Science.gov

Sample records for 1990s measurement distribution

  1. SPRAWL IN THE 1990S Measurement, Distribution, and Trends.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ; Hynes, H Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal.

  2. SPRAWL IN THE 1990S Measurement, Distribution, and Trends

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ, RUSS; HYNES, H. PATRICIA

    2006-01-01

    Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal. PMID:16990927

  3. A data distribution strategy for the 1990s (files are not enough)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankenson, Mike; Wright, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Virtually all of the data distribution strategies being contemplated for the EOSDIS era revolve around the use of files. Most, if not all, mass storage technologies are based around the file model. However, files may be the wrong primary abstraction for supporting scientific users in the 1990s and beyond. Other abstractions more closely matching the respective scientific discipline of the end user may be more appropriate. JPL has built a unique multimission data distribution system based on a strategy of telemetry stream emulation to match the responsibilities of spacecraft team and ground data system operators supporting our nations suite of planetary probes. The current system, operational since 1989 and the launch of the Magellan spacecraft, is supporting over 200 users at 15 remote sites. This stream-oriented data distribution model can provide important lessons learned to builders of future data systems.

  4. Solid Earth science in the 1990s. Volume 3: Measurement techniques and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Reports are contained from the NASA Workshop on Solid Earth Science in the 1990s. The techniques and technologies needed to address the program objectives are discussed. The Measurement Technique and Technology Panel identified (1) candidate measurement systems for each of the measurements required for the Solid Earth Science Program that would fall under the NASA purview; (2) the capabilities and limitations of each technique; and (3) the developments necessary for each technique to meet the science panel requirements. In nearly all cases, current technology or a development path with existing technology was identified as capable of meeting the requirements of the science panels. These technologies and development paths are discussed.

  5. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  6. Estimating changes in ocean ventilation from early 1990s CFC-12 and late 2000s SF6 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, Toste; Waugh, Darryn W.; Bullister, John L.

    2013-03-01

    Transient tracer measurements can constrain the rates and pathways of ocean ventilation and act as proxies for biogeochemically relevant gases such as CO2 and oxygen. Various techniques have deduced changes in ocean ventilation over decadal timescales using transient tracer measurements made on repeat sections, but these require a priori assumptions about mixing in the ocean interior. Here, we introduce a simple, direct observational method that takes advantage of the similar atmospheric increase rates of chlorofluorocarbon-12 and sulfur hexafluoride, but with a time lag (offset) of 14-15 years. Such repeat measurements can be directly compared without prior assumptions about mixing. A difference larger than ~2 years between modern sulfur hexafluoride and historical chlorofluorocarbon-12 tracer ages implies a change in ventilation, although lack of difference does not necessarily imply no change. Several tracer data sets are presented, which suggest changes in ventilation in the South Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans.

  7. Law Library Service in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "The Bookmark" presents 20 articles focusing on various aspects of law library services in New York State. The articles are: (1) "Law Library Services in the 1990's" (Christine Bain); (2) "A Librarian's View of Legal Publishing Today" (Margaret Maes Axtmann); (3) "Legal Publishing--A Publisher's View" (Kenneth Lee Halajian); (4)…

  8. Introduction: Themes for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul A.; Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the following themes that pervade individual articles in this volume: (1) critical reasoning; (2) inductive anthropology; (3) active learning; (4) discovery; (5) open versus closed anthropology; (6) reflexivity; (7) cross-cultural comparisons; (8) films; (9) holism; and (10) problems in the 1990s. Suggests that these themes will be at…

  9. Marketing ambulatory services in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hicks, S

    1992-07-01

    The ability to predict, to adapt to change, and to develop strategic low cost marketing plans are the components essential to remaining financially solvent in today's health care environment. The marketing process is analogous to the nursing process and should support the institution's mission statement, philosophy, and goals. Managers who are able to empower their personnel to become the sales force and implement the marketing plan will be the survivors in the 1990s.

  10. Aerosol Blanket Likely Thinned During 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Each day, a blanket of tiny particles drifting through the Earth's atmosphere filters out some of the sunlight headed for the planet's surface. These aerosols, including dust, smoke, and human-produced pollution, can reflect incoming light or absorb it, directly affecting the Earth's energy balance and climate. Aerosols also influence the climate indirectly, by affecting the brightness and amount of clouds. Research by NASA scientists on global aerosol patterns since the 1990s indicate the global aerosol blanket has likely thinned, allowing more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface over the past decade. The thinning of the blanket is shown by this trio of images based on satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness, a measurement that scientists use to describe how much the aerosols filter the incoming sunlight. Higher optical thickness (orange and red) means more sunlight blocking. The globes show average aerosol optical thickness for 1988-1991 (top), 2002-2005 (middle), and the change between the two time periods (bottom). Overall, the 1988-1991 image appears redder, a sign that aerosols were blocking more incoming sunlight; the 2002-2005 image has more light yellow areas. In the bottom image, small pockets of red (increased aerosol optical thickness), mostly near land masses in the Northern Hemisphere, are far outnumbered by blue areas (decreased aerosol optical thickness). Because they block incoming sunlight from reaching Earth's surface, aerosols may counterbalance greenhouse gas warming. The decline in the dimming power of aerosols over the past decade may have made the greenhouse warming trend more evident in the past decade than in previous decades. The scientists describe their results as a 'likely' trend because the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite sensors they used in their analysis were not specifically designed to observe aerosols, and may contain some errors. However, specific, major aerosol events, such as large

  11. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. This paper will highlight some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's.

  12. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1991-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. Some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's are highlighted.

  13. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  14. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  15. Explosive Welding in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalwaney, N. S.; Linse, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive bonding is a unique joining process with the serious potential to produce composite materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials needs of the 1990's. The process has the technological versatility to provide a true high quality metallurgical compatible and incompatible systems. Metals routinely explosively bonded include a wide variety of combinations of reactive and refractory metals, low and high density metals and their alloys, corrosion resistant and high strength alloys, and common steels. The major advantage of the process is its ability to custom design and engineer composites with physical and/or mechanical properties that meet a specific or unusual performance requirement. Explosive bonding offers the designer unique opportunities in materials selection with unique combinations of properties and high integrity bonds that cannot be achieved by any other metal joining process. The process and some applications are discussed.

  16. Computing possibilities in the mid 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes the kind of computing resources it may be possible to make available for experiments in high energy physics in the mid and late 1990s. We outline some of the work going on today, particularly at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program, that projects to the future. We attempt to define areas in which coordinated R and D efforts should prove fruitful to provide for on and off-line computing in the SSC era. Because of extraordinary components anticipated from industry, we can be optimistic even to the level of predicting million VAX equivalent on-line multiprocessor/data acquisition systems for SSC detectors. Managing this scale of computing will require a new approach to large hardware and software systems. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Mars exploration in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Science objectives for a Mars exploration program in the 1990s, set forth by NASA's Committee on Planetary Exploration, are presented. They include: an intensive study of the Martian surface, the exploration of the structure and general circulation of the atmosphere, the exploration of the nature and dynamics of the planet's interior, the nature of Mars's magnetic field, the character of the upper atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind, and the establishment of the global chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian surface. Several low cost missions, which have been suggested by the Committee for NASA's CORE program, such as the Mars Geoscience Climatology Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Orbiter, and the Mars Surface Network and Surface Probing missions are also covered. Direct Entry-Direct Return and Out-of-Orbit Entry-Orbital Rendezvous and Docking are two versions of a Mars Rover and Sample Return (MRSR) mission discussed in detail. It is concluded that a MRSR mission will require the combination of full Centaur capability, aerocapture at Mars and earth, and direct return to earth to meet major scientific goals. Further studies should be made in orbit assembly, fuel transfer technology, aeromaneuvering, terminal guidance, rover technology, and robotics.

  18. Nonmetro Poverty: Assessing the Effect of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Dean

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990s, the poverty rate in nonmetropolitan areas declined to a record low of 13.4 percent. Drawing on census data, aspects of nonmetro poverty during the 1990s are outlined, including effects of urbanization, regional differences, racial and ethnic differences, importance of family structure, needs for assistance and human services,…

  19. NASA scientific and technical information for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    Projections for NASA scientific and technical information (STI) in the 1990s are outlined. NASA STI for the 1990s will maintain a quality bibliographic and full-text database, emphasizing electronic input and products supplemented by networked access to a wide variety of sources, particularly numeric databases.

  20. The Bellagio Declaration: overcoming hunger in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F; Arizpe, L; Belford, T S; Clark, J; Csanadi, J; Davies, P J; Emmerij, L; George, S; Hyden, G; Jonsson, U

    1989-01-01

    In November 1989, 23 leading hunger experts met in Bellagio, Italy, issues a document called the "Bellagio Declaration: Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s." The report lists 4 achievable goals: eliminate famine deaths; end hunger in half of the world's poorest households; reduce by half malnutrition of mothers and small children; and eradicate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Famine deaths can be eliminated by setting up early-warning systems and longer-term relief objectives. The only remaining obstacle is how to prevent warring nations from blocking food deliveries and destroying food. Hunger can be eliminated in half the world's poor households by giving the poor access to resources and credit, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, using sustainable farming, and using existing markets to distribute food equitably. Malnutrition can be halved by sustained breastfeeding, and supplementation of food and micronutrients. Iodine and vitamin A deficiencies can be eliminated by giving iodized oil injections, vitamin A capsules and iodized salt. Ways of dealing with obstacles such as population, deforestation, soil and water shortages, pollution, global warming and capital deficits in the South are discussed. There is hope that these goals can be attained because of the outbreak of peace and democracy, freeing up substantial portions of the 1 trillion US dollars spent on defense; abatement of feat of worldwide economic collapse; and evolution of a worldwide logistic system to provide emergency food aid.

  1. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B

    2004-04-23

    Observations of sea surface height reveal that substantial changes have occurred over the past decade in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data show that subpolar sea surface height increased during the 1990s, and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data exhibits declining subpolar gyre circulation. Combining the data from earlier satellites, we find that subpolar circulation may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the weakening circulation trend of the 1990s and, together with hydrographic data, show that the mid- to late 1990s decline extends deep in the water column. Analysis of the local surface forcing suggests that the 1990s buoyancy forcing has a dynamic effect consistent with altimetric and hydrographic observations: A weak thermohaline forcing allows the decay of the domed structure of subpolar isopycnals and weakening of circulation.

  2. Problems and Prospects of Turkey in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    sianificant pillar of the European economic. deience. and social structure. VI - 2 NOTES 1. Karabulut, Orhan . "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s." NATO’s...Kamran. "The South-East Anatolia Project." Turkish Review (Spring 1989) Ankara-Turkey Karabulut, Orhan . Adm. "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s.0 NATO’s...SCALE 1 :25SO0000 PROJECTION UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR ULTM) 2𔃼*24, 25- 6 27* 2. I.to Im,wiaa Weua (AWin 871 %)I B U L G A R IA 6*4 wwa j*am.Ap

  3. Oil demand and prices in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.; Phillips, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    Current oil prices are too low to be sustained in the 1990s. The authors forecast that by the year 2000, the price of oil (in 1988 dollars) could reach $30 to $40 per barrel; adjusted for inflation, these prices are about 60 to 80% of the peak price established in early 1981. They find that during the 1980s a slow adjustment process, encouraged by OPEC actions, reduced oil demand and put downward pressure on prices. They expect reversal of that process in the 1990s will work, with world economic expansion to boost oil demand and prices. 10 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  4. United States-Japanese National Interests in Asia: Security in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    National Security," in International Security, Vol. II, No. 2, Fall 1986, for a critique and rebuttal of the Maritime Strategy. 3 ’Julian S . Corbett...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Distribution is unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6a. NAME OF...Interests in Asia: Security in the 1990s 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Staples, Mark T. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (year, month, day

  5. Shakespeare for the 1990s: A Multicultural Tempest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "The Tempest" is the play that is best suited for the high school English curriculum of the 1990s. Discusses historical and critical aspects the play's key themes. Shows ways of using the play in high school classes, and describes 19 works to read alongside of"The Tempest." (HB)

  6. Prospects for Physics in the 1990's Surveyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    A National Academy of Science report ("Physics Through the 1990's") says that American physics has been a highly diversified and productive enterprise, but continued excellence cannot be taken for granted. Progress in six subfields (elementary particle, nuclear, condensed-matter, atomic/molecular, plasma/fluid, and gravitation/cosmology physics)…

  7. Women's Studies in the 1990s: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judith

    1991-01-01

    This speech examines women's studies in Australia in the 1970s and 1980s, limitations and problems facing women's studies in the 1990s, and prospects. Discussed are effects of the "Dawkins Revolution," women's studies and feminist scholarship, women's studies curricula, institutional problems, political problems, and the changing faculty…

  8. Transpersonal Social Work: A Theory for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Au-Deane S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that transpersonal psychology contains growing body of literature and theory related to spiritual dimension of human nature and higher states of consciousness. Sees this approach as especially relevant for social work practitioners who are combating social ills of 1990s that manifest as violence, addiction, and spiritual malaise. (Author/NB)

  9. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  10. Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Yun Suk

    2011-01-01

    Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational…

  11. Changing Contexts for Counselor Preparation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold, Ed.

    The five chapters in this monograph provide guidelines for counselors in the 1990s who will be faced with such societal issues as substance abuse, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), teenage pregnancy, youth unemployment, homelessness, crime and delinquency, and school dropouts. "The Contemporary Counselor in a Changed World" (Harold…

  12. Improved zircon iron corals for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, C. )

    1992-03-01

    CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors is dedicated to the research and development of consistent and cost-effective ceramic stains for the whitewares industry. After identifying the trends in color for the 1990s. CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors initiated an extensive R D project to improve zircon ion corals for the whitewares industry. These color trends indicated a need for stronger and cleaner zircon iron corals. This paper discusses the chemistry and crystal structure of zircon iron corals. A historical review of Drakenfeld corals will also be presented. The most recent development in Drakenfeld corals will then be compared to other commercially available zircon iron corals. Taking into consideration these comparisons, conclusions will be drawn suggesting the coral of choice for the 1990s.

  13. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  14. A Strategic Planning Process for NATO for the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    This thesis deals with the possible shifts in NATO’s strategy for the rest of the 1990s. It uses a strategic planning model to explore these possible...shift’s in strategy. Strategic planning is a systematic process of defining the mission and the objectives and creating action plans, policies and...resource allocations to achieve them. Every organization should initiate strategic planning in order to address the evolving needs of its stakeholders

  15. Will there be a 14C minimum in the tropical Pacific in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Toggweiler, J.R. )

    1990-01-09

    14C distributions measured during GEOSECS showed large minima in bomb 14C levels in the tropical belts of the major ocean basins. Broecker et al. (1978, JGR, 83) attributed the minima to upwelling of deep water which was free of bomb 14C. Wyrtki (1981, JPO, 11) countered that heat budgets constrain the water upwelling the the equator to be from the upper themocline. Druffel (1987, JMR, 45) built a model of the Pacific upwelling system incorporating Wyrtki's description of the upwelling system. Druffel showed that the GEOSECS 14C minimum could be reproduced with upwelled upper thermocline water because bomb 14C levels were still relatively low in the tropical thermocline at the time of GEOSECS. Druffel went on to predict that mid latitude and tropical surface 14C levels would approach a common value before the 1990s and upper thermocline water masses acquired more bomb 14C and atmospheric 14C levels declined. By studying pre-bomb coral 14C records and a model simulation in Toggweiler et al. (1989, JGR, 94), I have found confirmation that some older and colder water upwells in the tropical Pacific. Upper thermocline (22-24C) water has about the same pre-bomb 14C content as pre-bomb surface waters and cannot generate a low 14C singal prior to the bomb test. The appearance of the oldest upwelled water in the coral data is correlated in time with the cold phase of the ENSO cycle. Most of the low 14C water moves southward into the South Pacific. I will argue that intensified upwelling during the cold phase of ENSO pulls up 12-14C water from the lower layers of the Equatorial Undercurrent. Upwelling from this layer may represent an important closure mechanism for mode waters formed in the subantarctic. A source of older water makes it certain that the tropical 14C minimum will persist through the 1990s and the remainder of the post-bomb era.

  16. Red blood cell transfusion practices in very low birth weight infants in 1990s postsurfactant era.

    PubMed Central

    Beeram, M. R.; Krauss, D. R.; Riggs, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the practice of red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (between 501 to 1500 g) during the postsurfactant era of the 1990s; and (2) to evaluate if there is a decreasing trend in red cell transfusions in the 1990s. Database and medical records of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1990 and December 1995 at Scott & White Clinic, Temple, Texas, were reviewed. Five hundred twenty-seven infants were admitted to the NICU, excluding 5 infants that were transferred out for possible cardiac surgery or for other reasons. Fifty one (9.7%) of these infants died prior to discharge. Hence, data from 476 survivors were reviewed for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Transfusions were given at the discretion of the attending neonatologist. None of the infants received erythropoietin. Of the 476 infants, 289 (61%) received RBC transfusions during the hospital stay, with 2.7+/-3.6 transfusions per infant with a volume of 40.5+/-50.4 mL/kg. Smaller infants required significantly more transfusions compared to larger infants when divided into 250-g subgroups. No statistically significant difference was noted in the number of RBC transfusions per infant or number of infants transfused during the 6-year period from year to year. We conclude that VLBW infants in the 1990s postsurfactant era required 2.7 RBC transfusions per infant, on average, with the smallest infants requiring the most transfusions. These data will be helpful to counsel mothers in preterm labor regarding the need of transfusions for each birth weight category. Red cell transfusion practice has not changed over this 6-year period in the 1990s. Additional measures such as erythropoietin or even stricter transfusion criteria may be necessary to decrease transfusions further. However, safety of such measures should be carefully evaluated. PMID:11688921

  17. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  18. Education of clinical engineers in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of the terms bioengineering, biomedical engineering and clinical engineering. These definitions lead to the conclusion that clinical engineers must be individuals with at least a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering specialty who are also well versed in the design, modification and testing of medical instrumentation. Educational programs for clinical engineers in the 1990s must be based upon clear definitions of these professionals' roles. Clinical engineering education should include direct professional experience obtained through internship programs similar to the program described here.

  19. Mission Control Center enhancement opportunities in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for understanding the major enhancement opportunities for Air Force Mission Control Center/Test Support Centers (MCC's/TSC's) in the 1990's. Much of this paper is based on the findings of Study 232 and work currently underway in Study 2-6 for the Air Force Systems Command, Space System Division, Network Program Office. In this paper, we will address MCC/TSC enhancement needs primarily from the operator perspective, in terms of the increased capabilities required to improve space operations task performance.

  20. Helioseismology in the 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.

    2014-02-01

    Over more than twenty years, Wojtek Dziembowski and I collaborated on nearly fifty papers, which were concentrated in helioseismology through the 1980s and 1990s, but extended early into the new century. In this review, I discuss the most significant results of this collaboration and some of the underlying sociology that contributed to the intensity and longevity of our collaboration. Our work began with placing limits on the Sun's buried magnetic field and ended with extracting from the solar-cycle dependent oscillation frequency changes the roles (and net result) of competing dynamical drivers of changes in the solar diameter.

  1. Flight management - Pilot procedures and system interfaces for the 1980-1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wempe, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    In the air transportation system of the 1980-1990's, aircraft must perform with greater precision in time and position than is possible today. Rapid development in electronics technology makes renovation in airborne-system concepts feasible. The Ames Research Center is conducting research on pilot procedures and pilot-system interfaces for such systems. Research on various pilot-system interface devices and manned simulations was conducted to study rules of distributed decision making authority among pilots and controllers with various airborne display concepts, and a pilot-oriented command logic for the control of avionic systems was studied. Results are summarized, and ongoing work and future research plans described.

  2. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  3. ACTS Multibeam Communications Package - Technology for the 1990S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graebner, John C.; Cashman, William F.

    1990-01-01

    To maintain its competitive position in the 1990s, satellite communications must evolve to provide new services and to reduce the costs of supplying existing services. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is directed toward developing the technology base that will support this evolution. The ACTS communications payload is optimized for digital communications using a time-division multiple access format. Scanning spot-beam antennas provide high-performance on-demand service to the earth communication stations. On-board processing and switching allow full connectivity in a single-hop network architecture. ACTS employs Ka-band (30/20 GHz) links for communications traffic and includes techniques for mitigating rain fades. Scheduled to be launched by a Space Shuttle in 1992, ACTS will provide in-orbit technology verification and support experimental communications networks for up to four years.

  4. Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, S. O.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries. In some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, these declines in mortality among children have slowed and are now increasing again. Internationally comparable data derived from survey programmes, such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) programme, are available both to document the changes that have occurred in mortality and to provide insight into some of the factors that may explain these trends in mortality. The factors found in repeated DHS programmes that explain these trends fall into five categories: fertility behaviour; nutritional status, breastfeeding, and infant feeding; the use of health services by mothers and for children; environmental health conditions; and socioeconomic status. Both simple analyses and multivariate analyses of changes in these factors between surveys indicate that all factors affected the mortality trends. However, to explain trends in mortality, the variables themselves had to have changed over time. During the 1990s fertility behaviour, breastfeeding, and infant feeding have changed less than other factors and so would seem to have played a smaller role in mortality trends. This study confirms that trends in mortality during the 1990s were related to more than just a handful of variables. It would, therefore, be a mistake to concentrate policy actions on one or a few of these while forsaking others. Countries with the largest decreases in mortality have had substantial improvements in most of the factors that might be used to explain these changes. In some countries mortality has risen. In part these increases can be explained by the factors included in this study, such as deterioration in seeking medical care for children with fever. Other factors that were not measured, such as the increasing resistance of malaria to drug treatment and the increased prevalence of parental HIV/AIDS, may be contributing

  5. Cardiac Exposures in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy: 1950s-1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carolyn W. Nisbet, Andrew; McGale, Paul; Darby, Sarah C.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the doses to the heart and coronary arteries from common breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) regimens used worldwide from the 1950s to the 1990s. Methods and Materials: Virtual simulation and computed tomography planning were used to reconstruct the megavoltage and electron regimens. Manual planning was used for the orthovoltage and brachytherapy regimens. Several sources of variability associated with the dose estimates were assessed. Results: Breast or chest wall RT resulted in whole heart doses of 0.9-14 Gy for left-sided and of 0.4-6 Gy for right-sided irradiation. Internal mammary chain RT delivered heart doses of 3-17 Gy and 2-10 Gy for left- and right-sided irradiation, respectively. For most regimens, the dose to the left anterior descending coronary artery was greater than the heart dose. Scar boost, supraclavicular fossa, and axillary RT delivered mean cardiac doses of {<=}3 Gy. The greatest source of variability in estimating dose from a given regimen was patient anatomy. Conclusion: For most techniques, the greatest radiation doses were received by the anterior part of the heart and the left anterior descending coronary artery, a common site of atherosclerosis causing myocardial infarction. Irradiation of these structures might have contributed to the excess risk of death from heart disease seen after some past breast cancer RT regimens.

  6. Computerized structural mechanics for 1990's: Advanced aircraft needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Backman, B. F.

    1989-01-01

    The needs for computerized structural mechanics (CSM) as seen from the standpoint of the aircraft industry are discussed. These needs are projected into the 1990's with special focus on the new advanced materials. Preliminary design/analysis, research, and detail design/analysis are identified as major areas. The role of local/global analyses in these different areas is discussed. The lessons learned in the past are used as a basis for the design of a CSM framework that could modify and consolidate existing technology and include future developments in a rational and useful way. A philosophy is stated, and a set of analyses needs driven by the emerging advanced composites is enumerated. The roles of NASA, the universities, and the industry are identified. Finally, a set of rational research targets is recommended based on both the new types of computers and the increased complexity the industry faces. Computerized structural mechanics should be more than new methods in structural mechanics and numerical analyses. It should be a set of engineering applications software products that combines innovations in structural mechanics, numerical analysis, data processing, search and display features, and recent hardware advances and is organized in a framework that directly supports the design process.

  7. Can the world do better in the 1990s?

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1989-12-01

    To reduce further environmental damage to our planet, fossil fuels must no longer form the basis of the world economy. Further, nuclear power is proving to be too cost prohibitive. Society already pays tremendous amounts for building nuclear power plants, but also billions of US dollars to dismantle them and to safely dispose of their contents and building materials. Society must also address the problems of nuclear weapons production. Based on these factors, the Worldwatch Institute concludes that the only way we can live in an environmentally sustainable and politically acceptable future is to base our world economy on solar energy. Presently Japan operates under 1 of the most energy efficient systems in the world. The United States (US) requires almost twice the energy to produce a dollar's worth of gross national product than does Japan. Even if world land productivity could increase during the 1990s as fast as Japan raised its land productivity during the 1970s and 1980s, food output growth will still only be about half the projected rate of population growth. In addition, by boosting living conditions, Japan and China reduced their population growth rate in half within a decade and without today's contraceptives. Therefore by increasing the status of women and social and political commitment, developing countries (where populations often grow exponentially) can also do so. Environmental deterioration, as evidenced by soil erosion and deforestation, limits food production while the world's population grows. The US, a major world grain producer, has lost 11% of its total cropland, mainly due to overplowing in the 1970s. Japan should use its economic resources and experiences to lead the world in reducing population growth.

  8. U.S. Hispanics: challenging issues for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, R; Davis, C

    1988-12-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority in the US after blacks and, as a poor and disadvantaged minority, face many problems and challenges with which they must deal in the future. There has been a 34% increase in the US Hispanic population from 1980-1988 due to heavy immigration and high birth rates, resulting in a young age structure for Latinos with a median age of 25.5 years vs. the US median of 32.2 years. US Latinos are a very diverse group which includes Mexicans (62%), Puerto Ricans (13%), Cubans (5%), and Central and South Americans (12%), although they tend to be clustered in very few states. Discrimination has plagued this population because of illegal immigration concerns and illegal drug flow problems. Hispanics continue to suffer from poor educational achievement, language barriers, low-paying jobs, and poverty. Cubans have made the most progress so far in all of these areas. Poverty will likely persist into the 1990's. Bilingualism is and will be prevalent as long as immigration continues, but future generations will begin to use English as their 1st language. 17 states, however, have adopted "official English" laws in order to decrease the use of funds for Spanish language services. Using Spanish in school is a very divided issue--some favor bilingual education, some favor the shot-gun English approach. As Hispanics grow into work force age, lack of education will prevent entry into skilled labor. Corporations, however, are taking a bigger interest in bilingual workers. Nationally, Hispanics are beginning to matter as an electorate. The number of Latino elected officials has doubled from 1974 to 1988. The 1990 census may show us that we have been underestimating the number of Hispanics in the US. A higher percentage of future Latin immigrants will be better educated. Policymakers should recognize Hispanic problems and help to promote solutions, in the interest of the American people as a whole.

  9. Integrated remote sensing of the earth from low earth orbit in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Trends in the areas of science, data systems, instruments and space technologies and their related infrastructures that will be experienced in earth remote sensing activities from LEO in the 1990s are discussed. Interdisciplinary studies will examine the flow of energy through the earth system, encompassing surveys of atmospheric and ocean circulations, the hydrologic cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. Mainframe computer assimilation of large data inputs will be associated with distributed microcomputer processing and analyses. Single satellite antennas will scan several microwave frequencies simultaneously, e.g., taking data on vegetation, water, and ice. Broadening the range of simultaneous observations will require multiinstrumented free-flying platforms, placed in orbit, repaired and/or retrieved by the Shuttle. Future instrumentation will include visible/IR imagers and the multifrequency microwave sounders with capabilities mainly limited by the availability of sufficient data-handling facilities.

  10. The Public Secondary School and Teacher in American Films of the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Arleen B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how public secondary schools and educators were portrayed in American films of the 1990s. Thirty films were selected for study that were produced and released in the decade of the 1990s. Content analysis and a "Film Analysis Form" produced answers to eight questions regarding the learning environments, portrayal of…

  11. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  12. Predicted solar flare activity for the 1990s - Possible effects on navigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kunches, J.M.; Hirman, J.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The current solar cycle, which began in September 1986, may prove to be the highest ever, as measured by sunspot numbers and radio flux. The cycle's frequent and strong solar flare activity can be illustrated by the March 1989 episode, which caused many problems for navigation systems. Flares and the geomagnetic storms that sometimes accompany them can disrupt low-frequency systems such as Loran-C, as well as the satellite-borne GPS. Although the maximum of the solar cycle is expected during the first quarter of 1990, flare activity is likely to persist at high levels for a few years to follow. Geomagnetic activity may occur at any time in the cycle, and thus geomagnetic disruptions are possible at any point in the 1990s. 5 refs.

  13. The NASA cosmic ray program for the 1990's and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Binns, W. R.; Cherry, M. L.; Gaisser, T. K.; Jones, W. V.; Ling, J. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Muller, D.; Ormes, J. O.; Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    The interim report of the 1989 NASA Cosmic Ray Program Working Group is presented. The report summarizes the cosmic ray program for the 1990's, including the recently approved ACE, Astromag, HNC, POEMS, and SAMPEX missions, as well as other key elements of the program. New science themes and candidate missions are identified for the first part of the 21st century, including objectives that might be addressed as part of the Human Exploration Initiative. Among the suggested new thrusts for the 21st century are: an Interstellar Probe into the nearby interstellar medium; a Lunar-Based Calorimeter to measure the cosmic ray composition near 10 exp 16 eV; high-precision element and isotope spectroscopy of ultraheavy elements; and new, more sensitive studies of impulsive solar flare events.

  14. Gendered Patterns in Computing Work in the Late 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panteli, Niki; Stack, Janet; Ramsay, Harvie

    2001-01-01

    Data on information technology employment in Britain and interviews in four companies depicted experiences of women in computing. Gender disparities in numbers and distribution, salaries, division of labor, and career progression were found. Masculine values in computing culture, gender differences in working style, and attitudes toward computers…

  15. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  16. Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, C T; Sandstead, H H; Prasad, A S; Newberne, P M; Fraker, P J

    1994-01-01

    This review critically summarizes the literature on the spectrum of health effects of zinc status, ranging from symptoms of zinc deficiency to excess exposure. Studies on zinc intake are reviewed in relation to optimum requirements as a function of age and sex. Current knowledge on the biochemical properties of zinc which are critical to the essential role of this metal in biological systems is summarized. Dietary and physiological factors influencing the bioavailability and utilization of zinc are considered with special attention to interactions with iron and copper status. The effects of zinc deficiency and toxicity are reviewed with respect to specific organs, immunological and reproductive function, and genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, key questions are identified where research is needed, such as the risks to human health of altered environmental distribution of zinc, assessment of zinc status in humans, effects of zinc status in relation to other essential metals on immune function, reproduction, neurological function, and the cardiovascular system, and mechanistic studies to further elucidate the biological effects of zinc at the molecular level. PMID:7925188

  17. Operational Alternatives for Air Assault Forces in the 1990s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    in emergency. Attack helicopters will go after hostile ADA to strip it out as soon as a flight is fired upon. Smoke and deception measures are also... Assesment , Incl. 2, p. 9. Paraphraae, not verbatim. 43. 101st Assesnent, Incl. 2, pp. 9-10. 44. Richard S. otite, BG, US Deptment of the Army, Forces...Reforg9r 76, p. Ill-I. Ihdes is a classified docment. Only unclassified portions are cited or excerpted.) (here- after cited ’ l Assesment .) 45. R==(i

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes: 1990`s concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bloem, T.B.; Stanko, T.A.; Blankenbaker, R.K.; Higgins, J.H.; De Vault, D.S.; Anderson, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column of the Laurentian Great Lakes have declined over the last decade. The measurement of current concentrations of these hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCS) requires the sampling of large sample volumes, typically 100--400 liters. This paper will present results from the water column HOC trend program, begun by GLNPO in 1991. Water samples were filtered with a 0.7{mu}M glass fiber filter, and the filtrate was collected and extracted using the Goulden Large Sample Extractor (GLSE). PCBs were extracted from the filters with Soxhlet extraction, and the resulting operationally-defined particulate and dissolved phases were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Results indicate concentrations in the 100s of picograms/liter for total PCBs. Spatial differences within and between Lakes, and temporal differences will be presented.

