: 2. Proton microprobe measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlovsky, G.; Jones, K.W. ); Burger, D.E.; Milder, F.L. ); Hu, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution of lead in the human tibia on a microscopic scale. The radial distribution of lead in a 2-mm thick section of the human femur has been measured; it was observed that the concentration peaked in a region close to the periosteal and endosteal surfaces. The distribution in the interior of the bone was relatively uniform with the exception of a peak located about 1.8 mm from the periphery along a straight radial scan from periosteum to endosteum. Lindh also mapped the distribution of lead over a single osteon and showed that the concentration was highest at the edges. We have investigated the radial distribution of lead in the human tibia. Our motivation was to obtain data that can be used to understand the biological mechanisms for deposition of lead in bone and for use in the interpretation of in-vivo bone x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of lead concentration. This paper presents the results of proton microprobe line scans of several tibial sections from periosteum to endosteum with spatial resolutions from less than 100 micrometers to about 1000 micrometers. The results are complementary to those reported in a companion paper. 3 refs.

  8. Measurements and CFD modeling of indoor thoron distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R. P.; Joshi, M.; Agarwal, T. K.; Sapra, B. K.

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have been undertaken to measure indoor thoron concentration in Indian dwellings. The distribution pattern of thoron inside room conditions is complex due to short half-life. The internal radiation exposure due to inhalation of indoor thoron and decay products can be quite large near to the wall. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was utilized for prediction of indoor thoron concentration and distribution pattern. Thoron flux was measured experimentally to be used as input and CFD runs were performed for closed and open room conditions. Thoron concentration inside the room was also experimentally measured using Scintillation Thoron Monitor, STM (active) and pin-hole dosimeters (passive). For open room conditions, thoron concentration was found to be smaller and relatively homogenous compared to closed room conditions. CFD predictions were found to be reasonably matching with active and passive results. A separate profile experiment increased confidence towards validation of CFD for indoor thoron distribution (prediction) applications. CFD can be used as a tool to predict thoron concentration and its distribution in indoor conditions.

  9. Global temperature distributions from OGO-6 6300 A airglow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamont, J. E.; Luton, J. M.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The OGO-6 6300 A airglow temperature measurements have been used to develop models of the global temperature distributions under solstice and equinox conditions for the altitude region from 240 to 300 km and for times ranging from dawn in this altitude region to shortly after sunset. The distributions are compared with models derived from satellite orbital decay and incoherent scatter sounding. The seasonal variation of the temperature as a function of latitude is shown to be very different from that derived from static diffusion models with constant boundary conditions.

  10. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, H. K.; Ruesch, A. S.; Achard, F.; Clayton, M. K.; Holmgren, P.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions. PMID:20807750

  11. To decentralize or not to decentralize, is that the question? Nicaraguan health policy under structural adjustment in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E; Zimmerman, S; Garfield, R

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, health services decentralization in Nicaragua has been accompanied by structural adjustment, resulting in reduced equity and accountability. Sandinista efforts in the 1980s to extend access to primary care and reduce class and regional disparities in the delivery of health services were accompanied by modest attempts to increase local-level accountability and responsiveness. The escalation of war in the late 1980s transformed this effort into greater de facto decentralization. Over the past decade, Nicaragua has used decentralization policy to restructure the health system through health spending cuts and the favoring of curative over preventive services; privatization and the promotion of user fees; and confusion of lines of accountability. The authors analyze the 1990s' health policies in Nicaragua, paying particular attention to the blending of decentralization policy with the fiscal and administrative reforms advanced by the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and other international agencies. They conclude that analyzing decentralization as a sector-specific reform that can be ameliorated through technocratic modifications is insufficient. A full understanding of the problems and possibilities of decentralization requires an analysis of the political and economic context that conditions these policies. PMID:10707302

  12. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H K; Ruesch, A S; Achard, F; Clayton, M K; Holmgren, P; Ramankutty, N; Foley, J A

    2010-09-21

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions. PMID:20807750

  13. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  14. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004–2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate. PMID:26522168

  15. Impact of local sea surface temperature on changes of summer precipitation components over Northeast Asia in mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the new global atmospheric analysis dataset (DA126) which is produced by the global and regional integrated model system (GRIMs) global model program (GMP) is used to identify changes of the summer precipitation components in mid-1990s over Northeast Asia. The convective rain ratio (CRR) is used as the index to find changes of the precipitation component, which is the proportion of convective precipitation to the total precipitation. The CRR shows increasing trend over Northeast Asia where includes the Korea-Japan region for recent 30-years, whereas precipitation anomaly does not have a distinct trend over this region. The increased CRR shows a significant relationship with the increased local sea surface temperature (SST) variability. To investigate effects of the local SST on the summer precipitation components over Northeast Asia, two experiments are performed by utilizing the GRIMs regional model program (RMP). The CNTL experiment is forced by the observed SST whereas the CLIM run is forced by the climatological SST. Lateral boundary condition for two regional model experiments is provided by the GRIMs GMP run forced by the historical SSTs over tropical region to exclude mid-latitude SST effect. The SST warming increases the convective precipitation through the increased convective available potential energy and does not have large effects on the large-scale rainfall component. Consequently, the total amount of the precipitation and the CRR are increased by the local SST warming over Northeast Asia.

  16. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H K; Ruesch, A S; Achard, F; Clayton, M K; Holmgren, P; Ramankutty, N; Foley, J A

    2010-09-21

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions.

  17. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-11-02

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  18. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  19. Measurement of Tc distribution in Nb3Sn CICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolaio, Ciro; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Uglietti, Davide

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge of the actual Nb3Sn filaments’ thermal strain, ɛth, in a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is essential to predict the CICC performance in operation starting from the strand scaling laws for the critical current density Jc(B,T,ɛ). To obtain a measurement of ɛth under relevant conditions, i.e. at low temperature and with the mechanical constraints of a long length section of CICC, the critical temperature as a function of the applied field, Tc(B), is measured by an inductive method for the CICC in situ and for the freestanding filaments used for the cable manufacture. To deduce the thermal strain in the CICC, the Tc(B) results are compared with the Tc(B,ɛ) curve. Starting from the susceptibility curves measured for both the CICC and the filaments, it is possible to compute the Tc distribution in the CICC using a deconvolution algorithm. The first results of Tc measured on two CICCs in the SULTAN test facility suggest a broad distribution of thermal strain, peaked at negative strain, which remains almost constant during the cyclic loading. From the knowledge of both the thermal strain distribution and the actual CICC performances, it will be possible to discriminate between reversible and irreversible degradation in Nb3Sn CICC.

  20. Measuring distributed leadership agency in a hospital context.

    PubMed

    Jønsson, Thomas; Unterrainer, Christine; Jeppesen, Hans-Jeppe; Jain, Ajay Kumar

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate an instrument that can measure distributed leadership (DL) as employees' active participation in DL tasks. The authors designate this as the distributed leadership agency (DLA). Design/methodology/approach Data were collected throughout all departments and occupational groups at a merged centralized hospital setting in Denmark. A total of 1,774 employees from 24 hospital departments and 16 occupational groups completed our survey. Structural equation model and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to identify appropriate items and a test for measurement invariance, predictive, discriminant and convergent validity, and ANOVAs were applied to analyse group differences in DLA. Findings The identified unidimensional questionnaire consists of seven items, as it is different from, but associated with, empowering leadership, organizational influence, attitude to participation and trust in management. As theoretically predicted, DLA is positively related to self-efficacy, job satisfaction and innovative behaviour. Chief physicians, permanent employees and employee representatives scored higher on the scale than the rest of their respective counterparts. Practical implications The survey offers a method to assess a distribution of leadership agency in hospital organizations. Such assessment may provide a basis for organizational and leadership development. Originality/value The present study provides a reliable and valid quantitative instrument that measures how much employees at all hierarchical levels are involved in concrete leadership activities in the hospital context. Taking a normative perspective the authors could show that DL - measured with the DLA-questionnaire - has positive effects on employees' behaviour. PMID:27681024

  1. Measurement of the temperature distribution inside the power cable using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the power cables are manufactured to fulfill the following condition - the highest allowable temperature of the cable during normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature at short circuit conditions cannot exceed the condition of the maximum allowable internal temperature. The distribution of the electric current through the conductor leads to the increase of the amplitude of electrons in the crystal lattice of the cables material. The consequence of this phenomenon is the increase of friction and the increase of collisions between particles inside the material, which causes the temperature increase of the carrying elements. The temperature increase is unwanted phenomena, because it is causing losses. In extreme cases, the long-term overload leads to the cable damaging or fire. This paper deals with the temperature distribution measurement inside the power cables using distributed temperature system. With cooperation with Kabex company, the tube containing optical fibers was installed into the center of power cables. These fibers, except telecommunications purposes, can be also used as sensors in measurements carrying out with distributed temperature system. These systems use the optical fiber as a sensor and allow the continual measurement of the temperature along the whole cable in real time with spatial resolution 1 m. DTS systems are successfully deployed in temperature measurement applications in industry areas yet. These areas include construction, drainage, hot water etc. Their advantages are low cost, resistance to electromagnetic radiation and the possibility of real time monitoring at the distance of 8 km. The location of the optical fiber in the center of the power cable allows the measurement of internal distribution of the temperature during overloading the cable. This measurement method can be also used for prediction of short-circuit and its exact location.

  2. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Green Jr, Johney Boyd; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  3. An entropy based measure for comparing distributions of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, R.; Castellani, B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper is part of a series addressing the empirical/statistical distribution of the diversity of complexity within and amongst complex systems. Here, we consider the problem of measuring the diversity of complexity in a system, given its ordered range of complexity types i and their probability of occurrence pi, with the understanding that larger values of i mean a higher degree of complexity. To address this problem, we introduce a new complexity measure called case-based entropyCc - a modification of the Shannon-Wiener entropy measure H. The utility of this measure is that, unlike current complexity measures-which focus on the macroscopic complexity of a single system-Cc can be used to empirically identify and measure the distribution of the diversity of complexity within and across multiple natural and human-made systems, as well as the diversity contribution of complexity of any part of a system, relative to the total range of ordered complexity types.

  4. Development of TDR distributed sensors for land subsidence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chih-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The influences subjected by land subsidence and notably inundation are raising in Taiwan recently. To efficiently access the problems, historical trends and the instant field measurement data (at least by days), including multi-depth subsidence leveling and water leveling, are essential and urgent. However, current multi-depth subsidence leveling with magnetic rings conducted by manual operating, for example, lacks high temporal and spatial resolution data, which cannot evaluate the consistency between the subsidence leveling and the limited underground water levels in the same aquifer layer appropriately. To improve the field measurements, this study is carried out based on the core technology of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). In the preliminary idea, TDR distributed sensors, as magnetic rings for land subsidence measurements in a borehole, are developed with the underground water level sensors embedded. The prototypes of TDR distributed sensors indicates the feasibility of measuring, but the influence of signal dissipating due to the long transmission line (>100 m) need to be brought attention to, as well as the corresponding measurement accuracy. Therefore, a laboratorial physical modeling is suggested for further evaluation, and this modeling is constructed now. All the measurement data are expected to be employed and fed back as the calibrators and indicators to propose the defense strategy for land subsidence and inundation.

  5. Intra-fuel cell stack measurements of transient concentration distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, W. P.; Toops, T. J.; Green, J. B.; Armstrong, T. R.

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  6. Infrared fiber optic sensor for measurements of nonuniform temperature distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovsky, Edward; Drizlikh, S.; Zur, Albert; Bar-Or, O.; Katzir, Abraham

    1992-04-01

    Infrared (IR) fiber optic radiometry of thermal surfaces offers several advantages over refractive optics radiometry. It does not need a direct line of sight to the measured thermal surface and combines high capability of monitoring small areas with high efficiency. These advantages of IR fibers are important in the control of nonuniform temperature distributions, in which the temperature of closely situated points differs considerably and a high spatial resolution is necessary. The theoretical and experimental transforming functions of the sensor during scanning of an area with a nonuniform temperature distribution were obtained and their dependence on the spacial location of the fiber and type of temperature distribution were analyzed. Parameters such as accuracy and precision were determined. The results suggest that IR fiber radiometric thermometry may be useful in medical applications such as laser surgery, hyperthermia, and hypothermia.

  7. Comparison of Measured Leakage Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Ladbury, R.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; Howe, C.; Weller, B.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Jordan, T. M.; Fodness, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distribution were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [I]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Car10 code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. The nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) has a negligible effect on the shape of the damage distribution. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3,4], a Geant4 [4,5] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  8. What Have Peace Education Commission Papers Dealt with in the 1990s? Comments on a Guide to Five Conference Reports. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Five international conferences were held during the 1990s by the Peace Education Commission, a semi-independent subgroup of the International Peace Research Association. The conferences were held in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary), and Valletta (Malta). This document is a brief commentary on the…

  9. Higher Education into the 1990s: New Dimensions. To Commemorate the Jubilee of the Society for Research into Higher Education, 1964-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Christopher, Ed.; Eggins, Heather, Ed.

    This collection of essays aims to contribute to the understanding of the present predicament and future potential of higher education in the United Kingdom. It considers the new dimensions being introduced into higher education which are likely to have marked effects in the 1990s. It explores the tensions between the past and future, tradition and…

  10. The Effect of Local Labor Market Conditions in the 1990s on the Likelihood of Community College Students' Persistence and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzl, Gregory S.; Alfonso, Mariana; Melguizo, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of local labor market conditions on the year-to-year persistence and attainment decisions of a sample of traditional-aged students who attended community colleges during the 1990s. The findings suggest that the enrollment and attainment decisions of these first-time community college students were not made purely…

  11. Influence of climate regime shift on the interdecadal change in tropical cyclone activity over the Pacific Basin during the middle to late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Wu, Yi-Kai; Li, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new interpretation is proposed for the abrupt decrease in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific (WNP) after the late 1990s. We hypothesize that this abrupt change constitutes a part of the phenomenon of interdecadal change in TC activity in the Pacific Basin, including the WNP, western South Pacific (WSP), and eastern North Pacific. Our analysis revealed that the climate-regime shift (CRS) in the Pacific during the middle to late 1990s resulted in a La Niña-like mean state, which was responsible for the interdecadal change in TC activity in the late 1990s. Analyses of the TC genesis potential index and numerical experiments revealed that the decline in TC activity in both the WNP and WSP was primarily attributable to the increase of vertical wind shear in the central Pacific due to the La Niña-like associated cold sea surface temperature (SST). Conversely, the La Niña-like associated warm SST in the western Pacific produced anomalous vertical transport of water vapor, increasing moisture levels in the mid-troposphere and TC activity in the western WNP. Furthermore, the CRS modified the mean TC genesis position and shifted the steering flow to the west, resulting in the increased frequency of TC landfalls in Taiwan, southeastern China, and northern Australia after the late 1990s.

  12. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  13. Influence of climate regime shift on the interdecadal change in tropical cyclone activity over the Pacific Basin during the middle to late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Wu, Yi-Kai; Li, Tim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a new interpretation is proposed for the abrupt decrease in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific (WNP) after the late 1990s. We hypothesize that this abrupt change constitutes a part of the phenomenon of interdecadal change in TC activity in the Pacific Basin, including the WNP, western South Pacific (WSP), and eastern North Pacific. Our analysis revealed that the climate-regime shift (CRS) in the Pacific during the middle to late 1990s resulted in a La Niña-like mean state, which was responsible for the interdecadal change in TC activity in the late 1990s. Analyses of the TC genesis potential index and numerical experiments revealed that the decline in TC activity in both the WNP and WSP was primarily attributable to the increase of vertical wind shear in the central Pacific due to the La Niña-like associated cold sea surface temperature (SST). Conversely, the La Niña-like associated warm SST in the western Pacific produced anomalous vertical transport of water vapor, increasing moisture levels in the mid-troposphere and TC activity in the western WNP. Furthermore, the CRS modified the mean TC genesis position and shifted the steering flow to the west, resulting in the increased frequency of TC landfalls in Taiwan, southeastern China, and northern Australia after the late 1990s.

  14. Comparing the Understanding of the Nature of Science by Preservice Secondary Science Teachers in the Mid-1960s and the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, William J.; Andersen, Hans O.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study comparing the understanding of the nature of science by preservice secondary science teachers in the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. Uses the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS) to determine teachers' understanding. Concludes with an evaluation of most items for which the responses changed dramatically in those 25 years. Contains 19…

  15. Years of Challenge: The Impact of Demographic and Work Force Trends on Higher Education in the 1990s. A NACUBO Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, K. Scott; And Others

    This report describes national demographic and work force trends that have important implications for institutions and presents recommended management strategies for the 1990s. Among the trends predicted for the next 10 years are the following: (1) a continuing reduction in the traditional 18-24 year-old college-going population; (2) the…

  16. The Rhetoric of a Reform: The Construction of "Public", "Management" and the "New" in Norwegian Education Reforms of the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trippestad, Tom Are

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public management for…

  17. Pathbreaking CBO Study Shows Dramatic Increases in Income Disparities in 1980s and 1990s: An Analysis of the CBO Data. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac; Greenstein, Robert; Primus, Wendell

    A study by the Congressional Budget Office of income and tax trends since 1979 showed dramatic increases in income disparities, especially between the wealthiest one percent of Americans and the rest of society, in the 1980s and 1990s. The percentage of income Americans paid in federal taxes declined for every income group between 1979-97. The…

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of Race/Ethnicity and Sex of Individuals Appearing on the Covers of "Sports Illustrated" in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…

  19. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  20. Fault Location Methods for Ungrounded Distribution Systems Using Local Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Wanjing; Liao, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This article presents novel fault location algorithms for ungrounded distribution systems. The proposed methods are capable of locating faults by using obtained voltage and current measurements at the local substation. Two types of fault location algorithms, using line to neutral and line to line measurements, are presented. The network structure and parameters are assumed to be known. The network structure needs to be updated based on information obtained from utility telemetry system. With the help of bus impedance matrix, local voltage changes due to the fault can be expressed as a function of fault currents. Since the bus impedance matrix contains information about fault location, superimposed voltages at local substation can be expressed as a function of fault location, through which fault location can be solved. Simulation studies have been carried out based on a sample distribution power system. From the evaluation study, it is evinced that very accurate fault location estimates are obtained from both types of methods.