  19. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  20. Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. H.; Elmendorf, A. E.; Kandola, K.; Chellaraj, G.

    2000-01-01

    There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries. PMID:10916913

  1. Broadening not strengthening of the Agulhas Current since the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, Lisa M.; Elipot, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Western boundary currents—such as the Agulhas Current in the Indian Ocean—carry heat poleward, moderating Earth’s climate and fuelling the mid-latitude storm tracks. They could exacerbate or mitigate warming and extreme weather events in the future, depending on their response to anthropogenic climate change. Climate models show an ongoing poleward expansion and intensification of the global wind systems, most robustly in the Southern Hemisphere, and linear dynamical theory suggests that western boundary currents will intensify and shift poleward as a result. Observational evidence of such changes comes from accelerated warming and air-sea heat flux rates within all western boundary currents, which are two or three times faster than global mean rates. Here we show that, despite these expectations, the Agulhas Current has not intensified since the early 1990s. Instead, we find that it has broadened as a result of more eddy activity. Recent analyses of other western boundary currents—the Kuroshio and East Australia currents—hint at similar trends. These results indicate that intensifying winds may be increasing the eddy kinetic energy of boundary currents, rather than their mean flow. This could act to decrease poleward heat transport and increase cross-frontal exchange of nutrients and pollutants between the coastal ocean and the deep ocean. Sustained in situ measurements are needed to properly understand the role of these current systems in a changing climate.

  2. Aerosol effects on summer monsoon over Asia during 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, I.-Chun; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Lee, Wei-Liang

    2016-10-01

    The Community Earth System Model is used to study the aerosol climate effects during the 1980s and 1990s in which the anthropogenic SO2 emissions decreased in North America and Western Europe and increased in East and South Asia. From the 100 year simulations, aerosol forcing results in cooler (-0.13 K) and drier (-0.01 mm/day) atmosphere with less shortwave radiation flux at the surface (-0.37 W/m2). The clear-sky shortwave radiation flux decreased over East Asia (-0.81 W/m2) and South Asia (-1.09 W/m2), but increased over Western Europe (+1.16 W/m2) and North America (+0.39 W/m2), consistent with aerosol loading changes. While changes in spatial distributions of all-sky shortwave radiation and surface temperature are closely related to cloud changes, the changes in wind and precipitation do not correspond to aerosol loading changes, indicating the complexity of aerosol-cloud circulation interactions. The East and South Asia monsoons were generally weakened due mainly to southward shift of the 200 hPa East Asia Jet (EAJ) and decrease in 850 hPa winds; annual precipitation decreased by 2% in South Asia but increased by 2% in Yangtze-Huai River Valley over East Asia. The uncertainties associated with aerosol climate effects are addressed within the context of model variability and the global warming effect. For the latter, while the aerosol effects decrease the greenhouse warming on the global mean, the regional responses are different. Nevertheless, the characteristics of aerosol climate effects, including the southward 200 hPa EAJ and weakened South Asia monsoon, still persist when the climate becomes warmer, although the strength and the geographical distribution are slightly modulated.

  3. Dynamic-analogue correction of the decadal change of East Asian summer precipitation in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiqiang; Li, Shangfeng; Hu, Po; Shen, Baizhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    This paper systematically evaluates the deviations that appear in the hindcasts of the East Asian summer precipitation (EASP) decadal change in the late 1990s in two global coupled models (BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM). The possible causes for the deviations between the model hindcasts and observations are analyzed. The results show that the hindcasts of EASP by BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM deviate from observations, with the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) being -0.01 and -0.09 for the two models, respectively. The SST anomalies in North and West Pacific and the SST index values predicted by the two models also deviate from the observations, indicating that inconsistent SST fields may be the key factor leading to the deviation in the prediction of the EASP decadal shift. Thus, a dynamic-analogue scheme is proposed to correct the precipitation hindcasts by using SSTs, where SST and EASP are highly correlated, to select historical analogue cases. Cross validations show that the average ACC of the temporal-latitude distribution of the EASP between the corrected hindcasts and observations is 0.18 for BCC_CGCM and 0.02 for BCC_CSM; both are much higher than the uncorrected hindcasts. Applying the dynamic-analogue correction scheme in both models successfully improves prediction of the EASP decadal change in the late 1990s.

  4. Changes in the Quality of Care for Bipolar I Disorder During the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Alisa B.; Ling, Davina; Frank, Richard G.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study estimated changes during the 1990s in the quality of usual-care treatment among persons diagnosed as having bipolar I disorder in a privately insured population. Methods Retrospective private insurance administrative data were analyzed for enrollees aged 18 to 64 who were diagnosed as having bipolar I disorder during 1991 (431 person-years), 1994 (598 person-years), and 1999 (600 person-years). Medication and psychotherapy quality indicators were derived from bipolar disorder expert guidelines published in 1994, which were consistent with guidelines published until year 2002. Results The unadjusted prevalence of receiving any lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine improved over the study period (68 percent in 1991, 64 percent in 1994, and 77 percent in 1999), whereas, compared with 1991, receiving any antidepressant in the absence of lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine increased in 1994 and then declined in 1999 (13 percent in 1991, 23 percent in 1994, and 14 percent in 1999). The unadjusted prevalence of receiving any psychotherapy declined steadily and sharply (94 percent in 1991, 89 percent in 1994, and 69 percent in 1999). The unadjusted prevalence of receiving any lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine and therapy together declined over time (65 percent in 1991, 58 percent in 1994, and 54 percent in 1999). After the analyses adjusted for patient characteristics, these changes were significant from p<.01 to p<.001. Conclusions The prevalence of receiving the pharmacotherapy recommended in the guidelines improved after guideline publication in 1994, whereas other quality measures that included receiving psychotherapy declined throughout the study period. These results suggest different psychotherapeutic modalities are under differing constraints under managed care, constraints that overpower consensus in the literature of quality practice. Policy makers should measure a variety of key therapeutic modalities when measuring quality in order to

  5. World Agriculture: Review and Prospects into the 1990s. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winrock International Livestock Research & Training Center. Morrilton, AR.

    The four chapters of this analysis of world agriculture deal with production, consumption, and world trade. World food production and consumption continued to grow rapidly in the 1970's, but at a rate somewhat slower than in the 1960's. It is projected that for the 1990's consumption will increase faster than production in most of the world's…

  6. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  7. Two-Year College Mathematics Education for the 1990s: A Commitment to Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Don, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of this special issue is to suggest strategies for meeting the mathematical needs of two-year college students in the decade of the 1990s. Since the 20 contributors were free to write about topics that they considered to be appropriate to the intellectual and personal development of all students their papers represent a broad…

  8. Blueprints for Indian Education: Research and Development Needs for the 1990s. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahape, Patricia

    Two landmark efforts to describe the condition of American Indian and Alaska Native education nationwide and to call for specific solutions took place in the early 1990s. These efforts were the Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the White House Conference on Indian Education. This digest summarizes Task Force and Conference recommendations…

  9. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A.…

  10. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  11. El Nino During the 1990's: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  12. El Nino During the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  13. Putting Children First: A Progressive Family Policy for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarck, Elaine Ciulla; Galston, William A.

    Four policy papers delineate a progressive family policy for the 1990s that makes the family central among social issues and children central in families. An extensive introduction delineates the split between leaders' and ordinary citizens' views on the family and provides a summary of the papers. The first paper offers an economic review of the…

  14. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  15. Food for Thought: Children's Diets in the 1990s. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip; Suitor, Carol

    Since the late 1980s, identifying nutritional problems in children's and adults' diets and developing initiatives to help Americans improve what they eat have received considerable attention. This policy brief summarizes 2 studies of children's nutrition with the objectives of describing the diets of school-age children as of the mid-1990s,…

  16. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  17. Issues and Concerns for Local Government: Virginia in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    Many challenges face local governments in Virginia and nationwide in the 1990s. As federal funding has decreased, local governments have been forced to take on greater responsibilities. This increased workload has created a greater demand for resources and forced many localities to raise taxes. Citizens have often voiced opposition to these tax…

  18. Take a Field Trip through the 1990's. Celebrate the Century Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal Service, Washington, DC.

    Using the "Celebrate the Century" stamp series, this U.S. Postal Service series commemorates the 20th-century and teaches students about the people, places, and events that have shaped this nation during the past 100 years. Each kit is designed to be taught as a complete and independent unit. This kit, which focuses on the 1990s,…

  19. El Nino during the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990s has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein, however, appear to mitigate this belief. For example, regarding the frequency and severity of El Nino, the decade of the 1990s is found to compare quite favorably with that of preceding decades. Hence, the 1990s probably should not be regarded as being anomalous. On the other hand, the number of El Nino-related months per decade has sharply increased during the 1990s, as compared to the preceding four decades, hinting of a marginally significant upward trend. Perhaps, this is an indication that the Earth is now experiencing an ongoing global climatic change. Continued vigilance during the new millennium, therefore, is of paramount importance for determining whether or not this "hint" of a global change is real or if it merely reflects a normal fluctuation of climate.

  20. Parents and Schooling in the 1990s. Parent Involvement at the Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This theme issue is devoted to the topic of "Parent Involvement in Education" and contains three principal articles: "Parents and Schooling in the 1990s," by Erwin Flaxman and Morton Inger; "Parent…

  1. Instructional Leaders for the 1990s: Improving the Analysis of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    Arguing that instructional leadership changes are inevitable during the 1990s, this Bulletin explores instructional leaders' roles and functions, along with some leadership styles, strategies, and skills, and proposes an administrator training program. Chapter 1 introduces six "organizers" for examining instructional leadership: setting,…

  2. The Role of Communication Satellites in Education and Training: The 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polcyn, Kenneth A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of satellite technology and trends in its use, reviews the evolution of education and training applications of communication satellites, and prognosticates about the possible national and international uses during the 1990s. A bibliography of 26 items is included. (CHC)

  3. Factors affecting Yukon teen pregnancy decline in the mid and late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Jeff

    2002-11-01

    Teen pregnancy has declined throughout North America in the 1990s. In Yukon Territory, Canada, teen pregnancy in the late 1990s was almost 40% lower than in the early 1990s. This rate of decline is significantly greater than most recently reported national rates of teen pregnancy decline in Canada and United States. Identifying possible causes of the Yukon decline may help policy makers and program managers plan and implement teen pregnancy prevention strategies. Data on Yukon teen pregnancy prevention initiatives were collected through numerous discussions and interviews with Yukon service providers, teens, and the general public between 1994 and 2001. Analysis of data demonstrates that multiple new initiatives spanning many sectors were implemented in the mid and late 1990s that could have contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. A multi-dimensional approach to teen pregnancy prevention that included researching and evaluating family planning programs and policies before, during, and after implementation, increasing access to longer-acting hormonal contraceptives, providing continuing family planning medical education to health care providers and other youth service providers, subsidization of contraceptives, delivery of innovative family planning mass media campaigns, and delivery of ongoing sexual health education programs may have significantly contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. Collaboration among service providers across many service sectors (clinical, public health, education, First Nations, government communication and policy, grassroots) facilitated coordination of the multi-dimensional approach.

  4. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  5. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  6. Measuring the Distribution of Spitefulness

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, Erik O.; Reiss, J. Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Spiteful, antisocial behavior may undermine the moral and institutional fabric of society, producing disorder, fear, and mistrust. Previous research demonstrates the willingness of individuals to harm others, but little is understood about how far people are willing to go in being spiteful (relative to how far they could have gone) or their consistency in spitefulness across repeated trials. Our experiment is the first to provide individuals with repeated opportunities to spitefully harm anonymous others when the decision entails zero cost to the spiter and cannot be observed as such by the object of spite. This method reveals that the majority of individuals exhibit consistent (non-)spitefulness over time and that the distribution of spitefulness is bipolar: when choosing whether to be spiteful, most individuals either avoid spite altogether or impose the maximum possible harm on their unwitting victims. PMID:22905108

  7. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies.

  8. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baoping; Chen, Zhuo; Wei, Yuguo; Qin, Xiaofeng

    2007-07-01

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.

  9. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  10. Accelerated deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Sexton, Joseph O; Townshend, John R

    2015-05-16

    Using a consistent, 20 year series of high- (30 m) resolution, satellite-based maps of forest cover, we estimate forest area and its changes from 1990 to 2010 in 34 tropical countries that account for the majority of the global area of humid tropical forests. Our estimates indicate a 62% acceleration in net deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s, contradicting a 25% reduction reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment. Net loss of forest cover peaked from 2000 to 2005. Gross gains accelerated slowly and uniformly between 1990-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010. However, the gains were overwhelmed by gross losses, which peaked from 2000 to 2005 and decelerated afterward. The acceleration of humid tropical deforestation we report contradicts the assertion that losses decelerated from the 1990s to the 2000s.

  11. New directions in family planning communication: 12 predictions for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

    1988-12-01

    Good communication about family planning is needed for many reasons: 1) what many people think they know about family planning is wrong, 2) about 25% of the Asian population (600 million people) are between the ages of 10 and 19 and they need to be informed, 3) individuals must want to use family planning so they will use it regularly and effectively, and 4) people hear competing messages from those opposed to family planning. The authors make the following predictions for the field of family planning IEC in the 1990s: 1) family planning communication will have many different audiences, so messages and media will have to be developed for very specific groups; 2) more time will be spent on research, learning about specific audiences, the media, and background before developing messages, and messages and products will be carefully tested before being widely distributed; 3) peer groups will be used more to reach peer groups; 4) entertainment will reach and teach wider audiences about family planning, AIDS, and sexual responsibility (promoting "enter-education," a combination of entertainment and education); 5) audiences will participate more actively in different kinds of family planning communication, including community mobilization and individual involvement; 6) family planning messages will be much more personal, using human interest stories to capture and persuade the audience; 7) multiple media will be used more and more to get the message across; 8) the best quality family planning entertainment materials will be able to compete with commercial products and produce revenue; 9) campaigns and other communications will be oriented towards large regional markets; 10) more creative and more sympathetic communication in clinics and by health care providers will increase acceptance and continuation rates for many methods; 11) communication among family planning professionals will increasingly depend on effective national population information centers that can use

  12. Statistical distribution of the measure of coherence.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Saralees; Kotz, Samuel

    2006-11-01

    The recent papers by Miranda de Sa et al. (2001) and Miranda de Sa (2004) proposed a new measure of coherence between two signals. In this paper, we derive the exact probability density function and moments of the measure. We also provide simple programs for computing the associated cumulative distribution function and percentile points as well as for generating random samples of the measure.

  13. The Next Energy Crisis: U.S. National Security Vulnerability in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Vulnerability in the 1990s 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...threat, and the ~ nternational and domestic actions needed to provide an adequate margin of energy security. THE 0I~ MARKET: CRISIS IN THE 1970~ In...the 1973 embargo, President Nixon launched Project Independence with a stated goal of eliminating oil imports in seven years. The plan placed heavy

  14. NASA plans and opportunities. [space flight activities throughout the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA plans for the Life Science program of a series of space flight activities throughout the decade of the 1990s are discussed with particular attention given to the NASA life science goals and objectives and to the particular space missions which will carry out these objectives. These space missions and specially designed facilities for experiments in space include Space Station Freedom, Space Biology Initiative, Gravitational Biology Facility, Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems Test Facility, and Exobiology Facility.

  15. Relationship between the Pacific and Atlantic stepwise climate change during the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Y.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.; Ishii, M.; Mochizuki, T.

    2012-11-01

    A linkage between climate change in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans during the 1990s is investigated using three versions of the coupled climate model MIROC and CMIP5 multi-model ensemble. From the early 1990s to the early 2000s, the observed sea surface temperature (SST) shows warming in the North Atlantic and a La Niña-like pattern in the Pacific. Associated with the SST pattern, the observations indicate a strengthened Walker circulation in the tropical Pacific and enhanced precipitation in the tropical Atlantic. These SST and precipitation patterns are simulated well by hindcast experiments with external forcing and an initialized ocean anomaly state but are poorly simulated by uninitialized simulation with external forcing only. In particular, the observed La Niña-like SST pattern becomes prominent in ensemble members with large amplitudes of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index during 1996-1998. Our results suggest that ocean initialization in both the Pacific and the Atlantic plays an important role in predicting the Pacific stepwise climate change during the 1990s, which contributes to the accurate estimation of global temperature change in the coming decade. Forecasting typhoon frequency or marine fisheries production in the coming decade may be possible by improving the predictive skill of stepwise climate change.

  16. Decadal changes in tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haozhe; Yang, Jing; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Wang, Yuqing; Gao, Miaoni

    2015-12-01

    A pronounced decadal change in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the late 1990s was identified. Based on a comparison of the two epochs that occurred before and after the late 1990s, the TC genesis number exhibited an evident decrease over the southern WNP (S-WNP: 5°-20°N, 105°-170°E) and an increase over the northern WNP (N-WNP: 20°-25°N, 115°-155°E), which partly corresponded to a significant northward migration in the seasonal mean latitudinal location of TC genesis, i.e., from 17.2°N to 18.7°N. After the late 1990s, the northwestward-moving track became the most dominant track mode, accompanied by the weakening of both the westward-moving track and the northeastward-recurving track. Meanwhile, the TC occurrence frequency (TCF) experienced evident increases over southeastern China and the Okinawa islands, while prominent decreases occurred over the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Japan and east of Japan. Changes in the TCF were determined by TC genesis changes, TC track shifts and variations in regional TC durations, which were all ascribed to the decadal change in tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature. The full picture on the decadal changes in the WNP TC activity revealed in this study may provide useful guidance for regional TC seasonal forecasts and future projections.

  17. Strengthened relationship between the Antarctic Oscillation and ENSO after the mid-1990s during austral spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Wang, Huijun; Sun, Jianqi

    2017-01-01

    This paper documents a decadal strengthened co-variability of the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and ENSO in austral spring after the mid-1990s. During the period 1979-93, the ENSO (AAO) spatial signatures are restricted to the tropics-midlatitudes (Antarctic-midlatitudes) of the Southern Hemisphere (SH), with a weak connection between the two oscillations. Comparatively, after the mid-1990s, the El Ni˜no-related atmospheric anomalies project on a negative AAO pattern with a barotropic structure in the mid-high latitudes of the SH. The expansion of El Ni˜no-related air temperature anomalies have a heightened impact on the meridional thermal structure of the SH, contributing to a weakened circumpolar westerly and strengthened subtropical jet. Meanwhile, the ENSO-related southern three-cell circulations expand poleward and then strongly couple the Antarctic and the tropics. Numerical simulation results suggest that the intensified connection between ENSO and SST in the South Pacific since the mid-1990s is responsible for the strengthened AAO-ENSO relationship.

  18. Decadal change of Tropical Cyclone Activity over western North Pacific around late-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Yang, J.; Mao, R.; Wang, Y.; Gong, D.

    2014-12-01

    A pronounced decadal change of tropical cyclone (TC) activity was identified over western North Pacific (WNP) around late-1990s. After late-1990s, the WNP total TC genesis number exhibited an evident decrease, particularly over southern WNP region (S-WNP: 5oN-20oN), which was mainly caused by reduced vorticity and descending anomalies. We also detected a significant northward migration of TC genesis from 17.2°N to 18.7°N. The above TC genesis change is attributed to the weakening of monsoon trough and local Hadley cell that is associated with sea surface temperature climate shift around the late-1990s. In terms of three prevailing TC tracks changes, the northwestward-moving track (II) became the most dominant prevailing track mode while the westward-moving track (I) became weaker, and the northeastward-recurving track (III) had a westward shift. The track shifts primarily resulted from the large-scale steering flows change, which also had played a vital role in the modulation of TC regional duration. Thus, the subtropical East Asia tended to have a higher risk of encountering TC while the Southern China had a lower risk. Additionally, a visual reduction was seen in both number and proportion of typhoons reaching categories 1 and 2, and a remarkable poleward migration was also recognized in the average latitudes where TCs have achieved their lifetime-maximum intensity.

  19. Problems, policies and politics: A comparative case study of contraband tobacco from the 1990s to the present in the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, Teela

    2010-09-01

    Contraband tobacco has been and continues to be a global public health policy concern, with special manifestations in Canada. Over the past 20 years, in two noteworthy instances the Canadian government has battled contraband - in the early 1990s, and for much of the past decade. In the 1990s, when contraband cigarettes flooded the Canadian market, the government rapidly responded, using policy measures such as implementing a tobacco export tax and cutting domestic sales tax. Unfortunately, contraband made a strong comeback in recent years, but this time the government has hesitated to act, owing to a change in the source of the contraband. Using John Kingdon's streams theory to frame our arguments, we suggest that lack of congruence between different policy stakeholder groups' perceptions of the problem, policy solutions, and political feasibility has road-blocked the implementation of anti-contraband policy in the 2000s.

  20. The Belt Method for Measuring Pressure Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W , Jr

    1943-01-01

    The measurement of pressure distribution may be accomplished rapidly for any number of locations deemed necessary in model or full-scale investigations by use of the "belt" method. Reasonable accuracy may be obtained by careful use of this method.

  1. Emerging opportunities for physician-attorneys in the purchaser-driven health care industry of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Couch, J B

    1989-01-01

    The litigation explosion of the past decade-and-a-half has provided physician-attorneys with a seemingly endless source of opportunities for full- and part-time employment. For this and other reasons, physician-attorneys in the late 1980s still devote a substantial part of their professional time to activities directly or indirectly related to medical litigation. Nevertheless, the winds of change are blowing and soon will reach hurricane force. The excesses of the medical and legal systems (best exemplified by the litigation explosion) have sown the seeds of their own ultimate destruction during the 1990s. As a result of the substantial provider glut, the purchasers of health care are now in charge. To the extent that purchasers determine that professional liability premiums, legal costs, and defensive medical practices increase their health benefit costs, they will redesign benefit programs to provide appropriate financial incentives to channel subscribers to both the high quality, cost-effective providers and alternative medical dispute resolution options other than litigation. As the percentage of lawyers' and law firms' revenues attributable to medical litigation diminishes, one of the first expenses to be cut will be that previously allocable to physician-attorneys for expert medicolegal review and case evaluation. Medical care value purchasing is rapidly becoming the centerpiece of the emerging purchaser-driven health care industry of the 1990s. This should give way to an unprecedented demand by purchasers and providers alike for medical care evaluation, health data analysis, and the implementation of systems to measure and monitor the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care delivery. Providers, especially physician-leaders, can and should play critically important roles in helping purchasers and themselves to evaluate and improve the overall quality and cost-effectiveness of health care services. It is this increasingly important area of expert

  2. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  3. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  4. Phase-OFDR for distributed disturbance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liehr, Sascha; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique based on intensity modulation frequency sweep measurement for distributed disturbance measurement in optical fibres. By evaluating interferometric Rayleigh scattering changes along the fibre, strain and temperature changes are detected with 100 n(epsilon) sensitivity and 10 mK resolution. The vibration frequencies for low frequencies and up to the kHz-range can be obtained from power change evaluation in the spatial domain. This novel OFDR approach is a low-cost alternative for distributed disturbance measurement up to distances of several kilometres.

  5. Solid earth science in the 1990s. Volume 1: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is volume one of a three volume series. A plan for solid earth science research for the next decade is outlined. The following topics are addressed: scientific requirements; status of current research; major new emphasis in the 1990's; interagency and international participation; and the program implementation plan. The following fields are represented: plate motion and deformation; lithospheric structure and evolution; volcanology; land surface (processes of change); earth structure and dynamics; earth rotation and reference frames; and geopotential fields. Other topics of discussion include remote sensing, space missions, and space techniques.

  6. Analyses of the lunar surface with advanced remote sensors: Expectations for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Today's advanced sensor capabilities provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration that mesh well with the science requirements for a sophisticated integration of several types of remotely acquired information. Science priorities for the 1990's include an evaluation of the global composition and structure of the primordial lunar crust in order to model its origin and evolution, using the Moon as a natural laboratory to study the impact process and time-cumulative events at 1 AU, and, ultimately, constraining the origin of the Moon and its relation to Earth.

  7. How have hospitals faced the pricing issues of the 1990's?

    PubMed

    Kleimenhagen, A; Naidu, G M; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    National health care expenditures are rising rapidly, bringing on a health care financing crisis. For this reason, it is useful to see how hospitals are facing the price issues of the 1990's. This study examines the price strategies hospitals follow and analyzes their observations on price sensitivity and payer mix. The results clearly show that hospitals have not given much attention to the pricing variable. The study suggests that marketing and finance will have to work closely together in developing future pricing strategies.

  8. Latin American social medicine: roots, development during the 1990s, and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-12-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time.

  9. Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  10. POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth J; Souaidia, Nordine

    2010-09-13

    While the upwelling radiance distribution in the ocean can be highly polarized, there are few measurements of this parameter in the open ocean. To obtain the polarized in-water upwelling spectral radiance distribution data we have developed the POLRADS instrument. This instrument is based on the NuRADS radiance distribution camera systems in which linear polarizer's have been installed. By combining simultaneous images from three NuRADS instruments, three Stokes parameters (I, Q, U) for the water leaving radiance can be obtained for all upwelling angles simultaneously. This system measures the Stokes parameters Q/I and U/I with a 0.05-0.06 uncertainty and I with a 7-10% uncertainty.

  11. Study of a tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 1: User community characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreary, T.

    1981-01-01

    Projected 1990's experiments; navigation requirements and potentials; communications requirements associated with space experiments; alternative forecast options; and operational impacts on experiments are covered. A baseline of plans for the TDAS User Community, including a set of generic experiments developed to supplement existing planning for the 1990's time frame is generated. It includes extensive summaries of collected data, and a bibliography. The data are representative of inputs obtained from NASA planning sources through September 1981.

  12. Alternative agendas. System priorities for the 1990s will differ from those of the last decade.

    PubMed

    Coyle, M; Koebel, C

    1990-12-01

    The Sisters of Charity Health Care Systems (SCHCS) was established in 1979 in response to changes in the U.S. healthcare system and to new needs of sponsors and Catholic healthcare facilities. However, the agenda that SCHCS leaders (and leaders of other systems) set at that time must now give way to an agenda that will address the new challenges and responsibilities facing the Catholic healthcare ministry in the 1990s. In its first decade of existence, SCHCS established and fulfilled a number of goals: It strengthened governance relationships, helped systems and sponsors better identify with local communities, enabled facilities to steward resources more effectively, and facilitated members' understanding of mission and sponsorship values. In the 1990s, however, systems will have to create more opportunities for regional, collaborative, and networking relationships among member facilities and between members and non-members. To achieve this, they will have to reevaluate their structures, find ways to faciliatate collaboration, make resources available to institutions outside the system, and develop an overall philosophy that enhances both the fiscal and spiritual well-being of member facilities.

  13. Oil and gas markets, companies, and technology in the 1990`s and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    During the late 1990`s and beyond, oil prices will be stagnant while costs increase, competition for markets and capital will be fierce, funds available for exploration and development will be limited, and environmental extremists will keep prospective areas off-limits. Higher taxes will limit growth in oil and gas demand and reapportion energy market shares. And a campaign to brand oil use as an ``addiction`` that must be cured will gather steam. But opportunities abound, too, even in the US High-quality properties are available throughout the US, independents can find and develop reserves cheaper than the majors, and new tools are available to reduce risks both in the field and in the market. Gas prices are firming and natural gas is often labeled the ``fuel of the future.`` To succeed in the petroleum industry of the 1990`s, all companies must accept change, be creative, and take initiative. To prosper, oil and gas producers and refiners and those who supply and serve the industry must face the new realities of the market. They cannot mark time until the return of 4,000 active rigs and $40/bbl oil. those days are never coming back. Never.

  14. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  15. IAEA Safeguards and technical support programs: POTAS in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, C.J. . Office of Nuclear Technology and Safeguards); Reisman, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) has since 1978 provided technology and technical assistance to the IAEA to support its nuclear safeguards activities. The present level of support, $6.9 million per year, equals 10% of the Department of Safeguards annual budget. During the next decade, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will face new technical challenges in carrying out its verification activities. To help the IAEA acquire the technology and other technical support that it will require in the 1990s, POTAS expects to continue its assistance, both in the areas established in the past and in additional areas dictated by newly identified IAEA safeguards requirements. This paper will look at the political and policy context within which the Department of Safeguards, and hence POTAS, operates, and how that context is expected to evolve over the next decade. The roles and functions of POTAS will be identified and discussed in terms of their historical evolution. Lastly, the paper will consider how POTAS is expected to change during the 1990s, both to maintain effectiveness in existing roles and functions, and to meet the challenge of the changing policy context. 5 refs.

  16. Measuring dendritic distribution of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Edmund W; Smith, W Bryan; Anelli, Roberta; Heckman, C J

    2006-09-30

    Neurons perform much of their integrative work in the dendritic tree, and spinal motoneurons have the largest tree of any cell. Electrical excitability is strongly influenced by dendrite membrane properties, which are difficult to measure directly. We describe a method to measure the distribution of ion channel membrane densities along dendritic trajectories. The method combines standard immunohistochemistry with reconstruction procedures for both large-scale and small-scale optical microscopy. Software written for Matlab then extracts the colocalization of the target ion channel with the target dye injected cell, and calculates the relative channel density per square micron of cell surface area, as a function of distance from the cell body. The technique can be used to quantify the localization and distribution of any immunoreactive moiety, and the software provides a flexible vehicle for sensitivity analysis, to validate heuristics for selecting thresholds.

  17. Application of Uniform Measurement Error Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-18

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...Uniform Measurement Error Distribution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ghazarians, Alan; Jackson, Dennis...PFA), Probability of False Reject (PFR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 19a. NAME

  18. Understanding Coronal Heating with Emission Measure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchik, James A.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Bradshaw, Stephen J.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cross-field spatial scale of coronal heating is small, so that the fundamental plasma structures (loop strands) are spatially unresolved. We therefore must appeal to diagnostic techniques that are not strongly affected by spatial averaging. One valuable observable is the emission measure distribution, EM(T), which indicates how much material is present at each temperature. Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on the Hinode mission, we have determined emission measure distributions in the cores of two active regions. The distributions have power law slopes of approximately 2.4 coolward of the peak. We compare these slopes, as well as the amount of emission measure at very high temperature, with the predictions of a series of models. The models assume impulsive heating (nanoflares) in unresolved strands and take full account of non equilibrium ionization. A variety of nanoflare properties and initial conditions are considered. We also comment on the selection of spectral lines for upcoming missions like Solar Orbiter.

  19. Atmospheric methane isotopic record favors fossil sources flat in 1980s and 1990s with recent increase

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Andrew L.; Butenhoff, Christopher L.; Teama, Doaa G.; Röger, Florian H.; Khalil, M. Aslam K.; Rasmussen, Reinhold A.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 (13C/12C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984–2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y−1 CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust. PMID:27621453

  20. Atmospheric methane isotopic record favors fossil sources flat in 1980s and 1990s with recent increase.

    PubMed

    Rice, Andrew L; Butenhoff, Christopher L; Teama, Doaa G; Röger, Florian H; Khalil, M Aslam K; Rasmussen, Reinhold A

    2016-09-27

    Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 ((13)C/(12)C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984-2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y(-1) CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust.

  1. Atmospheric methane isotopic record favors fossil sources flat in 1980s and 1990s with recent increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Andrew L.; Butenhoff, Christopher L.; Teama, Doaa G.; Röger, Florian H.; Khalil, M. Aslam K.; Rasmussen, Reinhold A.

    2016-09-01

    Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 (13C/12C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984-2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y-1 CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust.

  2. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  3. Tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 7: TDAS space technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatri, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the TDAS and user spacecraft technology assessment effort are provided. For each TDAS Satellite enhancement and user spacecraft element previously enumerated, the technology issues are identified and the R&D needed to resolve these issues is delineated. Subsequently, taking into account developments taking place elsewhere, the addition unique TDAS satellite module and user spacecraft element R&D efforts needed are identified, and conclusions are drawn in each case. From these conclusions, it is evident that with additional unique R&D efforts carried out for TDAS and appropriate user spacecraft elements the desired TDAS' capabilities for the 1990's can be realized and user spacecraft can be implemented that adequately interface with the projected TDAS.

  4. Halo-orbit and lunar-swingby missions of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    A significant number of spacecraft are planning to use halo orbits and lunar-swingby trajectories in the next decade. Four spacecraft will be placed into halo orbits around the earth's sunward libration point, while two others will be stationed near the sun-earth L2 libration point in the distant geomagnetic tail. Six spacecraft, including two of the aforementioned halo orbiters, will make use of lunar-swingby maneuvers to fulfill their mission objectives. Thus, a total of ten spacecraft, five from the Soviet Union, two from Japan, two from the United States, and one from the European Space Agency, will employ halo orbits and/or lunar-swingby trajectories in the 1990's. Pertinent facts are presented for each of these missions.

  5. Instrument pointing technology for spaceborne science missions of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskin, R. A.; Sirlin, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The technologies which will permit sub-0.1 arcsec pointing accuracies on spacecraft in the 1990s are examined, along with the accuracies required and the current state of the art. Of particular interest are multi-mission spacecraft. Pointing accuracy can only be obtained by integrating the instrument (telescope) as part of the spacecraft, minimizing disturbances and using reaction wheels for pointing. The pointer could be isolated from complex spacecraft disturbances by soft mechanical mounts, e.g., inflatible tethers, guy-wire suspension and fluidic pointing systems. All design options are being explored for the Space Station, Earth Observing System, Co-orbiting platform and GEO platform spacecraft, and for near-term planetary spacecraft which will employ nuclear electric propulsion.

  6. Mental health policy for the 1990s: tinkering in the interstices.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M G; Cournos, F

    1990-01-01

    That public policy has abysmally failed the chronically mentally ill seems beyond genuine dispute. Successive reforms have foundered on the familiar shoals of overblown expectations and insufficient resources. In this paper, we review current policies affecting the chronic and disabled mentally ill, and we consider some approaches to reform. We begin by trying to identify and characterize the chronically mentally ill and their disabilities. Next, we consider the chaotic patchwork of federal and state programs that has come to replace the asylum. We then criticize several competing models of reform that we believe fail to make an empathic connection with the mentally ill. Finally, we urge a strategy of limited reform consistent with available empirical data about program effectiveness and sensitive to the likely economic, political, and legal constraints of the 1990s.

  7. Clinical technology assessment, cost-effective adoption, and quality management by hospitals in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, S; Saver, C L

    1990-06-01

    Technology assessment in the 1990s must become an integral part of a hospital's strategic priority goals, with active participation of physicians and top management. Technology assessment should involve a wide range of criteria and health care consumer expectations, so that the appropriateness, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and quality improvement aspects of new technologies are all considered. Mount Carmel Health's Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), established in 1986, monitors significant developments in new technologies and performs technology and outcomes assessments. ATBI activities, which have facilitated adoption of 35 treatment-based projects, are integrated into the existing QA structure of Mount Carmel hospitals. Through resolution of identified problems, quality care can be promoted, while providing patients innovative medical treatments.

  8. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  9. Possible causes of the interdecadal transition of the Somali jet around the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Shi, Wenjing; Yang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    This observational study demonstrates that the Somali jet (SMJ) experienced a notable interdecadal transition in not only its lower-level parts (< 850 hPa) but also its higher-level parts (850-600 hPa) in the late 1990s. The results also show that the jet at higher level is more significantly related to East Asian monsoon rainfall than that at lower level. Thus, a new whole-layer SMJ (WSMJ) index which includes variations of the higher-level jet is defined based on the average meridional wind speed at five levels (1000-600 hPa). The interdecadal transition of the SMJ can be mainly attributed to the meridional thermal contrast anomalies near the equator which are associated with the three-pole pattern of the southern Indian Ocean.

  10. Aeronautical research in the United States - Challenges for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Richard H.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA R&D initiatives in air transportation technologies that will dominate its efforts through the 1990s. These efforts are to be concentrated in (1) advanced subsonic transports with greater fuel economy, passenger capacity, and control effectiveness, whose design will be undertaken with state-of-the-art CFD and CAD/CAM systems; (2) a second-generation SST whose propulsion system will be substantially more fuel-efficient than that of Concorde and have far lower atmospheric emissions; and (3) a hypersonic transport predicated on the results of research into materials, cryogenic fuels, propulsion cycles, and propulsion/airframe aerodynamics integration, which will be undertaken in connection with the X-30 testbed.

  11. Changes in the North Pacific wave climate since the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Wataru

    2014-11-01

    Since the mid-1990s, ocean wave reanalysis and in situ wave observations have revealed marked downward trends in wave height, exceeding -0.1 m per decade in the midlatitude North Pacific. The wave period in the tropical Pacific is also on a downward trend, exceeding -0.4 s per decade during this period. These changes in wave climate in the Pacific are attributable to recently strengthened trade winds and La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific. The downward trend in significant wave height in the midlatitude North Pacific is due to strengthening of the negative phase of the Pacific-North American teleconnection. Numerical experimentations with a wave model also showed that the downward trend in the wave period in the eastern equatorial Pacific was induced not only by increased wind waves due to strengthened trade winds but also by weakened propagating swells from the midlatitude North Pacific.

  12. Impact of bankruptcy through asset portfolios. Network analytic solution unveils 1990s Japanese banking crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Vodenska, I.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the Japanese banking crisis in the late 1990s with a simple network based mathematical model, which allows us to simulate the crisis as well as to obtain new perspective through analytic solution of our network model. We effectively identify the actual bankrupted banks and the robustness of the banking system using a simulation model based on properties of a bi-partite bank-asset network. We show the mean time property and analytical solution of the model revealing aggregate time dynamics of bank asset prices throughout the banking crisis. The results disclose simple but fundamental property of asset growth, instrumental for understanding the bank crisis. We also estimate the selling pressure for each asset type, derived from a Cascading Failure Model (CFM), offering new perspective for investigating the phenomenon of banking crisis.

  13. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth.

  14. HEPAP Subpanel on the US High Energy Physics Research Program for the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The entire community of high energy physicists looks expectantly to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) era. The SSC is the highest priority in the US high energy physics (HEP) program, and physics at the SSC will increasingly become its focus. In this report, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) Subpanel on the US High Energy Physics Research Program for the 1990's examines how the National HEP program can go forward vigorously in the period of preparation for the SSC. The Subpanel concluded early that a viable and productive physics research program in the next decade on a range of promising fronts is essential for this field to continue to attract and educate scientists of great creativity. The Subpanel found that such a program requires both exploiting existing opportunities and undertaking some new initiatives. The recommendations are based on the constant budget scenario,'' which the Subpanel interprets as averaging the FY 1991 budget level over the next decade.

  15. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2009-06-30

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people's needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities.

  16. Universal health insurance: lessons of the 1970s, prospects for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L

    1990-01-01

    In the 1970s, proposals for universal health insurance were not successful. Health care providers, insurers, and others negotiating in the political process foresaw a better future without such legislation. Today, the growth of health insurance coverage has unmistakably reversed. Moral discomfort and self-interest shape the new politics of universal health insurance for the 1990s. Hospitals, physicians, insurers, employers, and tens of millions of individuals would benefit from a universal health insurance plan that was mindful of their concerns and interests. Proposals that require employers to provide insurance for full-time employees and expand public programs to cover to cover other uninsured persons now have the greatest chances for enactment. As leaders, health services and health insurance executives should be in the vanguard of efforts to enact universal health insurance.

  17. Computer-aided analysis at NASA Langley Research Center - Looking toward the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Aerospace research is inextricably intertwined with the programmable digital computer. Engineers and scientists at NASA Langley Research Center are requiring ever-increasing computing resources to carry out basic and applied research on problems and complex systems that would have been unthinkable Just ten years ago. The rapid changes in computer technology make planning for the future especially difficult, even five years in advance. In this paper, the evolution of computer resources and usage in research at Langley are briefly considered over the past thirty years, followed by a snapshot of the present. Finally, an extrapolation to the 1990's computer environment is made, with some thoughts on the tasks that engineers might face, and the background they will probably need.

  18. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  19. Freshening of the upper ocean in the South China Sea since the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Feng; Yu, Fei; Xue, Huijie; Zeng, Lili; Wang, Dongxiao; Yang, Shilun; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong

    2016-12-01

    Ocean salinity is often used as a dynamical tracer for investigating the Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS). In this study, we found that the upper-ocean water in the SCS had a freshening trend since the early 1990s. Salinity in the upper 100 m of the SCS (SSCS) decreased by 0.24 psu in the period 1993-2012, yielding a negative trend of -0.012 psu yr-1. The maximum freshening occurred in the surface layer west of the Luzon Strait, and freshening gradually lessened from northeast to southwest and with depth, indicating the important influence of the Kuroshio intrusion. Quantitative analysis of salinity budget from the surface to 100 m depth in the SCS suggests that the weakened Kuroshio intrusion is the leading factor controlling the SSCS freshening, while the increased air-sea freshwater flux plays a minor role. Based on GODAS (Global Ocean Data Assimilation System) model output, the Luzon Strait transport (LST) in the upper 100 m decreased in a negative trend of -0.12 Sv yr-1 (1 Sv=106 m3 s-1) from 1993 to 2012, corresponding to a freshening trend of the SSCS at a rate of -0.011 psu yr-1. Both the LST and SSCS changes are closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Our findings demonstrate that the strength of the Kuroshio intrusion into the SCS weakened markedly since the PDO phase shifted in 1990s, which resulted in the pronounced freshening of the SCS water.

  20. Tobacco lobby political influence on US state legislatures in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Givel, M.; Glantz, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Throughout the 1990s the tobacco lobby was a potent political force in US state legislatures advancing its pro-tobacco agenda.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the market and political motivations of the tobacco lobby and the strategies they use to achieve these goals in US state legislatures.
DESIGN—This study is a content analysis and summary overview of recently released historical tobacco industry documents; tobacco related government documents; and recent state tobacco control policy reports.
RESULTS—In the 1990s, the tobacco lobby engaged in a comprehensive and aggressive political effort in state legislatures to sell tobacco with the least hindrance using lobbying, the media, public relations, front groups, industry allies, and contributions to legislators. These efforts included campaigns to neutralise clean indoor air legislation, minimise tax increases, and preserve the industry's freedom to advertise and sell tobacco. The tobacco lobby succeeded in increasing the number of states that enacted state pre-emption of stricter local tobacco control laws and prevented the passage of many state tobacco control policies. Public health advocates were able to prevent pre-emption and other pro-tobacco policies from being enacted in several states.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco lobby is a powerful presence in state legislatures. Because of the poor public image of the tobacco lobby, it seeks to wield this power quietly and behind the scenes. State and local health advocates, who often have high public credibility, can use this fact against the tobacco lobby by focusing public attention on the tobacco lobby's political influence and policy goals and expose links between the tobacco lobby and its legislative supporters.


Keywords: political lobbying; state legislatures; industry PMID:11387532

  1. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; De Mazière, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Stiller, G.; Tamminen, J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Urban, J.; van der A, R. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Vigouroux, C.; von Clarmann, T.; von Savigny, C.; Walker, K. A.; Weber, M.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  2. Past Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone Part 1: Measurement Techniques, Uncertainties and Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; Maziere, M. De; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrola, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  3. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  4. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.; Habib, Emad; Kasparis, Takis

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004-06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been observed at two different sites. High concentrations of small and/or midsize drops were observed in the presence or absence of large drops. Even in the presence of large drops, the maximum drop diameter rarely exceeded 4 mm. These characteristics of raindrop size distribution were observed in all stages of tropical cyclones, unless the storm was in the extratropical stage where the tropical cyclone and a midlatitude frontal system had merged. The presence of relatively high concentrations of large drops in extratropical cyclones resembled the size distribution in continental thunderstorms. The integral rain parameters of drop concentration, liquid water content, and rain rate at fixed reflectivity were therefore lower in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones. In tropical cyclones, at a disdrometercalculated reflectivity of 40 dBZ, the number concentration was 700 plus or minus 100 drops m(sup -3), while the liquid water content and rain rate were 0.90 plus or minus 0.05 g m(sup -3) and 18.5 plus or minus 0.5 mm h(sup -1), respectively. The mean mass diameter, on the other hand, was 1.67 plus or minus 0.3 mm. The comparison of raindrop size distributions between Atlantic tropical cyclones and storms that occurred in the central tropical Pacific island of Roi-Namur revealed that the number density is slightly shifted toward smaller drops, resulting in higher-integral rain parameters and lower mean mass and maximum drop diameters at the latter site. Considering parameterization of the raindrop size distribution in tropical cyclones, characteristics of the normalized gamma distribution parameters were examined with respect to reflectivity. The mean mass diameter increased rapidly with reflectivity, while the normalized

  5. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokay, A.; Bashor, P. G.; Habib, E.; Kasparis, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of the raindrop size distribution (RSD) have been collected in tropical cyclones and hurricanes with an impact type disdrometer during the past three Atlantic hurricane seasons. The measurements were taken at Wallops Island, Virginia, Lafayette, Louisiana, and Orlando, Florida. The RSDs from the remnants of tropical cyclones or hurricanes at 40 dBZ agreed well with each other where the mean mass diameter was 1.65-1.7 mm, and the total concentration had a range of 600 to 800 drops/m3. Assuming the normalized gamma size distribution, the shape parameter will be 5-8 to satisfy the observed rain rate of 18-20 mm/hr. If the observations were taken during the extratropical phase of the storm where the tropical cyclone merges with a frontal system, the composite spectra at 40 dBZ include more large drops and less small to mid-size drops, typical for continental thunderstorms. Thus, the mean mass diameter was larger, while total concentration, and rain rate was less in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones.

  6. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  7. Ultraviolet, visible, and gravity astrophysics: A plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) receives advice on scientific strategy and priorities from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Guidance to the OSSA Astrophysics Division, in particular, is provided by dedicated academy committees, ad hoc study groups, and, at ten-year intervals, by broadly mandated astronomy and astrophysics survey committees charged with making recommendations for the coming decade. Many of the academy's recommendations have important implications for the conduct of ultraviolet and visible-light astronomy from space. Moreover, these areas are now poised for an era of rapid growth. Through technological progress, ultraviolet astronomy has already risen from a novel observational technique four decades ago to the mainstream of astronomical research today. Recent developments in space technology and instrumentation have the potential to generate comparably dramatic strides in observational astronomy within the next ten years. In 1989, the Ultraviolet and Visible Astrophysics Branch of the OSSA Astrophysics Division recognized the need for a new, long-range plan that would implement the academy's recommendations in a way that yielded the most advantageous use of new technology. NASA's Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravity Astrophysics Management Operations Working Group was asked to develop such a plan for the 1990's. Since the branch holds programmatic responsibility for space research in gravitational physics and relativity, as well as for ultraviolet and visible-light astrophysics, missions in those areas were also included. The working group met throughout 1989 and 1990 to survey current astrophysical problems, assess the potential of new technologies, examine prior academy recommendations, and develop the implementation plan. The present report is the product of those deliberations. Key astrophysical questions to be addressed cover topics such as the structure and evolution of the early universe, energetics of active

  8. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Czerny, B.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.

  9. Revisiting the effectiveness of methadone treatment on crime reductions in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Rothbard, A; Alterman, A; Rutherford, M; Liu, F; Zelinski, S; McKay, J

    1999-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between methadone treatment and the criminal activity of 126 individuals participating in treatment during the early 1990s. The primary question addressed is to what extent is methadone maintenance treatment associated with reductions in crime? Although prior studies in the 1970s and early 1980s showed significant decreases in crime for individuals in treatment programs, criteria for remaining in this treatment modality have changed in recent years, particularly with the advent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the need to reduce intravenous drug use. A pre-post study design is employed spanning a 6-year time period of subject recruitment and follow-up (1987-1993). Uniform administrative records on arrests are used for the analyses. A multiple regression model is employed to explain the variance in the number of arrests 2 years following program admission, with prior criminal history, prior and current drug treatment, and current cocaine use employed as explanatory variables. Results indicate that treatment retention has only a slight, though significant, effect on reducing criminal activity during treatment. Two other factors that appear to increase arrest activity are the use of cocaine and prior criminal history. The fact that arrests did not decrease during a treatment period of 18 months on average requires more investigation in light of the increase in cocaine use in this population.

  10. Gay and bisexual men's use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach.

  11. Hydrocarbon occurrences in igneous and metamorphic rocks: Plays of the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Harrelson, D.W.

    1989-09-01

    A review of available geologic literature has indicated numerous references detailing the occurrences of hydrocarbon in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Notable among these references is a paper by Chung-Hsiang P'an and a group of papers edited by Sidney Powers. Collectively, these papers conclude a biogenic source for hydrocarbons, most of which occur in (1) weathered igneous and metamorphic reservoir rocks that are higher than the source rocks (e.g., Amarillo field) or (2) igneous and metamorphic rocks that exert structural or stratigraphic control on the reservoir or source rocks (e.g., Jackson dome and the Wiggins anticline-Hancock ridge). It should be noted that a new twist on the abiogenic origin of some inert hydrocarbon gases (i.e., helium and nitrogen) proposes a degassing of igneous and metamorphic rocks from sources in the underlying mantle. Recent european super-deep tests (e.g., the Siljan Ring and the Kola SG-3 testholes) have attempted, with mixed results, to verify this theory. Drilling for these deep igneous and metamorphic prospects today is considered at or below economic basement or worse - a rank wildcat. However, these plays should become increasingly commercial in the 1990s as deeper drilling technology progresses, the current oil glut is eliminated, and more exotic deep gas prospects become accepted.

  12. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  13. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  14. Did the elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA in the 1990s?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for the hypothesis that a decline in all types of crime since the early 1990s in the USA was a consequence of removing lead from petrol between 1975 and 1985. It describes ecological and econometric studies that have generally but not always found correlations between lead exposures in childhood and some types of crime 20 years later; a small number of epidemiological studies that have found a dose-response relationship between lead exposure in childhood and self-reported and officially recorded criminal offences in young adulthood; and evidence for the biological plausibility of a causal relationship. Lead exposure in childhood may have played a small role in rising and falling crime rates in the USA but it is unlikely to account for the very high percentage of the decline suggested by the ecological studies. The major anomaly in the evidence is that the associations reported in ecological studies are much stronger (explaining 56-90% of the variation in crime rates) than the weaker relationships found in the cohort studies (that typically explain less than 1% of the variance in offending).  Suggestions are made for research that will better assess the contribution that reduced lead exposure has made to declining crime rates in the USA. PMID:24555074

  15. Particle astrophysics - The NASA cosmic ray program for the 1990s and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V. (Editor); Kerr, Frank J. (Editor); Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on particle astrophysics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: the NASA cosmic ray (CR) program for the 1990s and beyond, SAMPEX Mission overview, the Advanced Composition Explorer, Positron Electron Magnet Spectrometer for the Eos Mission, Heavy Nucleus Collector for Space Station, the Astromag Facility, Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag, the Solar Probe Mission, the Mercury Dual Orbiter Mission, CRs in the heliosphere, origin of high-energy Galactic CRs, CR studies with the Gamma-Ray Observatory, gamma-ray astronomy at 1 TeV, experimental search for point sources above 1 TeV, the UMC Extensive Air Shower Array, status of the MACRO experiment. Also discussed are: CRs above 1 TeV/n and neutrino astronomy, abundance of ultraheavy nuclei in solar energetic particles, CR studies with an interstellar probe, isotopic composition of CR nuclei beyond the iron peak, experimental studies of CR isotopic composition up to Zr-40, use of accelerators in particle astrophysics, development of long-duration ballooning in Antarctica, Lunar-Based Heavy Nucleus Detector, neutrino astronomy on the moon, gamma rays at airplane altitudes, source composition of CRs.

  16. Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition: a study of Italian children born in the 1950s and the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Defraia, Efisio; Baroni, Giulia; Marinelli, Andrea

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition in two modern samples living in the same geographic area and separated by almost 35 years. A group of 83 subjects (39 boys and 44 girls) born between 1953 and 1959 (mean age: eight years and three months +/-15 months for the boys and seven years and 11 months +/-12 months for the girls) were compared with a group of 84 subjects (38 boys and 46 girls) born between 1990 and 1998 (mean age: eight years and eight months +/-12 months for the boys and eight years and four months +/-11 months for the girls). Measurements were taken on dental casts for posterior and anterior arch segments, intermolar and intercanine width, and mesiodistal size of incisors. The available anterior space in both arches and the posterior and anterior transverse dimensions were calculated. Groups were compared using a nonparametric test (Mann-Whitney U-test) for independent samples (P < .05). Results show that both boys and girls of 1990s showed significantly smaller maxillary intermolar width when compared with 1950s. Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy was significantly minor in girls of 1990s. The present population has a greater probability of developing a malocclusion as a consequence of the secular trend toward the reduction of the width of the upper arch.

  17. The Condition of the Diverse Regions of Rural America at the Start of the Decade of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    This paper constructs a profile of the condition of the diverse areas of rural America at the Beginning of the 1990s. The widely used designation of metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas based on the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) does not describe the diverse nature of rural America. One alternative typology differentiates nonmetro counties…

  18. Development Goals and Strategies for Children in the 1990s. A UNICEF Policy Review. Executive Board Decision 1990-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This document presents proposals for goals and strategies for children and development in the 1990s that were approved by the UNICEF Executive Board in April, 1990. The paper proposes that developing human capabilities and meeting basic human needs should be the focus of the UNICEF contribution to the fourth United Nations developmental decade.…

  19. Reconsidering Gender Roles on MTV: Depictions in the Most Popular Music Videos of the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Finds that popular music videos of the early 1990s continued to underrepresent women, with men outnumbering women in lead roles by almost a 5 to 1 margin, and presenting women in a much narrower range of lead roles. Finds also that popular music videos portrayed women in a manor that emphasized physical appearance rather than musical ability. (SR)

  20. Massification, Bureaucratization and Questing for "World-Class" Status: Higher Education in China since the Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngok, Kinglun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the latest developments of the higher education sector in China since the mid-1990s by focusing on the expansion of university education. Design/methodology/approach: It is argued that while massification of higher education is an important indication of the progress in China's higher education system, the…

  1. The Quality of Life of Hong Kong's Poor Households in the 1990s: Levels of Expenditure, Income Security and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the quality of life of poor households in Hong Kong in the late 1990s by analyzing their levels of expenditure, income security and poverty before and after 1997. Though there have been significant increases in the levels of expenditure among CSSA recipients, the expenditure among these poorest households in Hong…

  2. Turning Points: Books and Reports that Reflected and Shaped U.S. Education, 1749-1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This document explores a selection influential books and reports on U.S. education that appeared between 1749 and the 1990s. The analysis begins with Benjamin Franklin's "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania", early writings on women's and adult education, the McGuffey reader of the mid-nineteenth century, and…

  3. Constructivism and the Neoliberal Agenda in the Spanish Curriculum Reform of the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the assumption underlying most education reforms that constructivism is politically neutral and intrinsically democratic. It makes this argument by examining the curriculum reform in Spain during the 1980s and 1990s in light of the neoliberal politics that the country was experiencing at that time. This study employs the…

  4. Financing the American Community College in the 1990's: A New Kind of Blues or the Same Old Tune?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Susan Robinson

    Drawing from journal, report, and monographic literature, this paper offers an analysis of community college funding in the 1990's. In the first section, various stories appearing in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" are highlighted, pointing to such financial problems as state deficits and shrinking educational budgets, no federal increases in…

  5. Budget Blues: The Situation May Not Be Worse than in the Early 1990S, but Public Libraries Are Definitely Hurting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2004-01-01

    Public libraries are suffering budget cuts in most states nationwide, according to an informal LJ survey, with a significant segment--though not a majority characterizing the strictures as worse than in the early 1990s, the last time libraries were hit hard. LJ contacted state library agencies and, in some-cases, state library associations, for a…

  6. The Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How Did Russians Survive in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuanping; Hwang, Sean-Shong

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we investigate the possible links between the Russian mortality crisis of the 1990s and social transition that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union. The results of the analysis demonstrate that Russians' life chances and their psychological resources and well-being were…

  7. Determinants of Police Strength in Large U.S. Cities during the 1990s: A Fixed-Effects Panel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, William P.; Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    The 1990s represented a unique decade in which to analyze the determinants of police strength in the United States. This decade was a time in which crime initially increased, then substantially decreased. Furthermore, this decade also was characterized by increases in the minority population throughout large American cities. Finally, the 1990s…

  8. Market Forces in Higher Education--Chinese and British Experience between Mid-1980s and Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaonan

    2010-01-01

    This paper tries to examine how higher education in China and Britain has been affected by market forces between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, from three major issues. Comparing the experiences of both places, the paper argues that unlike the case of British counterpart, where marketisation of education has shifted to a corporate management…

  9. An interdecadal change in the intensity of interannual variability in summer rainfall over southern China around early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Xin; He, Chao; Chen, Zesheng

    2017-01-01

    The intensity of interannual variability (IIV) in southern China (SC) summer rainfall experienced a remarkable increase in early 1990s, concurrent with the interdecadal increase in SC summer rainfall. Two factors are proposed for this interdecadal change. One is the interdecadal increase of IIV in tropical eastern Indian Ocean (TEIO) sea surface temperature (SST) after early 1990s. Anomalous warmer (cooler) TEIO SST triggers anomalous ascending (descending) motion and lower-level cyclonic (anticyclone) circulation in situ, which in turn induces anomalous descent (ascent) over SC through an anomalous meridional vertical circulation. This contributes to interannual summer rainfall variability over SC. The increase in the amplitude of TEIO SST anomalies in early 1990s led to an intensified interannual variability of summer rainfall over SC. The other is the strengthened influence of a coupled mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and North Atlantic triple SST anomaly on interannual variability in summer rainfall over SC after early 1990s. The leading EOF mode of the North Atlantic SST is characterized by a stripe pattern during 1979-1992, while during 1993-2008 the dominant mode of the North Atlantic SST is a triple pattern. The triple pattern of North Atlantic SST may exert positive effect on the NAO after early 1990s. Compared to the period 1979-1992, the relationship between the NAO and interannual summer rainfall over SC is enhanced during 1993-2008. The NAO coupled with North Atlantic SST triple exerts an important impact on SC summer rainfall variability through Eurasian wave-like train.

  10. Land-Use Change and Carbon Flux Between 1970s and 1990s in Central Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    DE; CAIRNS; HAGGERTY; RAMÍREZ-MARCIAL; OCHOA-GAONA; MENDOZA-VEGA; GONZÁLEZ-ESPINOSA; MARCH-MIFSUT

    1999-04-01

    / We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s and 1990s. Carbon densities were assigned to common LU/LC classes on vegetation maps produced by Mexican governmental organizations and, by differencing areas and C pools, net C flux was calculated from the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, during a 16-year period. The total area of closed forests was reduced by half while degraded and fragmented forests expanded 56% and cultivated land and pasture areas increased by 8% and 30%, respectively. Total mean C densities ranged from a high of 504 tons C/ha in the oak and evergreen cloud forests class to a low of 147 tons C/ha in the pasture class. The differences in total C densities among the various LU/LC classes were due to changes in biomass while soil organic matter C remained similar. We estimate that a total of 19.99 thick similar 10(6) tons C were released to the atmosphere during the period of time covered by our study, equal to approximately 34% of the 1975 vegetation C pool. The Chiapas highlands, while comprising just 0.3% of Mexico's surface area, contributed 3% of the net national C emissions. KEY WORDS: Land use; Land cover; Carbon flux; Forests; Chiapas highlands; Mexico

  11. MEASUREMENT OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION MAINS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of measurements of methane emissions from underground distribution mains and services. In the program, leakage from underground distribution systems is estimated by combining leak measurements with historical leak record data and the length of undergroun...