  1. A Novel Microsensor for Measuring Angular Distribution of Radiative Intensity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas E; Pilorz, Stuart; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Bebout, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the design, construction and characterization of a novel type of light probe for measuring the angular radiance distribution of light fields. The differential acceptance angle (DAA) probe can resolve the directionality of a light field in environments with steep light gradients, such as microbial mats, without the need to remove, reorient, and reinsert the probe, a clear advantage over prior techniques. The probe consists of an inner irradiance sensor inside a concentric, moveable light-absorbing sheath. The radiative intensity in a specific zenith direction can be calculated by comparing the irradiance onto the sensor at different acceptance angles. We used this probe to measure the angular radiance distribution of two sample light fields, and observed good agreement with a conventional radiance probe. The DAA probe will aid researchers in understanding light transfer physics in dense microbial communities and expedite validation of numerical radiative transfer models for these environments. PMID:25763775

  2. Microelectrode measurements of the activity distribution in nitrifying bacterial aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, D. de; Heuval, J.C. van den; Ottengraf, S.P.P. )

    1993-02-01

    Environmental problems caused by strongly increased ammonium emission by intensive agricultural and industrial activities, wastewater and waste gas purification plants are being redesigned. Since the growth rates and biomass yields of nitrifying organisms are low, their application in continuous-flow processes requires efficient retention of biomass, and development of bacterial aggregates with good settling properties is needed. In this study microelectrodes were used to study the activity distribution of bacterial aggregates in a biological fluidized-bed nitrification reactor with an external aerator. Measurements of ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were made. Results included the following: biomass yield was close to expected; the active nitrifying zone was limited to the outer 100 to 120 [mu]m of the aggregates; distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development; measurements of activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, not oxygen microelectrodes alone. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Distributed dynamic strain measurement using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-08-20

    Distributed dynamic strain measurement based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry is proposed. The technique makes use of the wide scanning range of a tunable laser source in a short sweeping time, and subdivides the overall spectrum into narrower frequency windows. The advantage of subdividing the laser spectral range is to improve the measurement uncertainty induced by the laser wavelength difference between repeated scans. The noise-limited dynamic strain resolution is investigated experimentally, indicating that a minimum detectable strain is less than 200 nε for a spatial resolution of 20 cm. By measuring the subdivided spectral shifts in the time sequence along the sensing fiber, the dynamic strain can be properly quantified over a 30 m measurement range for a highest sampling rate of up to 50 Hz. PMID:27556996

  4. Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong-Gang

    2016-10-01

    The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve’s illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD.

  5. Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong-gang

    2016-01-01

    The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve’s illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD. PMID:27733771

  6. Lensing measurements of the mass distribution in SDSS voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2015-12-01

    We measure weak lensing mass profiles of voids from a volume-limited sample of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We find voids using an algorithm designed to maximize the lensing signal by dividing the survey volume into 2D slices, and then finding holes in this 2D distribution of LRGs. We perform a stacked shear measurement on about 20 000 voids with radii between 15 and 55 Mpc h-1, and redshifts between 0.16 and 0.37. We measure the characteristic radial shear signal of voids with a signal to noise of 7. The mass profile corresponds to a fractional underdensity of about -0.4 inside the void radius and a slow approach to the mean density indicating a partially compensated void structure. We compare our measured shape and amplitude with the predictions of Krause et al. Voids in the galaxy distribution have been extensively modelled using simulations and measured in the SDSS. We discuss how the addition of void mass profiles can enable studies of galaxy formation and cosmology.

  7. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption.

    PubMed

    Thuecks, D J; Skiff, F; Kletzing, C A

    2012-08-01

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense (ω(pe) > ω(ce)). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency ω(ce). As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation ω - k([parallel])v([parallel]) = ω(ce). The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  8. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thuecks, D. J.; Skiff, F.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2012-08-15

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense ({omega}{sub pe} > {omega}{sub ce}). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub ce}. As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation {omega}-k{sub ||v||} = {omega}{sub ce}. The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  9. Pattern of declining blood pressure across replicate population surveys of the WHO MONICA project, mid-1980s to mid-1990s, and the role of medication

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Connaghan, John; Woodward, Mark; Tolonen, Hanna; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2006-01-01

    Objective Declining mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were observed in most populations of the World Health Organization MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) project from the mid-1980s to mid-1990s. We tested whether pooled results would show mean change associated with decline in high readings only, resulting from better antihypertensive medication, or with similar falls in low, middle, and high readings, implying other causes. Design Independent, random sample, cross sectional population surveys, each end of the MONICA decade. Setting 38 populations in 21 countries across four continents. Participants Design target in each survey of 200 participants in each 10 year age and sex group from age 35 to 64 Main outcome measures Changes in the population in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and in low, middle, and high readings—the 20th, 50th, and 80th centiles—and the differences between these changes. Results Individual populations differed considerably, but pooling the 38 population results gave mean changes in systolic blood pressure of -2.2 mm Hg in men, -3.3 mm Hg in women, and in diastolic blood pressure of -1.4 mm Hg in men and -2.2 mm Hg in women (overall average -2.26 mm Hg, population median -1.55 mm Hg). Antihypertensive medication, associated with high readings, rose by 0.5% to 11.4%. However, average falls in low and middle blood pressure readings were so similar to those in high readings and in the mean that no effect from improving treatment of hypertension was detected. Results in contrasted subgroups were consistent. Conclusions Blood pressure fell across 38 MONICA populations at all levels of readings, with no differential fall in high readings attributable to better control of hypertension. Despite the importance of medication to individuals, in that decade other determinants of blood pressure lowering must have been more pervasive and powerful in whole populations. PMID:16531419

  10. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  11. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2014-03-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  12. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2013-04-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  13. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  14. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    PubMed

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  15. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    PubMed

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  16. Scaling precipitation input to distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegeli, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Wever, Nander; Bavay, Mathias; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Precise knowledge about the snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applications such as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or water supply and hydropower. To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed, physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is often driven by spatial interpolations from automatic weather stations (AWS). As AWS are sparsely spread, the data needs to be interpolated, leading to errors in the spatial distribution of the snow cover - especially on subcatchment scale. With the recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snow depth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and vertical accuracy. Here we use maps of the snow depth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models acquired with the airborne opto-electronic scanner ADS to preprocess and redistribute precipitation input data for Alpine3D to improve the accuracy of spatial distribution of snow depth simulations. A differentiation between liquid and solid precipitation is made, to account for different precipitation patterns that can be expected from rain and snowfall. For liquid precipitation, only large scale distribution patterns are applied to distribute precipitation in the simulation domain. For solid precipitation, an additional small scale distribution, based on the ADS data, is applied. The large scale patterns are generated using AWS measurements interpolated over the domain. The small scale patterns are generated by redistributing the large scale precipitation according to the relative snow depth in the ADS dataset. The determination of the precipitation phase is done using an air temperature threshold. Using this simple approach to redistribute precipitation, the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error could be reduced by a factor of 2 to less than 20 cm for the season 2011/12. The

  17. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-03-03

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  18. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence. PMID:26935775

  19. Measurement and modeling of strength distributions associated with grinding damage

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, J.A.; Nemeth, N.N.; Powers, L.M.

    1995-08-01

    The strength of ceramic material is typically measured in accordance with ASTM C1161 which specifies the machined specimens be ground uniaxially in the longitudinal direction and tested so that the maximum principal stress is longitudinal. Such a grinding process typically induces minimal damage in the transverse direction, but significant damage in the longitudinal direction, resulting in an anisotropic flaw distribution on the surface of the specimen. Additionally, investigations of the strength anisotropy due to grinding may provide a means to measure a materials strength response under mixed mode (I & II) conditions, thereby providing information that can be applied to isotropic cases (e.g. polished or as-processed material). The objective of this work was to measure and model the effects of a typical, uniaxial grinding process on the strength distribution of a ceramic material under various lading conditions. The fast-fracture strength of a sintered alpha silicon carbide was measured in four-point flexure with the principal stress oriented at angles between 0 and 90{degrees} relative to the grinding direction. Also, uniaxially ground plate specimens were loaded biaxial flexure. Finally, flexure specimens were tested in an annealed condition to determine if the machining damage could be healed. Modeling of the strength distributions was done with two and three parameter Weibull models and shear sensitive and insensitive models. Alpha silicon carbide was chosen because it exhibits a very low fracture toughness, no crack growth resistance, high elastic modulus and a very low susceptibility to slow crack growth (static fatigue). Such properties should make this an ideal ceramic for the verification of fast fracture reliability models and codes.

  20. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

  1. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  2. Measurement of Atomic Oscillator Strength Distribution from the Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Shahid; Saleem, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2008-10-22

    Saturation technique has been employed to measure the oscillator strength distribution in spectra of helium lithium using an electrical discharge cell a thermionic diode ion detector respectively. The photoabsorption cross sections in the discrete or bound region (commonly known as f-values) have been determined form the Rydberg series accessed from a particular excited state calibrating it with the absolute value of the photoionization cross section measured at the ionization threshold. The extracted discrete f-values merge into the oscillator strength densities, estimated from the measured photoionization cross sections at different photon energies above the first ionization threshold. The experimental data on helium and lithium show continuity between the discrete and the continuous oscillator strengths across the ionization threshold.

  3. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  4. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  5. Distributed measurement of flow rate in conduits using heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis

    2016-04-01

    In some cases flow varies along conduits, such as in irrigated land drainage pipes and channels, irrigation laterals and others. Detailed knowledge of flow rate along the conduit makes possible analytical evaluation of water distribution and collection systems performance. Flow rate can change continuously in some systems, like in drainage pipes and channels, or abruptly, like in conduits bifurcations or emitter insertions. A heat pulse along the conduit makes possible to get flow rate from continuity and heat balance equations. Due to the great value of specific heat of water, temperature changes along conduit are smaller than the noise that involves the measurement process. This work presents a methodology that, dealing with the noise of distributed temperature measurements, leads to flow rate determination along pressurized pipes or open channel flows.

  6. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S; Fejer, M M; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-09-27

    Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices. PMID:24116758

  7. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results. PMID:23844416

  8. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.

  9. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  10. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  11. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M.; Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  12. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous salt concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.

  13. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous saltmore » concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.« less

  14. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  15. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  16. Spatiotemporal measurement of surfactant distribution on gravity-capillary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Stephen; Shearer, Michael; Daniels, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid - for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants - will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. We report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moire-imaging and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling meniscus waves and in the troughs of the standing Faraday waves. We fit the spatiotemporal variations in the two fields and report measurements of the wavenumbers as well as a temporal phase shift between the two fields. These measurements suggest that longitudinal waves contribute to the dynamics. Funded by NSF grant DMS-0968258.

  17. Effects of increased urbanization from 1970's to 1990's on storm-runoff characteristics in Perris Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas in Perris Valley, California, have more than tripled during the last 20 years. To quantify the effects of increased urbanization on storm runoff volumes and peak discharges, rainfall-runoff models of the basin were developed to simulate runoff for 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. Hourly rainfall data for 1949-93 were used with the rainfall-runoff models to simulate a long-term record of storm runoff. The hydrologic effects of increased urbanization from 1970-75 to 1990-93 were analyzed by comparing the simulated annual peak discharges and volumes, and storm runoff peaks, frequency of annual peak discharges and runoff volumes, and duration of storm peak discharges for each study period. A Log-Pearson Type-III frequency analysis was calculated using the simulated annual peaks to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals. The estimated 2-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was 646 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 conditions and 1,328 cubic feet per second for the 1990-93 conditions. The 100-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was about 14,000 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. The station duration analysis used 925 model-simulated storm peaks from each basin to estimate the percent chance a peak discharge is exceeded. At the outlet of the basin, the chances of exceeding 100 cubic feet per second were about 33 percent under 1970-75 conditions and about 59 percent under 1990-93 conditions. The chance of exceeding 2,500 cubic feet per second at the outlet of the basin was less than 1 percent higher under the 1990-93 conditions than under the 1970-75 conditions. The increase in urbanization from the early 1970's to the early 1990's more than doubled the peak discharges with a 2-year return period. However, peak discharges with return periods greater than 50 years were not significantly affected by the change in urbanization.

  18. Photometer for measuring intensity and rhodopsin distributions in intact eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Theodore P.; Webbers, Jacob P. P.

    1995-09-01

    We describe a photometer that measures light transmitted through excised eyes. The instrument, an ocular transmission photometer, employs sensitive single photon-counting techniques, and its usefulness has been tested by the study of the absorbance of rhodopsin in retinal rod cells in situ. We find that absorbances of rat rods agree well with those predicted by microspectrophotometry without making corrections for cellular mosaics. Additional tests of the ocular transmission photometer show that (a) the instrument is sensitive to subtle differences in rhodopsin absorbance, known to exist in specific locations in the rat retina, and (b) using the rate of rhodopsin bleaching as the measure of intensity, we can determine the intensity distribution at several locations across the rat retina.

  19. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sugiyama; T. Tanabe; C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile

    2004-06-28

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.

  20. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  1. THE EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION OF IMPULSIVE PHASE FLARE FOOTPOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D. R.; Hannah, I. G.; Fletcher, L.; Milligan, R. O.

    2013-04-10

    The temperature distribution of the emitting plasma is a crucial constraint when studying the heating of solar flare footpoints. However, determining this for impulsive phase footpoints has been difficult in the past due to insufficient spatial resolution to resolve the footpoints from the loop structures, and a lack of spectral and temporal coverage. We use the capabilities of Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer to obtain the first emission measure distributions (EMDs) from impulsive phase footpoints in six flares. Observations with good spectral coverage were analyzed using a regularized inversion method to recover the EMDs. We find that the EMDs all share a peak temperature of around 8 MK, with lines formed around this temperature having emission measures (EMs) peaking between 10{sup 28} and 10{sup 29} cm{sup -5}, indicating a substantial presence of plasma at very high temperatures within the footpoints. An EMD gradient of EM(T) {approx} T is found in all events. Previous theoretical work on EM gradients shows this to be consistent with a scenario in which the deposited flare energy directly heats only the top layer of the flare chromosphere, while deeper layers are heated by conduction.

  2. Vanadium in ambient air: concentrations in lung tissue from autopsies of Mexico City residents in the 1960s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, Teresa Imelda; Quan-Torres, Alma; Sánchez, Ivonne; López, Irma Elena; Bizarro, Patricia; Mendoza, Maria Luisa; Osorio, Liliana Saldivar; Espejel-Maya, Guadalupe; Avila-Casado, Maria del Carmen; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa; Colin-Barenque, Laura; Villanueva, Daniel Navarro; Olaiz-Fernandez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Vanadium concentrations in lung tissue were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry from autopsy specimens taken from residents of Mexico City during the 1960s and 1990s (20 males and 19 females, and 30 males and 18 females, respectively). Samples from the 1990s had significantly increased mean vanadium concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation: 1.36 +/- 0.08), compared with those from the 1960s (1.04 +/- 0.05). Concentrations were not correlated with gender, smoking habit, age, cause of death, or occupation. These findings suggest that vanadium in ambient air is increasing and it represents a potential health hazard for Mexico City residents. Air pollution monitoring efforts should include vanadium concentrations in suspended particles to follow-up the findings reported herein. Researchers need to acquire a better knowledge of the levels of airborne vanadium exposure at which risk to human health occurs. PMID:12641188

  3. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  4. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative

  5. Atmospheric mass and metal size distributions measured around Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Seung-Muk Yi; Sofuoglu, S.C.; Holsen, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    This study, which was part of a multi-university AEOLOS investigation, involved an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in the dry deposition fluxes and mass size distributions (MSDs) of total mass, crustal (aluminum and magnesium), and anthropogenic (lead and copper) metals over the southern basin of Lake Michigan. The work included measurement of deposition fluxes and MSDs during winter, summer and fall, concurrently, in Chicago, IL, over Lake Michigan, and in South Haven, MI. A Cascade impactor was used to determine the size distribution in the fine particles (<2.5 {mu}m), while Noll Rotary Impactor (NRI) was used to collect coarse particles (>2.5 {mu}m). The flux of these metals was substantially higher in Chicago than at either South Haven or over Lake Michigan. The measured average aluminum and magnesium fluxes were 2.23 and 5.32 mg/m{sup 2}-day over Chicago, and 0.24 and 0.28 mg/m{sup 2}-day over Lake Michigan, while the average aluminum and magnesium fluxes in South Haven were 0.17 and 0.12 mg/m{sup 2}-day respectively. The measured average lead and copper fluxes were 0.07 and 0.06 mg/m{sup 2}-day in Chicago, 0.003 and 0.01 mg/m{sup 2}-day over Lake Michigan, and 0.004 and 0.003 mg/m{sup 2}-day in South Haven. This research provided evidence of three possible peaks in the MSDs: the first in the 0-1 {mu}m range, the second in the 1-10 {mu}m region, and the third in the > 10-50 {mu}m range, with the MSDs being unimodal, bimodal or trimodal. Temporal variations in flux were not evident in this study. The wind direction (e.g., from over land, or from over lake) had large impact on both fluxes and size distributions. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Measurements of Infrared and Acoustic Source Distributions in Jet Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agboola, Femi A.; Bridges, James; Saiyed, Naseem

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to use the linear phased array (LPA) microphones and infrared (IR) imaging to study the effects of advanced nozzle-mixing techniques on jet noise reduction. Several full-scale engine nozzles were tested at varying power cycles with the linear phased array setup parallel to the jet axis. The array consisted of 16 sparsely distributed microphones. The phased array microphone measurements were taken at a distance of 51.0 ft (15.5 m) from the jet axis, and the results were used to obtain relative overall sound pressure levels from one nozzle design to the other. The IR imaging system was used to acquire real-time dynamic thermal patterns of the exhaust jet from the nozzles tested. The IR camera measured the IR radiation from the nozzle exit to a distance of six fan diameters (X/D(sub FAN) = 6), along the jet plume axis. The images confirmed the expected jet plume mixing intensity, and the phased array results showed the differences in sound pressure level with respect to nozzle configurations. The results show the effects of changes in configurations to the exit nozzles on both the flows mixing patterns and radiant energy dissipation patterns. By comparing the results from these two measurements, a relationship between noise reduction and core/bypass flow mixing is demonstrated.

  7. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  8. Asymmetries in coronal spectral lines and emission measure distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-12-10

    It has previously been argued that (1) spicules do not provide enough pre-heated plasma to fill the corona, and (2) even if they did, additional heating would be required to keep the plasma hot as it expands upward. Here we address whether spicules play an important role by injecting plasma at cooler temperatures (<2 MK), which then gets heated to coronal values at higher altitudes. We measure red-blue asymmetries in line profiles formed over a wide range of temperatures in the bright moss areas of two active regions. We derive emission measure distributions from the excess wing emission. We find that the asymmetries and emission measures are small and conclude that spicules do not inject an important (dominant) mass flux into the cores of active regions at temperatures >0.6 MK (log T > 5.8). These conclusions apply not only to spicules but also to any process that suddenly heats and accelerates chromospheric plasma (e.g., a chromospheric nanoflare). The traditional picture of coronal heating and chromospheric evaporation appears to remain the most likely explanation of the active region corona.

  9. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34-5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (˜70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail).

  10. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (∼70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  11. A reference standard for bidirectional reflection distribution function and bidirectional transmission distribution function measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A Lambertian reference standard for uniformly scattering a beam of light is constructed of a plate having a planar surface with a layer of glue disposed on the surface. An evenly packed layer of monodisperse spheres is set in the layer, and when the standard is used for bi-directional (BRDF) measurements, the spheres are coated with a layer of highly relective substance, such as gold or silver. When the standard is used for bi-directional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) measurements, the spheres are of a transparent material and are provided with a roughened surface, as by acid etching. In this case, the layer of glue is an optical cement, and the plate is of glass, with the spheres, the layer, and the plate all possessing a similar refractive index.

  12. A reference standard for bidirectional reflection distribution function and bidirectional transmission distribution function measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherow, William K.

    1988-09-01

    A Lambertian reference standard for uniformly scattering a beam of light is constructed of a plate having a planar surface with a layer of glue disposed on the surface. An evenly packed layer of monodisperse spheres is set in the layer, and when the standard is used for bi-directional (BRDF) measurements, the spheres are coated with a layer of highly relective substance, such as gold or silver. When the standard is used for bi-directional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) measurements, the spheres are of a transparent material and are provided with a roughened surface, as by acid etching. In this case, the layer of glue is an optical cement, and the plate is of glass, with the spheres, the layer, and the plate all possessing a similar refractive index.

  13. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  14. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  15. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-05-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.

  17. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  18. Warming, Contraction, and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s, with a Potential Ice-Sheet Melt Feedback.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory; Purkey, Sarah; Rintoul, Stephen; Swift, James

    2013-04-01

    We analyze changes in Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) around the deep Southern Ocean using repeat section data collected between 1981 and 2012. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a global high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic transects in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, some of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). The average dates of the first and last data used to estimate these trends are circa 1991 and 2008. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, AABW warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 °C per decade below 4000 m. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 °C per decade. With this warming, cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern Ocean. The 0 °C potential isotherm sinking rate is around 100 m per decade, implying a 8.2 (±2.6) Sv contraction rate of AABW, about 7% per decade. In addition to this contraction, AABW freshening is observed within the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. The freshening signal is stronger closer to AABW sources. Its spatial pattern implies recent changes in AABW formation, perhaps partly owing to freshening of the shelf waters, which has been linked to increases in glacial ice sheet melt. The observed rate of water-mass freshening for AABW colder than 0°C in the Indian and Pacific Sectors of the Southern Ocean is about half of the estimated increase in mass lost by glacial ice sheets there in recent years. A positive feedback loop might link the AABW contraction and ice sheet melt-influenced freshening as follows: Increased ocean heat flux drives enhanced basal melt of floating ice shelves

  19. Interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the western North Pacific summer climate around the late 1970s and early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Dong, Buwen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying predictability and the corresponding sources for the western North Pacific (WNP) summer climate in the case of non-stationary teleconnections during recent decades benefits for further improvements of long-range prediction on the WNP and East Asian summers. In the past few decades, pronounced increases on the summer sea surface temperature (SST) and associated interannual variability are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific around the late 1970s and over the Maritime Continent and western-central Pacific around the early 1990s. These increases are associated with significant enhancements of the interannual variability for the lower-tropospheric wind over the WNP. In this study, we further assess interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the WNP summer anomalies, using May-start retrospective forecasts from the ENSEMBLES multi-model project in the period 1960-2005. It is found that prediction of the WNP summer anomalies exhibits an interdecadal shift with higher prediction skills since the late 1970s, particularly after the early 1990s. Improvements of the prediction skills for SSTs after the late 1970s are mainly found around tropical Indian Ocean and the WNP. The better prediction of the WNP after the late 1970s may arise mainly from the improvement of the SST prediction around the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. The close teleconnections between the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and WNP summer variability work both in the model predictions and observations. After the early 1990s, on the other hand, the improvements are detected mainly around the South China Sea and Philippines for the lower-tropospheric zonal wind and precipitation anomalies, associating with a better description of the SST anomalies around the Maritime Continent. A dipole SST pattern over the Maritime Continent and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean is closely related to the WNP summer anomalies after the early 1990s. This teleconnection mode is quite

  20. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-07-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995-2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NO(x), and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995-2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NO(x) emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001-2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NO(x), VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of

  1. Temporal evolution of the anthropogenic CO2 and acidification of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savy, J.-P.; Yao, K. M.; Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial era, humankind consumption of fossil fuels at increasing rates has led to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations by approximately 105 ppm. In the same time, the Mediterranean coastal regions experienced a brutal population growth, from 94 million habitants in 1950 to 274 million in 2000, generating a strong anthropogenic pressure on the Mediterranean marine ecosystems. To follow the man-induced changes on the Mediterranean carbonate system properties (pH; total alkalinity, AT; total inorganic carbon CT, and CO2 partial pressure, pCO2), an entire body-research has recently emerged in order to quantify both the present and future penetration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) in the Mediterranean Sea and the inferred acidification of its waters. From monthly observations accumulated over more than a decade (from 1993 to 2005) at DYFAMED time-series station (DYnamique des Flux Atmosphériques en MEDiterranée) located in the central part of the Ligurian Sea, Touratier and Goyet (2009) have estimated the temporal evolution of CANT of the western Mediterranean Sea. This study highlights that concentrations of anthropogenic CO2 are much higher at DYFAMED site (> 50 mol.kg-1) than those found in the Atlantic Ocean. Our study, conducted with measurements performed at 10 meters depth from 1995 to 2011 at the same location, allowed us to investigate the temporal evolution of CANT into the upper seawater layer. Our results indicate an averaged annual CANT increase of 3 µmol.kg-1 and a linked pH drop of 0.0032 per year confirming the ongoing acidification of the Mediterranean water masses. These results suggest the vulnerability and the endangerment of the Mediterranean ecosystems by the massive human-induced CO2 emissions. Touratier F. and C. Goyet (2009). Decadal evolution of anthropogenic CO2 in the north western Mediterranean Sea (at the Dyfamed site) from the mid-1990's to the mid-2000's. Deep Sea Research Part I, 56, 1708-1716

  2. Comparison of Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements by Collocated Disdrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    An impact-type Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), and a laser optical OTT Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer (PD) were used to measure the raindrop size distribution (DSD) over a 6-month period in Huntsville, Alabama. Comparisons indicate event rain totals for all three disdrometers that were in reasonable agreement with a reference rain gauge. In a relative sense, hourly composite DSDs revealed that the JWD was more sensitive to small drops (,1 mm), while the PD appeared to severely underestimate small drops less than 0.76mm in diameter. The JWD and 2DVD measured comparable number concentrations of midsize drops (1-3mm) and large drops (3-5 mm), while the PD tended to measure relatively higher drop concentrations at sizes larger than 2.44mm in diameter. This concentration disparity tended to occur when hourly rain rates and drop counts exceeded 2.5mm/h and 400/min, respectively. Based on interactions with the PD manufacturer, the partially inhomogeneous laser beam is considered the cause of the PD drop count overestimation. PD drop fall speeds followed the expected terminal fall speed relationship quite well, while the 2DVD occasionally measured slower drops for diameters larger than 2.4mm, coinciding with events where wind speeds were greater than 4m/s. The underestimation of small drops by the PD had a pronounced effect on the intercept and shape of parameters of gamma-fitted DSDs, while the overestimation of midsize and larger drops resulted in higher mean values for PD integral rain parameters

  3. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions During PACDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. C.; Gandrud, B.; Campos, T.; Kok, G.; Stith, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) is an airborne project that attempts to characterize the indirect aerosol effect by tracing plumes of dust and pollution across the Pacific Ocean. This project occurred during April-May 2007 and used the NSF/NCAR HIAPER research aircraft. When a period of strong generation of dust particles and pollution was detected by ground-based and satellite sensors, then the aircraft was launched from Colorado to Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. Its mission was to intercept and track these plumes from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean, and ultimately to the edges of North America. For more description, see the abstract by Stith and Ramanathan (this conference) and other companion papers on PACDEX. The HIAPER aircraft carried a wide variety of sensors for measuring aerosols, cloud particles, trace gases, and radiation. Sampling was made in several weather regimes, including clean "background" air, dust and pollution plumes, and regions with cloud systems. Altitude ranges extended from 100 m above the ocean to 13.4 km. This paper reports on aerosol measurements made with a new Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), a Radial Differential Mobility Analyzer (RDMA), a water-based CN counter, and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). These cover the size range 10 nm to 10 um diameter. In clear air, dust was detected with the UHSAS and CDP. Polluted air was identified with high concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and CN. Aerosol size distributions will be presented, along with data to define the context of weather regimes.

  4. Measuring artificial recharge with fiber optic distributed temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew W; Bauer, Brian; Hutchinson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat was used as a tracer to measure infiltration rates from a recharge basin. The propagation of diurnal oscillation of surface water temperature into the basin bed was monitored along a transect using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS). The propagation rate was related to downward specific discharge using standard theory of heat advection and dispersion in saturated porous media. An estimate of the temporal variation of heat propagation was achieved using a wavelet transform to find the phase lag between the surface temperature diurnal oscillation and the correlated oscillation at 0.33 and 0.98 m below the bed surface. The wavelet results compared well to a constant velocity model of thermal advection and dispersion during periods of relatively constant discharge rates. The apparent dispersion of heat was found to be due primarily to hydrodynamic mechanisms rather than thermal diffusion. Specific discharge estimates using the FODTS technique also compared well to water balance estimates over a four month period, although there were occasional deviations that have yet to be adequately explained. The FODTS technique is superior to water balance in that it produces estimates of infiltration rate every meter along the cable transect, every half hour. These high resolution measurements highlighted areas of low infiltration and demonstrated the degradation of basin efficiency due to source waters of high suspended solids. FODTS monitoring promises to be a useful tool for diagnosing basin performance in an era of increasing groundwater demand.

  5. Solar reflector soiling pattern distributions and reflectance measurement requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Kidney, K. )

    1990-10-01

    Short-term specular reflectance losses from optical surfaces used in the collection or concentration of solar energy results in significant reduction of these systems' output. Losses range from 0.1% to 1.0% per day, approaching asymptotes of 25% to 60% for periods greater than one year, depending onsite and season. To appropriately assess the value of a particular location for the production of power, consideration of the rates of soiling and strategies to minimize losses resulting from soiling must be considered. Strategies for measuring the optical performance of reflector materials to a specified degree of accuracy have been developed, according to the types of soiling patterns observed. It was found most soiling occurs with the accumulation of particulates in spots of different sizes, and the spot sizes follow a lognormal distribution. For most practical situations, it was determined that 10 measurements with a 1-cm-diameter beam are enough to place the average value within 3% of the true value, with a confidence level of 95%.

  6. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  7. Sensor intercomparison of distributed surface radiation measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Baocheng; Wen, Jianguang; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Xiao, Qing; Bai, Junhua; Peng, Jingjing; Lin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Xiaodan; Cai, Erli; Zhang, Jialin; Chang, Chongyan

    2015-12-01

    The Wireless Sensor Networks of Coarse-resolution Pixel Parameters (CPP-WSN) was established to monitor the heterogeneity of coarse spatial resolution pixel, with consideration of different categories of land surface parameters in Huailai, Hebei province, China (40.349°N, 115.785°E). The observation network of radiation parameters (RadNet) in CPP-WSN was developed for multi-band radiation measurement and consisted of 6 nodes covering 2km*2km area to capture its heterogeneity. Each node employed four sensors to observe the five radiation parameters. The number and location of nodes in RadNet were determined through the representativeness-based sampling method. Thus, the RadNet is a distributed observation system with nodes work synchronously and measurements used together. The intercomparison experiment for RadNet is necessary and was conducted in Huailai Remote Sensing Station from 5th Aug to 10th Aug in 2012. Time series observations from various sensors were collected and analyzed. The maximum relative differences among sensors of UVR, SWR, LWR, PAR, and LST are 4.83%, 5.3%, 3.71%, 11%, and 0.54%, respectively. Sensor/parameter differences indeed exist and are considerable large for PAR, SWR, UVR, and LWR, which cannot be ignored. The linear normalization and quadratic polynomial normalization perform similar for CUV5/UVR, PQS1/PAR, CNR4/SWR, and SI-111/LST. As for CNR4/LWR, quadratic polynomial normalization show higher accuracy than linear normalization, especially in node2, node4, and node5. Thus, the LWR measured by CNR4 is proved to be nonlinear, and should be normalized with quadratic polynomial coefficients for higher precision.

  8. Measuring the effects of distributed database models on transaction availability measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Data distribution, data replication, and system reliability are key factors in determining the availability measures for transactions in distributed database systems. In order to simplify the evaluation of these measures, database designers and researchers tend to make unrealistic assumptions about these factors. Here, the effect of such assumptions on the computational complexity and accuracy of such evaluations is investigated. A database system is represented with five parameters related to the above factors. Probabilistic analysis is employed to evaluate the availability of read-one and read-write transactions. Both the read-one/write-all and the majority-read/majority-write replication control policies are considered. It is concluded that transaction availability is more sensitive to variations in degrees of replication, less sensitive to data distribution, and insensitive to reliability variations in a heterogeneous system. The computational complexity of the evaluations is found to be mainly determined by the chosen distributed database model, while the accuracy of the results are not so much dependent on the models.

  9. Enthalpy Distributions of Arc Jet Flow Based on Measured Laser Induced Fluorescence, Heat Flux and Stagnation Pressure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Leonard E.; Milhoan, James D.; Oelke, Lance; Godfrey, Dennis; Larin, Maksim Y.; Scott, Carl D.; Grinstead, Jay H.; DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The centerline total enthalpy of arc jet flow is determined using laser induced fluorescence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Each component of the energy, kinetic, thermal, and chemical can be determined from LIF measurements. Additionally, enthalpy distributions are inferred from heat flux and pressure probe distribution measurements using an engineering formula. Average enthalpies are determined by integration over the radius of the jet flow, assuming constant mass flux and a mass flux distribution estimated from computational fluid dynamics calculations at similar arc jet conditions. The trends show favorable agreement, but there is an uncertainty that relates to the multiple individual measurements and assumptions inherent in LIF measurements.

  10. Soil Temperature Variability in Complex Terrain measured using Distributed a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical environmental controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Rates of carbon cycling, mineral weathering, infiltration and snow melt are all influenced by Ts. Although broadly reflective of the climate, Ts is sensitive to local variations in cover (vegetative, litter, snow), topography (slope, aspect, position), and soil properties (texture, water content), resulting in a spatially and temporally complex distribution of Ts across the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the processes controlled by Ts requires an understanding of that distribution. Relatively few spatially distributed field Ts data exist, partly because traditional Ts data are point measurements. A relatively new technology, fiber optic distributed temperature system (FO-DTS), has the potential to provide such data but has not been rigorously evaluated in the context of remote, long term field research. We installed FO-DTS in a small experimental watershed in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains of SW Idaho. The watershed is characterized by complex terrain and a seasonal snow cover. Our objectives are to: (i) evaluate the applicability of fiber optic DTS to remote field environments and (ii) to describe the spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature in complex terrain influenced by a variable snow cover. We installed fiber optic cable at a depth of 10 cm in contrasting snow accumulation and topographic environments and monitored temperature along 750 m with DTS. We found that the DTS can provide accurate Ts data (+/- .4°C) that resolves Ts changes of about 0.03°C at a spatial scale of 1 m with occasional calibration under conditions with an ambient temperature range of 50°C. We note that there are site-specific limitations related cable installation and destruction by local fauna. The FO-DTS provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variability of Ts in a landscape. We found strong seasonal

  11. Measurement of the Angular Distributions of Drell-Yan Dimuons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brandon; Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The angular differential cross section for the Drell-Yan (DY) process can be parametrized by dσ/dΩ ~ 1 + λcos2 θ + μsin 2 θcosφ +ν/2sin2 θcos 2 φ , where λ, μ, and ν are the angular distribution parameters vs pT. θ and φ denote the polar and azimuthal angles, respectively for the positive lepton produced. The Lam-Tung relation, 1 - λ = 2 ν , was validated by Fermilab E-866 for proton induced Drell-Yan scattering; However pion induced DY shows a much stronger cos2 θ angular dependence and a violation of the Lam-Tung relation. In pion induced DY the antiquark is a valance quark, whereas in proton induced DY (in a forward acceptance spectrometer) it is a sea quark, so E-866 probed the antiquark sea of the nucleon. The SeaQuest experiment, also using proton induced DY, will improve on the measurement of the angular dependencies at a lower energy (120 GeV), taking advantage lower backgrounds and an increase in Drell-Yan cross section at lower energies. The Boer-Mulders correlates the quark correlates between the quark transverse spin and momentum. Improved data from SeaQuest will help determine the Boer-Mulders function. Funding for this work was provided in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Science.