  12. Gay and Bisexual men's use of the Internet: Research from the 1990s through 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging into the World Wide Web via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social and sexual networking via a handheld device. In kind, researchers too have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men, though not at the same rapid pace at which technology (and its users) have advanced. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions with gay and bisexual men. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The urgent need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. Moving forward, a more holistic understanding of gay and bisexual men's sexual behavior might be warranted to address continued HIV and STI disparities. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide rapidly evolving outreach to gay and bisexual men. PMID:24754360

  13. A Premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Pollay, R; Dewhirst, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace. Setting: Court proceedings assessing the constitutionality of Canada's Tobacco Act, which substantially restricts cigarette advertising. The 2002 Quebec Superior Court trial yielded a new collection of internal documents from Imperial Tobacco Ltd (ITL), including several about the development and marketing of Player's Premiere. Method: Trial testimony and corporate documents were reviewed to determine the validity of the industry representations about the new cigarette product development process, focusing on the case history of Player's Premiere. Results: In direct contradiction to industry testimony, the documentary evidence demonstrates that (1) communications for Player's Premiere, which claimed less irritation, were developed long before finding a product that could deliver on the promise; (2) ITL did not sell a "less irritating" product that matched its promotional promise; (3) the advertising and other communications for Player's Premiere were extensive, relying on the hi-tech appearances ("tangible credibility") of a "unique" filter, yet were uninformative and vague; and (4) Player's Premiere failed in the marketplace, despite extensive advertising and retail support, because it was an inferior product that did not live up to its promotional promise, not because of regulation of commercial speech. Conclusions: New product development entails extensive consumer research to craft all communications tools in fine detail. In the case of Player's Premiere, this crafting created a false and misleading

  14. Circulation and deep water export of the subpolar North Atlantic during the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Brandt, Peter

    Moored array observations and deep float trajectories have allowed an improved quantification of the deep subpolar circulation, in particular regarding the Deep Western Boundary Currents (DWBCs) at the exit of the subpolar gyre and the circulation of Labrador Sea Water (LSW). With the decrease of Labrador Sea deep convection during the mid 1990's, LSW salinity and temperature increased by 0.005/yr and 0.06°C/yr, respectively, over the past decade through eddy exchange with the warmer, saltier boundary current water. At the same time, water masses with upper LSW properties were generated in large quantities by shallow convection compensating the lack of classical LSW formation. Sea-level observations and model simulations have pointed to a decrease of the large-scale near-surface cyclonic subpolar gyre circulation over the past decade and we compare the associated gyre indices. The LSW-level currents at the exit of the Labrador Sea, however, show a strengthening during 1997-2005, while the DWBC east of the Grand Banks showed no significant changes from the period 1993-95 to 2005. The mean Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) at the exit of the subpolar gyre has been estimated by several inverse model studies to be 16±2 Sv and the corresponding heat transport at 0.61±0.07 PW. Inverse analysis for MOC variations among five hydrographic sections taken during 1993-2000 across the North Atlantic at approximately 48°N found no detectable decadal trend nor large changes, with the estimates of the MOC intensity varying among the five realizations only from 13.8 to 16.6 Sv. Two assimilation models, ECCO and SODA-POP, are evaluated for MOC variability at the exit of the subpolar basin. Only small MOC changes are found, with no indication of a decadal "MOC slowdown", in agreement also with the observed deep boundary currents in the western outflow regime.

  15. Ecology and habitat of breeding Northern Goshawks in the inland Pacific Northwest: A summary of research in the 1990s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; McGrath, M.T.; Daw, S.K.; Desimone, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, we conducted research on the distribution, productivity, and habitat relationships of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in eastern Oregon and Washington. Our research was initiated primarily in response to concerns raised about the status of Northern Goshawks in the western US, and coincided with early attempts to list the species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act and the publication of management guidelines for goshawks in the southwestern US. To develop baseline information on the status, distribution, and habitat relationships of goshawks in eastside forests (i.e., east of the Cascade Mountain Range) in the Pacific Northwest, we established study areas on three national forests in eastern Oregon in 1992, adding a fourth study area in central Washington in 1994. We focused on the breeding season and nesting habitat because of its primary importance to goshawk ecology and the logistical feasibility of finding nests. Density of breeding pairs ranged from 0.03-0.09/100 ha, and annual productivity ranged from 0.3-2.2 young fledged/nest. Goshawks selected forest stands with trees of larger diameter and greater canopy closure for nesting than available in the landscape. Occasionally nests could be found in large trees in open-canopied stands. As distance increased from the nest site, forest type and structure became more heterogeneous and the prevalence of older-seral-stage forest declined. Dry or wet openings were present in most territories, often within close proximity to nest stands. Goshawks ate a variety of mammalian and avian prey. Mammal species made up a larger portion of prey biomass on two of the national forests, but avian species appeared to be more prevalent in the diet of goshawks in the most northern study area. We recommend that the existing management guidelines for goshawks in the Southwest form a basis for management in the inland Pacific Northwest, particularly with regard to nested spatial concepts

  16. Outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Fanaroff, A A

    1999-01-01

    Advances in perinatal care have improved the chances for survival of extremely low birthweight (< 800 g) and gestational age (< 26 weeks) infants. A review of the world literature and our own experience reveals that at 23 weeks gestation survival ranges from 2% to 35%. At 24 weeks gestation the range is 17% to 58%, and at 25 weeks gestation 35% to 85%. Differences in population descriptors, in the initiation and withdrawal of treatment and the duration of survival considered may account for the wide variations in the reported ranges of survival. Major neonatal morbidity increases with decreasing gestational age and birthweight. The rates of severe cerebral ultrasound abnormality range at 23 weeks gestation from 10% to 83%, at 24 weeks from 17% to 64% and at 25 weeks gestation from 10% to 22%. At 23 weeks gestation, chronic lung disease occurs in 57% to 70% of survivors, at 24 weeks in 33% to 89%, and at 25 weeks gestation in 16% to 71% of survivors. When compared to children born prior to the 1990's, the rates of neurodevelopmental disability have, in general, remained unchanged. Of 30 survivors reported at 23 weeks gestation nine (30%) are severely disabled. At 24 weeks gestation the rates of severe neurodevelopmental disability (including subnormal cognitive function, cerebral palsy, blindness and deafness) range from 17% to 45%, and at 25 weeks gestation 12% to 35% are similarly affected. In Cleveland, Ohio, we compared the outcomes of 114 children with birthweight 500-749 g born 1990-1992 to 112 infants born 1993-1995. Twenty month survival was similar (43% vs 38%). The use of antenatal and postnatal steroids increased (10% vs 54% and 43% vs 84%, respectively, P< 0.001), however the rates of chronic lung disease increased from 41% to 63% (P = 0.06). There was a significant increase in the rate of subnormal cognitive function at 20 months corrected age (20% vs 48%, P < 0.02) and a trend to an increase in the rate of cerebral palsy (10% vs 16%) and

  17. Variability of the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index across the north slope of Alaska in the 1990s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, D.; Daeschner, S.; Hope, A.; Douglas, D.; Petersen, A.; Myneni, R.; Zhou, L.; Oechel, W.

    2003-01-01

    The interannual variability and trend of above-ground photosynthetic activity of Arctic tundra vegetation in the 1990s is examined for the north slope region of Alaska, based on the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index (SINDVI) derived from local area coverage (LAC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. Smaller SINDVI values occurred during the three years (1992-1994) following the volcanic eruption of Mt Pinatubo. Even after implementing corrections for this stratospheric aerosol effect and adjusting for changes in radiometric calibration coefficients, an apparent increasing trend of SINDVI in the 1990s is evident for the entire north slope. The most pronounced increase was observed for the foothills physiographical province.

  18. Reversal of the 1960s to 1990s freshening trend in the northeast North Atlantic and Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, N. Penny; Hughes, S. L.; Bacon, S.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Hansen, B.; Lavín, A.; Loeng, H.; Mork, K. A.; Østerhus, S.; Sherwin, T.; Walczowski, W.

    2008-02-01

    Hydrographic time series in the northeast North Atlantic and Nordic Seas show that the freshening trend of the 1960s-1990s has completely reversed in the upper ocean. Since the 1990s temperature and salinity have rapidly increased in the Atlantic Inflow from the eastern subpolar gyre to the Fram Strait. In 2003-2006 salinity values reached the previous maximum last observed around 1960, and temperature values exceeded records. The mean properties of the Atlantic Inflow decrease northwards, but variations seen in the eastern subpolar gyre at 57°N persist with the same amplitude and pattern along the pathways to Fram Strait. Time series correlations and extreme events suggest a time lag of 3-4 years over that distance. This estimate allows predictions to be made; the temperature of Atlantic water in the Fram Strait may start to decline in 2007 or 2008, salinity a year later, but both will remain high at least until 2010.

  19. Distributed Capacitive Sensor for Sample Mass Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Manohara, Harish; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2011-01-01

    Previous robotic sample return missions lacked in situ sample verification/ quantity measurement instruments. Therefore, the outcome of the mission remained unclear until spacecraft return. In situ sample verification systems such as this Distributed Capacitive (DisC) sensor would enable an unmanned spacecraft system to re-attempt the sample acquisition procedures until the capture of desired sample quantity is positively confirmed, thereby maximizing the prospect for scientific reward. The DisC device contains a 10-cm-diameter pressure-sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in close proximity to an opposing rigid substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two parallel plates (elastic membrane and rigid substrate). C-V conversion circuits on a nearby PCB (printed circuit board) provide capacitance readout via LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface. The capacitance method was chosen over other potential approaches such as the piezoelectric method because of its inherent temperature stability advantage. A reference capacitor and temperature sensor are embedded in the system to compensate for temperature effects. The pressure-sensitive membranes are aluminum 6061, stainless steel (SUS) 403, and metal-coated polyimide plates. The thicknesses of these membranes range from 250 to 500 m. The rigid substrate is made with a 1- to 2-mm-thick wafer of one of the following materials depending on the application requirements glass, silicon, polyimide, PCB substrate. The glass substrate is fabricated by a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication approach. Several concentric electrode patterns are printed on the substrate. The initial gap between the two plates, 100 m, is defined by a silicon spacer ring that is anodically bonded to the glass

  20. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  1. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  2. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  3. Abrupt summer warming and changes in temperature extremes over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s: Drivers and physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong; Lu, Riyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the drivers and physical processes for the abrupt decadal summer surface warming and increases in hot temperature extremes that occurred over Northeast Asia in the mid-1990s. Observations indicate an abrupt increase in summer mean surface air temperature (SAT) over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s. Accompanying this abrupt surface warming, significant changes in some temperature extremes, characterized by increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature (Tmax), daily minimum temperature (Tmin), annual hottest day temperature (TXx), and annual warmest night temperature (TNx) were observed. There were also increases in the frequency of summer days (SU) and tropical nights (TR). Atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and anthropogenic aerosol (AA) forcing, relative to the period 1964-93, reproduced the general patterns of observed summer mean SAT changes and associated changes in temperature extremes, although the abrupt decrease in precipitation since the mid-1990s was not simulated. Additional model experiments with different forcings indicated that changes in SST/SIE explained 76% of the area-averaged summer mean surface warming signal over Northeast Asia, while the direct impact of changes in GHG and AA explained the remaining 24% of the surface warming signal. Analysis of physical processes indicated that the direct impact of the changes in AA (through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions), mainly related to the reduction of AA precursor emissions over Europe, played a dominant role in the increase in TXx and a similarly important role as SST/SIE changes in the increase in the frequency of SU over Northeast Asia via AA-induced coupled atmosphere-land surface and cloud feedbacks, rather than through a direct impact of AA changes on cloud condensation nuclei. The modelling results also imply

  4. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-02

    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  5. MEASURING THE MASS DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Rines, Kenneth J.; Serra, Ana Laura E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it E-mail: serra@to.infn.it

    2013-02-10

    Cluster mass profiles are tests of models of structure formation. Only two current observational methods of determining the mass profile, gravitational lensing, and the caustic technique are independent of the assumption of dynamical equilibrium. Both techniques enable the determination of the extended mass profile at radii beyond the virial radius. For 19 clusters, we compare the mass profile based on the caustic technique with weak lensing measurements taken from the literature. This comparison offers a test of systematic issues in both techniques. Around the virial radius, the two methods of mass estimation agree to within {approx}30%, consistent with the expected errors in the individual techniques. At small radii, the caustic technique overestimates the mass as expected from numerical simulations. The ratio between the lensing profile and the caustic mass profile at these radii suggests that the weak lensing profiles are a good representation of the true mass profile. At radii larger than the virial radius, the extrapolated Navarro, Frenk and White fit to the lensing mass profile exceeds the caustic mass profile. Contamination of the lensing profile by unrelated structures within the lensing kernel may be an issue in some cases; we highlight the clusters MS0906+11 and A750, superposed along the line of sight, to illustrate the potential seriousness of contamination of the weak lensing signal by these unrelated structures.

  6. Accountable care organizations may have difficulty avoiding the failures of integrated delivery networks of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawton R; Pauly, Mark V

    2012-11-01

    Accountable care organizations are intended to improve the quality and lower the cost of health care through several mechanisms, such as disease management programs, care coordination, and aligning financial incentives for hospitals and physicians. Providers employed several of these mechanisms in forming the integrated delivery networks of the 1990s. The networks failed, however, because of heavy financial losses stemming from hospitals' purchase of physician practices and their inability to align incentives, garner capitated contracts, and develop the infrastructure to manage risk. Although the current mechanisms underlying accountable care organizations continue to evolve, whether and how they will have an impact on quality and costs remains open to question. Care coordination and information technology are proving more complicated and expensive to implement than anticipated, providers may lack the ability to implement these mechanisms, and primary care providers are in short supply. As in the 1990s, success depends on targeting specific populations, such as people with multiple chronic conditions who need and may benefit from coordinated care.

  7. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  8. Measuring for thickness distribution of recording layer of PLH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Guo, Lurong; Guo, Yongkang

    1991-07-01

    An interference microscope is employed to take a photo of the interfering fringes, and its density is analyzed by a computer image system to measure the thickness distribution of a photolithographic hologram (PLH). This method is much more simple than that of SEM. The theory of measuring is presented in the paper. The authors measured the distributions of photolithographic gratings before and after the etching process. Comparing both the thickness distributions of corresponding recording layers, some primary rules of pattern transfer process by etching were identified.

  9. Political Dynamics and Security in the Arabian Peninsula Through the 1990s,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    229 16 Project AI FORCE Ampy Centr %SO QO * U94 7 21 039 ! wI !7 The research described in this report was sponsored jointly by the United States Air... analysis . Publications of RAND do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of the sponsors of RAND research. Published 1993 by RAND 1700 Main...Army Project AIR FORCE Arroyo Center Approved for public release; distribution unlimited - £ Mmm mI4$$ im~ * ____ __ _ _ _L_____ i2 PREFACE This report

  10. Direct measurement of quasiprobability distributions in cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez-Amaro, Raul; Moya-Cessa, Hector

    2003-08-01

    We show that the set of s-parametrized quasiprobability distribution functions corresponding to an electromagnetic field in a cavity subject to dissipation can be directly measured. Such distributions contain whole information of the quantum state, therefore making it possible to recover information after losses have occurred.

  11. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  12. Aerosol Measurements by the Globally Distributed Micro Pulse Lidar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Judd; Campbell, James; Berkoff, Tim; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Full time measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol are now being acquired at a number of globally distributed MP (micro pulse) lidar sites. The MP lidar systems provide full time profiling of all significant cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation from compact, eye safe instruments. There are currently eight sites in operation and over a dozen planned. At all sited there are also passive aerosol and radiation measurements supporting the lidar data. Four of the installations are at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites. The network operation includes instrument operation and calibration and the processing of aerosol measurements with standard retrievals and data products from the network sites. Data products include optical thickness and extinction cross section profiles. Application of data is to supplement satellite aerosol measurements and to provide a climatology of the height distribution of aerosol. The height distribution of aerosol is important for aerosol transport and the direct scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. Current satellite and other data already provide a great amount of information on aerosol distribution, but no passive technique can adequately resolve the height profile of aerosol. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is an orbital lidar to be launched in early 2002. GLAS will provide global measurements of the height distribution of aerosol. The MP lidar network will provide ground truth and analysis support for GLAS and other NASA Earth Observing System data. The instruments, sites, calibration procedures and standard data product algorithms for the MPL network will be described.

  13. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  14. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  15. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Climatologies of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the Unites States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. An altitude offset was applied to the sonde data to account for the slow response time of the ozone sensors. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with

  16. Optical heterodyne measurement of cloud droplet size distributions.

    PubMed

    Gollub, J P; Chabay, L; Flygare, W H

    1973-12-01

    Optical heterodyne spectra of laser light quasi-elastically scattered by falling water droplets (1-10-micro radius) in a diffusion cloud chamber were used to determine the droplet size distribution. The rate of fall depends on radius in a known way, thus yielding a heterodyne spectrum manifesting a distribution of Doppler shifts. This spectrum, in conjunction with the calculated Mie scattering intensity as a function of droplet radius, provides a direct measure of the droplet size distribution for droplets large enough that Brownian motion is negligible. The experiments described in this paper demonstrate the technique and establish the potential for further more quantitative studies of size distributions.

  17. Superthermal electron distribution measurements from polarized electron cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, T.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fisch, N.J.

    1988-06-01

    Measurements of the superthermal electron distribution can be made by observing the polarized electron cyclotron emission. The emission is viewed along a constant magnetic field surface. This simplifies the resonance condition and gives a direct correlation between emission frequency and kinetic energy of the emitting electron. A transformation technique is formulated which determines the anisotropy of the distribution and number density of superthermals at each energy measured. The steady-state distribution during lower hybrid current drive and examples of the superthermal dynamics as the runaway conditions is varied are presented for discharges in the PLT tokamak. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Women as the Aggressors in Intimate Partner Homicide in Houston, 1980s to 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titterington, Victoria B.; Harper, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to inform the ongoing quest for efficacious treatment of domestically violent women by (a) describing their representation in cases of intimate partner homicide over the period of 1985-1999 in Houston, Texas, and (b) by utilizing a measure known as the spousal sex ratio of killing (SROK), determining…

  19. VHSIC Electronics and the Cost of Air Force Avionics in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    coils / /Thermocouple (temperature measurement) Graphite crucible SOURCE: Ref. Boylestad and Nashelskey, 1982, p. 12. Fig. 12-Czochralski process ide...Device: Tomorrow’s Transis- tor," Scientific American, March 1988. Boylestad , Robert, and Louis Nashelskey, Electronic Devices and Cir- cuit Theory, 3d Ed

  20. Postponing Second Teen Births in the 1990s: Longitudinal Analyses of National Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela

    A sample of high school-age mothers was followed from 1988 to 1994 in order to examine factors associated with having a second teen birth or closely spaced second teen birth. Factors associated with postponing a second teen birth included characteristics measured prior to the first birth, at the time of the first birth, and after the first birth.…

  1. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  2. The “Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy” of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease

    PubMed Central

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a “multifactorial” etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  3. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  4. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs.

  5. Stereotypes of the elderly in U.S. television commercials from the 1950s to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darryl W; Leyell, Teresita S; Mazachek, Juliann

    2004-01-01

    Critics have charged that American advertisers have often portrayed the elderly with negative stereotypes. These negative portrayals, they suggest, not only offend elderly consumers but also contribute to ageism. This study examined whether American advertisers have indeed used a great deal of negative stereotyping of the elderly, as the critics have suggested. Employing a concept of stereotypes found in cognitive psychology, the authors examined trends in the portrayal of the elderly in television commercials produced in the United States from the 1950s through the 1990s. Results of the study do not support the contentions of the critics. Very little negative stereotyping was discovered. Analysis indicated trends in the appearance of several positive stereotypes, and differences in the stereotyping of gender groups and age segments within the elderly group. Results are interpreted from both marketing and social science perspectives.

  6. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-07-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Multi-annual averages of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases of 20-40% are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the United States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with the changes deduced from Wallops Island.

  7. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Marwan; Dawns, Jesse; Meyerson-Knox, Sonya; Yamout, Rouham

    2008-01-01

    Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI). Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural) and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP), female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners. PMID:19021903

  8. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s: 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  9. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s. 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  10. Skin lesions on North Atlantic right whales: categories, prevalence and change in occurrence in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Philip K; Marx, Marilyn K

    2005-12-30

    North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis experienced decreased reproduction and body condition in the 1990s, causing concern about the overall health of this critically endangered population. Images from a detailed photo-identification catalog of right whales were analyzed for the presence of skin lesions. Lesions were categorized as white lesions or blister lesions and each of those categories were further divided based on lesion morphology and location. Of 439 whales photo-analyzed between 1980 and 2002, white lesions were detected on 227 ind. (51.7%) and blister lesions were found on 76 ind. (17.3%). The majority of white lesions (72.8%) were detected in the Bay of Fundy where their prevalence increased dramatically during the 1990s (peaking at 40 and 41% of all identified whales in 1997 and 1999, respectively). A correlation between whale density and white lesions in the Bay of Fundy suggested that this lesion type may have been the result of a contagious agent, though the data on mother/calf pairs did not indicate transmission from mother to calf. Blister lesions appeared at low levels throughout the population over the study period. Neither lesion category was more prevalent on males or females, nor were there any differences between adults and juveniles. One white lesion type appeared exclusively on whales that had been entangled, and whose subsequent survival was in most cases questionable. This is the first detailed analysis of skin lesions in this species. Only 1 tissue sample has been previously obtained from a lesion, and thus the histology and etiology of these lesions remain unknown. Further work is needed to explore the role of disease and environmental variables in lesion prevalence.

  11. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  12. Optical and Radar Measurements of the Meteor Speed Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, A. V.; Brown, P. G.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Kingery, A.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The observed meteor speed distribution provides information on the underlying orbital distribution of Earth-intersecting meteoroids. It also affects spacecraft risk assessments; faster meteors do greater damage to spacecraft surfaces. Although radar meteor networks have measured the meteor speed distribution numerous times, the shape of the de-biased speed distribution varies widely from study to study. Optical characterizations of the meteoroid speed distribution are fewer in number, and in some cases the original data is no longer available. Finally, the level of uncertainty in these speed distributions is rarely addressed. In this work, we present the optical meteor speed distribution extracted from the NASA and SOMN allsky networks [1, 2] and from the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory (CAMO) [3]. We also revisit the radar meteor speed distribution observed by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) [4]. Together, these data span the range of meteoroid sizes that can pose a threat to spacecraft. In all cases, we present our bias corrections and incorporate the uncertainty in these corrections into uncertainties in our de-biased speed distribution. Finally, we compare the optical and radar meteor speed distributions and discuss the implications for meteoroid environment models.

  13. Antiresonant guiding photonic crystal fibers for distributed temperature gradient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, R.; Zeng, J.; Kandel, M.; Fam, A. T.; Cartwright, A. N.; Litchinitser, N. M.

    2011-11-01

    We propose, design, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, distributed refractometric measurement technique based on unique spectral properties of antiresonant-guiding photonic crystal fibers for measuring temperature gradients. We use a simple and accurate analytical model and numerical simulations to guide our experiments. The proposed technique may find applications for monitoring and control of chemical and biological reactions in microfluidic systems.

  14. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.

  15. The `hockey stick' and the 1990s: a statistical perspective on reconstructing hemispheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Nychka, Douglas W.; Ammann, Caspar M.

    2007-10-01

    The short instrumental record of about 100-150 yr forces us to use proxy indicators to study climate over long timescales. The climate information in these indirect data is embedded in considerable noise, and the past temperature reconstructions are therefore full of uncertainty, which blurs the understanding of the temperature evolution. To date, the characterization and quantification of uncertainty have not been a high priority in reconstruction procedures. Here we propose a new statistical methodology to explicitly account for three types of uncertainties in the reconstruction process. Via ensemble reconstruction, we directly obtain the distribution of decadal maximum as well as annual maximum. Our method is an integration of linear regression, bootstrapping and cross-validation techniques, and it (1) accounts for the effects of temporal correlation of temperature; (2) identifies the variability of the estimated statistical model and (3) adjusts the effects of potential overfitting. We apply our method to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) average temperature reconstruction. Our results indicate that the recent decadal temperature increase is rapidly overwhelming previous maxima, even with uncertainty taken into account, and the last decade is highly likely to be the warmest in the last millennium.

  16. Three optical methods for remotely measuring aerosol size distributions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Herman, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    Three optical probing methods for remotely measuring atmospheric aerosol size distributions are discussed and contrasted. The particular detection methods which are considered make use of monostatic lidar (laser radar), bistatic lidar, and solar radiometer sensing techniques. The theory of each of these measurement techniques is discussed briefly, and the necessary constraints which must be applied to obtain aerosol size distribution information from such measurements are pointed out. Theoretical and/or experimental results are also presented which demonstrate the utility of the three proposed probing methods.

  17. Temperature Distribution Measurement of The Wing Surface under Icing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isokawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kimura, Shigeo; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Morita, Katsuaki; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Collaboration; Univ of Notre Dame Collaboration; Kanagawa Institute of Technology Collaboration; Univ of Electro-(UEC) Team, Comm

    2016-11-01

    De- or anti-icing system of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Icing is a phenomenon which is caused by a collision of supercooled water frozen to an object. For the in-flight icing, it may cause a change in the wing cross section that causes stall, and in the worst case, the aircraft would fall. Therefore it is important to know the surface temperature of the wing for de- or anti-icing system. In aerospace field, temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) has been widely used for obtaining the surface temperature distribution on a testing article. The luminescent image from the TSP can be related to the temperature distribution. (TSP measurement system) In icing wind tunnel, we measured the surface temperature distribution of the wing model using the TSP measurement system. The effect of icing conditions on the TSP measurement system is discussed.

  18. GRM - Observing the terrestrial gravity and magnetic fields in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, P. T.; Keating, T.; Kahn, W. D.; Langel, R. A.; Smith, D. E.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    NASA is proposing to launch a new geopotential fields exploration system called the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). Two spacecraft will be placed in a circular polar orbit at 160 km altitude. Distances between these satellites will vary from 100 to 600 km. Both scalar and vector magnetic fields will be measured by magnetometers mounted on a boom positioned in the forward direction on the lead satellite. Gravity data will be computed from the measured change in distance between the two spacecraft. This quantity, called the range-rate, will be determined from the varying frequency (Doppler shift) between transmitter and receiver on each satellite. Expected accuracies (at the one-sigma level) are: gravity field, 1.0 milliGal, 5 cm geoid height; magnetics, scalar field 2 nT, vector to 20 arcsec, both resolved to less than 100 km. With these more accurate and higher resolution data, it will be possible to investigate the earth's structure from the crust (with the shorter wavelength gravity and magnetic anomalies) through the mantle (from the intermediate wavelength gravity field) and into the core (using the longer wavelength gravity and magnetic fields).

  19. Non-Gaussian Error Distributions of LMC Distance Moduli Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-12-01

    We construct error distributions for a compilation of 232 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance moduli values from de Grijs et al. that give an LMC distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 18.49 ± 0.13 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error). Central estimates found from weighted mean and median statistics are used to construct the error distributions. The weighted mean error distribution is non-Gaussian—flatter and broader than Gaussian—with more (less) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of unaccounted-for systematic uncertainties. The median statistics error distribution, which does not make use of the individual measurement errors, is also non-Gaussian—more peaked than Gaussian—with less (more) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of publication bias and/or the non-independence of the measurements. We also construct the error distributions of 247 SMC distance moduli values from de Grijs & Bono. We find a central estimate of {(m-M)}0=18.94+/- 0.14 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error), and similar probabilities for the error distributions.

  20. Satellite Laser Ranging in the 1990s: Report of the 1994 Belmont Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    An international network of 43 stations in 30 countries routinely collects satellite ranging data which is used to study the solid Earth and its interactions with the oceans, atmosphere, and Moon. Data products include centimeter accuracy site positions on a global scale, tectonic plate motions, regional crustal deformation, long wavelength gravity field and geoid, polar motion, and variations in the Earth's spin rate. By calibrating and providing precise orbits for spaceborne microwave altimeters, satellite laser ranging also enables global measurement of sea and ice surface topography, mean sea level, global ocean circulation, and short wavelength gravity fields and marine geoids. It provides tests of general relativity and a means or subnanosecond time transfer. This workshop was convened to define future roles and directions in satellite laser ranging.

  1. A strategy for space biology and medical science for the 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A guideline is provided for developing NASA's long-term mission plans and a rational, coherent research program. Ten topical areas for research are addressed: developmental biology, gravitropism in plants, sensorimotor integration, bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular/pulmonary function, muscle remodeling, nutrition, human reproduction, space anemia, and human behavior. Scientific goals, objectives, and required measurements and facilities for each of the major areas of space biology and medicine are identified and described along with primary goals and objectives for each of these disciplines. Proposals are made concerning the use of scientific panels to oversee the implementation of the strategy, life sciences' need for continuous access to spaceflight opportunities, the advantages of a focused mission strategy, certain design features that will enhance spaceflight experimentation, and general facilities. Other topics that are considered include mission planning, crew selection and training, and interagency and international cooperation.

  2. Measurement of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol by Globally Distributed MP Lidar Network Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Judd; Campbell, James; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global distribution of aerosol has an important influence on climate through the scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation and through modification of cloud optical properties. Current satellite and other data already provide a great amount of information on aerosol distribution. However there are critical parameters that can only be obtained by active optical profiling. For aerosol, no passive technique can adequately resolve the height profile of aerosol. The aerosol height distribution is required for any model for aerosol transport and the height resolved radiative heating/cooling effect of aerosol. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is an orbital lidar to be launched by 2002. GLAS will provide global measurements of the height distribution of aerosol. The sampling will be limited by nadir only coverage. There is a need for local sites to address sampling, and accuracy factors. Full time measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol are now being acquired at a number of globally distributed MP (micro pulse) lidar sites. The MP lidar systems provide profiling of all significant cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation from compact, eye safe instruments. There are currently six sites in operation and over a dozen planned. At all sites there are a complement of passive aerosol and radiation measurements supporting the lidar data. Four of the installations are at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites. The aerosol measurements, retrievals and data products from the network sites will be discussed. The current and planned application of data to supplement satellite aerosol measurements is covered.

  3. Legal, financial, and public health consequences of HIV contamination of blood and blood products in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Peter D; Hounshell, Jennie; Sherman, Laurence A; Godwin, John; Ali, Shirin; Tomori, Cecilia; Bennett, Charles L

    2002-02-19

    Ensuring the safety of the blood supply connects politics and science. The business and service sectors share responsibility for the collection and processing of blood donations, and government agencies perform regulatory and surveillance roles. The onset of the AIDS epidemic has challenged the interface among these systems, leading to widespread fears about compromised safety of the blood supply. Because of public concern about blood-supply decisions made in the 1980s, developed countries in the 1990s established reimbursement programs for persons with transfusion-acquired viral infections from blood or blood products, adopted diagnostic tests and procedures that improved the safety of the blood supply, and held criminal judicial investigations of government officials and industry leaders accused of delaying implementation of potential blood-safety measures. In contrast, developing countries continue to struggle with blood-supply safety issues. This paper summarizes the current status of these safety concerns in developed countries, where viral transmission from contaminated blood or blood products is extremely rare, and in developing countries, where up to 10% of HIV infections result from transfusion of blood or blood products.

  4. Challenging the Future - Journey to Excellence. Aeropropulsion strategic plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Over the past several months, the Lewis Aeropropulsion Management Council (AMC) has conducted a critical assessment of its strategic plan. This assessment clearly indicated a need for change, both in the aeropropulsion program emphasis and in the approach to carrying out that program. Customers sent a strong message that the program must improve the timeliness of research and technology products and services and must work more closely with them to develop and transfer new technology. The strategic plan defines AMC's vision for the future and underlying organizational values. It contains a set of broad strategies and actions that point the way toward achieving the goals of customer satisfaction, organizational effectiveness, and programmatic excellence. Those strategies are expected to form the basis for the development of specific tactical plans by Lewis aeropropulsion thrust teams, divisions, and branches. To guide tactical planning of the aeropropulsion program, this strategic plan outlines the agency's strategic directions and long-range aeronautics goals, the aeropropulsion goals and key objectives for achieving them, projections of Lewis aeropropulsion budgets, planned allocations of resources, and the processes that will be used to measure success in carrying out the strategic plan.