  12. Measurement of Concentration Distribution of Hydrogen Gas Flow by Measuring the Intensity of Raman Scattering Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, Ippei; Ninomiya, Hideki

    An experimental study to visualize and measure the concentration distribution of hydrogen gas flow using the Raman scattering was performed. A Nd:YAG laser of wavelength at 355 nm was used, and the beam pattern was transformed into a rectangle and a sheet beam was formed. The Raman scattered light was observed at a right angle with respect to the laser beam axis using a gated ICCD camera and an interference filter. Shadowgraph images were obtained at the same condition. The Raman scattering light image from atmospheric nitrogen was first acquired and the function of Raman scattering light acquisition and the background light suppression was confirmed. Next, images of the Raman scattering light image and shadowgraph of hydrogen gas discharged from a nozzle into the atmosphere were acquired. The two obtained Raman images were compared and the spatial concentration distribution of the flow of the hydrogen gas at different flow rates was calculated. This method is effective for visualizing the gas flow and measuring the concentration distribution of the Raman active molecules, such as hydrogen gas.

  13. Study on the changes in the East Asian precipitation in the mid-1990s using a high-resolution global downscaled atmospheric data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Kim, Jung-Eun; Wu, Renguang; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution global atmospheric data set (DA126) is used to understand the East Asian summer precipitation variability. It is found that a fine resolution of the DA126 precipitation data is able to reveal the detailed structures of the rainfall variability over East Asia and southern China in comparison with global analysis precipitation data sets such as the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the DA126 precipitation data over East Asia accurately reflect a decadal shift in rainfall over southern China in the mid-1990s. Furthermore, the first EOF-related precipitation of the DA126 is related to the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability (i.e., El Niño/Southern Oscillation), and the second EOF-related precipitation is associated with the Indian Ocean SST variability. Consequently, the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean SSTs have different associations with the East Asian monsoon precipitation variability. However, it is difficult to find such a relationship in the first two EOFs of the CMAP data set over East Asia. Using the DA126 precipitation data set, our further analysis indicates that warming of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean causes an increase in the rainfall anomaly over southern China after the mid-1990s, which results in a decadal shift in the rainfall anomaly after the mid-1990s. In addition, the first EOF-related precipitation is associated with both the Pacific-Japan-like (PJ-like) pattern and the Eurasian-like pattern. In contrast, the second EOF-related precipitation is only associated with the PJ-like wave trains from the western Pacific to East Asia.

  14. International nuclear nonproliferation pressure and Japan's domestic policy response: A comparison of plutonium utilization policies in the 1970s and the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hahn-Kyu

    1997-10-01

    This study seeks to explain Japan's different policy responses to international nuclear nonproliferation pressures in the 1970s and the 1990s. It argues that Japan's different responses were not only a consequence of the changing international environment but also the result of the changing domestic political context, specifically, the altered relationship between the government and nuclear power industry and the nature of the policymaking structure. In the 1970s, Japan met severe nonproliferation pressure from the US to stop operations at the Tokai reprocessing plant. At the time the Japanese government and nuclear power industry shared the view that Japan should develop plutonium utilization programs to enhance its energy security. There was also very weak domestic opposition to the plutonium utilization policy. With such strong domestic political base, the Japanese government was able to continue its plutonium utilization policy without major change despite the strong US pressure. In the early 1990s, Japan's shipment of plutonium from France created strong international criticisms of its plutonium programs on the nonproliferation and environment grounds. In 1994 Japan made some important changes in its plutonium utilization policy in response to the international pressures. However, the major impetus behind the policy change was the reduced commitment of the nuclear power industry to plutonium utilization programs. Antinuclear forces also expanded their participation in the policymaking process by politicizing the plutonium issue. This study hopes to contribute to the literature of Japanese political studies by explaining how the interaction between international and domestic politics affects Japanese policymaking, by examining how and when Japan's policies can change under foreign pressure, and by illuminating the more dynamic and pluralistic aspects of Japanese politics in the 1990s.

  15. Performance Measurement, Visualization and Modeling of Parallel and Distributed Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for debugging the performance of message-passing programs on both tightly coupled and loosely coupled distributed-memory machines. The AIMS (Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System) toolkit, a suite of software tools for measurement and analysis of performance, is introduced and its application illustrated using several benchmark programs drawn from the field of computational fluid dynamics. AIMS includes (i) Xinstrument, a powerful source-code instrumentor, which supports both Fortran77 and C as well as a number of different message-passing libraries including Intel's NX Thinking Machines' CMMD, and PVM; (ii) Monitor, a library of timestamping and trace -collection routines that run on supercomputers (such as Intel's iPSC/860, Delta, and Paragon and Thinking Machines' CM5) as well as on networks of workstations (including Convex Cluster and SparcStations connected by a LAN); (iii) Visualization Kernel, a trace-animation facility that supports source-code clickback, simultaneous visualization of computation and communication patterns, as well as analysis of data movements; (iv) Statistics Kernel, an advanced profiling facility, that associates a variety of performance data with various syntactic components of a parallel program; (v) Index Kernel, a diagnostic tool that helps pinpoint performance bottlenecks through the use of abstract indices; (vi) Modeling Kernel, a facility for automated modeling of message-passing programs that supports both simulation -based and analytical approaches to performance prediction and scalability analysis; (vii) Intrusion Compensator, a utility for recovering true performance from observed performance by removing the overheads of monitoring and their effects on the communication pattern of the program; and (viii) Compatibility Tools, that convert AIMS-generated traces into formats used by other performance-visualization tools, such as ParaGraph, Pablo, and certain AVS/Explorer modules.

  16. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  17. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly proposed for embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side ('bevel') did produce up to 3dB more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side ('slant') produced up to 2dB more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron ('notch') produced up to 2dB increase in the noise. Having internal walls ('septae') within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  18. MEASURING AND MODELING VARIATIONS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors describe a field study that examined the effects of hydraulic mixing on water quality variations in a distribution system. Conducted at the North Penn Water Authority (average production of 5 mgd and 225 mi of distribution pipe), the study incorporated a field samplin...

  19. Warming and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s: Implications for Heat and Freshwater Budgets, Circulation Changes, and Sea Level Rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. C.; Purkey, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean heat uptake is a large contributor to global sea level rise. Salinity variability can make large local contributions. Ocean temperature and salinity changes are also closely linked to changes in air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum, as well as ocean circulation. Furthermore, since the oceans have absorbed the bulk of the energy gained by the climate system over the last few decades, analyses of ocean heat content changes, including their spatial and temporal variability, aid understanding and predicting climate change. Deep ocean heat content and salinity changes are difficult to assess because changes are small and data are sparse. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic measurements, including temperature and salinity, during coast-to-coast trans-ocean expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, a subset of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of what is now known as GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). While the data analyzed were collected between 1980 and 2010, the average times of the first and last data used to estimate trends given here are 1992 and 2005. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, the water warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 °C per decade below 4000 m, decreasing northward, for instance to approximately 0.002 °C per decade in the abyssal North Pacific. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 °C per decade on average. For comparison, the global average warming rate of the sea surface is about 0.3 °C per decade from 1992 to 2005. The deep warming implies that cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern

  20. Income distribution dependence of poverty measure: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Mallick, Sushanta K.

    2007-04-01

    Using a modified deprivation (or poverty) function, in this paper, we theoretically study the changes in poverty with respect to the ‘global’ mean and variance of the income distribution using Indian survey data. We show that when the income obeys a log-normal distribution, a rising mean income generally indicates a reduction in poverty while an increase in the variance of the income distribution increases poverty. This altruistic view for a developing economy, however, is not tenable anymore once the poverty index is found to follow a pareto distribution. Here although a rising mean income indicates a reduction in poverty, due to the presence of an inflexion point in the poverty function, there is a critical value of the variance below which poverty decreases with increasing variance while beyond this value, poverty undergoes a steep increase followed by a decrease with respect to higher variance. Identifying this inflexion point as the poverty line, we show that the pareto poverty function satisfies all three standard axioms of a poverty index [N.C. Kakwani, Econometrica 43 (1980) 437; A.K. Sen, Econometrica 44 (1976) 219] whereas the log-normal distribution falls short of this requisite. Following these results, we make quantitative predictions to correlate a developing with a developed economy.

  1. Space Shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide - A measured particle size distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.; Winstead, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum oxide (A2O3) particles were collected from the Space Shuttle exhaust plume immediately following the launch of STS-34 on October 18, 1989. A2O3 samples were obtained at 2.4, 3.0, 3.2, and 7.4 km in altitude. The samples were analyzed using SEM to develope particle size distributions. There were no indications that the particle size distribution changed as a function of altitude. The particle number concentrations per cubic meter of air sampled for the four collections was found to fit an exponential expression.

  2. LAND-USE CHANGE AND CARBON FLUX BETWEEN 1970S AND 1990S IN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s...

  3. A Model of Discontinuous Measurement Error and Its Effects on the Probability Distribution of Flood Discharge Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Kenneth W.; Walker, John F.

    1981-10-01

    Above a given threshold an indirect method is usually used to estimate flood discharges. This results in a significant increase in the standard deviation of the measurement error, a phenomenon which the authors have termed discontinuous measurement error. An error model reveals that the coefficients of variation, skewness, and kurtosis of the distribution of the measured flood discharges are significantly higher than the corresponding coefficients of the parent flood distribution. This bias has important implications with regard to flood frequency analysis.

  4. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  5. Measurement technique for determining the temperature distribution in a transparent solid using holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Kashiwagi, T

    1987-03-01

    Temperature distributions in transparent solids have been determined by measurements of changes in the refractive index of the sample using a holographic interferometry technique. The steady-state temperature distributions within two samples, fused silica and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were measured to demonstrate the technique. Various errors in the measured temperature distribution caused by refraction and heat losses from the sample are discussed and estimated.

  6. Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Saltzman, H. A.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The resolution of the technique considered is sufficient to describe smooth distributions containing blood flow to unventilated regions (shunt), ventilation to unperfused regions (dead space), and up to three additional modes over the range of finite ventilation-perfusion ratios. In particular, areas whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are low can be separated from unventilated regions and those whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are high can similarly be distinguished from unperfused areas.

  7. A correction algorithm for particle size distribution measurements made with the forward-scattering spectrometer probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.; Hovenac, Edward A.

    1989-01-01

    A correction algorithm for evaluating the particle size distribution measurements of atmospheric aerosols obtained with a forward-scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) is examined. A model based on Poisson statistics is employed to calculate the average diameter and rms width of the particle size distribution. The dead time and coincidence errors in the measured number density are estimated. The model generated data are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of the FSSP operation. It is observed that the correlation between the actual and measured size distribution is nonlinear. It is noted that the algorithm permits more accurate calculation of the average diameter and rms width of the distribution compared to uncorrected measured quantities.

  8. Conceptual design of a coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors (COSMIC). [telescope array deployed by space shuttle in 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, M. E.; Davis, B. G.

    1982-01-01

    The Coherent Optical System of Modular Imaging Collectors (COSMIC) is the design concept for a phase-coherent optical telescope array that may be placed in earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1990s. The initial system module is a minimum redundancy array whose photon collecting area is three times larger than that of the Space Telescope, and possesses a one-dimensional resoution of better than 0.01 arcsec in the visible range. Thermal structural requirements are assessed. Although the coherent beam combination requirements will be met by an active control system, the COSMIC structural/thermal design must meet more stringent performance criteria than even those of the Space Telescope.

  9. Strange old worlds: socio-critical reports about old-age experiences in West German print media (1970s-1990s).

    PubMed

    Streubel, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines West German images of old age and the elderly in a period when this increasingly became a topical issue. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, the elderly were the subject of socio-critical reports in leading political magazines like Der Spiegel, Die Zeit and Stern. In these specific journalistic formats, the media entered unfamiliar places like old people's homes, the elderly's private apartments or tea dances for senior citizens. By analysing the language used in such media reports, this article shows continuity and change in attitudes towards the elderly, explores the impact of the new old-age model 'the young at heart', and the relevance of gender and generational ascriptions. In doing so, this article uncovers the recent historical context of current social debates about old age.

  10. MPL-Net Measurements of Aerosol and Cloud Vertical Distributions at Co-Located AERONET Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar system was developed, the Micropulse Lidar (MPL). The MPL acquires signal profiles of backscattered laser light from aerosols and clouds. The signals are analyzed to yield multiple layer heights, optical depths of each layer, average extinction-to-backscatter ratios for each layer, and profiles of extinction in each layer. In 2000, several MPL sites were organized into a coordinated network, called MPL-Net, by the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) using funding provided by the NASA Earth Observing System. tn addition to the funding provided by NASA EOS, the NASA CERES Ground Validation Group supplied four MPL systems to the project, and the NASA TOMS group contributed their MPL for work at GSFC. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) also agreed to make their data available to the MPL-Net project for processing. In addition to the initial NASA and ARM operated sites, several other independent research groups have also expressed interest in joining the network using their own instruments. Finally, a limited amount of EOS funding was set aside to participate in various field experiments each year. The NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project also provides funds to deploy their MPL during ocean research cruises. All together, the MPL-Net project has participated in four major field experiments since 2000. Most MPL-Net sites and field experiment locations are also co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network. (AERONET). Therefore, at these locations data is collected on both aerosol and cloud vertical structure as well as column optical depth and sky radiance. Real-time data products are now available from most MPL-Net sites. Our real-time products are generated at times of AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. The AERONET AOD is used as input to our

  11. Measuring Technique of Bubble Size Distributions in Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Tsuta, Mizuki

    A novel technique to recognize bubbles in bread dough and analyze their size distribution was developed by using a Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS). Samples were taken from the final stage of the mixing process of bread dough which generally consists of four distinctive stages. Also, to investigate the effect of freeze preservation on the size distribution of bubbles, comparisons were made between fresh dough and the dough that had been freeze preserved at .30°C for three months. Bubbles in the dough samples were identified in the images of MSIPS as defocusing spots due to the difference in focal distance created by vacant spaces. In case of the fresh dough, a total of 910 bubbles were recognized and their maximum diameter ranged from 0.4 to 70.5μm with an average of 11.1μm. On the other hand, a total of 1,195 bubbles were recognized from the freeze-preserved sample, and the maximum diameter ranged from 0.9 to 32.7μm with an average of 6.7μm. Small bubbles with maximum diameters less than 10μm comprised approximately 59% and 78% of total bubbles for fresh and freeze-preserved dough samples, respectively. The results indicated that the bubble size of frozen dough is smaller than that of unfrozen one. The proposed method can provide a novel tool to investigate the effects of mixing and preservation treatments on the size, morphology and distribution of bubbles in bread dough.

  12. The Measurement of Pressure Through Tubes in Pressure Distribution Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemke, Paul E

    1928-01-01

    The tests described in this report were made to determine the error caused by using small tubes to connect orifices on the surface of aircraft to central pressure capsules in making pressure distribution tests. Aluminum tubes of 3/16-inch inside diameter were used to determine this error. Lengths from 20 feet to 226 feet and pressures whose maxima varied from 2 inches to 140 inches of water were used. Single-pressure impulses for which the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum varied from 0.25 second to 3 seconds were investigated. The results show that the pressure recorded at the capsule on the far end of the tube lags behind the pressure at the orifice end and experiences also a change in magnitude. For the values used in these tests the time lag and pressure change vary principally with the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum and the tube length. Curves are constructed showing the time lag and pressure change. Empirical formulas are also given for computing the time lag. Analysis of pressure distribution tests made on airplanes in flight shows that the recorded pressures are slightly higher than the pressures at the orifice and that the time lag is negligible. The apparent increase in pressure is usually within the experimental error, but in the case of the modern pursuit type of airplane the pressure increase may be 5 per cent. For pressure-distribution tests on airships the analysis shows that the time lag and pressure change may be neglected.

  13. The measurement of the size distribution of artificial fogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Cliff, W. C.; Mcdonald, J. R.; Ozarski, R.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The size-distribution of the fog droplets at various fog particle concentrations in fog chamber was determined by two methods: (1) the Stokes' velocity photographic method and (2) using the active scattering particle spectrometer. It is shown that the two techniques are accurate in two different ranges of particle size - the former in the radii range (0.1 micrometers to 10.0 micrometers), and the latter for radii greater than 10.0 micrometers. This was particularly true for high particle concentration, low visibility fogs.

  14. Tropospheric ozone distributions measured with an airborne laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone have been made in the southern and middle California regions and over the Pacific Ocean during two series of flights in February and May 1977. The data were obtained by using a laser absorption spectrometer, a nadir-viewing instrument which remotely measures the ozone column abundance between ground level and aircraft altitude by interacting with ozone at specific wavelengths near 9.5 microns. The measurements indicate significantly lower ozone abundances above the Mojave Desert region as compared with farm, forest, and urban areas. The average tropospheric column density was found to be 0.0027 atm cm/km over the California region and 0.0035 atm cm/km over the Pacific Ocean region 1000-2000 km west of the coast of Mexico.

  15. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) - A concept for an orbiting submillimeter-infrared telescope for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, P. N.; Gulkis, S.; Kulper, T. B. H.; Kiya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The history and background of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are reviewed. The results of the June 1982 Asilomar (CA) workshop are incorporated into the LDR science objectives and telescope concept. The areas where the LDR may have the greatest scientific impact are in the study of star formation and planetary systems in the own and nearby galaxies and in cosmological studies of the structure and evolution of the early universe. The observational requirements for these and other scientific studies give rise to a set of telescope functional requirements. These, in turn, are satisfied by an LDR configuration which is a Cassegrain design with a 20 m diameter, actively controlled, segmented, primary reflector, diffraction limited at a wavelength of 30 to 50 microns. Technical challenges in the LDR development include construction of high tolerance mirror segments, surface figure measurement, figure control, vibration control, pointing, cryogenics, and coherent detectors. Project status and future plans for the LDR are discussed.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. The primary purpose of this manual is to provide ne...

  17. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom

    1993-01-01

    A strawman proposal is given for a framework for presenting a common set of metrics for supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third part software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well.

  18. Distributed processing and fiber optic communications in air data measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farry, K. A.; Stengel, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the application of distributed processing, fiber optics, and hardware redundancy to collecting airstream data in Princeton's digitally controlled Variable-Response Research Aircraft (VRA). Microprocessor-controlled instrumentation packages in each wingtip of the aircraft collect angle-of-attack and sideslip data in digital form; after scaling, filtering, and calibrating the data, they send it to the aircraft's microprocessor Digital Flight Control System (micro-DFCS) via digital fiber optic data links. Each wingtip's package is independent of the other; therefore, the system has dual hardware redundancy. The fiber optic link design is presented as well as a description of the calibration and communications software. Translation of the system's dual redundancy into fault tolerance is also covered. Results of preliminary flight tests are included.

  19. Aerosol mobility imaging for rapid size distribution measurements

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Kuang, Chongai

    2016-07-19

    A parallel plate dimensional electrical mobility separator and laminar flow water condensation provide rapid, mobility-based particle sizing at concentrations typical of the remote atmosphere. Particles are separated spatially within the electrical mobility separator, enlarged through water condensation, and imaged onto a CCD array. The mobility separation distributes particles in accordance with their size. The condensation enlarges size-separated particles by water condensation while they are still within the gap of the mobility drift tube. Once enlarged the particles are illuminated by a laser. At a pre-selected frequency, typically 10 Hz, the position of all of the individual particles illuminated by the laser are captured by CCD camera. This instantly records the particle number concentration at each position. Because the position is directly related to the particle size (or mobility), the particle size spectra is derived from the images recorded by the CCD.

  20. How protective is breast feeding against diarrhoeal disease in infants in 1990s England? A case‐control study

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M A; Cumberland, P; Cowden, J M; Rodrigues, L C

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of several measures of infant feeding on diarrhoeal disease, and whether these effects vary according to markers of social deprivation. Methods Case‐control study of diarrhoeal disease cases presenting to 34 general practices in England. Controls were stratified on age group, area deprivation index for the practice, and whether or not the practice was in London. Data were available on 304 infants (167 cases and 137 controls). Results After adjustment for confounders, breast feeding was associated with significantly less diarrhoeal disease. Associations were striking even in infants aged ⩾ 6 months. They did not vary by social class, but were greater in those living in rented council accommodation and in more crowded households. The effect of receiving no breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. The effect of not receiving exclusive breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. In formula fed infants, there was significantly more diarrhoeal disease in those not sterilising bottles/teats with steam or chemicals. The protective effect of breast feeding did not persist beyond two months after breast feeding had stopped. Conclusions Breast feeding protects against diarrhoeal disease in infants in England although the degree of protection may vary across infants and wear off after breast feeding cessation. Education about the benefits of breast feeding and the risks of inadequate sterilisation should be targeted at carers in deprived areas or households. PMID:16308409

  1. Race and space in the 1990s: changes in the geographic scale of racial residential segregation, 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Sean F; Farrell, Chad R; Matthews, Stephen A; O'Sullivan, David; Bischoff, Kendra; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    We use newly developed methods of measuring spatial segregation across a range of spatial scales to assess changes in racial residential segregation patterns in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2000. Our results point to three notable trends in segregation from 1990 to 2000: (1) Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation levels increased at both micro- and macro-scales; (2) black-white segregation declined at a micro-scale, but was unchanged at a macro-scale; and (3) for all three racial groups and for almost all metropolitan areas, macro-scale segregation accounted for more of the total metropolitan area segregation in 2000 than in 1990. Our examination of the variation in these trends among the metropolitan areas suggests that Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation changes have been driven largely by increases in macro-scale segregation resulting from the rapid growth of the Hispanic and Asian populations in central cities. The changes in black-white segregation, in contrast, appear to be driven by the continuation of a 30-year trend in declining micro-segregation, coupled with persistent and largely stable patterns of macro-segregation.

  2. Drop Size Distribution Measurements Supporting the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Infrastructure and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matthew; Tokay, Ali; Wolff, David B.; Bringi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) retrieval algorithm validation requires datasets that characterize the 4-D structure, variability, and correlation properties of hydrometeor particle size distributions (PSD) and accumulations over satellite fields of view (5 -- 50 km). Key to this process is the combined use of disdrometer and polarimetric radar platforms. Here the disdrometer measurements serve as a reference for up-scaling dual-polarimetric radar observations of the PSD to the much larger volumetric sampling domain of the radar. The PSD observations thus derived provide a much larger data set for assessing DSD variability, and satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithm assumptions, in all three spatial dimensions for a range of storm types and seasons. As one component of this effort, the GPM Ground Validation program recently acquired five 3rd generation 2D Video disdrometers as part of its Disdrometer and Radar Observations of Precipitation Facility (DROP), currently hosted in northern Alabama by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. These next-generation 2DVDs were operated and evaluated in different phases of data collection under the scanning domain of the UAH ARMOR C-band dual-polarimetric radar. During this period approximately 7500 minutes of PSD data were collected and processed to create gamma size distribution parameters using a truncated method of moments approach. After creating the gamma parameter datasets the DSDs were then used as input to T-matrix code for computation of polarimetric radar moments at C-band. The combined dataset was then analyzed with two basic objectives in mind: 1) the investigation of seasonal variability in the rain PSD parameters as observed by the 2DVDs; 2) the use of combined polarimetric moments and observed gamma distribution parameters in a functional form to retrieve PSD parameters in 4-D using the ARMOR radar for precipitation occurring in different

  3. Determination of soil moisture distribution from impedance and gravimetric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen G.; Layman, Robert; Campbell, Jeffrey E.; Walsh, John; Mckim, Harlan J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily measurements of the soil dielectric properties at 5 and 10 cm were obtained at five locations throughout the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) test site during the 1987 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). An automated vector voltmeter was used to monitor the complex electrical impedance, at 10 MHz, of cylindrical volumes of soil delineated by specially designed soil moisture probes buried at these locations. The objective of this exercise was to test the hypothesis that the soil impedance is sensitive to the moisture content of the soil and that the imaginary part (that is, capacitive reactance) can be used to calculate the volumetric water content of the soil. These measurements were compared with gravimetric samples collected at these locations by the FIFE staff science team.

  4. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  5. Atomic hydrogen and nitrogen distributions from atmosphere explorer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, Edward L.

    1992-01-01

    We were selective as to our approach to research activities, and devoted primary attention to two investigations concerning the global behavior of atomic hydrogen in the Earth's upper atmosphere. We derive the thermospheric concentration of H by applying the condition of charge-exchange equilibrium between hydrogen and oxygen atoms and ions to in-situ measurements of F-region composition and temperature from the series of Atmosphere Explorer (AE) aeronomy satellites. Progress and accomplishments on these chosen research projects are summarized.

  6. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  7. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  8. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  9. In situ potential distribution measurement in an all-vanadium flow battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghua; Turhan, Ahmet; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Mench, Matthew M

    2013-07-18

    An experimental method for measurement of local redox potential within multilayer electrodes was developed and applied to all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Through-plane measurement at the positive side reveals several important phenomena including potential distribution, concentration distribution of active species and the predominant reaction location within the porous carbon electrodes.

  10. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  11. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  12. Measurement of Vertical Temperature Distribution Using a Single Pair of Loudspeaker and Microphone with Acoustic Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Ikumi; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Kawabe, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    It is important to maintain an adequate indoor temperature for comfortable working conditions, improvement of the rate of production of farm goods grown in greenhouses, and for saving energy. Thus, it is necessary to measure the temperature distribution to realize efficient air-conditioning systems. However, we have to use many conventional instruments to measure the temperature distribution. We proposed a measurement system for vertical temperature distribution using a single pair of loudspeaker (SP) and microphone (MIC), and acoustic reflectors. This system consists of SP, MIC, and multiple acoustic reflectors, and it can be used to determine the temperature distribution from the mean temperature of the area bounded by two reflectors. In experiments, the vertical temperature distribution was measured using five sound probes in a large facility every 20 s for 24 h. From the results of this experiment, it was verified that this system can be used to measure the vertical temperature distribution from the mean temperature of each area bounded by two reflectors. This system could be used to measure the change in the temperature distribution over time. We constructed a simple system to measure the vertical temperature distribution.

  13. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  14. Measurement of High Frequency Perturbations to the Ion Velocity Distribution in the HELIX Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Boivin, R. F.; Franck, C.; Klinger, T.; Scime, E. E.

    2001-10-01

    Using lasers to measure plasma parameters has become more common in recent years. Lasers can provide information about plasma parameters without perturbing the plasma. The most common technique for ion parameter measurements is Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). LIF typically measures the ion velocity distribution and provides information about the ion temperatures and ion flows in the plasma. More recently, Skiff and Anderegg [1987] and Safarty et al. [1996] have shown that measurements of the perturbed ion velocity distribution can provide wave number information for waves propagating in a plasma due the non-local nature of the dielectric tensor. In the past two years, attempts have been made to measure the perturbed ion velocity distribution function at frequencies relevant to Helicon plasma sources. The objective of the measurements is to identify electrostatic oscillation associated to the slow wave or "Trivelpeice Gould modes" in helicon plasma sources. Past efforts to measure the perturbed ion velocity distribution function have been unsuccessful due to technical difficulties associated with measuring the cross correlation of the photon and reference signals. Using a high frequency SR544 Stanford Research lock-in amplifier, high frequency perturbations to the ion velocity distribution in a helicon source have been measured. Perturbed ion velocity distribution measurements, along with the related theory will be presented.

  15. Multiplexed low coherence interferometry instrument for measuring microbicide gel thickness distribution.

    PubMed

    Drake, Tyler K; Robles, Francisco E; Wax, Adam

    2009-04-01

    We present a Fourier-domain, multiplexed low coherence interferometry (LCI) instrument designed for application to intravaginal measurement of microbicidal gel distribution. Microbicide gels are topical products developed to combat sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, by acting as delivery vehicles for active drugs and barrier layers to vaginal tissue. Measuring microbicide gel vaginal distribution is key to understanding the gel's biological effectiveness. This study presents a new LCI system for measuring gel distribution that uses six multiplexed channels to achieve broad area scanning without the need for a mechanical scanner. The presented results characterize the performance of the Fourier-domain multiplexed LCI system in measuring gel thickness distribution. The system demonstrates good optical signal-to-noise ratio, steady performance across all channels, negligible cross talk, and accurate measurement with micrometer scale resolution. The potential impact of using a multiplexed LCI system for in vivo measurements is also discussed. PMID:19340102

  16. The distribution of free electrons in the inner galaxy from pulsar dispersion measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, D. S.; Harding, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The dispersion measures of a sample of 149 pulsars in the inner Galaxy (absolute value of l 50 deg) were statistically analyzed to deduce the large-scale distribution of free thermal electrons in this region. The dispersion measure distribution of these pulsars shows significant evidence for a decrease in the electron scale height from a local value greater than the pulsar scale height to a value less than the pulsar scale height at galactocentric radii inside of approximately 7 kpc. An increase in the electron density (to a value around .15/cu cm at 4 to 5 kpc) must accompany such a decrease in scale height. There is also evidence for a large-scale warp in the electron distribution below the b + 0 deg plane inside the Solar circle. A model is proposed for the electron distribution which incorporates these features and Monte Carlo generated dispersion measure distributions are presented for parameters which best reproduce the observed pulsar distributions.

  17. A simple derivation and classification of common probability distributions based on information symmetry and measurement scale.

    PubMed

    Frank, S A; Smith, E

    2011-03-01

    Commonly observed patterns typically follow a few distinct families of probability distributions. Over one hundred years ago, Karl Pearson provided a systematic derivation and classification of the common continuous distributions. His approach was phenomenological: a differential equation that generated common distributions without any underlying conceptual basis for why common distributions have particular forms and what explains the familial relations. Pearson's system and its descendants remain the most popular systematic classification of probability distributions. Here, we unify the disparate forms of common distributions into a single system based on two meaningful and justifiable propositions. First, distributions follow maximum entropy subject to constraints, where maximum entropy is equivalent to minimum information. Second, different problems associate magnitude to information in different ways, an association we describe in terms of the relation between information invariance and measurement scale. Our framework relates the different continuous probability distributions through the variations in measurement scale that change each family of maximum entropy distributions into a distinct family. From our framework, future work in biology can consider the genesis of common patterns in a new and more general way. Particular biological processes set the relation between the information in observations and magnitude, the basis for information invariance, symmetry and measurement scale. The measurement scale, in turn, determines the most likely probability distributions and observed patterns associated with particular processes. This view presents a fundamentally derived alternative to the largely unproductive debates about neutrality in ecology and evolution. PMID:21265914

  18. Measurement of distributed strain due to laying and recovery of submarine optical fiber cable.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, T; Horiguchi, T; Yoshizawa, N; Tada, H; Tateda, M

    1991-01-20

    Strain distribution due to cable laying and recovery is measured, using Brillouin optical fiber time domain analysis in a 3.7-km long submarine optical fiber cable. We believe this is the first time that the residual strain distribution in the recovered submarine cable has been measured. The residual strains measured in some cable sections due to the cable laying and recovery are found to be as small as 0.02 and 0.04%, respectively. PMID:20581987

  19. EGR distribution and fluctuation probe based on CO2 measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E.; Partridge, Jr., William P.; Yoo, Ji Hyung

    2015-06-30

    A diagnostic system having a laser, an EGR probe, a detector and a processor. The laser may be a swept-.lamda. laser having a sweep range including a significant CO.sub.2 feature and substantially zero absorption regions. The sweep range may extend from about 2.708 .mu.m to about 2.7085 .mu.m. The processor may determine CO.sub.2 concentration as a function of the detector output signal. The processor may normalize the output signal as a function of the zero absorption regions. The system may include a plurality of EGR probes receiving light from a single laser. The system may include a separate detector for each probe. Alternatively, the system may combine the light returning from the different probes into a composite beam that is measured by a single detector. A unique modulation characteristic may be introduced into each light beam before combination so that the processor can discriminate between them in the composite beam.

  20. Measurement of energy distribution in flowing hydrogen microwave plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R.; Morin, T.; Finzel, M.; Hawley, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    An electrothermal propulsion concept utilizing a microwave plasma system as the mechanism to convert electromagnetic energy into kinetic energy of a flowing gas is investigated. A calorimetry system enclosing a microwave plasma system has been developed to accurately measure the energy inputs and outputs of the microwave plasma system. The rate of energy transferred to the gas can be determined to within + or - 1.8 W from an energy balance around the microwave plasma system. The percentage of the power absorbed by the microwave plasma system transferred to the hydrogen gas as it flows through the system is found to increase with the increasing flow rate, to decrease with the increasing pressure, and to be independent of the absorbed power. An upper bound for the hydrogen gas temperature is estimated from the energy content, heat capacity, and flow rate of the gas stream. A lower bound for an overall heat-transfer coefficient is then calculated, characterizing the energy loss from the hydrogen gas stream to the air cooling of the plasma discharge tube wall. The heat-transfer coefficient is found to increase with the increasing flow rate and pressure and to be independent of the absorbed power. This result indicates that a convective-type mechanism is responsible for the energy transfer.

  1. Thermoreflectance-based in-depth stress distribution measurement technique for single-crystal silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Shugo; Kato, Takaaki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Namazu, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we suggest a new stress measurement technique based on the thermoreflectance method for the estimation of the in-depth stress distribution of fabricated silicon devices. Changing the modulated intensity of a heating laser beam of the frequency-domain thermoreflectance method (FD-TRM) can vary the estimation depth optionally. We developed a measurement system on the basis of the FD-TRM and demonstrated in-depth stress measurement for a single-crystal silicon (SCS) sample. The result measured at a modulation frequency of 3 MHz showed the phase distribution of the TR signal corresponding to the stress distribution determined by 632-nm-excited Raman spectroscopy. In addition, it was found that the phase distribution changed depending on the modulation frequency. The FD-TRM can be a powerful technique for estimating the in-depth stress distribution of silicon materials.

  2. Parenting in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Elsa; Smith, Kate

    This study examined family formation, employment, child-care arrangements, parenting, family activities, and attitudes and values of British parents. Subjects were nearly 6,000 British 33-year-old married parents, originally subjects in the longitudinal National Child Development Study, which traced the lives of all those in Great Britain born in…

  3. Superbatteries. in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-03

    New developments in Rockwell International's sodium/sulfur batteries and in Duracell's rechargeable lithium/sulfur dioxide/cupric chloride batteries are among the most promising projects cited in an assessment of electrochemical programs that emphasize high performance and low life-cycle cost. The assessment noted that research competition from Japan, West Germany, and the United Kingdom will soon challenge the US lead in battery development for electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy storage, and utility load-leveling programs. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory study reports the status of sodium/sulfur, zinc/bromine, aluminum/air, iron/air, ambient temperature lithium, zinc chloride, and fuel cell research in terms of progress, DOE funding, and potential application. 7 references.

  4. Environment in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudie, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of futuristic predictions of environmental changes. Focuses on particular documents published on environmental change predictions. Identifies particular instances of environmental change, such as the rate of species loss and the greenhouse effect. Maintains that predictions of future environmental changes are fraught with…

  5. Issues for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Edith; Brown, Arnold

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are the issues now emerging that seem likely to dominate thinking, planning, and decision-making in the United States and elsewhere during the next decade. These include campus unrest, China as a world economic force, controlling health-care, birth defects, role of the computer in education, and human language/computer language. (RM)

  6. Wars of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Firket, H

    2001-01-01

    The 40 wars of the past decade, all 'minor', have resulted in a total of more than two million deaths and 20 million refugees or displaced persons. Few have been the international wars typical of previous periods. Nine out of ten began as internal or civil wars, foreign intervention--when it occurred--being always secondary. The weapons used, the effects on the civilian populations, the type and extension of damages are different but equally destructive. The main causes of these conflicts are cultural or religious, rather than economic. The best attitudes to attempt to prevent or stop them are surveyed.