  5. Electronic measurement of microchannel plate pulse height distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2010-10-15

    Microchannel plates are a central component of the x-ray framing cameras used as analog imagers in many plasma experiment diagnostic systems. The microchannel plate serves as an amplifying element, increasing the electronic signal from incident radiation by factors of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5}, with a broad pulse-height distribution. Seeking to optimize the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and noise distribution of x-ray cameras, we will characterize the pulse-height distribution of the electron output from a single microchannel plate. Replacing the framing camera's phosphor-coated fiber optic screen with a charge-collection plate and coupling to a low-noise multichannel analyzer, we quantified the distribution in the total charge generated per photon event. The electronically measured pulse height distribution is used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of radiographic images from framing cameras.

  6. Should the drinking water of Truro, Nova Scotia, be fluoridated? Water fluoridation in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I; Shoveller, J; Langille, D; MacInnis, W A; McNally, M

    1993-06-01

    An epidemiological assessment of differences in caries and fluorosis prevalences between children in Truro (< 0.1 ppm) and Kentville (fluoridated at 1.1 ppm in 1991), Nova Scotia, Canada, was completed in 1991. Out of a total of 429 children, in grades 5 and 6, in the two towns in 1991, 219 (51%) were examined. Parents answered a self-administered questionnaire investigating the sources of drinking water used by the children since birth, residence history, use of fluoride supplements, dentifrices, and other fluoride products during the first 6 yr of the life. The examination criteria differentiated between non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions. Dental fluorosis was measured using the TSIF index. Examiner agreement was excellent. Of the children examined, 80 (36.5%) drank water (fluoridated or non-fluoridated) from municipal water systems during the first 6 yr of life. The children were assigned into five groups based upon residence history and exposure to fluoridated water during the first 6 yr of life. The percentage difference in mean DMFS scores between children in the fluoridated and non-fluoridated groups is 17% (delta DMFS1 = 0.7) when non-cavitated carious lesions are included and 39% (delta DMFS2 = 1.1) when they are excluded. The differences are not statistically significant. The significant risk factors associated with the DMFS1 and DMFS2 scores identified by a stepwise multiple regression analysis are: education level of the father, gender, and number of years of reported use of toothpaste during the first 6 yr of life. Dental fluorosis (mainly TSIF score of 1) was present in 41.5% and 69.2% of the children in the non-fluoridated and fluoridated groups, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Radiation distribution measurement for forest plant canopies tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Yang, Yi; Liu, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Plant canopies structures are important biophysical parameters required in many ecological and climate models. To obtain precise canopies characteristic, the radiation distribution in forest gap should be tracing. In this paper, a radiation transmission measuring method with gyroscope correction for forest gap radiation distribution measurement is present. And a Zigbee wireless network is imbedded for communicating between portable full-trace radiation detector and host computer. Using the solar beam as a probe, the measuring nodes collect radiation distribution in forest gap. Because the constant pace of operator in forest and other outdoor occasion is hard to validate, radiation distribution curves suffer some error. We present a Forest radiation distribution meter with Gyro correction for TRAC measuring. In this meter, A Gyroscope records transect route data and provide speed correction for canopy gaps curve in tracing route. A Microchip PIC16F877 MCU is employed for radiation data collection. The collected data is sent to central station by Zigbee wireless network or CF376 in-line USB flash drives/SD card. Solar radiation spike data and other environment parameters (Temperature and Humidity) are sampled simultaneously. So the gap removal processes suffer less error. A portable node provides full-trace radiation distribution. Host computer can get potential relationship in tracing-line LAI and FPAR and compute them in long-term. A portable full-trace radiation detector and host computer is tested. The experimental results show our design could be a competitive candidate for radiation distribution measurement for forest plant canopies tracing.

  8. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  9. Measurement of Species Distributions in Operating Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Parks, II, James E; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2004-10-01

    Measurement and understanding of transient species distributions across and within fuel cells is a critical need for advancing fuel cell technology. The Spatially Resolved Capillary Inlet Mass Spectrometer (SpaciMS) instrument has been applied for in-situ measurement of transient species distributions within operating reactors; including diesel catalyst, air-exhaust mixing systems, and non-thermal plasma reactors. The work described here demonstrates the applicability of this tool to proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) research. Specifically, we have demonstrated SpaciMS measurements of (1) transient species dynamics across a PEM fuel cell (FC) associated with load switching, (2) intra-PEM species distributions, and transient species dynamics at SOFC temperatures associated with FC load switching.

  10. Tissue temperature distribution measurement and laser immunotherapy for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yichao; Gyanwalib, Surya; Bjorlie, Jeremy; Andrienko, Kirill; Liu, Hong; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Abbott, Andrew; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.

    2006-02-01

    Temperature distribution in tissue can be a crucial factor in laser treatment for inducing immunization responses. In this study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to measure thermal temperature distribution in target tissue in laser treatment of metastatic tumors. It is the only feasible method for in vivo, non-invasive temperature distribution measurement. The measurement was conducted using phantom gel and tumor-bearing rats. The thermal couple measurement of target temperature was also was used to calibrate the relative temperature increase. The phantom system was constructed with a dye-enhanced spherical gel embedded in uniform gel phantom, simulating a tumor within normal tissue. Irradiation by an 805-nm laser increased the system temperature. Using an MRI system and proper algorithm processing for small animal studies, a clear temperature distribution matrix was obtained. The temperature profiles of rat tumors, irradiated by the laser with a power in the range of 2-3.5W and injected with a light-absorbing dye, ICG, and an immunoadjuvant, GC, were obtained. The temperature distribution provided in vivo thermal information and future reference for optimizing dye concentration and irradiation parameters to reach the optimum tumor destruction and immunization effects.

  11. Probability distributions of continuous measurement results for conditioned quantum evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franquet, A.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2017-02-01

    We address the statistics of continuous weak linear measurement on a few-state quantum system that is subject to a conditioned quantum evolution. For a conditioned evolution, both the initial and final states of the system are fixed: the latter is achieved by the postselection in the end of the evolution. The statistics may drastically differ from the nonconditioned case, and the interference between initial and final states can be observed in the probability distributions of measurement outcomes as well as in the average values exceeding the conventional range of nonconditioned averages. We develop a proper formalism to compute the distributions of measurement outcomes, and evaluate and discuss the distributions in experimentally relevant setups. We demonstrate the manifestations of the interference between initial and final states in various regimes. We consider analytically simple examples of nontrivial probability distributions. We reveal peaks (or dips) at half-quantized values of the measurement outputs. We discuss in detail the case of zero overlap between initial and final states demonstrating anomalously big average outputs and sudden jump in time-integrated output. We present and discuss the numerical evaluation of the probability distribution aiming at extending the analytical results and describing a realistic experimental situation of a qubit in the regime of resonant fluorescence.

  12. Probability distributions for measures of placental shape and morphology.

    PubMed

    Gill, J S; Woods, M P; Salafia, C M; Vvedensky, D D

    2014-03-01

    Birthweight at delivery is a standard cumulative measure of placental growth, but is a crude summary of other placental characteristics, such as, e.g., the chorionic plate size, and the shape and position of the umbilical cord insertion. Distributions of such measures across a cohort reveal information about the developmental history of the chorionic plate which is unavailable from an analysis based solely on the mean and standard deviation. Various measures were determined from digitized images of chorionic plates obtained from the pregnancy, infection, and nutrition study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004. Centroids (geometric centers) and umbilical cord insertions were taken directly from the images. Chorionic plate outlines were obtained from an interpolation based on a Fourier series, while eccentricity (of the best-fit ellipse), skewness, and kurtosis were determined from the method of moments. Histograms of each variable were compared against the normal, lognormal, and Lévy distributions. Only a single measure (eccentricity) followed a normal distribution. All others followed lognormal or 'heavy-tailed' distributions for moderate to extreme deviations from the mean, where the relative likelihood far exceeded those of a normal distribution.

  13. A Dramatic Regime Shift in Rainfall Predictability Related to the Ningaloo Niño/Niña in the Late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, T.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T.

    2014-12-01

    The global warming and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) started influencing the coastal ocean off Western Australia, leading to a dramatic change in the regional climate predictability. The warmed ocean started driving rainfall regionally there after the late 1990s. Because of this, rainfall predictability off Western Australia on a seasonal time scale was drastically enhanced in the late 1990s; it is significantly predictable 5 months ahead after the late 1990s. The high prediction skill of the rainfall in recent decades encourages development of an early warning system of Ningaloo Niño/Niña events to mitigate possible societal as well as agricultural impacts in the granary.

  14. Study of indoor radon distribution using measurements and CFD modeling.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R P; Joshi, M; Agarwal, T K; Aggarwal, Praveen; Sahoo, B K

    2014-10-01

    Measurement and/or prediction of indoor radon ((222)Rn) concentration are important due to the impact of radon on indoor air quality and consequent inhalation hazard. In recent times, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement CFD based modeling for studying indoor radon gas distribution. This study focuses on comparison of experimentally measured and CFD modeling predicted spatial distribution of radon concentration for a model test room. The key inputs for simulation viz. radon exhalation rate and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study. Validation experiments were performed by measuring radon concentration at different locations of test room using active (continuous radon monitor) and passive (pin-hole dosimeters) techniques. Modeling predictions have been found to be reasonably matching with the measurement results. The validated model can be used to understand and study factors affecting indoor radon distribution for more realistic indoor environment.

  15. Thermal electron energy distribution measurements in the ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P. B.; Nagy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    A recoverable payload instrumented for twilight airglow studies was launched by an Aerobee 150 from the White Sands Test Range on Feb. 8, 1971 at 13.56 UT. The payload included a low energy electron spectrometer (HARP) and a cylindrical Langmuir probe. The HARP electron spectrometer is a new device designed to make high resolution differential electron flux measurements. Measurements of ionospheric electron energy distribution in the range from about 0.2 to 4.0 eV are presented.

  16. Non-Gaussian error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Houston, Stephen; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-07-01

    We construct the error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements for 66 observations (with error bars) used by Spite et al. (2012) that give A(Li) = 2.21 ± 0.065 (median and 1σ symmetrized error). This error distribution is somewhat non-Gaussian, with larger probability in the tails than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution. The 95.4% confidence limits are 3.0σ in terms of the quoted errors. We fit the data to four commonly used distributions: Gaussian, Cauchy, Student’s t and double exponential with the center of the distribution found with both weighted mean and median statistics. It is reasonably well described by a widened n = 8 Student’s t distribution. Assuming Gaussianity, the observed A(Li) is 6.5σ away from that expected from standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) given the Planck observations. Accounting for the non-Gaussianity of the observed A(Li) error distribution reduces the discrepancy to 4.9σ, which is still significant.

  17. Development of a distribution system for measuring nozzle integrative parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental system used in this study was equipped with sensors and computer-controlled processing technology. This system was used in the measurement of major performance parameters such as pressure, flux, spray angle, spray distribution character of the nozzle and its integrative performance...

  18. Characterizing pulmonary blood flow distribution measured using arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A Cortney; Prisk, G Kim; Levin, David L; Hopkins, Susan R; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-12-01

    The arterial spin labeling (ASL) method provides images in which, ideally, the signal intensity of each image voxel is proportional to the local perfusion. For studies of pulmonary perfusion, the relative dispersion (RD, standard deviation/mean) of the ASL signal across a lung section is used as a reliable measure of flow heterogeneity. However, the RD of the ASL signals within the lung may systematically differ from the true RD of perfusion because the ASL image also includes signals from larger vessels, which can reflect the blood volume rather than blood flow if the vessels are filled with tagged blood during the imaging time. Theoretical studies suggest that the pulmonary vasculature exhibits a lognormal distribution for blood flow and thus an appropriate measure of heterogeneity is the geometric standard deviation (GSD). To test whether the ASL signal exhibits a lognormal distribution for pulmonary blood flow, determine whether larger vessels play an important role in the distribution, and extract physiologically relevant measures of heterogeneity from the ASL signal, we quantified the ASL signal before and after an intervention (head-down tilt) in six subjects. The distribution of ASL signal was better characterized by a lognormal distribution than a normal distribution, reducing the mean squared error by 72% (p < 0.005). Head-down tilt significantly reduced the lognormal scale parameter (p = 0.01) but not the shape parameter or GSD. The RD increased post-tilt and remained significantly elevated (by 17%, p < 0.05). Test case results and mathematical simulations suggest that RD is more sensitive than the GSD to ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels, a probable explanation of the change in RD without a statistically significant change in GSD. This suggests that the GSD is a useful measure of pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity with the advantage of being less affected by the ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels.

  19. Increase in the potential predictability of the Arctic Oscillation via intensified teleconnection with ENSO after the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daehyun; Lee, Myong-In

    2016-11-01

    This study examines why the seasonal prediction skill of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) has increased significantly since the mid-1990s in state-of-the-art seasonal forecasting systems in operation. This skill increase is primarily attributed to variability over the North Atlantic with an enhanced connection between the AO and the El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The relationship between ENSO and AO depends primarily on low-frequency variability in the North Pacific driven by the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, as represented by the Hawaiian sea level pressure (SLPHI) index. When the sign of the SLPHI index and that of the NINO3.4 index are out-of-phase (in-phase) with the variability center of ENSO shifted to the central Pacific (eastern Pacific), more intense (weaker) ENSO-AO teleconnection results. Linear barotropic model experiments with prescribed ENSO forcing and differing phase and intensity of SLPHI support the observed relationship in La Niña years, highlighting the important and independent role of the SLPHI variability as a modulator of the ENSO teleconnection to higher latitudes.

  20. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, H. K.; Ruesch, A. S.; Achard, F.; Clayton, M. K.; Holmgren, P.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions. PMID:20807750

  1. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-11-02

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  2. To decentralize or not to decentralize, is that the question? Nicaraguan health policy under structural adjustment in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E; Zimmerman, S; Garfield, R

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, health services decentralization in Nicaragua has been accompanied by structural adjustment, resulting in reduced equity and accountability. Sandinista efforts in the 1980s to extend access to primary care and reduce class and regional disparities in the delivery of health services were accompanied by modest attempts to increase local-level accountability and responsiveness. The escalation of war in the late 1980s transformed this effort into greater de facto decentralization. Over the past decade, Nicaragua has used decentralization policy to restructure the health system through health spending cuts and the favoring of curative over preventive services; privatization and the promotion of user fees; and confusion of lines of accountability. The authors analyze the 1990s' health policies in Nicaragua, paying particular attention to the blending of decentralization policy with the fiscal and administrative reforms advanced by the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and other international agencies. They conclude that analyzing decentralization as a sector-specific reform that can be ameliorated through technocratic modifications is insufficient. A full understanding of the problems and possibilities of decentralization requires an analysis of the political and economic context that conditions these policies.

  3. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  4. Measurement of Droplet Size Distribution in Insecticide and Herbicide Sprays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    exceeding 100 :m, this result is not critical to the measurement requirements of the U.S. Army. o The spread in the processed signal is less for mineral oil...AD-A136 391 MEASUREMENT OF DROPLET SIZE DISTRIRUTION IN INSECTICIDE 1/1 AND HERRICIDE SPRAYS(UI KLD ASSOCIATES INC HUNTINGTON U D S MAHLER APR 83...NATIONAL BUREAU Of SIANDARDS 1963 A r TR- 126 AD______ MEASUREMENT Or DROPLET SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN INSECTICIDE AND HERBICIDE SPRAYS Phase.I Final

  5. Distributed measurement of birefringence dispersion in polarization-maintaining fibers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng; Wang, Xiang-Zhao; Zhang, Yimo; Jing, Wencai

    2006-12-01

    A new method to measure the birefringence dispersion in high-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers is presented using white-light interferometry. By analyzing broadening of low-coherence interferograms obtained in a scanning Michelson interferometer, the birefringence dispersion and its variation along different fiber sections are acquired with high sensitivity and accuracy. Birefringence dispersions of two PANDA fibers at their operation wavelength are measured to be 0.011 ps/(km nm) and 0.018 ps/(km nm), respectively. Distributed measurement capability of the method is also verified experimentally.

  6. Measurements and CFD modeling of indoor thoron distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R. P.; Joshi, M.; Agarwal, T. K.; Sapra, B. K.

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have been undertaken to measure indoor thoron concentration in Indian dwellings. The distribution pattern of thoron inside room conditions is complex due to short half-life. The internal radiation exposure due to inhalation of indoor thoron and decay products can be quite large near to the wall. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was utilized for prediction of indoor thoron concentration and distribution pattern. Thoron flux was measured experimentally to be used as input and CFD runs were performed for closed and open room conditions. Thoron concentration inside the room was also experimentally measured using Scintillation Thoron Monitor, STM (active) and pin-hole dosimeters (passive). For open room conditions, thoron concentration was found to be smaller and relatively homogenous compared to closed room conditions. CFD predictions were found to be reasonably matching with active and passive results. A separate profile experiment increased confidence towards validation of CFD for indoor thoron distribution (prediction) applications. CFD can be used as a tool to predict thoron concentration and its distribution in indoor conditions.

  7. Method of measuring charge distribution of nanosized aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Woo, K S; Liu, B Y H; Zachariah, M R

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a method to accurately measure the positive and negative charge distribution of nanosized aerosols using a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) system. From the series of TDMA measurements, the charge fraction of nanosized aerosol particles was obtained as a function of equivalent mobility particle diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The capability of this new approach was implemented by sampling from a laminar diffusion flame which provides a source of highly charged particles due to naturally occurring flame ionization process. The results from the TDMA measurement provide the charge distribution of nanosized aerosols which we found to be in reasonable agreement with Boltzmann equilibrium charge distribution theory and a theory based upon charge population balance equation (PBE) combined with Fuchs theory (N.A. Fuchs, Geofis. Pura Appl. 56 (1963) 185). The theoretically estimated charge distribution of aerosol particles based on the PBE provides insight into the charging processes of nanosized aerosols surrounded by bipolar ions and electrons, and agree well with the TDMA results.

  8. Measurement of size distributions of a coagulating aerosol. [Calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.G.

    1984-05-01

    Measurements have been performed for the determination of the size distribution of a coagulating ultrafine aerosol over a time interval of up to about 30 min. The aerosol was contained in a balloon with an initial volume of 60 l subject to a temperature inversion for the purpose of quenching the free convection and thereby diminishing the aerosol loss to the balloon wall. The aerosol size distribution was measured with the TSI electrostatic aerosol classifier hooked up to a TSI aerosol electrometer. The initial aerosol had an average diameter of about 12 nm. Measurements were taken by computer at a rate of 1 measurement cycle every 3 s; 1 cycle consists of a measurement of time, and burst measurements of electrometer current, classifier rod voltage, 3 flow rates, and 5 temperatures, followed by the calculation of averages and standard deviations, and storage of the results in a data string. The TSI instruments have been modified to permit the automatic computer reading of the parameters mentioned above. A multiplexer has been built to allow the multiplet data to be measured by a single system voltmeter. Channel switching in the multiplexer can be done either automatically by using the ''delay'' signal emitted by the system voltmeter every time it makes a reading or by software control through the 16-bit parallel interface of the computer.

  9. Global temperature distributions from OGO-6 6300 A airglow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamont, J. E.; Luton, J. M.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The OGO-6 6300 A airglow temperature measurements have been used to develop models of the global temperature distributions under solstice and equinox conditions for the altitude region from 240 to 300 km and for times ranging from dawn in this altitude region to shortly after sunset. The distributions are compared with models derived from satellite orbital decay and incoherent scatter sounding. The seasonal variation of the temperature as a function of latitude is shown to be very different from that derived from static diffusion models with constant boundary conditions.

  10. The Capacity for Life-Long Learning of College Seniors in the Mid-1980s to the Mid-1990s. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayek, John C.; Kuh, George D.

    This study compared college seniors' self-evaluation of skills considered important for lifelong learning from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. The study used data from the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ), a national database begun in 1983 which includes over 200,000 student records from over 600 colleges and universities. An index…

  11. Higher Education into the 1990s: New Dimensions. To Commemorate the Jubilee of the Society for Research into Higher Education, 1964-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Christopher, Ed.; Eggins, Heather, Ed.

    This collection of essays aims to contribute to the understanding of the present predicament and future potential of higher education in the United Kingdom. It considers the new dimensions being introduced into higher education which are likely to have marked effects in the 1990s. It explores the tensions between the past and future, tradition and…

  12. What Have Peace Education Commission Papers Dealt with in the 1990s? Comments on a Guide to Five Conference Reports. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Five international conferences were held during the 1990s by the Peace Education Commission, a semi-independent subgroup of the International Peace Research Association. The conferences were held in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary), and Valletta (Malta). This document is a brief commentary on the…

  13. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  14. ARL: Setting the Agenda for the 1990s. Minutes of the [Membership] Meeting (112th, Oakland, California, May 5-6, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daval, Nicola, Ed.

    The first of two program sessions at this semiannual meeting addressed the agenda of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) for the 1990s, and the report provides summaries of remarks by Elaine Sloan on the background; D. Kaye Gapen on a report from the Task Force on Review of the ARL Five-Year Plan; and Duane E. Webster on the ARL framework…

  15. Influence of climate regime shift on the interdecadal change in tropical cyclone activity over the Pacific Basin during the middle to late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Wu, Yi-Kai; Li, Tim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a new interpretation is proposed for the abrupt decrease in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific (WNP) after the late 1990s. We hypothesize that this abrupt change constitutes a part of the phenomenon of interdecadal change in TC activity in the Pacific Basin, including the WNP, western South Pacific (WSP), and eastern North Pacific. Our analysis revealed that the climate-regime shift (CRS) in the Pacific during the middle to late 1990s resulted in a La Niña-like mean state, which was responsible for the interdecadal change in TC activity in the late 1990s. Analyses of the TC genesis potential index and numerical experiments revealed that the decline in TC activity in both the WNP and WSP was primarily attributable to the increase of vertical wind shear in the central Pacific due to the La Niña-like associated cold sea surface temperature (SST). Conversely, the La Niña-like associated warm SST in the western Pacific produced anomalous vertical transport of water vapor, increasing moisture levels in the mid-troposphere and TC activity in the western WNP. Furthermore, the CRS modified the mean TC genesis position and shifted the steering flow to the west, resulting in the increased frequency of TC landfalls in Taiwan, southeastern China, and northern Australia after the late 1990s.

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Race/Ethnicity and Sex of Individuals Appearing on the Covers of "Sports Illustrated" in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…

  17. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  18. Quantization of probability distributions under norm-based distortion measures II: Self-similar distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delattre, Sylvain; Graf, Siegfried; Luschgy, Harald; Pages, Gilles

    2006-06-01

    For a probability measure P on and consider where the infimum is taken over all subsets [alpha] of with card([alpha])[less-than-or-equals, slant]n and V is a nondecreasing function. Under certain conditions on V, we derive the precise n-asymptotics of en for self-similar distributions P and we find the asymptotic performance of optimal quantizers using weighted empirical measures.

  19. Measurement of the temperature distribution inside the power cable using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the power cables are manufactured to fulfill the following condition - the highest allowable temperature of the cable during normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature at short circuit conditions cannot exceed the condition of the maximum allowable internal temperature. The distribution of the electric current through the conductor leads to the increase of the amplitude of electrons in the crystal lattice of the cables material. The consequence of this phenomenon is the increase of friction and the increase of collisions between particles inside the material, which causes the temperature increase of the carrying elements. The temperature increase is unwanted phenomena, because it is causing losses. In extreme cases, the long-term overload leads to the cable damaging or fire. This paper deals with the temperature distribution measurement inside the power cables using distributed temperature system. With cooperation with Kabex company, the tube containing optical fibers was installed into the center of power cables. These fibers, except telecommunications purposes, can be also used as sensors in measurements carrying out with distributed temperature system. These systems use the optical fiber as a sensor and allow the continual measurement of the temperature along the whole cable in real time with spatial resolution 1 m. DTS systems are successfully deployed in temperature measurement applications in industry areas yet. These areas include construction, drainage, hot water etc. Their advantages are low cost, resistance to electromagnetic radiation and the possibility of real time monitoring at the distance of 8 km. The location of the optical fiber in the center of the power cable allows the measurement of internal distribution of the temperature during overloading the cable. This measurement method can be also used for prediction of short-circuit and its exact location.

  20. Intra-fuel cell stack measurements of transient concentration distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, W. P.; Toops, T. J.; Green, J. B.; Armstrong, T. R.

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  1. Development of TDR distributed sensors for land subsidence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chih-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The influences subjected by land subsidence and notably inundation are raising in Taiwan recently. To efficiently access the problems, historical trends and the instant field measurement data (at least by days), including multi-depth subsidence leveling and water leveling, are essential and urgent. However, current multi-depth subsidence leveling with magnetic rings conducted by manual operating, for example, lacks high temporal and spatial resolution data, which cannot evaluate the consistency between the subsidence leveling and the limited underground water levels in the same aquifer layer appropriately. To improve the field measurements, this study is carried out based on the core technology of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). In the preliminary idea, TDR distributed sensors, as magnetic rings for land subsidence measurements in a borehole, are developed with the underground water level sensors embedded. The prototypes of TDR distributed sensors indicates the feasibility of measuring, but the influence of signal dissipating due to the long transmission line (>100 m) need to be brought attention to, as well as the corresponding measurement accuracy. Therefore, a laboratorial physical modeling is suggested for further evaluation, and this modeling is constructed now. All the measurement data are expected to be employed and fed back as the calibrators and indicators to propose the defense strategy for land subsidence and inundation.

  2. Infrared fiber optic sensor for measurements of nonuniform temperature distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovsky, Edward; Drizlikh, S.; Zur, Albert; Bar-Or, O.; Katzir, Abraham

    1992-04-01

    Infrared (IR) fiber optic radiometry of thermal surfaces offers several advantages over refractive optics radiometry. It does not need a direct line of sight to the measured thermal surface and combines high capability of monitoring small areas with high efficiency. These advantages of IR fibers are important in the control of nonuniform temperature distributions, in which the temperature of closely situated points differs considerably and a high spatial resolution is necessary. The theoretical and experimental transforming functions of the sensor during scanning of an area with a nonuniform temperature distribution were obtained and their dependence on the spacial location of the fiber and type of temperature distribution were analyzed. Parameters such as accuracy and precision were determined. The results suggest that IR fiber radiometric thermometry may be useful in medical applications such as laser surgery, hyperthermia, and hypothermia.

  3. Comparison of Measured Leakage Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Ladbury, R.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; Howe, C.; Weller, B.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Jordan, T. M.; Fodness, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distribution were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [I]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Car10 code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. The nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) has a negligible effect on the shape of the damage distribution. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3,4], a Geant4 [4,5] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  4. The Detection and Measurement of the Activity Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthi, Mukund

    The infiltration of radon into the indoor environment may cause the exposure of the public to excessive amounts of radioactivity and has spurred renewed research interest over the past several years into the occurrence and properties of radon and its decay products in indoor air. The public health risks posed by the inhalation and subsequent lung deposition of the decay products of Rn-222 have particularly warranted the study of their diffusivity and attachment to molecular cluster aerosols in the ultrafine particle size range (0.5-5 nm) and to accumulation mode aerosols. In this research, a system for the detection and measurement of the activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products in indoor environments has been developed. The system is microcomputer-controlled and involves a combination of multiple wire screen sampler -detector units operated in parallel. The detection of the radioactivity attached to the aerosol sampled in these units permits the determination of the radon daughter activity -weighted size distributions and concentration levels in indoor air on a semi-continuous basis. The development of the system involved the design of the detection and measurement system, its experimental characterization and testing in a radon-aerosol chamber, and numerical studies for the optimization of the design and operating parameters of the system. Several concepts of utility to aerosol size distribution measurement methods sampling the ultrafine cluster size range evolved from this study, and are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The optimized multiple wire screen (Graded Screen Array) system described in this dissertation is based on these concepts. The principal facet of the system is its ability to make unattended measurements of activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products on a semi-continuous basis. Thus, the capability of monitoring changes in the activity concentrations and size

  5. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  6. Active Region Emission Measure Distributions and Implications for Nanoflare Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ~ Ta below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (TN ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If TN is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, TN must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  7. Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.

  8. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Chen, Qun E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Xing, Da E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn

    2016-01-04

    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications.

  9. Measuring thermal rupture force distributions from an ensemble of trajectories.

    PubMed

    Swan, J W; Shindel, M M; Furst, E M

    2012-11-09

    Rupture, bond breaking, or extraction from a deep and narrow potential well requires considerable force while producing minimal displacement. In thermally fluctuating systems, there is not a single force required to achieve rupture, but a spectrum, as thermal forces can both augment and inhibit the bond breaking. We demonstrate measurement and interpretation of the distribution of rupture forces between pairs of colloidal particles bonded via the van der Waals attraction. The otherwise irreversible bond is broken by pulling the particles apart with optical tweezers. We show that an ensemble of the particle trajectories before, during and after the rupture event may be used to produce a high fidelity description of the distribution of rupture forces. This analysis is equally suitable for describing rupture forces in molecular and biomolecular contexts with a number of measurement techniques.

  10. Secular trends and geographical variations in the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using archived samples from the early 1980s and mid 1990s in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Akio; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Morikawa, Akiko; Muroi, Junko; Inoue, Sumiko; Eslami, Bita; Hirosawa, Iwao; Hirosawa, Akitsu; Fujii, Shigeo; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Koda, Shigeki; Kusaka, Yukinori; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Omae, Kazuyuki; Saito, Norimitsu; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Todoriki, Hidemi; Watanabe, Takao; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2005-05-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment among the general population for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was conducted using dietary surveys. We analyzed samples of food duplicate portions collected in the early 1980s (1980 survey: N=40) and the mid 1990s (1995 survey: N=39) from female subjects (5 participants from each of 8 sites per survey except for one site) living throughout Japan, from the north (Hokkaido) to the south (Okinawa). The study populations in the 1980 and 1995 surveys were different, but lived in the same communities. We measured four PBDE congeners [2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (tetraBDE): #47; 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE: #99; 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE: #100; and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE: #153] in the diet. #99 was the most abundant congener in the diet (49% of the total PBDEs), followed by #47 (33%), #100 (12%) and #153 (6%). Regional variations found in the 1980 survey decreased in the 1995 survey. The total daily intake of PBDEs (ng/d) [GM (GSD)] in the 1980 survey [91.4 (4.1)] was not significantly different from that in the 1995 survey [93.8 (3.4)] for the total population, nor did it differ among the sites including Shimane, in which a 20-fold increase in serum concentrations was observed in the same population1). In consideration of the significant increases in the serum concentration, inhalation may be more important than food ingestion as the route of human exposure to PBDEs.

  11. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995–2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NOx, and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995–2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NOx emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NOx in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001– 2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NOx, VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NOx in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NOx during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of the

  12. Online measurement of dose and dose distribution at bremsstrahlung facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auslender, V. L.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Bukin, A. D.; Voronin, L. A.; Lukin, A. N.; Sidorov, A. V.

    2004-09-01

    A real-time measurement system of the spatial dose distribution is developed and realized for monitoring the bremsstrahlung flow generated on X-ray target by 5 MeV 50 kW electron accelerator. The sensors of the system consist of semiconductor diodes. The beam target and electron accelerator (ILU-10) are briefly described. The practice of using the system in the experimental and start-up procedure is included.

  13. Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yong-Gang

    2016-10-13

    The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve's illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD.

  14. Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong-Gang

    2016-10-01

    The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve’s illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD.