  7. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-dust Mass Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Strub, Peter; Grün, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses interstellar dust data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of a population of “big” interstellar grains (up to 10-13 kg). The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of interstellar dust in the very local ISM. In this paper we analyze the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses interstellar dust measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of interstellar dust. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses interstellar dust data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modeling of the interstellar dust flow applied to Ulysses. We use the latest values for the interstellar hydrogen and helium densities, the interstellar helium flow speed of {v}{ISM∞ }=23.2 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the ratio of radiation pressure to gravity, β, calculated for astronomical silicates. We find a gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud of {R}{{g}/{{d}}}={193}-57+85, and a dust density of (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10-24 kg m-3. For a higher inflow speed of 26 {km} {{{s}}}-1, the gas-to-dust mass ratio is 20% higher, and, accordingly, the dust density is lower by the same amount. The gas-to-dust mass ratio derived from our new analysis is compatible with the value most recently determined from astronomical observations. We confirm earlier results that the very local ISM contains “big” (i.e., ≈1 μm sized) interstellar grains. We find a dust density in the local ISM that is a

  8. Measuring Disparities across the Distribution of Mental Health Care Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Manning, Willard; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous mental health care disparities studies predominantly compare mean mental health care use across racial/ethnic groups, leaving policymakers with little information on disparities among those with a higher level of expenditures. Aims of the Study To identify racial/ethnic disparities among individuals at varying quantiles of mental health care expenditures. To assess whether disparities in the upper quantiles of expenditure differ by insurance status, income and education. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of white, black and Latino adults 18 years and older (n=83,878). Our dependent variable was total mental health care expenditure. We measured disparities in any mental health care expenditures, disparities in mental health care expenditure at the 95th, 97.5th, and 99th expenditure quantiles of the full population using quantile regression, and at the 50th, 75th, and 95th quantiles for positive users. In the full population, we tested interaction coefficients between race/ethnicity and income, insurance, and education levels to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in the upper quantiles differed by income, insurance and education. Results Significant Black-white and Latino-white disparities were identified in any mental health care expenditures. In the full population, moving up the quantiles of mental health care expenditures, Black-White and Latino-White disparities were reduced but remained statistically significant. No statistically significant disparities were found in analyses of positive users only. The magnitude of black-white disparities was smaller among those enrolled in public insurance programs compared to the privately insured and uninsured in the 97.5th and 99th quantiles. Disparities persist in the upper quantiles among those in higher income categories and after excluding psychiatric inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits. Discussion Disparities exist in any mental health care and

  9. Pressure-Distribution Measurements on O-2H Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H A

    1937-01-01

    Results are given of pressure-distribution measurements made over two different horizontal tail surfaces and the right wing cellule, including the slipstream area, of an observation-type biplane. Measurements were also taken of air speed, control-surface positions, control-stick forces, angular velocities, and accelerations during various abrupt maneuvers. These maneuvers consisted of push-downs and pull-ups from level flight, dive pull-outs, and aileron rolls with various thrust conditions. The results from the pressure-distribution measurements over the wing cellule are given on charts showing the variation of individual rib coefficients with wing coefficients; the data from the tail-surface pressure-distribution measurements are given mainly as total loads and moments. These data are supplemented by time histories of the measured quantities and isometric views of the rib pressure distributions occurring in abrupt maneuvers.

  10. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  11. Probability distribution of wind retrieval error for the NASA scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leotta, Daniel F.; Long, David G.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) is a spaceborne scatterometer scheduled to be deployed in the mid-1990s. An analysis of the wind retrieval error distribution for wind estimates based on backscatter measurements made by the NSCAT instrument is presented. The results are based on an end-to-end simulation of the scatterometer instrument and data processing. In general, the distribution of the wind speed error, when normalized, is independent of the true wind speed and direction. The wind speed error can be characterized by a normal distribution. The wind direction error is independent of the true wind speed, but depends on the true wind direction. Details for wind vectors with true wind speeds from 3 m/s to 33 m/s and true wind directions from 0 to 360 deg are presented.

  12. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation since the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management sector. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Social Changes on Age-Specific Gun-Related Homicide Rates in New York City During the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David; Goldmann, Emily; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether New York City's gun-related homicide rates in the 1990s were associated with a range of social determinants of homicide rates. Methods. We used cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City police precincts from 1990 through 1999, and we estimated Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatial error term. Homicide rates were estimated separately for victims aged 15–24 years (youths), 25–34 years (young adults), and 35 years or older (adults). Results. Decreased cocaine consumption was associated with declining homicide rates in youths (posterior median [PM] = 0.25; 95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = 0.07, 0.45) and adults (PM = 0.07; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.12), and declining alcohol consumption was associated with fewer homicides in young adults (PM = 0.14; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.25). Receipt of public assistance was associated with fewer homicides for young adults (PM = –104.20; 95% BCI = –182.0, –26.14) and adults (PM = –28.76; 95% BCI = –52.65, –5.01). Misdemeanor policing was associated with fewer homicides in adults (PM = –0.01; 95% BCI = –0.02, –0.001). Conclusions. Substance use prevention policies and expansion of the social safety net may be able to cause major reductions in homicide among age groups that drive city homicide trends. PMID:20395590

  14. Disaggregated analysis of US energy consumption in the 1990s: Evidence of the effects of the internet and rapid economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee

    2001-07-01

    This paper decomposes US energy use from 1988 to 1998 and attributes the changes in energy use to three underlying factors: activity, structure, and intensity. For this study we use a bottom-up methodology, by separately decomposing delivered energy use in six sectors: travel, freight, manufacturing industries, non-manufacturing industries, residential, and services. The most commonly used indicator of energy efficiency in the total economy, the ratio of energy consumed to unit of GDP (E/GDP) created can often be misleading. The rapid decline in the E/GDP ratio in recent years has been used to support assertions that the Internet and information technologies in general have enabled improvements in energy efficiencies. However, our disaggregate analysis suggests that energy intensities on average are falling more slowly than ever before while actual energy use increased faster than at any time since 1970. The decline in the E/GDP ratio in the mid-to late 1990s owes much more to structural changes in the demand for energy services than to falling energy intensities.

  15. Discrimination of 1990s original automotive paint systems: a collaborative study of black nonmetallic base coat/clear coat finishes using infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ryland, S; Bishea, G; Brun-Conti, L; Eyring, M; Flanagan, B; Jergovich, T; MacDougall, D; Suzuki, E

    2001-01-01

    The 1990s saw the introduction of significantly new types of paint binder chemistries into the automotive finish coat market. Considering the pronounced changes in the binders that can now be found in automotive paints and their potential use in a wide variety of finishes worldwide, the Paint Subgroup of the Scientific Working Group for Materials (SWGMAT) initiated a validation study to investigate the ability of commonly accepted methods of forensic paint examination to differentiate between these newer types of paints. Nine automotive paint systems typical of original equipment applications were acquired from General Motors Corporation in 1992. They consisted of steel panels coated with typical electrocoat primers and/or primer surfacers followed by a black nonmetallic base coat and clear coat. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrimination power of common forensic techniques when applied to the newer generation original automotive finishes. The second purpose was to evaluate interlaboratory reproducibility of automotive paint spectra collected on a variety of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers and accessories normally used for forensic paint examinations. The results demonstrate that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for discriminating between the major automotive paint manufacturers' formulation types which are currently used in original finishes. Furthermore, and equally important, the results illustrate that the mid-infrared spectra of these finishes are generally quite reproducible even when comparing data from different laboratories, commercial FT-IR instruments, and accessories in a "real world," mostly uncontrolled, environment.

  16. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of photon energy distributions in MAYAK PA workplaces.

    PubMed

    Smetanin, M; Vasilenko, E; Semenov, M; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Clouvas, A; Silva, J; Potiriadis, C

    2008-01-01

    Photon energy distributions were measured in different workplaces of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), which was the first plutonium production plant in the former Soviet Union. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with a portable germanium detector. The spectral stripping method is used for the conversion of the in situ gamma-ray spectra to photon fluence rate energy distribution. This method requires the simulation of the portable germanium detector, which has been performed based on the MCNP code of Los Alamos. Measured photon fluence rate energy distributions were compared with calculated photon energy distributions (with the MCNP code) in two different workplaces: in the first workplace the geometry exposure was known. On the contrary, in the second workplace, as in most workplaces of MPA, the exposure geometry was unknown. The results obtained from the comparison between the experimental and calculated photon fluence rate energy distributions are presented and discussed. PMID:18682405

  17. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  18. A directional wave measurement attack against the Kish key distribution system

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Lachlan J.; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Kish key distribution system has been proposed as a classical alternative to quantum key distribution. The idealized Kish scheme elegantly promises secure key distribution by exploiting thermal noise in a transmission line. However, we demonstrate that it is vulnerable to nonidealities in its components, such as the finite resistance of the transmission line connecting its endpoints. We introduce a novel attack against this nonideality using directional wave measurements, and experimentally demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25248868

  19. Distributed sensor for water and pH measurements using fiber optics and swellable polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michie, W. C.; Culshaw, B.; McKenzie, I.; Konstantakis, M.; Graham, N. B.; Moran, C.; Santos, F.; Bergqvist, E.; Carlstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and test of a generic form of sensor for making distributed measurements of a range of chemical parameters. The technique combines optical time-domain reflectometry with chemically sensitive water-swellable polymers (hydrogels). Initial experiments have concentrated on demonstrating a distributed water detector; however, gels have been developed that enable this sensor to be

  20. Pratt's Measure for Some Bibliometric Distributions and Its Relation with the 80/20 Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.

    1987-01-01

    Pratt's measure C on the class concentration of bibliometric distributions is calculated and interpreted for the laws of Zipf, Mandelbrot, and Lotka and geometric distribution, and comparisons are made of the results. An explicit mathematical formula which unifies disparate theories is derived and tested. (Author/CLB)

  1. Variations of Low-energy Ion Distributions Measured in the Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2010-12-30

    This report is an update of low-energy ion intensities and angular distributions measured recently by the Low Energy Charged Particle instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the inner heliosheath.

  2. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  3. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E; Ustinov, V D

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  4. Distributed deformation measurement of large space deployable mechanism based on FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yanfang; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Yi; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Ruiya; Li, Tianliang

    2015-10-01

    Space deployable mechanisms are widely used, important and multi-purpose components in aerospace fields. In order to ensure the mechanism in normal situation after unfolded, detecting the deformation caused by huge temperature difference in real-time is necessary. This paper designed a deployable mechanism setup, completed its distributed deformation measurement by means of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and BP neural network, proved the mechanism distributed strain takes place sequence and FBG sensor is capable for space deployable mechanisms deformation measuring.

  5. Institutional Research: Its Place in the 1990's. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (17th, Albany, New York, October 21-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This document contains papers presented at a conference addressing the direction for the institutional research profession in the 1990s. Papers are as follows: "Reassessing Admission Policies at Public Universities: Cognitive vs. Non-Cognitive Predictors of 'Academic Success'" (Marios H. Agrotes); "Accommodating Team Member Cognitive Styles"…

  6. Developments in Microcomputing--Discovering New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s. Festschrift in Honour of Richard De Gennero. Papers presented at the International Essen Symposium (12th, Essen, West Germany, October 23-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The 16 papers in this collection explore the microcomputer revolution as it affects library information systems: (1) "HyperMedia/Multimedia Technology and New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s" (Ching-chih Chen); (2) "Use of CD-ROMs in West German Libraries" (David I. Raitt and Ching-chih Chen); (3) "Purposes of Interactive Optical Discs…

  7. Changing Dimensions: Managing Library and Information Services for the 1990s: A Global Perspective. Proceedings of the Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association [Conference] (Atlanta, Georgia, July 1, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ravindra Nath, Ed.

    The theme of the 1991 Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (APALA) was "Changing Dimensions: Managing Library Information Services for the 1990s and Beyond." Members and speakers were invited to discuss this topic from all dimensions of library and information related fields. Presenters had the options either to write on actual issues or…

  8. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately. PMID:26501288

  9. Two-dimensional automatic measurement for nozzle flow distribution using improved ultrasonic sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately. PMID:26501288

  10. Measuring maximal eigenvalue distribution of Wishart random matrices with coupled lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Moti; Pugatch, Rami; Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher A.; Davidson, Nir

    2012-02-01

    We determined the probability distribution of the combined output power from 25 coupled fiber lasers and show that it agrees well with the Tracy-Widom and Majumdar-Vergassola distributions of the largest eigenvalue of Wishart random matrices with no fitting parameters. This was achieved with 500 000 measurements of the combined output power from the fiber lasers, that continuously changes with variations of the fiber lasers lengths. We show experimentally that for small deviations of the combined output power over its mean value the Tracy-Widom distribution is correct, while for large deviations the Majumdar-Vergassola distribution is correct.

  11. Measuring maximal eigenvalue distribution of Wishart random matrices with coupled lasers.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Moti; Pugatch, Rami; Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2012-02-01

    We determined the probability distribution of the combined output power from 25 coupled fiber lasers and show that it agrees well with the Tracy-Widom and Majumdar-Vergassola distributions of the largest eigenvalue of Wishart random matrices with no fitting parameters. This was achieved with 500,000 measurements of the combined output power from the fiber lasers, that continuously changes with variations of the fiber lasers lengths. We show experimentally that for small deviations of the combined output power over its mean value the Tracy-Widom distribution is correct, while for large deviations the Majumdar-Vergassola distribution is correct.

  12. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  13. Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers

    SciTech Connect

    KOSKI,JORMAN A.

    2000-05-09

    Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C.

  14. A comparison of magnetic resonance methods for spatially resolved T2 distribution measurements in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Marica, F.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring porous media are usually characterized by a distribution of pore sizes. If the material is fluid saturated, the 1H magnetic resonance (MR) signal depends on the pore size, the surface relaxivity and the fluid itself. Measurement of the transverse relaxation time T2 is a well-established technique to characterize material samples by means of MR. T2 distribution measurements, including T2 distribution mapping, are widely employed in clinical applications and in petroleum engineering. T2 distribution measurements are the most basic measurement employed to determine the fluid-matrix properties in MR core analysis. Three methods for T2 distribution mapping, namely spin-echo single point imaging (SE-SPI), DANTE-Z Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) and adiabatic inversion CPMG are compared in terms of spatial resolution, minimum observable T2 and sensitivity. Bulk CPMG measurement is considered to be the gold standard for T2 determination. Bulk measurement of uniform samples is compared to the three spatially resolved measurements. SE-SPI is an imaging method, which measures spatially resolved T2s in samples of interest. A variant is introduced in this work that employs pre-equalized magnetic field gradient waveforms and is therefore able to measure shorter T2s than previously reported. DANTE-Z CPMG and adiabatic inversion CPMG are faster, non-imaging, local T2 distribution measurements. The DANTE-Z pulse train and adiabatic inversion pulse are compared in terms of T1 or T2 relaxation time effects during the RF pulse application, minimum pulse duration, requisite RF pulse power, and inversion profile quality. In addition to experimental comparisons, simulation results are presented.

  15. Measurement of relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells by using the polarization microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, In Hee; Lee, Ji Yong; Lee, Seungrag; Lee, Dong Ju; Kim, Dug Young

    2007-02-01

    Bio-cells and tissues have intrinsic polarization characteristics, which are changed by external stimulus and internal metamorphosis in cells and tissues and some of the bio-cells and tissues have intrinsic birefringence characteristics, which are also changed by external stimulus and internal metamorphosis in cells and tissues. In this paper, we have developed the polarization microscope for measurement of relative phase which results from birefringence characteristics of materials with improved linear polarizing method and have measured relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells. From the measurement of the relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells, decrease of relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells was investigated as the elapse of time. In decrease of relative phase distribution, relative phase of cell membrane in onion epidermal cells decreased radically as compared with that of cytoplasm because decline of function in cell membrane that takes charge of matter transfer in onion epidermal cells has occurred.

  16. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements of the downwash distribution of a desert locust Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Lawson, Nicholas J; Thomas, Adrian L.R

    2005-01-01

    Actuator disc models of insect flight are concerned solely with the rate of momentum transfer to the air that passes through the disc. These simple models assume that an even pressure is applied across the disc, resulting in a uniform downwash distribution. However, a correction factor, k, is often included to correct for the difference in efficiency between the assumed even downwash distribution, and the real downwash distribution. In the absence of any empirical measurements of the downwash distribution behind a real insect, the values of k used in the literature have been necessarily speculative. Direct measurement of this efficiency factor is now possible, and could be used to compare the relative efficiencies of insect flight across the Class. Here, we use Digital Particle Image Velocimetry to measure the instantaneous downwash distribution, mid-downstroke, of a tethered desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). By integrating the downwash distribution, we are thereby able to provide the first direct empirical measurement of k for an insect. The measured value of k=1.12 corresponds reasonably well with that predicted by previous theoretical studies. PMID:16849240

  17. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements of the downwash distribution of a desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Lawson, Nicholas J; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2006-04-22

    Actuator disc models of insect flight are concerned solely with the rate of momentum transfer to the air that passes through the disc. These simple models assume that an even pressure is applied across the disc, resulting in a uniform downwash distribution. However, a correction factor, k, is often included to correct for the difference in efficiency between the assumed even downwash distribution, and the real downwash distribution. In the absence of any empirical measurements of the downwash distribution behind a real insect, the values of k used in the literature have been necessarily speculative. Direct measurement of this efficiency factor is now possible, and could be used to compare the relative efficiencies of insect flight across the Class. Here, we use Digital Particle Image Velocimetry to measure the instantaneous downwash distribution, mid-downstroke, of a tethered desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). By integrating the downwash distribution, we are thereby able to provide the first direct empirical measurement of k for an insect. The measured value of k = 1.12 corresponds reasonably well with that predicted by previous theoretical studies.

  18. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  19. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  20. A practical divergence measure for survival distributions that can be estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves.

    PubMed

    Cox, Trevor F; Czanner, Gabriela

    2016-06-30

    This paper introduces a new simple divergence measure between two survival distributions. For two groups of patients, the divergence measure between their associated survival distributions is based on the integral of the absolute difference in probabilities that a patient from one group dies at time t and a patient from the other group survives beyond time t and vice versa. In the case of non-crossing hazard functions, the divergence measure is closely linked to the Harrell concordance index, C, the Mann-Whitney test statistic and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. The measure can be used in a dynamic way where the divergence between two survival distributions from time zero up to time t is calculated enabling real-time monitoring of treatment differences. The divergence can be found for theoretical survival distributions or can be estimated non-parametrically from survival data using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survivor functions. The estimator of the divergence is shown to be generally unbiased and approximately normally distributed. For the case of proportional hazards, the constituent parts of the divergence measure can be used to assess the proportional hazards assumption. The use of the divergence measure is illustrated on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26842429

  1. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Deyang Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  2. Measurements for dose distribution with a photo-stimulated luminescence dosimeter sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, C.; Urushiyama, A.

    2013-06-01

    Dose distributions for photon beam were measured using a Photo-Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (PSLD) sheet, which has 18 × 24 cm2 dimension and 0.2 mm thickness. Its density and effective atomic number are 1.0 g/cm3 and 7.6, respectively. The read out was performed by blue LED lights for 20 seconds, which was much shorter than the readout time for TLD. The percent depth dose and dose profile were obtained as smooth curve after the calibration and it reproduced the measurements with ionization chamber, except for the tail region in the dose profile. We demonstrated the measurement of the prostate VMAT dose distribution also. The result reproduces the calculation by treatment planning system (TPS) qualitatively. It is shown that the PSLD sheet has the potential to measure the dose distribution.

  3. Cluster mass fraction and size distribution determined by fs-time-resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoming; Shim, Bonggu; Arefiev, Alexey; Tushentsov, Mikhail; Breizman, Boris; Downer, Mike

    2009-11-01

    Characterization of supersonic gas jets is important for accurate interpretation and control of laser-cluster experiments. While average size and total atomic density can be found by standard Rayleigh scatter and interferometry, cluster mass fraction and size distribution are usually difficult to measure. Here we determine the cluster fraction and the size distribution with fs-time-resolved refractive index and absorption measurements in cluster gas jets after ionization and heating by an intense pump pulse. The fs-time-resolved refractive index measured with frequency domain interferometer (FDI) shows different contributions from monomer plasma and cluster plasma in the time domain, enabling us to determine the cluster fraction. The fs-time-resolved absorption measured by a delayed probe shows the contribution from clusters of various sizes, allowing us to find the size distribution.

  4. [Temperature distribution measurement of high energetic monopropellant by spectroscopic diagnostic technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zou, Yan-wen; He, Jun; Yang, Rong-jie; Zhao, Wen-hua; Fang, Zhong-yan

    2004-10-01

    The combustion flame temperature distribution in the axes are measured by relative intensity method of the spectroscopic diagnostic technology for monopropellant hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) at 3 MPa and 5 MPa pressure, respectively. The investigation results show that the curves of combustion flame temperature distribution in all combustion course are accurately measured by relative intensity method for monopropellant HNIW. The measured highest combustion flame temperature in the axes are lower than theoretical combustion temperature at the same pressure, and are more close to theoretical combustion temperature along with the rising of the pressure. The experimental results indicate that the combustion flame temperature distribution can be measured by the relative intensity method for high energetic and high burning rate propellant at higher pressure.

  5. Particle Size Distributions Measured in the Stratospheric Plumes of Three Rockets During the ACCENT Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Brock, C. A.; Reeves, J. M.; Ross, M. N.; Schmid, O.; Toohey, D.; Wilson, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The global impact of particles emitted by rocket engines on stratospheric ozone is not well understood, mainly due to the lack of comprehensive in situ measurements of the size distributions of these emitted particles. During the Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions Near the Tropopause (ACCENT) missions in 1999, the NASA WB-57F aircraft carried the University of Denver N-MASS and FCAS instruments into the stratospheric plumes from three rockets. Size distributions of particles with diameters from 4 to approximately 2000 nm were calculated from the instrument measurements using numerical inversion techniques. The data have been averaged over 30-second intervals. The particle size distributions observed in all of the rocket plumes included a dominant mode near 60 nm diameter, probably composed of alumina particles. A smaller mode at approximately 25 nm, possibly composed of soot particles, was seen in only the plumes of rockets that used liquid oxygen and kerosene as a propellant. Aircraft exhaust emitted by the WB-57F was also sampled; the size distributions within these plumes are consistent with prior measurements in aircraft plumes. The size distributions for all rocket intercepts have been fitted to bimodal, lognormal distributions to provide input for global models of the stratosphere. Our data suggest that previous estimates of the solid rocket motor alumina size distributions may underestimate the alumina surface area emission index, and so underestimate the particle surface area available for heterogeneous chlorine activation reactions in the global stratosphere.

  6. Real-time measurement of RFR energy distribution in the Macaca mulatta head

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, J.G.; Krupp, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature increases due to absorption of 1.2 GHz, CW, 70 mW/cm2, radio frequency (RF) energy, were measured in 3.3-cm-radius homogeneous muscle-equivalent spheres, M. mulatta cadaver heads (both detached from and attached to the body) and living, anesthetized M. mulatta heads. Temperatures were measured with a Vitek, Model 101 Electrothermia Monitor and temperature distributions were compared to theoretical predictions from a thermal-response model of a simulated cranial structure. The results show that the thermal response model accurately predicts the temperature distribution in muscle-equivalent spheres, the distribution of temperature in detached M. mulatta heads when exposed from the back of the head, and the distribution of temperature in attached M. mulatta cadaver heads for animals oriented with body parallel to the H-field. The temperature distribution in the detached M. mulatta heads varies markedly with exposure orientation, ie, facing forward, backward, or to the side. The orientation of the M. mulatta cadaver body significantly affects the temperature distribution in the head - with H-field orientation showing high, nonuniform values, and E-field orientation showing low, uniform values. In live animals blood flow produces a significant short-term effect on the temperature distribution in the midbrain, but not the cortex. Midbrain temperatures are both significantly higher and lower than the comparable cadaver measurements, depending on location.

  7. Measurement of the Size Distribution of Zymogen Granules from Rat Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Nadelhaft, I.

    1973-01-01

    Zymogen granules are obtained in pure form and processed for electron microscopy. Thin sections are photographed and diameters measured with a Zeiss particle size analyzer. Since sectioning cuts any given particle in random way, these diameters are not the true diameters of the particles. The true size distribution is obtained by comparing the observed diameter distribution with a generated diameter distribution. The generated distribution is constructed from an assumed parent distribution (of true diameters) by the Monte-Carlo technique. “Goodness of fit” is judged by the value of “chi-squared” resulting from the comparison. Appropriate adjustments of the parameters of the true distribution are made on the basis of minimizing chi-square. A result of this process is that the zymogen granules follow a normal distribution: mean = 0.984 ±0.005 μm, SD = 0.190 ±0.005 μm. A second preparation of granules was made and diameters were measured directly with a scanning electron microscope. The distribution was again found to be normal, thus supporting the first result. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:4748374

  8. Probable errors in width distributions of sea ice leads measured along a transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, J.; Peckham, S.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of error expected in the measurement of widths of sea ice leads along a single transect are examined in a probabilistic sense under assumed orientation and width distributions, where both isotropic and anisotropic lead orientations are examined. Methods are developed for estimating the distribution of 'actual' widths (measured perpendicular to the local lead orientation) knowing the 'apparent' width distribution (measured along the transect), and vice versa. The distribution of errors, defined as the difference between the actual and apparent lead width, can be estimated from the two width distributions, and all moments of this distribution can be determined. The problem is illustrated with Landsat imagery and the procedure is applied to a submarine sonar transect. Results are determined for a range of geometries, and indicate the importance of orientation information if data sampled along a transect are to be used for the description of lead geometries. While the application here is to sea ice leads, the methodology can be applied to measurements of any linear feature.

  9. Electric Distributed Constant Measurement of Long Steel Structures When Fault Ground Connection Happened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oohira, Hisashi; Serikawa, Seiichi

    An electric distributed constant measuring system for underground pipeline safety inspection is constructed. In experiment, a ground resistance was used to simulate a real fault ground accident, and then the characteristic impedance and propagation constant were measured. It is confirmed that these measuring results change according to the accident position and ground resistance value. Therefore, it is considered that the accident position might be estimated by the deviation of the values.

  10. In-Situ Measurement of Internal Temperature Distribution of Sintered Materials Using Ultrasonic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, I.; Tomomatsu, T.

    2011-03-01

    It is often required to measure internal temperature distribution of a heated material because it is closely related to the materials properties and behavior. In this work, an effective ultrasonic method has been applied to the monitoring of internal temperature distributions of an alumina being heated. The principle of the method is based on the temperature dependence of the velocity of ultrasound propagating through a heated material. In the method, a combined technique of ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements and a finite difference calculation is employed to determine the one-dimensional temperature distribution in a heated material. Shear wave is used for the ultrasonic measurements to improve the accuracy in determining temperature. To verify the feasibility of the method, pulse-echo measurements with a shear wave transducer have been performed for an alumina rod of 14 mm diameter and 25 mm length whose single-end is being heated. The internal temperature distribution and its variation of the alumina are then measured during the heating. The temperature distributions determined by the ultrasonic method almost agree with those obtained by an infrared method. Thus, it is demonstrated that the ultrasonic method has the potential for in-process monitoring of the transient temperature variation of ceramics being processed at high temperatures.

  11. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  12. The distribution of measured and simulated wave heights as a function of spectral shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forristall, George Z.

    1984-11-01

    First-order theory predicts that zero-crossing wave heights should have a Rayleigh distribution, but measured waves are slightly smaller than the theoretical prediction. Suggested explanations for this discrepancy have included the nonlinearity of the wave surface, limitations on height as a result of breaking, and the effect of spectral width. In a recent paper, Tayfun (1981 b) showed that the shape of the spectrum influences the height distribution because the wave envelope has different amplitudes at the time of the crest and trough. We have compared the distribution developed by Tayfun to simulated waves with different spectral shapes as well as to observations and found excellent agreement. The theoretical, simulated, and measured wave height distributions agree to within 1% in height. This result reinforces the conclusion that linear Gaussian simulations can reproduce many features of ocean waves.

  13. Single-size thermometric measurements on a size distribution of neutral fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Cauchy, C; Bakker, J M; Huismans, Y; Rouzée, A; Redlich, B; van der Meer, A F G; Bordas, C; Vrakking, M J J; Lépine, F

    2013-05-10

    We present measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons emitted from mass-selected neutral fullerenes, performed at the intracavity free electron laser FELICE. We make use of mass-specific vibrational resonances in the infrared domain to selectively heat up one out of a distribution of several fullerene species. Efficient energy redistribution leads to decay via thermionic emission. Time-resolved electron kinetic energy distributions measured give information on the decay rate of the selected fullerene. This method is generally applicable to all neutral species that exhibit thermionic emission and provides a unique tool to study the stability of mass-selected neutral clusters and molecules that are only available as part of a size distribution.

  14. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A

    2010-10-16

    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  15. Application of fiber optic distributed sensor for strain measurement in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashima, Toshio; Usu, Tomonori; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Nobiki, Atsushi; Sato, Masashi; Nakai, Kenji

    1997-11-01

    We report on civil engineering applications of a fiber optic distributed strain sensor. It consists of a sensing fiber and a high performance optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), for measuring both strain and optical loss distribution along optical fibers by accessing only one end of the fiber. The OTDR can measure distributed strain with an accuracy of better than +/- 60 X 10-6 and a high spatial resolution of up to 1 m over a 10 km long fiber. In model experiments using the OTDR, we measured the strain changes in fibers attached to the surface of a concrete test beam. The performance of the fiber strain sensor was tested by measuring the strain distribution in optical fibers and comparing the results with resistance strain gage measurements for several loads. We found that the two sets of results were similar, and in addition, we demonstrated experimentally that the sensor was able to measure an induced strain change of less than 100 by 10-6, which is nearly the elastic limit of the concrete material. These results show the potential of the OTDR to extend the application of monitoring systems to such areas as large building diagnostics for civil engineering.

  16. using multi-scale measurements of pitch angle distribution to test magnetospheric relativistic electron energization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Reeves, E. G. D.

    Detailed investigation of pitch angle distributions during the course of a relativistic electron energization event can aid in identifying the dominant physical process underlying the event. Current models of electron energization employ a variety physical processes ranging from radial diffusion to in-situ acceleration mechanisms. These processes result in different pitch angle distributions of energized electrons, for example radial diffusion dominated events have a pancake-type distribution. We present the results of a statistical survey of multi-scale electron pitch angle measurements during relativistic electron events. Measurements of in-situ pitch angle evolution at geosynchronous altitude are combined with measurements of global isotropization time scales. We use data from energetic particle sensors onboard SAMPEX and pitch angle data from the SOPA and ESP sensors onboard LANL spacecraft. The LANL measurements provide a microscopic view of the electron pitch angle distribution. Combining electron flux measurements at geosynchronous altitudes with those measured by SAMPEX which is in low earth orbit provides a macroscopic global view of the flux isotropization.

  17. Particle-size-distribution measurement using a Hankel transform of a Fraunhofer diffraction spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, S; Saito, H

    1983-11-01

    A new method for the measurement of the size distribution of circular particles by using a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is proposed, which basically consists of performing the following two steps: (1) a Hankel transform of the radial spectral intensity that is diffracted from randomly distributed circular objects and (2) a calculation of a correlation between the Hankel-transformed function and a characteristic operator, such as a digital third-derivative operator. The method provides continuous size distribution of circular objects with high resolution.

  18. Laser-dust interaction and dust size distribution measurements on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; West, W. P.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rosenberg, M.; Bray, B. D.

    2007-11-15

    The determination of dust radius distributions from the measurement of laser scattering intensity in tokamaks is presented. The analysis takes into account non-Rayleigh regimes of light scattering for different complex refractive indices of dust materials, as well as dust evaporation due to heating by laser radiation. The model is applied to calculate the dust particle radius distribution in tokamaks during normal plasma operation. It is shown that a relatively small amount of large dust particles in the distribution may play a significant role for estimation of the dust mass inventory in tokamaks.

  19. High precision, high sensitivity distributed displacement and temperature measurements using OFDR-based phase tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Dawn K.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Kreger, Stephen T.

    2011-05-01

    Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry is used to measure distributed displacement and temperature change with very high sensitivity and precision by measuring the phase change of an optical fiber sensor as a function of distance with high spatial resolution and accuracy. A fiber containing semi-continuous Bragg gratings was used as the sensor. The effective length change, or displacement, in the fiber caused by small temperature changes was measured as a function of distance with a precision of 2.4 nm and a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm. The temperature changes calculated from this displacement were measured with precision of 0.001 C with an effective sensor gauge length of 12 cm. These results demonstrate that the method employed of continuously tracking the phase change along the length of the fiber sensor enables high resolution distributed measurements that can be used to detect very small displacements, temperature changes, or strains.

  20. Distributed temperature measurement using a dual-core fiber with an integrated miniature turn-around

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoguang; Li, Jie; Hines, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Double-ended configuration is commonly deployed in Raman-based distributed temperature sensing (DTS) systems to achieve a high accuracy in temperature measurement. To show the feasibility of multicore optical fiber (MCF) in this application, we will demonstrate distributed temperature measurements using a sensor consisting of a dual-core MCF and an integrated, distal end turn-around in a doubled-ended configuration. The dual-core fiber and turn-around, both coated with polyimide, are suitable for high temperature use. Additionally, the device is ideal for long length, distributed temperature detection in confined spaces, with a finished outer diameter of less than 300 μm. The results show that wavelength dependent loss (WDL) is easily removed in the setup and an accurate temperature measurement can be achieved reliably over a wide temperature range.

  1. Distributed strain measurement system in one-dimensional by means of multipoint FBG sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hao; Zhu, Jun; Tang, Haiyu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhao; Shui, Tao; Yu, Benli

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we described a distributed strain measurement scheme in one-dimensional. The sensing information of FBG is demodulated by a CCD spectrometer, the discrete strain is achieved by fitting and processing discrete signal demodulated utilizing labVIEW virtual instrument technology. Then it could be achieved by Using polynomial fitting method to one-dimensional discrete strain distributed detection. Experimentally, measurement was implemented in Cantilever to prove the system performance. The experimental result shows that the system can reflect the strain distribution in one-dimensional and an order strain modal characteristics of cantilever accurately. The detection system can achieve real-time and dynamic measurements, the response time for 2kHz, the response accuracy for 4μɛ.