  15. Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong-gang

    2016-01-01

    The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve’s illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD. PMID:27733771

  16. Lensing measurements of the mass distribution in SDSS voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2015-12-01

    We measure weak lensing mass profiles of voids from a volume-limited sample of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We find voids using an algorithm designed to maximize the lensing signal by dividing the survey volume into 2D slices, and then finding holes in this 2D distribution of LRGs. We perform a stacked shear measurement on about 20 000 voids with radii between 15 and 55 Mpc h-1, and redshifts between 0.16 and 0.37. We measure the characteristic radial shear signal of voids with a signal to noise of 7. The mass profile corresponds to a fractional underdensity of about -0.4 inside the void radius and a slow approach to the mean density indicating a partially compensated void structure. We compare our measured shape and amplitude with the predictions of Krause et al. Voids in the galaxy distribution have been extensively modelled using simulations and measured in the SDSS. We discuss how the addition of void mass profiles can enable studies of galaxy formation and cosmology.

  17. Measurements of AC Losses and Current Distribution in Superconducting Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Doan A; Ashworth, Stephen P; Duckworth, Robert C; Carter, Bill; Fleshler, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our new experimental facility and techniques to measure ac loss and current distribution between the layers for High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. The facility is powered with a 45 kVA three-phase power supply which can provide three-phase currents up to 5 kA per phase via high current transformers. The system is suitable for measurements at any frequency between 20 and 500 Hz to better understand the ac loss mechanisms in HTS cables. In this paper, we will report techniques and results for ac loss measurements carried out on several HTS cables with and without an HTS shielding layer. For cables without a shielding layer, care must be taken to control the effect of the magnetic fields from return currents on loss measurements. The waveform of the axial magnetic field was also measured by a small pick-up coil placed inside a two-layer cable. The temporal current distribution between the layers can be calculated from the waveform of the axial field.

  18. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thuecks, D. J.; Skiff, F.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2012-08-15

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense ({omega}{sub pe} > {omega}{sub ce}). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub ce}. As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation {omega}-k{sub ||v||} = {omega}{sub ce}. The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  19. A divergent pattern of the sex difference in life expectancy: Sweden and Japan, early 1970s-late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Frank; Heyen, Nils B

    2003-01-01

    For most of the 20th century the sex gap in life expectancy in the industrialized countries has widened in favor of women. By the early 1980s a reversal in the long-term pattern of this differential had occurred in some countries, where it reached a maximum and thereafter followed a declining trend. Of particular interest to the present investigation is the anomalous experience of Japan, where unlike other high-income countries the female advantage in life expectancy has been expanding. We contrast the case of Japan with that of Sweden, where, like many other high-income nations, the sex differential in longevity has been narrowing in recent years. We observe that in Sweden, until the early 1980s, the sex gap in life expectancy (female-male) exceeded that of Japan; but this situation reversed in subsequent periods, when the Swedish differential narrowed and that of Japan widened. A decomposition analysis indicates that these divergent patterns since 1980 have resulted mainly from larger than expected reductions in male mortality in Sweden due to heart disease and from accidents and violence, lung cancer and "other" cancers. In Japan, death rates for men and women from heart disease--which is a leading cause of death--have tended to decline more or less at the same pace since the early 1980s; and with regard to lung cancer, and "other" neoplasms, male death rates in Japan have been rising while those of women have either declined or risen more slowly. Moreover, during the 1990s, male and female suicide rates rose in Japan, but the rates for men went up faster. Altogether, the net effect of these divergent mortality trends for men and women in Japan underlie much of the observed widening of its sex differential in longevity in recent years.

  20. Rapid Ice Loss at Vatnajokull,Iceland Since Late 1990s Constrained by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T. H.; Wdowinski, S.

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry time series is applied over Vatnajokull, Iceland by using 15 years ERS data. Ice loss at Vatnajokull accelerates since late 1990s especially after 21th century. Clear uplift signal due to ice mass loss is detected. The rebound signal is generally linear and increases a little bit after 2000. The relative annual velocity (GPS station 7485 as reference) is about 12 mm/yr at the ice cap edge, which matches the previous studies using GPS. The standard deviation compared to 11 GPS stations in this area is about 2 mm/yr. A relative-value modeling method ignoring the effect of viscous flow is chosen assuming elastic half space earth. The final ice loss estimation - 83 cm/yr - matches the climatology model with ground observations. Small Baseline Subsets is applied for time series analysis. Orbit error coupling with long wavelength phase trend due to horizontal plate motion is removed based on a second polynomial model. For simplicity, we do not consider atmospheric delay in this area because of no complex topography and small-scale turbulence is eliminated well after long-term average when calculating the annual mean velocity. Some unwrapping error still exits because of low coherence. Other uncertainties can be the basic assumption of ice loss pattern and spatial variation of the elastic parameters. It is the first time we apply InSAR time series for ice mass balance study and provide detailed error and uncertainty analysis. The successful of this application proves InSAR as an option for mass balance study and it is also important for validation of different ice loss estimation techniques.

  1. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  2. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Requirements are carefully described in descriptions of systems to be acquired but often there is no requirement to provide measurements and performance monitoring to ensure that requirements are met over the long term after acceptance. A set of measurements for various UNIX-based systems will be available at the 1992 Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies. The authors invite others to contribute to the set of measurements. The framework for presenting the measurements of supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them are given. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third party software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well. The capability to integrate measurements from all these components from different vendors, and from the third party software systems was recognized and there are efforts to standardize a framework to do this. The measurement activity falls into the domain of management standards. Standards work is ongoing for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) systems management; AT&T, Digital, and Hewlett-Packard are developing management systems based on this architecture even though it is not finished. Another effort is in the UNIX International Performance Management Working Group. In addition, there are the Open Systems Foundation's Distributed Management Environment and the Object Management Group. A paper comparing the OSI systems management model and the Object Management Group model has been written. The IBM world has had a capability for measurement for various IBM systems since the 1970's and different vendors were able to develop tools for analyzing and viewing these measurements. Since IBM was the only vendor, the user groups were able to lobby IBM for the kinds of measurements needed. In the UNIX world of multiple vendors, a common set of measurements will not be as easy to get.

  3. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  4. Regional distribution of measurement error in diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Marenco, Stefano; Rawlings, Robert; Rohde, Gustavo K; Barnett, Alan S; Honea, Robyn A; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2006-06-30

    The characterization of measurement error is critical in assessing the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in longitudinal and cohort studies of psychiatric disorders. We studied 20 healthy volunteers, each one scanned twice (average interval between scans of 51 +/- 46.8 days) with a single shot echo planar DTI technique. Intersession variability for fractional anisotropy (FA) and Trace (D) was represented as absolute variation (standard deviation within subjects: SDw), percent coefficient of variation (CV) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The values from the two sessions were compared for statistical significance with repeated measures analysis of variance or a non-parametric equivalent of a paired t-test. The results showed good reproducibility for both FA and Trace (CVs below 10% and ICCs at or above 0.70 in most regions of interest) and evidence of systematic global changes in Trace between scans. The regional distribution of reproducibility described here has implications for the interpretation of regional findings and for rigorous pre-processing. The regional distribution of reproducibility measures was different for SDw, CV and ICC. Each one of these measures reveals complementary information that needs to be taken into consideration when performing statistical operations on groups of DT images.

  5. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    PubMed

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  6. Measurement and application of bidirectional reflectance distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Fei; Li, Lin; Lu, Chengwen

    2016-10-01

    When a beam of light with certain intensity and distribution reaches the surface of a material, the distribution of the diffused light is related to the incident angle, the receiving angle, the wavelength of the light and the types of the material. Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is a method to describe this distribution. For an optical system, the optical and mechanical materials' BRDF are unique, and if we want to calculate stray light of the system we should know the correct BRDF data of the whole materials. There are fundamental significances in the area of space remote sensor where BRDF is needed in the precise radiation calibration. It is also important in the military field where BRDF can be used in the object identification and target tracking, etc. In this paper, 11 kinds of aerospace materials' BRDF are measured and more than 310,000 groups of BRDF data are achieved , and also a BRDF database is established in China for the first time. With the BRDF data of the database, we can create the detector model, build the stray light radiation surface model in the stray light analysis software. In this way, the stray radiation on the detector can be calculated correctly.

  7. Scaling precipitation input to distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegeli, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Wever, Nander; Bavay, Mathias; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Precise knowledge about the snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applications such as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or water supply and hydropower. To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed, physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is often driven by spatial interpolations from automatic weather stations (AWS). As AWS are sparsely spread, the data needs to be interpolated, leading to errors in the spatial distribution of the snow cover - especially on subcatchment scale. With the recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snow depth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and vertical accuracy. Here we use maps of the snow depth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models acquired with the airborne opto-electronic scanner ADS to preprocess and redistribute precipitation input data for Alpine3D to improve the accuracy of spatial distribution of snow depth simulations. A differentiation between liquid and solid precipitation is made, to account for different precipitation patterns that can be expected from rain and snowfall. For liquid precipitation, only large scale distribution patterns are applied to distribute precipitation in the simulation domain. For solid precipitation, an additional small scale distribution, based on the ADS data, is applied. The large scale patterns are generated using AWS measurements interpolated over the domain. The small scale patterns are generated by redistributing the large scale precipitation according to the relative snow depth in the ADS dataset. The determination of the precipitation phase is done using an air temperature threshold. Using this simple approach to redistribute precipitation, the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error could be reduced by a factor of 2 to less than 20 cm for the season 2011/12. The

  8. Measurement of parallel ion energy distribution function in PISCES plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tynan, G.R.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    The PISCES facility is used to conduct controlled plasma-surface interaction experiments. Plasma parameters typical of those found in the edge plasmas of major fusion confinement experiments are produced. In this work, the energy distribution of the ion flux incident on a material surface is measured using a gridded energy analyzer in place of a material sample. The full width at half maximum energy distribution of the ion flux is found to vary from 10 eV to 30 eV both hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. Helium plasmas have a much lower FWHM energy spread than hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. The FWHM ion energy spread is found to be linearly related to the electron temperature. The most probable ion energy is found to be linearly related to the bias applied to the energy analyzer. Other plasma parameters have a weak influence upon the energy distribution of the ion flux. Two possible physical mechanisms for producing the observed results are introduced and suggestions for further work are made. The impact of the reported measurements on the materials experiments conducted in the PISCES facility are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Measurement of Atomic Oscillator Strength Distribution from the Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Shahid; Saleem, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2008-10-22

    Saturation technique has been employed to measure the oscillator strength distribution in spectra of helium lithium using an electrical discharge cell a thermionic diode ion detector respectively. The photoabsorption cross sections in the discrete or bound region (commonly known as f-values) have been determined form the Rydberg series accessed from a particular excited state calibrating it with the absolute value of the photoionization cross section measured at the ionization threshold. The extracted discrete f-values merge into the oscillator strength densities, estimated from the measured photoionization cross sections at different photon energies above the first ionization threshold. The experimental data on helium and lithium show continuity between the discrete and the continuous oscillator strengths across the ionization threshold.

  10. Measurement-dependent locality beyond independent and identically distributed runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ernest Y.-Z.; Cai, Yu; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-09-01

    When conducting a Bell test, it is normal to assume that the preparation of the quantum state is independent of the measurements performed on it. Remarkably, the violation of local realism by entangled quantum systems can be certified even if this assumption is partially relaxed. Here, we allow such measurement dependence to correlate multiple runs of the experiment, going beyond previous studies that considered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) runs. To do so, we study the polytope defined by block-i.i.d. measurement-dependent local models. We prove that non-i.i.d. models are strictly more powerful than i.i.d. ones, and comment on the relevance of this work for the study of randomness amplification in simple Bell scenarios with suitably optimized inequalities.

  11. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

  12. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  13. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  14. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  15. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M.; Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  16. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  17. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results. PMID:23844416

  18. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  19. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.

  20. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous salt concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.

  1. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; ...

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous saltmore » concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.« less

  2. Particle distribution measurements using in line Fraunhofer holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D.; Malone, R.; Frogget, B.; Ciarcia, C.; Tunnell, T.; Flurer, R.

    1996-10-01

    In-line Fraunhofer holography has been developed and implemented at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure particle distributions of fast moving particles. Holography is a unique diagnostic that gives unambiguous information on the size and shapes of particle distributions over a three dimensional volume. Currently, the capability of measuring particles two microns in size which travel many mm/{mu}sec has been demonstrated in hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility. Normally, for setting up an in- line holography experiment for measuring particles a few microns in size, the holographic film would be placed less than one centimeter from the particles. However, due to the high energy associated with the dynamic experiment, an optical relay system is used to relay the interference pattern 35 cm so that glass hologram will survive. After the hologram has been made the data must be extracted. This is accomplished by using a laser to reconstruct the data in space. This three dimensional image is then digitized via a CCD camera and a three axis actuator system. After the data has been digitized it is then analyzed with intelligent image processing algorithms. Details will be described below.

  3. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  4. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  5. Toward Mastery Leadership: Issues and Challenges for the 1990s. Summary Report of the Annual National Council on Student Development Leadership Colloquium (7th, Hilton Head, South Carolina, October 24-27, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Deborah L., Ed.

    This summary of a colloquium on leadership issues and challenges for the 1990's is comprised of six chapters addressing different colloquium themes. Chapter 1, "The National Agenda for Community College Student Affairs: Addressing Priorities for the 1990s," by Deborah L. Floyd, describes the Leadership Agenda developed by representatives from the…

  6. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sugiyama; T. Tanabe; C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile

    2004-06-28

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.

  7. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 200 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Si-Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Guan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Nan; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all attacks on detection and guarantees the information-theoretical security even with imperfect single-photon detectors. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been achieved. Those experiments, although novel, are implemented through limited distance with a key rate less than 0.1 bit /s . Here, by developing a 75 MHz clock rate fully automatic and highly stable system and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with detection efficiencies of more than 40%, we extend the secure transmission distance of MDIQKD to 200 km and achieve a secure key rate 3 orders of magnitude higher. These results pave the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security.

  8. Microelectrode Measurements of the Activity Distribution in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the distribution of nitrifying activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875

  9. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  10. Whole-genome sequence analysis of G3 and G14 equine group A rotaviruses isolated in the late 1990s and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Nagai, Makoto; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Kondo, Takashi; Fujii, Yoshiki; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Equine group A rotavirus (RVA) G3P[12] and G14P[12] strains cause gastroenteritis in foals worldwide. Both of these strains have been co-circulating in Japan since G14P[12] strains emerged in the late 1990s. Although it is important to comprehensively understand the evolution of RVA strains, whole-genome sequence data on recent equine RVA strains in Japan are lacking. Therefore, in this study, whole-genome analysis of 23 equine RVA isolates from the late 1990s and 2009-2010 and the vaccine strain RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/HO-5/1982/G3P[12] (HO-5) was performed. The G3 strains, including strain HO-5, shared a G3-P[12]-I6-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7 genotype constellation, and all of their 11 gene segments were highly conserved, regardless of the year of isolation. G14 strains also exhibited an identical genotype constellation (G14-P[12]-I2-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7), but, phylogenetically, segregated into two lineages within the VP7-G14 and NSP4-E2 genotypes. G14 strains were closely related to G3 strains in their VP4, VP1-3, NSP1-3 and NSP5 gene segments. Interestingly, the NSP4 gene of all G3 and G14 strains isolated in the late 1990s branched into a bovine-RVA-like NSP4 gene cluster. These results indicate that, apart from VP7, VP6, and NSP4 genes, the Japanese equine RVA strains share a highly conserved genetic backbone, and that strains possessing a bovine-RVA-like NSP4 gene were predominant in the late 1990s in Japan.

  11. THE EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION OF IMPULSIVE PHASE FLARE FOOTPOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D. R.; Hannah, I. G.; Fletcher, L.; Milligan, R. O.

    2013-04-10

    The temperature distribution of the emitting plasma is a crucial constraint when studying the heating of solar flare footpoints. However, determining this for impulsive phase footpoints has been difficult in the past due to insufficient spatial resolution to resolve the footpoints from the loop structures, and a lack of spectral and temporal coverage. We use the capabilities of Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer to obtain the first emission measure distributions (EMDs) from impulsive phase footpoints in six flares. Observations with good spectral coverage were analyzed using a regularized inversion method to recover the EMDs. We find that the EMDs all share a peak temperature of around 8 MK, with lines formed around this temperature having emission measures (EMs) peaking between 10{sup 28} and 10{sup 29} cm{sup -5}, indicating a substantial presence of plasma at very high temperatures within the footpoints. An EMD gradient of EM(T) {approx} T is found in all events. Previous theoretical work on EM gradients shows this to be consistent with a scenario in which the deposited flare energy directly heats only the top layer of the flare chromosphere, while deeper layers are heated by conduction.

  12. Getting a piece of the pie? The economic boom of the 1990s and declining teen birth rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Colen, Cynthia G; Geronimus, Arline T; Phipps, Maureen G

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, the 1990s was a decade of dramatic economic growth as well as a period characterized by substantial declines in teenage childbearing. This study examines whether falling teen fertility rates during the 1990s were responsive to expanding employment opportunities and whether the implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act (PRWORA), increasing rates of incarceration, or restrictive abortion policies may have affected this association. Fixed-effects Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the relationship between age-specific birth rates and state-specific unemployment rates from 1990 to 1999 for Black and White females aged 10-29. Falling unemployment rates in the 1990s were associated with decreased childbearing among African-American women aged 15-24, but were largely unrelated to declines in fertility for Whites. For 18-19 year-old African-Americans, the group for whom teen childbearing is most normative, our model accounted for 85% of the decrease in rates of first births. Young Black women, especially older teens, may have adjusted their reproductive behavior to take advantage of expanded labor market opportunities.

  13. Is the crime drop of the 1990s in Canada and the USA associated with a general decline in risky and health-related behavior?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Lalumière, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Crime rates dropped unexpectedly and dramatically in the 1990s in Canada and the USA. The decline was not restricted to particular types of crime, the particular methodologies of crime reports, demographic characteristics, or geographical areas. Psychological studies of individuals have suggested a link between crime and different types of risky behavior (e.g., dangerous driving, unsafe sex, substance use). Based on this link, we examined whether national rates of various risky behaviors declined in the 1990s, and whether rates of crime and risky behavior covary over time. Several American and Canadian databases reporting annual or biennial data on risky behavior indicators were examined. Results indicate that most of the risky behavior indicators in the domains of violent behavior, accidents, sexual behavior, and school dropout declined in the 1990s. Furthermore, time series analyses suggest that rates of various risky behaviors tend to covary with homicide over long periods of time. An important exception to these results is substance use in various contexts. We discuss some theoretical implications of the results.

  14. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 2. Guidebook for Software Quality Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Section 3.2 of Volume I of this report for aids in allocating the system quality * requirements to the spftware level and in identifying important software...COVERED SOFTWARE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR DISTRIBUTED inae T repo’t SYSTEMS Guidebook for Software Quality 6. PERFORMING O.G. REPORT UMER Measurement /A 7...Joseph P. Cavano (COEE) IS. KEY WORDS (Continue en reverse aide If necesary and Ildentify by blackh number) Software Quality Software Survivability

  15. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  16. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative

  17. Measurements of Infrared and Acoustic Source Distributions in Jet Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agboola, Femi A.; Bridges, James; Saiyed, Naseem

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to use the linear phased array (LPA) microphones and infrared (IR) imaging to study the effects of advanced nozzle-mixing techniques on jet noise reduction. Several full-scale engine nozzles were tested at varying power cycles with the linear phased array setup parallel to the jet axis. The array consisted of 16 sparsely distributed microphones. The phased array microphone measurements were taken at a distance of 51.0 ft (15.5 m) from the jet axis, and the results were used to obtain relative overall sound pressure levels from one nozzle design to the other. The IR imaging system was used to acquire real-time dynamic thermal patterns of the exhaust jet from the nozzles tested. The IR camera measured the IR radiation from the nozzle exit to a distance of six fan diameters (X/D(sub FAN) = 6), along the jet plume axis. The images confirmed the expected jet plume mixing intensity, and the phased array results showed the differences in sound pressure level with respect to nozzle configurations. The results show the effects of changes in configurations to the exit nozzles on both the flows mixing patterns and radiant energy dissipation patterns. By comparing the results from these two measurements, a relationship between noise reduction and core/bypass flow mixing is demonstrated.

  18. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  19. Asymmetries in coronal spectral lines and emission measure distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-12-10

    It has previously been argued that (1) spicules do not provide enough pre-heated plasma to fill the corona, and (2) even if they did, additional heating would be required to keep the plasma hot as it expands upward. Here we address whether spicules play an important role by injecting plasma at cooler temperatures (<2 MK), which then gets heated to coronal values at higher altitudes. We measure red-blue asymmetries in line profiles formed over a wide range of temperatures in the bright moss areas of two active regions. We derive emission measure distributions from the excess wing emission. We find that the asymmetries and emission measures are small and conclude that spicules do not inject an important (dominant) mass flux into the cores of active regions at temperatures >0.6 MK (log T > 5.8). These conclusions apply not only to spicules but also to any process that suddenly heats and accelerates chromospheric plasma (e.g., a chromospheric nanoflare). The traditional picture of coronal heating and chromospheric evaporation appears to remain the most likely explanation of the active region corona.

  20. Warming, Contraction, and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s, with a Potential Ice-Sheet Melt Feedback.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory; Purkey, Sarah; Rintoul, Stephen; Swift, James

    2013-04-01

    We analyze changes in Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) around the deep Southern Ocean using repeat section data collected between 1981 and 2012. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a global high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic transects in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, some of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). The average dates of the first and last data used to estimate these trends are circa 1991 and 2008. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, AABW warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 °C per decade below 4000 m. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 °C per decade. With this warming, cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern Ocean. The 0 °C potential isotherm sinking rate is around 100 m per decade, implying a 8.2 (±2.6) Sv contraction rate of AABW, about 7% per decade. In addition to this contraction, AABW freshening is observed within the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. The freshening signal is stronger closer to AABW sources. Its spatial pattern implies recent changes in AABW formation, perhaps partly owing to freshening of the shelf waters, which has been linked to increases in glacial ice sheet melt. The observed rate of water-mass freshening for AABW colder than 0°C in the Indian and Pacific Sectors of the Southern Ocean is about half of the estimated increase in mass lost by glacial ice sheets there in recent years. A positive feedback loop might link the AABW contraction and ice sheet melt-influenced freshening as follows: Increased ocean heat flux drives enhanced basal melt of floating ice shelves

  1. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-07-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995-2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NO(x), and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995-2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NO(x) emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001-2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NO(x), VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of

  2. Assessment of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japan using archived samples from the early 1980s and mid-1990s.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akio; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Morikawa, Akiko; Muroi, Junko; Inoue, Sumiko; Eslami, Bita; Fujii, Shigeo; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Koda, Shigeki; Kusaka, Yukinori; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Omae, Kazuyuki; Saito, Norimitsu; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Todoriki, Hidemi; Wada, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takao; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2005-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been linked to various adverse effects on human health. We conducted a retrospective exposure assessment for 11polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 4 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We analyzed paired samples of blood and food duplicate portions collected in the 1980s (1980 survey, N=40) and the mid-1990s (1995 survey, N=40) from females (five participants from each of eight sites per survey) living throughout Japan, from Hokkaido to Okinawa. The study populations in the 1980 and 1995 surveys were different but had lived in the same community. We measured PCBs and PBDEs in serum and PCBs in diet. Total serum PCBs (ng/g lipid) [geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)] were similar in the 1980 [163.0 (1.7)] and the 1995 [142.6 (2.0)] surveys. In contrast, dietary intake (ng/day) between 1980 and 1995 decreased significantly, from 522.8 (2.5) to 165.9 (3.3), respectively, (P<0.05). We classified the participants by birth year-before 1941 (older generation) and equal to or after 1941 (younger generation). Serum PCB levels decreased significantly in the younger generation, from 179.1 (1.8) in the 1980 survey to 115.4 (2.0) in the 1995 survey (P<0.05). However, in the older generation, serum levels (ng/g lipid) did not change: 150.4 (1.6) in the 1980 survey and 180 (1.8) in the 1995 survey. Total PBDE serum levels (ng/g lipid) increased significantly during the 15 years, from 0.5 (3.5) to 1.8 (3.7) (P<0.05). At the Shimane site, PBDE serum levels (ng/g lipid) increased 20-fold, from 1.3 (4.8) to 26.0 (5.0). The serum levels of PCBs decreased in the younger generation but not in the older, although levels in daily intakes decreased significantly. Exposure levels of PBDEs appear to be increasing in an area-specific manner.

  3. Temporal evolution of the anthropogenic CO2 and acidification of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savy, J.-P.; Yao, K. M.; Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial era, humankind consumption of fossil fuels at increasing rates has led to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations by approximately 105 ppm. In the same time, the Mediterranean coastal regions experienced a brutal population growth, from 94 million habitants in 1950 to 274 million in 2000, generating a strong anthropogenic pressure on the Mediterranean marine ecosystems. To follow the man-induced changes on the Mediterranean carbonate system properties (pH; total alkalinity, AT; total inorganic carbon CT, and CO2 partial pressure, pCO2), an entire body-research has recently emerged in order to quantify both the present and future penetration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) in the Mediterranean Sea and the inferred acidification of its waters. From monthly observations accumulated over more than a decade (from 1993 to 2005) at DYFAMED time-series station (DYnamique des Flux Atmosphériques en MEDiterranée) located in the central part of the Ligurian Sea, Touratier and Goyet (2009) have estimated the temporal evolution of CANT of the western Mediterranean Sea. This study highlights that concentrations of anthropogenic CO2 are much higher at DYFAMED site (> 50 mol.kg-1) than those found in the Atlantic Ocean. Our study, conducted with measurements performed at 10 meters depth from 1995 to 2011 at the same location, allowed us to investigate the temporal evolution of CANT into the upper seawater layer. Our results indicate an averaged annual CANT increase of 3 µmol.kg-1 and a linked pH drop of 0.0032 per year confirming the ongoing acidification of the Mediterranean water masses. These results suggest the vulnerability and the endangerment of the Mediterranean ecosystems by the massive human-induced CO2 emissions. Touratier F. and C. Goyet (2009). Decadal evolution of anthropogenic CO2 in the north western Mediterranean Sea (at the Dyfamed site) from the mid-1990's to the mid-2000's. Deep Sea Research Part I, 56, 1708-1716

  4. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (∼70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  5. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-05-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  7. A reference standard for bidirectional reflection distribution function and bidirectional transmission distribution function measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A Lambertian reference standard for uniformly scattering a beam of light is constructed of a plate having a planar surface with a layer of glue disposed on the surface. An evenly packed layer of monodisperse spheres is set in the layer, and when the standard is used for bi-directional (BRDF) measurements, the spheres are coated with a layer of highly relective substance, such as gold or silver. When the standard is used for bi-directional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) measurements, the spheres are of a transparent material and are provided with a roughened surface, as by acid etching. In this case, the layer of glue is an optical cement, and the plate is of glass, with the spheres, the layer, and the plate all possessing a similar refractive index.

  8. Comparison of Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements by Collocated Disdrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    An impact-type Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), and a laser optical OTT Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer (PD) were used to measure the raindrop size distribution (DSD) over a 6-month period in Huntsville, Alabama. Comparisons indicate event rain totals for all three disdrometers that were in reasonable agreement with a reference rain gauge. In a relative sense, hourly composite DSDs revealed that the JWD was more sensitive to small drops (,1 mm), while the PD appeared to severely underestimate small drops less than 0.76mm in diameter. The JWD and 2DVD measured comparable number concentrations of midsize drops (1-3mm) and large drops (3-5 mm), while the PD tended to measure relatively higher drop concentrations at sizes larger than 2.44mm in diameter. This concentration disparity tended to occur when hourly rain rates and drop counts exceeded 2.5mm/h and 400/min, respectively. Based on interactions with the PD manufacturer, the partially inhomogeneous laser beam is considered the cause of the PD drop count overestimation. PD drop fall speeds followed the expected terminal fall speed relationship quite well, while the 2DVD occasionally measured slower drops for diameters larger than 2.4mm, coinciding with events where wind speeds were greater than 4m/s. The underestimation of small drops by the PD had a pronounced effect on the intercept and shape of parameters of gamma-fitted DSDs, while the overestimation of midsize and larger drops resulted in higher mean values for PD integral rain parameters

  9. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions During PACDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. C.; Gandrud, B.; Campos, T.; Kok, G.; Stith, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) is an airborne project that attempts to characterize the indirect aerosol effect by tracing plumes of dust and pollution across the Pacific Ocean. This project occurred during April-May 2007 and used the NSF/NCAR HIAPER research aircraft. When a period of strong generation of dust particles and pollution was detected by ground-based and satellite sensors, then the aircraft was launched from Colorado to Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. Its mission was to intercept and track these plumes from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean, and ultimately to the edges of North America. For more description, see the abstract by Stith and Ramanathan (this conference) and other companion papers on PACDEX. The HIAPER aircraft carried a wide variety of sensors for measuring aerosols, cloud particles, trace gases, and radiation. Sampling was made in several weather regimes, including clean "background" air, dust and pollution plumes, and regions with cloud systems. Altitude ranges extended from 100 m above the ocean to 13.4 km. This paper reports on aerosol measurements made with a new Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), a Radial Differential Mobility Analyzer (RDMA), a water-based CN counter, and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). These cover the size range 10 nm to 10 um diameter. In clear air, dust was detected with the UHSAS and CDP. Polluted air was identified with high concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and CN. Aerosol size distributions will be presented, along with data to define the context of weather regimes.

  10. Solar reflector soiling pattern distributions and reflectance measurement requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Kidney, K. )

    1990-10-01

    Short-term specular reflectance losses from optical surfaces used in the collection or concentration of solar energy results in significant reduction of these systems' output. Losses range from 0.1% to 1.0% per day, approaching asymptotes of 25% to 60% for periods greater than one year, depending onsite and season. To appropriately assess the value of a particular location for the production of power, consideration of the rates of soiling and strategies to minimize losses resulting from soiling must be considered. Strategies for measuring the optical performance of reflector materials to a specified degree of accuracy have been developed, according to the types of soiling patterns observed. It was found most soiling occurs with the accumulation of particulates in spots of different sizes, and the spot sizes follow a lognormal distribution. For most practical situations, it was determined that 10 measurements with a 1-cm-diameter beam are enough to place the average value within 3% of the true value, with a confidence level of 95%.