  2. Have I Been a Data Scientist from the Start? Parallels from the Geographic Information Science Community in the Early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1990s the author came of age as the technology driving the geographic information system or GIS was beginning to successfully 'handle' geospatial data at a range of scales and formats, and a wide array of information technology products emerged from an expanding GIS industry. However, that small community struggled to reflect the diverse research efforts at play in understanding the deeper issues surrounding geospatial data, and the impediments to that effective use of that data. It was from this need that geographic information science or GIScience arose, to ensure in part that GIS did not fall into the trap of being a technology in search of applications, a one-time, one-off, non-intellectual 'bag of tricks' with no substantive theory underpinning it, and suitable only for a static period of time (e.g., Goodchild, 1992). The community has since debated the issue of "tool versus science' which has also played a role in defining GIS as an actual profession. In turn, GIS has contributed to "methodological versus substantive" questions in science, leading to understandings of how the Earth works versus how the Earth should look. In the author's experience, the multidimensional structuring and scaling data, with integrative and innovative approaches to analyzing, modeling, and developing extensive and spatial data from selected places on land and at sea, have revealed how theory and application are in no way mutually exclusive, and it may often be application that advances theory, rather than vice versa. Increasingly, both the system and science of geographic information have welcomed strong collaborations among computer scientists, information scientists, and domain scientists to solve complex scientific questions. As such, they have paralleled the emergence and acceptance of "data science." And now that we are squarely in an era of regional- to global-scale observation and simulation of the Earth, produce data that are too big, move too fast, and do not

  3. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Niyazov; L.B. Weinstein; et al

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for ''fast'' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back-to-back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  4. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  5. Size distribution and emission rate measurement of fine and ultrafine particle from indoor human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géhin, Evelyne; Ramalho, Olivier; Kirchner, Séverine

    Human indoor activities generate airborne particles which contribute to the increase of aerosol concentration levels in the home. The particle size distribution emission rate was measured for 18 different activities (burning candle or incense, cooking, spray use, computer printing and household cleaning). The particle emission rate was calculated from concentration measurements with a DMS500 (CAMBUSTION) in an experimental chamber (2.36 ± 0.05 m 3). The results showed that ultrafine particles are emitted during these activities and the lowest number distribution mode was 6 nm for one of the burning candles. All the cooking activities had similar emissions with a mode between 20 and 40 nm. The measured size distributions were represented in a database by the sum of 1, 2 or 3 lognormal distributions. The measured total emission rate ranged between 0.06 × 10 10 and 13.10 × 10 10 s -1 and the highest emission rate was measured for the self cleaning oven program (pyrolysis).

  6. Infrared tomography: data distribution system and software development for real-time velocity measurement.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi; Pang, Jon Fea; Chan, Kok San; Leong, Lai Chen; Sulaiman, S; Abdul Manaf, M S

    2007-04-01

    The data distribution system of this project is divided into two types, which are a Two-PC Image Reconstruction System and a Two-PC Velocity Measurement System. Each data distribution system is investigated to see whether the results' refreshing rate of the corresponding measurement can be greater than the rate obtained by using a single computer in the same measurement system for each application. Each system has its own flow control protocol for controlling how data is distributed within the system in order to speed up the data processing time. This can be done if two PCs work in parallel. The challenge of this project is to define the data flow process and critical timing during data packaging, transferring and extracting in between PCs. If a single computer is used as a data processing unit, a longer time is needed to produce a measurement result. This insufficient real-time result will cause problems in a feedback control process when applying the system in industrial plants. To increase the refreshing rate of the measurement result, an investigation on a data distribution system is performed to replace the existing data processing unit.

  7. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  8. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  9. Local T2 distribution measurements with DANTE-Z slice selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    A CPMG pulse sequence incorporated with a DANTE-Z slice selection scheme for measuring spatially-resolved T2 distributions has been presented. The DANTE-Z pulse train with sinc-modulated pulses selects a single, quasi-rectangular slice of less than 0.8 cm wide at an arbitrary position over a 6-cm long sample. The measured T2 distributions are of almost the same quality as regular (bulk) CPMG measurements, with the lower T2 limit being as good as c.a. 0.5 ms. The sequence can be found useful as a supplement or alternative to MRI-based techniques for T2 mapping in short relaxation time samples (water-saturated rocks, building materials, wood, food products, rubbers, etc.), particularly when T2 is required to be measured at only few positions along the sample and the resolution of ˜1 cm is acceptable.

  10. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Hampel, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other temperature field measurement approaches such as infrared cameras is that the object under investigation can be thermally insulated and the radiation properties of the surface do not affect the measurement accuracy. The sensor principle is therefore suited for various industrial monitoring applications. Its applicability for surface temperature monitoring has been demonstrated through heating and mixing experiments in a vessel. PMID:23353141

  11. Bayesian joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and time-to-event data using robust distributions.

    PubMed

    Baghfalaki, T; Ganjali, M; Hashemi, R

    2014-01-01

    Distributional assumptions of most of the existing methods for joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and time-to-event data cannot allow incorporation of outlier robustness. In this article, we develop and implement a joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data using some powerful distributions for robust analyzing that are known as normal/independent distributions. These distributions include univariate and multivariate versions of the Student's t, the slash, and the contaminated normal distributions. The proposed model implements a linear mixed effects model under a normal/independent distribution assumption for both random effects and residuals of the longitudinal process. For the time-to-event process a parametric proportional hazard model with a Weibull baseline hazard is used. Also, a Bayesian approach using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is adopted for parameter estimation. Some simulation studies are performed to investigate the performance of the proposed method under presence and absence of outliers. Also, the proposed methods are applied for analyzing a real AIDS clinical trial, with the aim of comparing the efficiency and safety of two antiretroviral drugs, where CD4 count measurements are gathered as longitudinal outcomes. In these data, time to death or dropout is considered as the interesting time-to-event outcome variable. Different model structures are developed for analyzing these data sets, where model selection is performed by the deviance information criterion (DIC), expected Akaike information criterion (EAIC), and expected Bayesian information criterion (EBIC).

  12. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

  13. Measurement of the distribution of [3H]bicuculline microinjected into the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Segura, T; Martin, D S; Sheridan, P J; Haywood, J R

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the distribution of a radiolabeled drug [3H]bicuculline methylchloride ([3H]BMC) following microinjection into the supraoptic nuclei (SON) and the dorsal hypothalamus of conscious rats. The anteroposterior (AP) distribution was measured using liquid-scintillation counting while computer-assisted densitometry was used to measure the mediolateral (ML) and dorsoventral (DV) distribution of silver grains on autoradiograms. Following a 50-nl microinjection into the SON, 90% of the detected tracer was found within 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 5) of the injection site. Using the same volume, the pattern of distribution of 90% of the detected tracer in the SON was not significantly altered when rats received a microinfusion over 10 min (n = 5) or a bolus microinjection with a 10 min waiting period (n = 6) prior to death. Following a 100-nl microinfusion over 20 min into the dorsal hypothalamus, 90% of the detected radiolabel was found within 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 7) of the injection site, in a spherical pattern of distribution. Although caution must be used in extrapolating these results to other drugs, these data suggest that intraparenchymal microinjections of 50- and 100-nl volumes are suitable for drug localization in studies using microinjection techniques for conscious rats.

  14. Fast Airborne Size Distribution Measurements of an Aerosol Processes and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Zhou, J.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S.

    2009-12-01

    During MILAGRO/INTEX experiment the Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HIGEAR) deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard NSF C-130 and NASA DC-8. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering - f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). We also flew the Fast Mobility Particle Spectrometer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) to measure aerosol size distributions in a range 5.6 - 560 nm. For all our flights around Mexico City, an aerosol number concentration usually was well above the nominal FMPS sensitivity (from ~100 particles/cc @ Dp = 5.6 nm to 1 part/cc @ 560nm), providing us with reliable size distributions even at 1 sec resolution. FMPS measurements revealed small scale structure of an aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved. These 1-Hz measurements during aircraft profiles captured variations in size distributions within shallow layers. Other dynamic processes observed included orography induced aerosol layers and evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation. We put FMPS high resolution size distribution data in a context of aerosol evolution and aging, using a range of established (for MIRAGE/INTEX) chemical, aerosol and transport aging parameters.

  15. Measurement of the distribution of [3H]bicuculline microinjected into the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Segura, T; Martin, D S; Sheridan, P J; Haywood, J R

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the distribution of a radiolabeled drug [3H]bicuculline methylchloride ([3H]BMC) following microinjection into the supraoptic nuclei (SON) and the dorsal hypothalamus of conscious rats. The anteroposterior (AP) distribution was measured using liquid-scintillation counting while computer-assisted densitometry was used to measure the mediolateral (ML) and dorsoventral (DV) distribution of silver grains on autoradiograms. Following a 50-nl microinjection into the SON, 90% of the detected tracer was found within 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 5) of the injection site. Using the same volume, the pattern of distribution of 90% of the detected tracer in the SON was not significantly altered when rats received a microinfusion over 10 min (n = 5) or a bolus microinjection with a 10 min waiting period (n = 6) prior to death. Following a 100-nl microinfusion over 20 min into the dorsal hypothalamus, 90% of the detected radiolabel was found within 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 7) of the injection site, in a spherical pattern of distribution. Although caution must be used in extrapolating these results to other drugs, these data suggest that intraparenchymal microinjections of 50- and 100-nl volumes are suitable for drug localization in studies using microinjection techniques for conscious rats. PMID:1564952

  16. A synopsis of 30 years of major accomplishments by the Pennsylvania Department of Health in Environmental Health (Part 2 of 2): the 1990s and the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Logue, James N; Sivarajah, Kandiah

    2010-12-01

    This article reviews significant environmental health projects conducted by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, particularly the Division of Environmental Health, during the 1990s and the following decade. The authors describe lessons learned from a new occupational health initiative, continuing work on the health assessment grant funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and a new Environmental Public Health Tracking grant funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in addition to emerging issues during these two decades.

  17. Four-state quantum key distribution exploiting maximum mutual information measurement strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hong-Rong; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-02-01

    We propose a four-state quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme using generalized measurement of nonorthogonal states, the maximum mutual information measurement strategy. Then, we analyze the eavesdropping process in intercept-resend and photon number splitting attack scenes. Our analysis shows that in the intercept-resend and photon number splitting attack eavesdropping scenes, our scheme is more secure than BB84 protocol and has higher key generation rate which may be applied to high-density QKD.

  18. FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT FOR LONG GLASS AND CARBON FIBER REINFORCED INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J; Nguyen, Ba N.; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.

  19. High energy angular distribution measurements of the exclusive deuteron photodisintegration reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Elaine Schulte; et. Al.

    2002-10-01

    The first complete measurements of the angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section at photon energies above 1.6 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The results show a persistent forward-backward asymmetry up to Egamma = 2.4 GeV, the highest-energy measured in this experiment. The Hard Rescattering and the Quark-Gluon string models are in fair agreement with the results.

  20. Measurement of rat heart fatty acid binding protein by ELISA. Tissue distribution, developmental changes and subcellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Crisman, T S; Claffey, K P; Saouaf, R; Hanspal, J; Brecher, P

    1987-05-01

    A class of soluble, low molecular weight proteins collectively called fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) are thought to function in the intracellular movement of fatty acids. To understand more clearly the role of FABP in cardiac metabolism, we used ELISA and immunoblotting techniques to study the distribution of heart FABP in several rat tissues, compare male and female rat heart content, quantitate developmental changes, and determine its subcellular distribution. Immunoreactive protein was found in appreciable amounts in rat heart, red skeletal muscle and kidney. Adult rat heart contained about 1.5 mg FABP/g tissue wet weight with the atrial content being approximately 50% of the ventricular concentration. No significant difference was detected between the sexes. The amount of FABP increased progressively during development from fetal to adult animals, and measureable amounts were found in 17-day-old fetal tissue. Comparisons between myoglobin and FABP showed that FABP appeared earlier than myoglobin in development, but myoglobin was more abundant than FABP at birth. Using immunoblots it was determined that rat heart FABP was localized in the cytosol with no detectable intramitochondrial material. PMID:3625779

  1. Carrier Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS): a new approach for the measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bjoern; Fischer, Holger; Kansy, Manfred; Seelig, Anna; Assmus, Frauke

    2015-02-20

    Here we present a miniaturized assay, referred to as Carrier-Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS) for fast and reliable measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients, log D(oct). By introducing a filter support for octanol, phase separation from water is facilitated and the tendency of emulsion formation (emulsification) at the interface is reduced. A guideline for the best practice of CAMDIS is given, describing a strategy to manage drug adsorption at the filter-supported octanol/buffer interface. We validated the assay on a set of 52 structurally diverse drugs with known shake flask log D(oct) values. Excellent agreement with literature data (r(2) = 0.996, standard error of estimate, SEE = 0.111), high reproducibility (standard deviation, SD < 0.1 log D(oct) units), minimal sample consumption (10 μL of 100 μM DMSO stock solution) and a broad analytical range (log D(oct) range = -0.5 to 4.2) make CAMDIS a valuable tool for the high-throughput assessment of log D(oc)t.

  2. Distribution of nickel hydroxide in sintered nickel plaques measured by radiotracer method during electroimpregnation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, P.K.; Schneider, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered nickel positive electrodes were prepared by electroimpregnating nickel hydroxide inside a porous nickel plaque in a nickel nitrate solution. The distribution of nickel hydroxide inside the plaque was measured using a radio-tracer method with /sup 63/Ni as the radioactivity source. Autoradiography and ..beta.. counting were used to follow qualitative and quantitative distributions, respectively, of the pore filling process. Relatively uniform distribution was observed at low current density, and the precipitation of Ni(OH)/sub 2/ extends to the center of the plaque. At high current density, most of the Ni(OH)/sub 2/ aggregated in the region just underneath the plaque surface, causing a somewhat nonuniform distribution. Nickel hydroxide also precipitates heavily on the surface of the plaque at high current density, reducing the penetration of electrolyte to the inside of the plaque.

  3. Real-space measurement of potential distribution in PECVD ONO electrets by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, F; Thielemann, C

    2016-05-20

    Multilayers of silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (ONO) are known for their good electret properties due to deep energy traps near the material interfaces, facilitating charge storage. However, measurement of the space charge distribution in such multilayers is a challenge for conventional methods if layer thickness dimensions shrink below 1 μm. In this paper, we propose an atomic force microscope based method to determine charge distributions in ONO layers with spatial resolution below 100 nm. By applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on freshly cleaved, corona-charged multilayers, the surface potential is measured directly along the z-axis and across the interfaces. This new method gives insights into charge distribution and charge movement in inorganic electrets with a high spatial resolution.

  4. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  5. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively. PMID:21267082

  6. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  7. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively. PMID:21267082

  8. Distributed consensus estimation for diffusion systems with missing measurements over sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhengxian; Cui, Baotong; Lou, Xuyang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the problem of distributed consensus estimation with randomly missing measurements is investigated for a diffusion system over the sensor network. A random variable, the probability of which is known a priori, is used to model the randomly missing phenomena for each sensor. The aim of the addressed estimation problem is to design distributed consensus estimators depending on the neighbouring information such that, for all random measurement missing, the estimation error systems are guaranteed to be globally asymptotically stable in the mean square. By using Lyapunov functional method and the stochastic analysis approach, the sufficient conditions are derived for the convergence of the estimation error systems. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed consensus estimator design scheme.

  9. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    SciTech Connect

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-15

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 {mu}F, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  10. Real-space measurement of potential distribution in PECVD ONO electrets by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerich, F.; Thielemann, C.

    2016-05-01

    Multilayers of silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (ONO) are known for their good electret properties due to deep energy traps near the material interfaces, facilitating charge storage. However, measurement of the space charge distribution in such multilayers is a challenge for conventional methods if layer thickness dimensions shrink below 1 μm. In this paper, we propose an atomic force microscope based method to determine charge distributions in ONO layers with spatial resolution below 100 nm. By applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on freshly cleaved, corona-charged multilayers, the surface potential is measured directly along the z-axis and across the interfaces. This new method gives insights into charge distribution and charge movement in inorganic electrets with a high spatial resolution.

  11. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    PubMed

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries.

  12. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    PubMed

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. PMID:27339739

  13. Calibration of an acoustic system for measuring 2-D temperature distribution around hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Chen, Ying

    2013-04-01

    One of the fundamental purposes of quantitative acoustic surveys of seafloor hydrothermal vents is to measure their 2-D temperature distributions. Knowing the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances between the underwater transducers in an acoustic tomography system is fundamental to the overall accuracy of the temperature reconstruction. However, commercial transducer sources typically do not supply the needed data. Here we present a novel calibration algorithm to automatically determine the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances. The possible system latency error and the resulting temperature error are derived and analyzed. We have also developed the experimental setup for calibration. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration method, an experimental study was performed on acoustic imaging of underwater temperature fields in Lake Qiezishan, located at Longling County, Yunnan Province, China. Using the calibrated data, the reconstructed temperature distributions closely resemble the actual distributions measured with thermocouples, thus confirming the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  14. DepositScan, a Scanning Program to Measure Spray Deposition Distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DepositScan, a scanning program was developed to quickly measure spray deposit distributions on water sensitive papers or Kromekote cards which are widely used for determinations of pesticide spray deposition quality on target areas. The program is installed in a portable computer and works with a ...

  15. Two Measures of Change in the Gaps between the CDFs of Test-Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined two ways of measuring the gap between two cumulative distribution functions (CDFs), vertical and horizontal distance. Demonstrated how these two approaches can lead to contradictory conclusions about small changes in gaps using real data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. (SLD)

  16. An Investigation of Some Distributional Characteristics of the Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The distributional characteristics of Kaiser's Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) were investigated in sample matrices generated from multivariate normal populations of specified correlation levels. Systematic variation of sample size and number of variables revealed the overall MSA to be most influenced by the number of variables. (Author/JKS)

  17. An Investigation of Some Distributional Characteristics of the Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; And Others

    The distributional characteristics of the Kaiser-Rice measure of sampling adequacy (MSA) were investigated with sample correlation matrices from multivariate normal populations where the level of correlation (LC) was systematically varied. Two additional variables were manipulated--sample size (SS) and number of variables (NV). Ten matrices were…

  18. Soil temperature variability in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts variability in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...

  19. A system for measuring the pulse height distribution of ultrafast photomultipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    A system for measuring the pulse height distribution of gigahertz bandwidth photomultipliers was developed. This system uses a sampling oscilloscope as a sample-hold circuit and has a bandwidth of 12 gigahertz. Test results are given for a static crossed-filed photomultiplier tested with a demonstration system. Calculations on system amplitude resolution capabilities are included for currently available system components.

  20. IN SITU APPARENT CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AT A HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the bulk electrical conductivity and microbial population distribution in sediments at a site contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The bulk conductivity was measured using in situ vertical resistivity probes, while the most probable number met...