  11. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  12. Models and Measurements of Parallelism for a Distributed Computer System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    that parallel execution of the processes comprising an application program will defray U the overhead costs of distributed computing . This...of Different Approaches to Distributed Computing ", Proceedings of the Ist International Conference on Distributed Comput er Systems, Huntsville, AL...Oct. 1-5, 1979), pp. 222-232. [20] Liskov, B., "Primitives for Distributed Computing ", Froceedings of the 7--th Symposium on Operating System

  13. Enthalpy Distributions of Arc Jet Flow Based on Measured Laser Induced Fluorescence, Heat Flux and Stagnation Pressure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Leonard E.; Milhoan, James D.; Oelke, Lance; Godfrey, Dennis; Larin, Maksim Y.; Scott, Carl D.; Grinstead, Jay H.; DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The centerline total enthalpy of arc jet flow is determined using laser induced fluorescence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Each component of the energy, kinetic, thermal, and chemical can be determined from LIF measurements. Additionally, enthalpy distributions are inferred from heat flux and pressure probe distribution measurements using an engineering formula. Average enthalpies are determined by integration over the radius of the jet flow, assuming constant mass flux and a mass flux distribution estimated from computational fluid dynamics calculations at similar arc jet conditions. The trends show favorable agreement, but there is an uncertainty that relates to the multiple individual measurements and assumptions inherent in LIF measurements.

  14. Soil Temperature Variability in Complex Terrain measured using Distributed a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical environmental controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Rates of carbon cycling, mineral weathering, infiltration and snow melt are all influenced by Ts. Although broadly reflective of the climate, Ts is sensitive to local variations in cover (vegetative, litter, snow), topography (slope, aspect, position), and soil properties (texture, water content), resulting in a spatially and temporally complex distribution of Ts across the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the processes controlled by Ts requires an understanding of that distribution. Relatively few spatially distributed field Ts data exist, partly because traditional Ts data are point measurements. A relatively new technology, fiber optic distributed temperature system (FO-DTS), has the potential to provide such data but has not been rigorously evaluated in the context of remote, long term field research. We installed FO-DTS in a small experimental watershed in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains of SW Idaho. The watershed is characterized by complex terrain and a seasonal snow cover. Our objectives are to: (i) evaluate the applicability of fiber optic DTS to remote field environments and (ii) to describe the spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature in complex terrain influenced by a variable snow cover. We installed fiber optic cable at a depth of 10 cm in contrasting snow accumulation and topographic environments and monitored temperature along 750 m with DTS. We found that the DTS can provide accurate Ts data (+/- .4°C) that resolves Ts changes of about 0.03°C at a spatial scale of 1 m with occasional calibration under conditions with an ambient temperature range of 50°C. We note that there are site-specific limitations related cable installation and destruction by local fauna. The FO-DTS provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variability of Ts in a landscape. We found strong seasonal

  15. Wigner distribution measurement of the spatial coherence properties of FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mey, Tobias; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus; Keitel, Barbara; Plönjes, Elke; Kuhlmann, Marion

    2015-09-01

    Free-electron lasers deliver VUV and soft x-ray pulses with the best brilliance available and a high degree of spatial coherence. Users of such facilities have high demands on phase and coherence properties of the beam, for instance when working with coherent diffractive imaging. Thus, detailed knowledge of these parameters is of great importance and provides the possibility for advanced machine studies. The Wigner distribution function (WDF) describes the entire propagation properties of an electromagnetic beam including all information on its spatial coherence. It can be reconstructed from beam profiles taken at different positions along its propagation direction. Here, we present measurements of the WDF conducted at the Free-electron laser FLASH at DESY. As a result, we derive the entire four-dimensional mutual coherence function, the coherence lengths and the global degree of coherence. Additionally, we provide an estimation of the possible error that our algorithm might produce for the derived quantities. In comparison to existing studies that characterize the photon beam of FLASH, we find significantly lower values for the global degree of coherence. This difference cannot be explained by our error estimation. We explore the possible reasons for this discrepancy and their effect on the value of the global degree of coherence.

  16. Measurement of the Angular Distributions of Drell-Yan Dimuons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brandon; Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The angular differential cross section for the Drell-Yan (DY) process can be parametrized by dσ/dΩ ~ 1 + λcos2 θ + μsin 2 θcosφ +ν/2sin2 θcos 2 φ , where λ, μ, and ν are the angular distribution parameters vs pT. θ and φ denote the polar and azimuthal angles, respectively for the positive lepton produced. The Lam-Tung relation, 1 - λ = 2 ν , was validated by Fermilab E-866 for proton induced Drell-Yan scattering; However pion induced DY shows a much stronger cos2 θ angular dependence and a violation of the Lam-Tung relation. In pion induced DY the antiquark is a valance quark, whereas in proton induced DY (in a forward acceptance spectrometer) it is a sea quark, so E-866 probed the antiquark sea of the nucleon. The SeaQuest experiment, also using proton induced DY, will improve on the measurement of the angular dependencies at a lower energy (120 GeV), taking advantage lower backgrounds and an increase in Drell-Yan cross section at lower energies. The Boer-Mulders correlates the quark correlates between the quark transverse spin and momentum. Improved data from SeaQuest will help determine the Boer-Mulders function. Funding for this work was provided in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Science.

  17. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  18. Device-independent quantum key distribution based on measurement inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    We provide an analysis of a family of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that has the following features. (a) The bits used for the secret key do not come from the results of the measurements on an entangled state but from the choices of settings. (b) Instead of a single security parameter (a violation of some Bell inequality) a set of them is used to estimate the level of trust in the secrecy of the key. The main advantage of these protocols is a smaller vulnerability to imperfect random number generators made possible by feature (a). We prove the security and the robustness of such protocols. We show that using our method it is possible to construct a QKD protocol which retains its security even if the source of randomness used by communicating parties is strongly biased. As a proof of principle, an explicit example of a protocol based on the Hardy's paradox is presented. Moreover, in the noiseless case, the protocol is secure in a natural way against any type of memory attack, and thus allows one to reuse the device in subsequent rounds. We also analyze the robustness of the protocol using semidefinite programming methods. Finally, we present a postprocessing method, and observe a paradoxical property that rejecting some random part of the private data can increase the key rate of the protocol.

  19. Did reform of the non-group health insurance market affect the decision to be self-employed? Evidence from state reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Heim, Bradley T; Lurie, Ithai Z

    2014-07-01

    This paper estimates whether state-level implementation of community rating and guaranteed issue regulations in the non-group health insurance market during the 1990s affected the decision of taxpayers to be self-employed. Using a panel of tax returns that span 1987-2000, we find no statistically significant effect of the reforms on the propensity to be self-employed overall, although we find evidence of an increase in self-employment among older taxpayers and weaker evidence of decreases among younger cohorts.

  20. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly proposed for embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side ('bevel') did produce up to 3dB more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side ('slant') produced up to 2dB more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron ('notch') produced up to 2dB increase in the noise. Having internal walls ('septae') within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  1. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  2. Performance Measurement, Visualization and Modeling of Parallel and Distributed Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for debugging the performance of message-passing programs on both tightly coupled and loosely coupled distributed-memory machines. The AIMS (Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System) toolkit, a suite of software tools for measurement and analysis of performance, is introduced and its application illustrated using several benchmark programs drawn from the field of computational fluid dynamics. AIMS includes (i) Xinstrument, a powerful source-code instrumentor, which supports both Fortran77 and C as well as a number of different message-passing libraries including Intel's NX Thinking Machines' CMMD, and PVM; (ii) Monitor, a library of timestamping and trace -collection routines that run on supercomputers (such as Intel's iPSC/860, Delta, and Paragon and Thinking Machines' CM5) as well as on networks of workstations (including Convex Cluster and SparcStations connected by a LAN); (iii) Visualization Kernel, a trace-animation facility that supports source-code clickback, simultaneous visualization of computation and communication patterns, as well as analysis of data movements; (iv) Statistics Kernel, an advanced profiling facility, that associates a variety of performance data with various syntactic components of a parallel program; (v) Index Kernel, a diagnostic tool that helps pinpoint performance bottlenecks through the use of abstract indices; (vi) Modeling Kernel, a facility for automated modeling of message-passing programs that supports both simulation -based and analytical approaches to performance prediction and scalability analysis; (vii) Intrusion Compensator, a utility for recovering true performance from observed performance by removing the overheads of monitoring and their effects on the communication pattern of the program; and (viii) Compatibility Tools, that convert AIMS-generated traces into formats used by other performance-visualization tools, such as ParaGraph, Pablo, and certain AVS/Explorer modules.

  3. Regional Difference of Low Temperature Record-breaking Events in China between 1990s and 2000s and its Possible Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme cold events frequently occur in recent several years and arouse widespread concern. In this study, 17 record-breaking event processes (RBEPs) of low temperature during 1981-2012 are identified by using daily minimum temperature at 1897 meteorological stations in China. The RBEPs of low temperature are mostly located in southern China in 1990s but concentrated in northern China in 2000s, which is largely attributed to different AO pattern between the two decades. Furthermore, four typical RBEPs of low temperature are selected to examine the related synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation changes and eddy kinetic energy transports. In the two RBEPs of low temperature occurring in southern China in 1990s, the continent high pressure over Mongolia area was extremely intensified and the East Asian polar front jet stream was enhanced accompanied with strong synoptic-scale eddy kinetic energy transports. Correspondingly, the cold air masses broke out and unobstructed intruded southward to low latitudes, causing severe cooling effect in southern China. In the other two cases occurring at northern China in 2000s, however, the extremely intensified high pressure located over northern Siberian area, combining with northward enhanced subtropical jet stream, then cold air masses were accumulated and blocked at mid-latitudes, resulting in RBEPs of low temperature in this area.

  4. FEL beam characterization from measurements of the Wigner distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Bernd; Flöter, Bernhard; Mey, Tobias; Juranic, Pavle; Kapitzki, Svea; Keitel, Barbara; Plönjes, Elke; Mann, Klaus; Tiedtke, Kai

    2011-10-01

    The Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY has been characterized by a quantitative determination of the Wigner distribution function. The setup, comprising an ellipsodial mirror and a moveable extreme UV sensitive CCD detector, enables the mapping of two-dimensional phase spaces corresponding to the horizontal and vertical coordinate axes, respectively. For separable beams this yields the entire Wigner distribution, offering comprehensive information about spatial coherence properties, wavefront, beam profiles, as well as beam propagation parameters.

  5. Inferring random component distributions from environmental measurements for quality assurance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental measurement programs can add value by providing not just accurate data, but also a measure of that accuracy. While quality assurance (QA) has been recognized as necessary since almost the beginning of automated weather measurement, it has received less attention than the data proper. M...

  6. LAND-USE CHANGE AND CARBON FLUX BETWEEN 1970S AND 1990S IN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s...

  7. Strange old worlds: socio-critical reports about old-age experiences in West German print media (1970s-1990s).

    PubMed

    Streubel, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines West German images of old age and the elderly in a period when this increasingly became a topical issue. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, the elderly were the subject of socio-critical reports in leading political magazines like Der Spiegel, Die Zeit and Stern. In these specific journalistic formats, the media entered unfamiliar places like old people's homes, the elderly's private apartments or tea dances for senior citizens. By analysing the language used in such media reports, this article shows continuity and change in attitudes towards the elderly, explores the impact of the new old-age model 'the young at heart', and the relevance of gender and generational ascriptions. In doing so, this article uncovers the recent historical context of current social debates about old age.

  8. Conceptual design of a coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors (COSMIC). [telescope array deployed by space shuttle in 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, M. E.; Davis, B. G.

    1982-01-01

    The Coherent Optical System of Modular Imaging Collectors (COSMIC) is the design concept for a phase-coherent optical telescope array that may be placed in earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1990s. The initial system module is a minimum redundancy array whose photon collecting area is three times larger than that of the Space Telescope, and possesses a one-dimensional resoution of better than 0.01 arcsec in the visible range. Thermal structural requirements are assessed. Although the coherent beam combination requirements will be met by an active control system, the COSMIC structural/thermal design must meet more stringent performance criteria than even those of the Space Telescope.

  9. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  10. Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Saltzman, H. A.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The resolution of the technique considered is sufficient to describe smooth distributions containing blood flow to unventilated regions (shunt), ventilation to unperfused regions (dead space), and up to three additional modes over the range of finite ventilation-perfusion ratios. In particular, areas whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are low can be separated from unventilated regions and those whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are high can similarly be distinguished from unperfused areas.

  11. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  12. MPL-Net Measurements of Aerosol and Cloud Vertical Distributions at Co-Located AERONET Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar system was developed, the Micropulse Lidar (MPL). The MPL acquires signal profiles of backscattered laser light from aerosols and clouds. The signals are analyzed to yield multiple layer heights, optical depths of each layer, average extinction-to-backscatter ratios for each layer, and profiles of extinction in each layer. In 2000, several MPL sites were organized into a coordinated network, called MPL-Net, by the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) using funding provided by the NASA Earth Observing System. tn addition to the funding provided by NASA EOS, the NASA CERES Ground Validation Group supplied four MPL systems to the project, and the NASA TOMS group contributed their MPL for work at GSFC. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) also agreed to make their data available to the MPL-Net project for processing. In addition to the initial NASA and ARM operated sites, several other independent research groups have also expressed interest in joining the network using their own instruments. Finally, a limited amount of EOS funding was set aside to participate in various field experiments each year. The NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project also provides funds to deploy their MPL during ocean research cruises. All together, the MPL-Net project has participated in four major field experiments since 2000. Most MPL-Net sites and field experiment locations are also co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network. (AERONET). Therefore, at these locations data is collected on both aerosol and cloud vertical structure as well as column optical depth and sky radiance. Real-time data products are now available from most MPL-Net sites. Our real-time products are generated at times of AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. The AERONET AOD is used as input to our

  13. US National Health Data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: a research agenda for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, E S; Liu, W T

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In spite of over 30 years of periodic nationwide surveys, we have thus far only the most rudimentary estimates of the determinants of the health of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. This paper explores ways to improve the capability of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to collect national health data on these populations. METHODS. The NCHS "race" coding practices are reviewed, their limitations stated, ways to improve the numerator and denominator data discussed, and a research agenda presented. RESULTS. Resources can be intensified to produce better denominator data, and to improve the collection of detailed ethnicity information for the numerators, in at least the three states (California, New York, and Hawaii) where the majority of Asian/Pacific Islanders lived in 1990. Subsequently, these efforts should be extended to the 10 states where 79% of these individuals reside or to the top 15 metropolitan areas where they are concentrated. CONCLUSIONS. If the recommendations are implemented, several coordinated multisite, multiwave epidemiologic surveys can be conducted using standardized interview instruments and data collection procedures that will capitalize on the geographic distribution of Asian/Pacific Islanders. PMID:1456340

  14. Measuring Technique of Bubble Size Distributions in Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Tsuta, Mizuki

    A novel technique to recognize bubbles in bread dough and analyze their size distribution was developed by using a Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS). Samples were taken from the final stage of the mixing process of bread dough which generally consists of four distinctive stages. Also, to investigate the effect of freeze preservation on the size distribution of bubbles, comparisons were made between fresh dough and the dough that had been freeze preserved at .30°C for three months. Bubbles in the dough samples were identified in the images of MSIPS as defocusing spots due to the difference in focal distance created by vacant spaces. In case of the fresh dough, a total of 910 bubbles were recognized and their maximum diameter ranged from 0.4 to 70.5μm with an average of 11.1μm. On the other hand, a total of 1,195 bubbles were recognized from the freeze-preserved sample, and the maximum diameter ranged from 0.9 to 32.7μm with an average of 6.7μm. Small bubbles with maximum diameters less than 10μm comprised approximately 59% and 78% of total bubbles for fresh and freeze-preserved dough samples, respectively. The results indicated that the bubble size of frozen dough is smaller than that of unfrozen one. The proposed method can provide a novel tool to investigate the effects of mixing and preservation treatments on the size, morphology and distribution of bubbles in bread dough.

  15. Application of bag sampling technique for particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-11-01

    Bag sampling techniques can be used to temporarily store the aerosol and therefore provide sufficient time to utilize sensitive but slow instrumental techniques for recording detailed particle size distributions. Laboratory based assessment of the method was conducted to examine size dependant deposition loss coefficients for aerosols held in Velostat bags conforming to a horizontal cylindrical geometry. Deposition losses of NaCl particles in the range of 10 nm to 160 nm were analysed in relation to the bag size, storage time, and sampling flow rate. Results of this study suggest that the bag sampling method is most useful for moderately short sampling periods of about 5 minutes.

  16. Characteristics of Aerosol Volume Distributions Measured at Meppen, W. Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    shown in Fig. 3-1 have been identified previously by Typically, size distribution data has been presented Whitby (1978), who termed the mode in the...3-2(a) for 4 November, the middle mode appears out by Whitby et al. (1972), Shettle (1975) and demon- with a coarse particle mode and in Fig. 3-2(b...123 999. 0275, NTIS No. ADA 114 637. Whitby , K.T., R.B. Husar and B.Y.H. Liu (1972), "The p . Johnson, R.W. and W.S. Hering (1981), "An Analysis of

  17. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Sandra

    2006-02-01

    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.

  18. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  19. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  20. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  1. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  2. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  3. Race and space in the 1990s: changes in the geographic scale of racial residential segregation, 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Sean F; Farrell, Chad R; Matthews, Stephen A; O'Sullivan, David; Bischoff, Kendra; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    We use newly developed methods of measuring spatial segregation across a range of spatial scales to assess changes in racial residential segregation patterns in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2000. Our results point to three notable trends in segregation from 1990 to 2000: (1) Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation levels increased at both micro- and macro-scales; (2) black-white segregation declined at a micro-scale, but was unchanged at a macro-scale; and (3) for all three racial groups and for almost all metropolitan areas, macro-scale segregation accounted for more of the total metropolitan area segregation in 2000 than in 1990. Our examination of the variation in these trends among the metropolitan areas suggests that Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation changes have been driven largely by increases in macro-scale segregation resulting from the rapid growth of the Hispanic and Asian populations in central cities. The changes in black-white segregation, in contrast, appear to be driven by the continuation of a 30-year trend in declining micro-segregation, coupled with persistent and largely stable patterns of macro-segregation.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. The primary purpose of this manual is to provide ne...

  5. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom

    1993-01-01

    A strawman proposal is given for a framework for presenting a common set of metrics for supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third part software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well.

  6. Aerosol mobility imaging for rapid size distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Kuang, Chongai

    2016-07-19

    A parallel plate dimensional electrical mobility separator and laminar flow water condensation provide rapid, mobility-based particle sizing at concentrations typical of the remote atmosphere. Particles are separated spatially within the electrical mobility separator, enlarged through water condensation, and imaged onto a CCD array. The mobility separation distributes particles in accordance with their size. The condensation enlarges size-separated particles by water condensation while they are still within the gap of the mobility drift tube. Once enlarged the particles are illuminated by a laser. At a pre-selected frequency, typically 10 Hz, the position of all of the individual particles illuminated by the laser are captured by CCD camera. This instantly records the particle number concentration at each position. Because the position is directly related to the particle size (or mobility), the particle size spectra is derived from the images recorded by the CCD.

  7. Helicity Quark Distributions from Dis and Sidis Measured in Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshekhonov, Dmitry

    2011-10-01

    The COMPAS experiment at the CERN SPS has a broad physics program focused on the nucleon spin structure and hadron spectroscopy, using muon and hadron beams, respectively. In this report we present results from COMPASS on the inclusive longitudinal spin-dependent asymmetry A1 at small and high Q2, the spin-dependent structure function g1d and the first moment value, semi-inclusive asymmetries and distributions of polarized constituent and sea quarks obtained from 2002-2004 and 2006 data with a 160 GeV longitudinally polarised + beam and a 6LiD target. Preliminary results on the analysis comprising 2007 data obtained with the same beam and the proton polarised target are discussed.

  8. Freshwater Variability in the Arctic Ocean and Subpolar North Atlantic: a Comparison from the 1990s to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Myriel; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    A significant increase in liquid freshwater content has been observed in the Arctic Ocean over the last 20 years, whereas the Arctic sea ice volume shrank significantly. In contrast, the North Atlantic became more saline in recent years. Both regions are of great importance for the global ocean circulation and climate, and salinity changes may have a profound impact on the global climate. We found that for the period between 1992 and 2013, the liquid freshwater content of the subpolar North Atlantic, calculated from objectively mapped in-situ salinity measurements, and the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean, i.e. the liquid freshwater content and freshwater stored in sea ice, are significantly negative correlated (r=-0.77). Moreover, the amount of the anomalies are of the same size. Furthermore, the time series hint at multi-decadal oscillations. The highest negative correlation with the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean can be found in the Irminger and Labrador Seas, while we observed a positive correlation east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the path of the North Atlantic Current, which is the source of Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean through the Nordic Seas. We suggest a redistribution of freshwater as a response to frequent changes in atmospheric pressure patterns. Under certain conditions the freshwater is re-routed and kept in the Arctic Ocean, while it is released under other conditions. We conclude that decadal scale changes of the freshwater content in the North Atlantic, particularly those in the deep water formation sites like the Labrador Sea, are originating in the Arctic Ocean.

  9. Drop Size Distribution Measurements Supporting the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Infrastructure and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matthew; Tokay, Ali; Wolff, David B.; Bringi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) retrieval algorithm validation requires datasets that characterize the 4-D structure, variability, and correlation properties of hydrometeor particle size distributions (PSD) and accumulations over satellite fields of view (5 -- 50 km). Key to this process is the combined use of disdrometer and polarimetric radar platforms. Here the disdrometer measurements serve as a reference for up-scaling dual-polarimetric radar observations of the PSD to the much larger volumetric sampling domain of the radar. The PSD observations thus derived provide a much larger data set for assessing DSD variability, and satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithm assumptions, in all three spatial dimensions for a range of storm types and seasons. As one component of this effort, the GPM Ground Validation program recently acquired five 3rd generation 2D Video disdrometers as part of its Disdrometer and Radar Observations of Precipitation Facility (DROP), currently hosted in northern Alabama by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. These next-generation 2DVDs were operated and evaluated in different phases of data collection under the scanning domain of the UAH ARMOR C-band dual-polarimetric radar. During this period approximately 7500 minutes of PSD data were collected and processed to create gamma size distribution parameters using a truncated method of moments approach. After creating the gamma parameter datasets the DSDs were then used as input to T-matrix code for computation of polarimetric radar moments at C-band. The combined dataset was then analyzed with two basic objectives in mind: 1) the investigation of seasonal variability in the rain PSD parameters as observed by the 2DVDs; 2) the use of combined polarimetric moments and observed gamma distribution parameters in a functional form to retrieve PSD parameters in 4-D using the ARMOR radar for precipitation occurring in different

  10. A method for measuring the dose distribution of the radiotherapy domain using the computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Homma, Mitsuhiko; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi; Obata, Yasunori; Tamiya, Tadashi; Koyama, Shuji; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Knowing the dose distribution in a tissue is as important as being able to measure exposure or absorbed dose in radiotherapy. Therefore, we have developed a measurement method for the dose distribution (CR dosimetry) in the phantom based on the imaging plate (IP) of the computed radiography (CR). The IP was applied for the dose measurement as a dosimeter instead of the film used for film dosimetry. The data from the irradiated IP were processed by a personal computer with 10 bits and were depicted as absorbed dose distributions in the phantom. The image of the dose distribution was obtained from the CR system using the DICOM form. The CR dosimetry is an application of CR system currently employed in medical examinations to dosimetry in radiotherapy. A dose distribution can be easily shown by the Dose Distribution Depiction System we developed this time. Moreover, the measurement method is simpler and a result is obtained more quickly compared with film dosimetry.

  11. An optical fiber sensing technique for temperature distribution measurements in microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Daichi; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Zushi, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an optical fiber sensing technique that can measure the temperature distributions along a fiber during microwave heating. We used a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as an electromagnetic-immune sensor and interrogated temperature distributions along the FBG by an optical frequency domain reflectometry. Water in a glass tube with a length of 820 mm was heated in a microwave oven, and its temperature distribution along the glass tube was measured using the sensing system. The temperature distribution was obtained in 5 mm intervals. Infrared radiometry was also used to compare the temperature measurement results. Time and spatial variations of the temperature distribution profiles were monitored for several microwave input powers. The results clearly depict inhomogeneous temperature profiles. The applicability and effectiveness of the optical fiber distributed measurement technique in microwave heating are demonstrated.

  12. Measuring the Galactic Distribution of Transiting Planets with WFIRST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Yee, Jennifer C.; Penny, Matthew T.

    2017-04-01

    The WFIRST microlensing mission will measure precise light curves and relative parallaxes for millions of stars, giving it the potential to characterize short-period transiting planets all along the line of sight and into the galactic bulge. These light curves will enable the detection of more than 100,000 transiting planets whose host stars have measured distances. Although most of these planets cannot be followed up, several thousand hot Jupiters can be confirmed directly by detection of their secondary eclipses in the WFIRST data. Additionally, some systems of small planets may be confirmed by detecting transit timing variations over the duration of the WFIRST microlensing survey. Finally, many more planets may be validated by ruling out potential false positives. The combination of WFIRST transits and microlensing will provide a complete picture of planetary system architectures, from the very shortest periods to unbound planets, as a function of galactocentric distance.

  13. Measuring the Spatial Distribution of Ripples Using REMUS AUV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-10

    1). The measurements were conducted in September of 2004, two weeks after the passage of hurricane Ivan 150 km to the west of the study area. The post...the experiment and historical values from that location (Figure 3). A publication describing the application of this model to the Hurricane Ivan/ SAX04...ripples (peak 2 in c) that are being formed by waves with shorter orbital diameters. b and d) 2 axis rotary pencil beam sonar microtopography of a unimodal

  14. Technical Performance Measures and Distributed-Simulation Training Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Winter 2000 32 Piplani , L . K ., Mercer, J. G., & Roop, R. O. (1994). Systems acquisition manager’s guide for the use of models and simulations. Fort...tasks, moving on to learn advanced unit tasks, rein- forcement of p r e v i o u s l y learned tasks, and, finally, in- tegration of various combinations... Piplani , Mercer, and Roop, 1994), identifies numerous outcome-oriented, technical performance measures for use by acquisition managers of combat systems

  15. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  16. Measurement of the Pressure Distribution on Two Model Propellers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    dynamometer. This dynamometer system uses two 500 hp (0.372 MW) electric drive motors located in a pod attached to thp- 3ower end of a strut. The test...the laboratory without the 1000 hp dynamometer cabling and sliprings connected through the measurement system. The propeller pressure gages were...process. 9 I I The final calibrations used during the test were conducted in the laboratory with water in the pressure tank and gage cavities. A

  17. In situ potential distribution measurement in an all-vanadium flow battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghua; Turhan, Ahmet; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Mench, Matthew M

    2013-07-18

    An experimental method for measurement of local redox potential within multilayer electrodes was developed and applied to all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Through-plane measurement at the positive side reveals several important phenomena including potential distribution, concentration distribution of active species and the predominant reaction location within the porous carbon electrodes.

  18. Ultrasonic bent waveguides approach for distributed temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Periyannan, Suresh; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes novel techniques for simultaneous measurement of temperatures at multiple locations using two configurations (a) a single transducer attached to multiple waveguides of different lengths (each with a single bend) and (b) single waveguide with multiple bends connected to single transducer. These techniques improve upon the earlier reported studies using straight waveguides, where the non-consideration of the effect of temperature gradients was found to be a major limitation. The range of temperature measurement is from room temperature to maximum utility temperature of the waveguide material. The time of flight difference of reflected ultrasonic longitudinal guided wave modes (L(0,1)) from the bend, which is the reference signal, and another signal from the end of the waveguide, is utilized to measure the local temperature of the surrounding media. Finite element simulations were employed to obtain the appropriate dimensions and other design features of the multiple bent waveguide. This work is of interest to several industrial applications involving melters and furnaces.

  19. Distributions of polynomials on multidimensional and infinite-dimensional spaces with measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a survey of recent investigations connected with distributions of polynomials on multi- and infinite-dimensional spaces with measures. The most important results on estimates (independent of the number of variables) for distribution functions and integral norms and also on convergence of the distributions of polynomials in variation and in the Kantorovich metric are presented. Interesting open problems in this area at the junction of the theory of functions, probability theory, and measure theory are discussed. Bibliography: 131 titles.

  20. Advanced material distribution measurement in multiphase flows: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.L.; Ceccio, S.L.; O`Hern, T.J.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.

    1998-08-01

    A variety of tomographic techniques that have been applied to multiphase flows are described. The methods discussed include electrical impedance tomography (EIT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT), radiative particle tracking (RDT), X-ray imaging, and acoustic tomography. Also presented is a case study in which measurements were made with EIT and GDT in two-phase flows. Both solid-liquid and gas-liquid flows were examined. EIT and GDT were applied independently to predict mean and spatially resolved phase volume fractions. The results from the two systems compared well.

  1. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  2. Measurement of mass distribution of chemical species in aerosol particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosols may be generated through the nebulizing of solutions and the evaporation of their solvent, leaving the dry solute particles. Attention is presently given to a method for the direct determination of the masses of chemical species in individual aerosol particles on a continuous, real-time basis, using mass spectrometry. After the aerosol particles are introduced into the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, the particles impinge on a hot rhenium filament in the mass spectrometer's ion source. The resulting vapor plume is ionized by electron bombardment, and a pulse of ions is generated by each particle. The intensities of different masses in the ion pulses can then be measured by the mass spectrometer.

  3. Measurement of bubble and pellet size distributions: past and current image analysis technology.

    PubMed

    Junker, Beth

    2006-08-01

    Measurements of bubble and pellet size distributions are useful for biochemical process optimizations. The accuracy, representation, and simplicity of these measurements improve when the measurement is performed on-line and in situ rather than off-line using a sample. Historical and currently available measurement systems for photographic methods are summarized for bubble and pellet (morphology) measurement applications. Applications to cells, mycelia, and pellets measurements have driven key technological developments that have been applied for bubble measurements. Measurement trade-offs exist to maximize accuracy, extend range, and attain reasonable cycle times. Mathematical characterization of distributions using standard statistical techniques is straightforward, facilitating data presentation and analysis. For the specific application of bubble size distributions, selected bioreactor operating parameters and physicochemical conditions alter distributions. Empirical relationships have been established in some cases where sufficient data have been collected. In addition, parameters and conditions with substantial effects on bubble size distributions were identified and their relative effects quantified. This information was used to guide required accuracy and precision targets for bubble size distribution measurements from newly developed novel on-line and in situ bubble measurement devices.

  4. A comparison of the macrophyte cover and macroinvertebrate fauna at three sites on the River Kennet in the mid 1970s and late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Wright, J F; Gunn, R J M; Winder, J M; Wiggers, R; Vowles, K; Clarke, R T; Harris, I

    2002-01-23

    In 1974-1976, baseline studies were carried out on the flora and macroinvertebrate fauna of the R. Kennet at two sites downstream of Marlborough (Savernake Upper and Lower) and at one site upstream of Hungerford (Littlecote). Simplified maps of each site, showing the cover of macrophytes, were obtained monthly between April 1974 and April/June 1976, and replicated quantitative samples of the macroinvertebrates were collected on the dominant macrophyte and on gravel in June 1974, and also in June and December 1975. As a consequence of two major droughts and increasing concern over water quality in the Upper Kennet in the 1990s, the studies recommenced in the summer of 1997 using the same sites and methodologies. Maps and macroinvertebrate samples were obtained in early July and December 1997 and in June of both 1998 and 1999. At the Savernake sites, mapping in summer 1997 confirmed what had been apparent for some years. That is, macrophyte cover (both Ranunculus and Schoenoplectus) was much lower than in the 1970s. In contrast, the site downstream at Littlecote retained a relatively high cover of Ranunculus, despite the drought. In late autumn 1997, phosphate stripping commenced at Marlborough Sewage Treatment Works, the drought ended and in addition, the spring of 1998 was unusually wet. Ranunculus recolonised both Savernake sites with remarkable speed by summer 1998 and retained this dominant position in 1999. Quantitative samples of macroinvertebrates collected on gravel and the dominant macrophyte at each of the three study sites indicated that there was no evidence of major loss of family richness between the 1970s and 1990s as a result of the low flows or enrichment. However, at Savernake (but not Littlecote) in summer 1997, the macroinvertebrate assemblage was affected by low flows and/or enrichment. This took the form of changes in the abundance of some families, with lentic forms being favoured in relation to some lotic families. Following the end of the

  5. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-dust Mass Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Strub, Peter; Grün, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses interstellar dust data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of a population of “big” interstellar grains (up to 10-13 kg). The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of interstellar dust in the very local ISM. In this paper we analyze the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses interstellar dust measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of interstellar dust. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses interstellar dust data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modeling of the interstellar dust flow applied to Ulysses. We use the latest values for the interstellar hydrogen and helium densities, the interstellar helium flow speed of {v}{ISM∞ }=23.2 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the ratio of radiation pressure to gravity, β, calculated for astronomical silicates. We find a gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud of {R}{{g}/{{d}}}={193}-57+85, and a dust density of (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10-24 kg m-3. For a higher inflow speed of 26 {km} {{{s}}}-1, the gas-to-dust mass ratio is 20% higher, and, accordingly, the dust density is lower by the same amount. The gas-to-dust mass ratio derived from our new analysis is compatible with the value most recently determined from astronomical observations. We confirm earlier results that the very local ISM contains “big” (i.e., ≈1 μm sized) interstellar grains. We find a dust density in the local ISM that is a

  6. Probability distribution of wind retrieval error for the NASA scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leotta, Daniel F.; Long, David G.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) is a spaceborne scatterometer scheduled to be deployed in the mid-1990s. An analysis of the wind retrieval error distribution for wind estimates based on backscatter measurements made by the NSCAT instrument is presented. The results are based on an end-to-end simulation of the scatterometer instrument and data processing. In general, the distribution of the wind speed error, when normalized, is independent of the true wind speed and direction. The wind speed error can be characterized by a normal distribution. The wind direction error is independent of the true wind speed, but depends on the true wind direction. Details for wind vectors with true wind speeds from 3 m/s to 33 m/s and true wind directions from 0 to 360 deg are presented.

  7. Isotope geochemistry in 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The intense interest in radioactive minerals as a source of atomic energy, and their application in searching for ore deposits and also in gamma-ray and neutron logging oil wells, have opened new vistas in every science. Many minerals containing elements of high atomic weight are radioactive, and emit a radiation which affects a photographic plate and may be detected by means of a sensitive phosphorescent screen. Most of the elements as found in nature are a mixture of isotopes. isotopes are atoms of one element which have different masses. Uranium, thorium, potassium, and rubidium isotopes are also used to date minerals and rocks. Organic materials that have been in equilibrium with CO{sub 2}-photosynthetic cycle during the past 50,000 years are dated by carbon-14 method. The stable isotopes of H{sub 2}, C, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and S are intimately associated with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere and are used in probing water resources.

  8. Parenting in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Elsa; Smith, Kate

    This study examined family formation, employment, child-care arrangements, parenting, family activities, and attitudes and values of British parents. Subjects were nearly 6,000 British 33-year-old married parents, originally subjects in the longitudinal National Child Development Study, which traced the lives of all those in Great Britain born in…

  9. SCOLT History 1990s-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), like many other language-related organizations, flourishes in the context of periodic educational agendas and reforms, in turn, influenced by economic, political, and social ideologies of the time, and it is therefore instructive to revisit briefly the educational landscape of the previous two…

  10. EGR distribution and fluctuation probe based on CO2 measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E.; Partridge, Jr., William P.; Yoo, Ji Hyung

    2015-06-30

    A diagnostic system having a laser, an EGR probe, a detector and a processor. The laser may be a swept-.lamda. laser having a sweep range including a significant CO.sub.2 feature and substantially zero absorption regions. The sweep range may extend from about 2.708 .mu.m to about 2.7085 .mu.m. The processor may determine CO.sub.2 concentration as a function of the detector output signal. The processor may normalize the output signal as a function of the zero absorption regions. The system may include a plurality of EGR probes receiving light from a single laser. The system may include a separate detector for each probe. Alternatively, the system may combine the light returning from the different probes into a composite beam that is measured by a single detector. A unique modulation characteristic may be introduced into each light beam before combination so that the processor can discriminate between them in the composite beam.

  11. Measurement of stress distributions in truck tyre contact patch in real rolling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghelache, Gabriel; Moisescu, Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Stress distributions on three orthogonal directions have been measured across the contact patch of truck tyres using the complex measuring system that contains a transducer assembly with 30 sensing elements placed in the road surface. The measurements have been performed in straight line, in real rolling conditions. Software applications for calibration, data acquisition, and data processing were developed. The influence of changes in inflation pressure and rolling speed on the shapes and sizes of truck tyre contact patch has been shown. The shapes and magnitudes of normal, longitudinal, and lateral stress distributions, measured at low speed, have been presented and commented. The effect of wheel toe-in and camber on the stress distribution results was observed. The paper highlights the impact of the longitudinal tread ribs on the shear stress distributions. The ratios of stress distributions in the truck tyre contact patch have been computed and discussed.

  12. Real time two-dimensional spatial distribution measurement method of electron temperature and plasma density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Gun Ho; Chung, Chin Wook

    2009-10-01

    Real time two-dimensional spatial distribution measurement method of electron temperature and plasma density was developed. It is based on a floating probe method [1] because the floating probe has high time resolution. Two-dimensional array of sensors on a 300 mm diameter wafer-shaped printed circuit board (PCB) and a high speed multiplexer circuit were used for real time distribution measurement. The method was tested at various powers and pressures, spatial distributions of the electron temperature and the plasma density could be obtained. And in the measurement results, asymmetric plasma density distributions caused by pumping port effect could be observed. This method can measure spatial distribution of plasma parameters on the wafer in real time without plasma perturbation, therefore it will be expected to improve the uniformity of processing plasmas such as etching and deposition. [4pt] [1] M. H. Lee, S. H. Jang, C. W. Chung, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033305 (2007).

  13. Information Measures of Degree Distributions with an Application to Labeled Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Purvine, Emilie AH

    2016-01-11

    The problem of describing the distribution of labels over a set of objects is relevant to many domains. For example: cyber security, social media, and protein interactions all care about the manner in which labels are distributed among different objects. In this paper we present three interacting statistical measures on label distributions, inspired by entropy and information theory. Labeled graphs are discussed as a specific case of labels distributed over a set of edges. We describe a use case in cyber security using a labeled directed multi-graph of IPFLOW. Finally we show how these measures respond when labels are updated in certain ways.

  14. Care for the Caregivers: a program for Canadian military chaplains after serving in NATO and United Nations peacekeeping missions in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, G; Weber, W

    2000-09-01

    The Mental Health Department of the Canadian Forces Support Unit (Ottawa) developed the Care for the Caregivers program to help participants deal with stressful events experienced directly or vicariously from the NATO and United Nations military missions of the 1990s. The program was developed after complaints of postdeployment stress were received from various military care providers. The objectives were to improve the skills of support personnel and to reduce the distress that some caregivers experienced. Thirty-one chaplains who had been exposed to stressful military operations participated in five workshops. These educational 4-day small-group workshops covered topics such as post-traumatic stress disorder, vicarious traumatization, coping techniques, spirituality, self-care, and family issues. An adult education model was chosen to encourage dialogue. Outcomes included reports of professional and personal benefits, requests for additional programs, local education initiatives, and referrals to mental health professionals. Having met its objectives, the program has become a normal concluding part of stressful deployments.

  15. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation since the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management sector. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  16. Disaggregated analysis of US energy consumption in the 1990s: Evidence of the effects of the internet and rapid economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee

    2001-07-01

    This paper decomposes US energy use from 1988 to 1998 and attributes the changes in energy use to three underlying factors: activity, structure, and intensity. For this study we use a bottom-up methodology, by separately decomposing delivered energy use in six sectors: travel, freight, manufacturing industries, non-manufacturing industries, residential, and services. The most commonly used indicator of energy efficiency in the total economy, the ratio of energy consumed to unit of GDP (E/GDP) created can often be misleading. The rapid decline in the E/GDP ratio in recent years has been used to support assertions that the Internet and information technologies in general have enabled improvements in energy efficiencies. However, our disaggregate analysis suggests that energy intensities on average are falling more slowly than ever before while actual energy use increased faster than at any time since 1970. The decline in the E/GDP ratio in the mid-to late 1990s owes much more to structural changes in the demand for energy services than to falling energy intensities.

  17. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  18. "Honey, I'm Home": Changes in Living Arrangements in the Late 1990s. New Federalism National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-38. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acs, Gregory; Nelson, Sandi

    This brief uses data from the first two waves of the National Survey of America's Families to examine how living arrangements for families with children changed between 1997-99. During the late 1990s, welfare reform efforts centered on moving families from welfare to work. Lost in the discussions of declining caseloads and post-welfare employment…

  19. Institutional Research: Its Place in the 1990's. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (17th, Albany, New York, October 21-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This document contains papers presented at a conference addressing the direction for the institutional research profession in the 1990s. Papers are as follows: "Reassessing Admission Policies at Public Universities: Cognitive vs. Non-Cognitive Predictors of 'Academic Success'" (Marios H. Agrotes); "Accommodating Team Member Cognitive Styles"…

  20. Developments in Microcomputing--Discovering New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s. Festschrift in Honour of Richard De Gennero. Papers presented at the International Essen Symposium (12th, Essen, West Germany, October 23-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The 16 papers in this collection explore the microcomputer revolution as it affects library information systems: (1) "HyperMedia/Multimedia Technology and New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s" (Ching-chih Chen); (2) "Use of CD-ROMs in West German Libraries" (David I. Raitt and Ching-chih Chen); (3) "Purposes of Interactive Optical Discs…

  1. Changing Dimensions: Managing Library and Information Services for the 1990s: A Global Perspective. Proceedings of the Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association [Conference] (Atlanta, Georgia, July 1, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ravindra Nath, Ed.

    The theme of the 1991 Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (APALA) was "Changing Dimensions: Managing Library Information Services for the 1990s and Beyond." Members and speakers were invited to discuss this topic from all dimensions of library and information related fields. Presenters had the options either to write on actual…

  2. A directional wave measurement attack against the Kish key distribution system

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Lachlan J.; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Kish key distribution system has been proposed as a classical alternative to quantum key distribution. The idealized Kish scheme elegantly promises secure key distribution by exploiting thermal noise in a transmission line. However, we demonstrate that it is vulnerable to nonidealities in its components, such as the finite resistance of the transmission line connecting its endpoints. We introduce a novel attack against this nonideality using directional wave measurements, and experimentally demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25248868

  3. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; ,

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  4. Experimental comparison of measurement techniques for drop size distributions in liquid/liquid dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, S.; Wollny, S.; Voigt, A.; Kraume, M.

    2011-02-01

    An online measurement technique for drop size distribution in stirred tank reactors is needed but has not yet been developed. Different approaches and different techniques have been published as the new standard during the last decade. Three of them (focus beam reflectance measurement, two-dimensional optical reflectance measurement techniques and a fiber optical FBR sensor) are tested, and their results are compared with trustful image analysis results from an in situ microscope. The measurement of drop sizes in liquid/liquid distribution is a major challenge for all tested measurement probes, and none provides exact results for the tested system of pure toluene/water compared to an endoscope. Not only the size analysis but also the change of the size over time gives unreasonable results. The influence of the power input on the drop size distribution was the only reasonable observation in this study. The FBR sensor was not applicable at all to the used system. While all three probes are based on laser back scattering, the general question of the usability of this principle for measuring evolving drop size distributions in liquid/liquid system is asked. The exterior smooth surface of droplets in such systems is leading to strong errors in the measurement of the size of the drops. That leads to widely divergent results. A different measurement principle should be used for online measurements of drop size distributions than laser back scattering.

  5. Measure the color distribution of a cotton sample using image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly used measurement of cotton color is by the colorimeter principal that reports the sample’s color grade. However, the color distribution and variation within the sample are not reported. Obtaining color distributions of cotton samples will enable a more comprehensive evaluation of...

  6. Distributed sensor for water and pH measurements using fiber optics and swellable polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michie, W. C.; Culshaw, B.; McKenzie, I.; Konstantakis, M.; Graham, N. B.; Moran, C.; Santos, F.; Bergqvist, E.; Carlstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and test of a generic form of sensor for making distributed measurements of a range of chemical parameters. The technique combines optical time-domain reflectometry with chemically sensitive water-swellable polymers (hydrogels). Initial experiments have concentrated on demonstrating a distributed water detector; however, gels have been developed that enable this sensor to be

  7. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  8. Cyclotron-absorption measurement of the runaway-electron distribution in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonkov, A.V.; Suvorov, E.V.; Timofeev, A.V.; Fraiman, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    The distribution function of runaway electrons in a tokamak can be determined in the slightly relativistic region from measurements of the absorption coefficient corresponding to electron cyclotron waves. The plasma should be probed in the vertical direction.

  9. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E; Ustinov, V D

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  10. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the atmospheric muon flux and the associated depth-intensity relation are measured and compared with previous measurements and Monte Carlo expectations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is presented.

  11. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately. PMID:26501288

  12. The Life Cycle of an OpenStudio Measure: Development, Testing, Distribution, and Application

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-12

    An OpenStudio Measure is a script that can manipulate an OpenStudio model and associated data to apply energy conservation measures (ECMs), run supplemental simulations, or visualize simulation results. The OpenStudio software development kit (SDK) and accessibility of the Ruby scripting language makes measure authorship accessible to both software developers and energy modelers. This paper discusses the life cycle of an OpenStudio Measure from development, testing, and distribution, to application.

  13. Measuring maximal eigenvalue distribution of Wishart random matrices with coupled lasers.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Moti; Pugatch, Rami; Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2012-02-01

    We determined the probability distribution of the combined output power from 25 coupled fiber lasers and show that it agrees well with the Tracy-Widom and Majumdar-Vergassola distributions of the largest eigenvalue of Wishart random matrices with no fitting parameters. This was achieved with 500,000 measurements of the combined output power from the fiber lasers, that continuously changes with variations of the fiber lasers lengths. We show experimentally that for small deviations of the combined output power over its mean value the Tracy-Widom distribution is correct, while for large deviations the Majumdar-Vergassola distribution is correct.

  14. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  15. A Two-Phase Case-Control Study of Autism Risk Among Children Born From the Late 1990s Through the Early 2000s in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Geier, David A.; Kern, Janet K.; Geier, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the hypothesis that the 1999 recommendation by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and US Public Health Service (PHS) to reduce exposure to mercury (Hg) from Thimerosal in US vaccines would be associated with a reduction in the long-term risk of being diagnosed with autism. Material/Methods A two-phase assessment utilizing a case (n=73) -control (n=11,783) study in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database (for hypothesis generating) and a more rigorous, independent matched case (n=40) -control (n=40) study (hypothesis testing) was undertaken. Results Analysis of the VAERS database using logistic regression revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for being an autism case in the VAERS database significantly decreased with a more recent year of vaccination in comparison to controls (OR=0.65) from 1998 to 2003. Sex-separated analyses revealed similar significant effects for males (OR=0.62) and females (OR=0.71). Analyses of the matched case-control data revealed, using the t-test statistic, that the mean date of birth among cases diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (2000.5±1.2) was significantly more in the past than in controls (2001.1±1.3). Logistic regression also revealed that the OR for being diagnosed with ASD significantly decreased with a more recent date of birth in comparison to controls (OR=0.67) from 1998–2003. Conclusions This study reveals that the risk of autism during from the late1990s to early 2000s in the US significantly decreased with reductions in Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines, but future studies should examine this phenomenon in other US populations. Vaccine programs have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious disease, but Thimerosal should be removed from all vaccines.

  16. Proximal distributions from angular correlations: A measure of the onset of coarse-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2013-12-01

    In this work we examine and extend the theory of proximal radial distribution functions for molecules in solution. We point out two formal extensions, the first of which generalizes the proximal distribution function hierarchy approach to the complete, angularly dependent molecular pair distribution function. Second, we generalize from the traditional right-handed solute-solvent proximal distribution functions to the left-handed distributions. The resulting neighbor hierarchy convergence is shown to provide a measure of the coarse-graining of the internal solute sites with respect to the solvent. Simulation of the test case of a deca-alanine peptide shows that this coarse-graining measure converges at a length scale of approximately 5 amino acids for the system considered.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index distribution and topography by integrated transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chaojie; Di, Jianglei; Zhang, Jiwei; Li, Ying; Xi, Teli; Li, Enpu; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-20

    We propose a method for simultaneously measuring dynamic changes of the refractive index distribution and surface topography, which integrates the transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy based on polarization and angular multiplexing techniques. The complex amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected object waves can be simultaneously retrieved. The phase information of the reflected object wave is directly used to determine the topography of the specimen which corresponds to its physical thickness. Assuming that the refractive index distribution is uniform in the direction of the specimen thickness, the refractive index distribution can be deduced from the phase distributions of the transmitted and reflected object waves without any approximation. The refractive index distribution and dynamic changes of the topography of a tiny deionized water droplet have been measured for the availability of the proposed method.

  18. Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers

    SciTech Connect

    KOSKI,JORMAN A.

    2000-05-09

    Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C.

  19. A comparison of magnetic resonance methods for spatially resolved T2 distribution measurements in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Marica, F.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring porous media are usually characterized by a distribution of pore sizes. If the material is fluid saturated, the 1H magnetic resonance (MR) signal depends on the pore size, the surface relaxivity and the fluid itself. Measurement of the transverse relaxation time T2 is a well-established technique to characterize material samples by means of MR. T2 distribution measurements, including T2 distribution mapping, are widely employed in clinical applications and in petroleum engineering. T2 distribution measurements are the most basic measurement employed to determine the fluid-matrix properties in MR core analysis. Three methods for T2 distribution mapping, namely spin-echo single point imaging (SE-SPI), DANTE-Z Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) and adiabatic inversion CPMG are compared in terms of spatial resolution, minimum observable T2 and sensitivity. Bulk CPMG measurement is considered to be the gold standard for T2 determination. Bulk measurement of uniform samples is compared to the three spatially resolved measurements. SE-SPI is an imaging method, which measures spatially resolved T2s in samples of interest. A variant is introduced in this work that employs pre-equalized magnetic field gradient waveforms and is therefore able to measure shorter T2s than previously reported. DANTE-Z CPMG and adiabatic inversion CPMG are faster, non-imaging, local T2 distribution measurements. The DANTE-Z pulse train and adiabatic inversion pulse are compared in terms of T1 or T2 relaxation time effects during the RF pulse application, minimum pulse duration, requisite RF pulse power, and inversion profile quality. In addition to experimental comparisons, simulation results are presented.

  20. Fission hindrance studies in {sup 200}Pb: Evaporation residue cross section and spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shidling, P. D.; Badiger, N. M.; Nath, S.; Kumar, R.; Jhingan, A.; Singh, R. P.; Sugathan, P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Sinha, A. K.; Pal, Santanu; Kailas, S.; Verma, S.; Kalita, K.; Mandal, S.; Singh, R.; Behera, B. R.; Varier, K. M.; Radhakrishna, M. C.

    2006-12-15

    Evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions have been measured for {sup 200}Pb compound nucleus formed in {sup 16}O+{sup 184}W reaction at the laboratory beam energies of 84, 92, 100, 108, 116, and 120 MeV. The evaporation residues have been selected using the recoil mass spectrometer, HIRA and detected using a 2D position sensitive silicon detector. The evaporation residue spin distributions have been measured by detecting gamma rays with 14 element BGO multiplicity filter. Measured evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions are compared with the values predicted by a standard statistical model code. Comparison shows that, in the energy region studied, the nuclear viscosity parameter {gamma}=3 is required to explain total evaporation residue cross sections and evaporation residue spin distributions.

  1. Measurement of relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells by using the polarization microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, In Hee; Lee, Ji Yong; Lee, Seungrag; Lee, Dong Ju; Kim, Dug Young

    2007-02-01

    Bio-cells and tissues have intrinsic polarization characteristics, which are changed by external stimulus and internal metamorphosis in cells and tissues and some of the bio-cells and tissues have intrinsic birefringence characteristics, which are also changed by external stimulus and internal metamorphosis in cells and tissues. In this paper, we have developed the polarization microscope for measurement of relative phase which results from birefringence characteristics of materials with improved linear polarizing method and have measured relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells. From the measurement of the relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells, decrease of relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells was investigated as the elapse of time. In decrease of relative phase distribution, relative phase of cell membrane in onion epidermal cells decreased radically as compared with that of cytoplasm because decline of function in cell membrane that takes charge of matter transfer in onion epidermal cells has occurred.

  2. Voltage Distribution of Internal Windings of Pole-Mounted Distribution Transformer by Lightning Surge and Measures for Voltage Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hideki; Asakawa, Akira; Yokoyama, Shigeru

    When steep lightning surge enters a pole-mounted distribution transformer, the voltage distribution of the internal windings is unbalanced. It is known that a layer-to-layer short or a turn-to-turn short occurs where the voltage distribution of windings is high. In this paper, the voltage distribution of the windings was measured at the primary and secondary sides of the transformer using a testing transformer. The point of the windings where the highest voltage occurred was clarified. At the primary windings, large voltage occurs at the layer nearest the primary bushing, and the possibility of breakdown at this point is high. By field test using several types of surge arrestor, it is found that the lower the operating voltage of the surge arrestor installed in the primary side, the lower the voltage occurring at the primary windings. At the secondary windings, large voltage occurs at the layer closer to the neutral terminal, and the possibility of breakdown at this point is high. The lower the operating voltage of the surge arrestor installed in the primary side, the lower the voltage occurring at the secondary windings, too. Adding the surge arrestor in the secondary side, although effectively reduce line-to-line voltage, does not effectively reduce the voltage of the secondary windings.

  3. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements of the downwash distribution of a desert locust Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Lawson, Nicholas J; Thomas, Adrian L.R

    2005-01-01

    Actuator disc models of insect flight are concerned solely with the rate of momentum transfer to the air that passes through the disc. These simple models assume that an even pressure is applied across the disc, resulting in a uniform downwash distribution. However, a correction factor, k, is often included to correct for the difference in efficiency between the assumed even downwash distribution, and the real downwash distribution. In the absence of any empirical measurements of the downwash distribution behind a real insect, the values of k used in the literature have been necessarily speculative. Direct measurement of this efficiency factor is now possible, and could be used to compare the relative efficiencies of insect flight across the Class. Here, we use Digital Particle Image Velocimetry to measure the instantaneous downwash distribution, mid-downstroke, of a tethered desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). By integrating the downwash distribution, we are thereby able to provide the first direct empirical measurement of k for an insect. The measured value of k=1.12 corresponds reasonably well with that predicted by previous theoretical studies. PMID:16849240

  4. Measuring Distributive Justice Preferences of Finnish University Students via the State Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetoklis, Takis

    2007-01-01

    We measure the distributive justice preferences of students within eight departments in the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Turku, Finland. We use the Finnish government's annual budget and its specific appropriations as a proxy to measure the students' underlying preferences. We test whether the type of studies of the respondents…

  5. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  6. Investigating and improving student understanding of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-03-01

    A solid grasp of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables is central to connecting the quantum formalism to measurements. However, students often struggle with the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for an observable and have difficulty expressing this concept in different representations. Here we first describe the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students have with the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics. We then discuss how student difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for physical observables. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the probability distributions for the measurement of physical observables in Dirac notation and in the position representation and be able to convert from Dirac notation to position representation and vice versa. We describe the development and evaluation of the QuILT and findings about the effectiveness of the QuILT from in-class evaluations.

  7. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Deyang Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  8. Cluster mass fraction and size distribution determined by fs-time-resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoming; Shim, Bonggu; Arefiev, Alexey; Tushentsov, Mikhail; Breizman, Boris; Downer, Mike

    2009-11-01

    Characterization of supersonic gas jets is important for accurate interpretation and control of laser-cluster experiments. While average size and total atomic density can be found by standard Rayleigh scatter and interferometry, cluster mass fraction and size distribution are usually difficult to measure. Here we determine the cluster fraction and the size distribution with fs-time-resolved refractive index and absorption measurements in cluster gas jets after ionization and heating by an intense pump pulse. The fs-time-resolved refractive index measured with frequency domain interferometer (FDI) shows different contributions from monomer plasma and cluster plasma in the time domain, enabling us to determine the cluster fraction. The fs-time-resolved absorption measured by a delayed probe shows the contribution from clusters of various sizes, allowing us to find the size distribution.

  9. Methodology for measuring exhaust aerosol size distributions using an engine test under transient operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Desantes, José; Bermúdez, Vicente; Molina, Santiago; Linares, Waldemar G.

    2011-11-01

    A study on the sources of variability in the measurement of particle size distribution using a two-stage dilution system and an engine exhaust particle sizer was conducted to obtain a comprehensive and repeatable methodology that can be used to measure the particle size distribution of aerosols emitted by a light-duty diesel engine under transient operating conditions. The paper includes three experimental phases: an experimental validation of the measurement method; an evaluation of the influence of sampling factors, such as dilution system pre-conditioning; and a study of the effects of the dilution conditions, such as the dilution ratio and the dilution air temperature. An examination of the type and degree of influence of each studied factor is presented, recommendations for reducing variability are given and critical parameter values are identified to develop a highly reliable measurement methodology that could be applied to further studies on the effect of engine operating parameters on exhaust particle size distributions.

  10. Quantitative evaluation by measurement and modeling of the variations in dose distributions deposited in mobile targets.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imad; Alsbou, Nesreen; Taguenang, Jean-Michel; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2017-03-03

    The objective of this study is to quantitatively evaluate variations of dose distributions deposited in mobile target by measurement and modeling. The effects of variation in dose distribution induced by motion on tumor dose coverage and sparing of normal tissues were investigated quantitatively. The dose distributions with motion artifacts were modeled considering different motion patterns that include (a) motion with constant speed and (b) sinusoidal motion. The model predictions of the dose distributions with motion artifacts were verified with measurement where the dose distributions from various plans that included three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated fields were measured with a multiple-diode-array detector (MapCheck2), which was mounted on a mobile platform that moves with adjustable motion parameters. For each plan, the dose distributions were then measured with MapCHECK2 using different motion amplitudes from 0-25 mm. In addition, mathematical modeling was developed to predict the variations in the dose distributions and their dependence on the motion parameters that included amplitude, frequency and phase for sinusoidal motions. The dose distributions varied with motion and depended on the motion pattern particularly the sinusoidal motion, which spread out along the direction of motion. Study results showed that in the dose region between isocenter and the 50% isodose line, the dose profile decreased with increase of the motion amplitude. As the range of motion became larger than the field length along the direction of motion, the dose profiles changes overall including the central axis dose and 50% isodose line. If the total dose was delivered over a time much longer than the periodic time of motion, variations in motion frequency and phase do not affect the dose profiles. As a result, the motion dose modeling developed in this study provided quantitative characterization of variation in the dose distributions induced by motion, which

  11. Probable errors in width distributions of sea ice leads measured along a transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, J.; Peckham, S.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of error expected in the measurement of widths of sea ice leads along a single transect are examined in a probabilistic sense under assumed orientation and width distributions, where both isotropic and anisotropic lead orientations are examined. Methods are developed for estimating the distribution of 'actual' widths (measured perpendicular to the local lead orientation) knowing the 'apparent' width distribution (measured along the transect), and vice versa. The distribution of errors, defined as the difference between the actual and apparent lead width, can be estimated from the two width distributions, and all moments of this distribution can be determined. The problem is illustrated with Landsat imagery and the procedure is applied to a submarine sonar transect. Results are determined for a range of geometries, and indicate the importance of orientation information if data sampled along a transect are to be used for the description of lead geometries. While the application here is to sea ice leads, the methodology can be applied to measurements of any linear feature.

  12. Capacitance wire-mesh sensor for fast measurement of phase fraction distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, M. J.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.

    2007-07-01

    We introduce a new wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance (permittivity) measurements. The sensor can be used to measure transient phase fraction distributions in a flow cross-section, such as in a pipe or other vessel, and is able to discriminate fluids having different relative permittivity (dielectric constant) values in a multiphase flow. We designed and manufactured a prototype sensor which comprises two planes of 16 wires each. The wires are evenly distributed across the measuring cross-section, and measurement is performed at the wire crossings. Time resolution of the prototype sensor is 625 frames per second. Sensor and measuring electronics were evaluated showing good stability and accuracy in the capacitance measurement. The wire-mesh sensor was tested in a silicone oil/water two-phase bubbly flow.

  13. In-Situ Measurement of Internal Temperature Distribution of Sintered Materials Using Ultrasonic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, I.; Tomomatsu, T.

    2011-03-01

    It is often required to measure internal temperature distribution of a heated material because it is closely related to the materials properties and behavior. In this work, an effective ultrasonic method has been applied to the monitoring of internal temperature distributions of an alumina being heated. The principle of the method is based on the temperature dependence of the velocity of ultrasound propagating through a heated material. In the method, a combined technique of ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements and a finite difference calculation is employed to determine the one-dimensional temperature distribution in a heated material. Shear wave is used for the ultrasonic measurements to improve the accuracy in determining temperature. To verify the feasibility of the method, pulse-echo measurements with a shear wave transducer have been performed for an alumina rod of 14 mm diameter and 25 mm length whose single-end is being heated. The internal temperature distribution and its variation of the alumina are then measured during the heating. The temperature distributions determined by the ultrasonic method almost agree with those obtained by an infrared method. Thus, it is demonstrated that the ultrasonic method has the potential for in-process monitoring of the transient temperature variation of ceramics being processed at high temperatures.

  14. Single-size thermometric measurements on a size distribution of neutral fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Cauchy, C; Bakker, J M; Huismans, Y; Rouzée, A; Redlich, B; van der Meer, A F G; Bordas, C; Vrakking, M J J; Lépine, F

    2013-05-10

    We present measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons emitted from mass-selected neutral fullerenes, performed at the intracavity free electron laser FELICE. We make use of mass-specific vibrational resonances in the infrared domain to selectively heat up one out of a distribution of several fullerene species. Efficient energy redistribution leads to decay via thermionic emission. Time-resolved electron kinetic energy distributions measured give information on the decay rate of the selected fullerene. This method is generally applicable to all neutral species that exhibit thermionic emission and provides a unique tool to study the stability of mass-selected neutral clusters and molecules that are only available as part of a size distribution.

  15. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  16. Reconstruction of an effective magnon mean free path distribution from spin Seebeck measurements in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Angel, E.; Zarate, R. A.; Fuentes, S.; Guo, E. J.; Kläui, M.; Jakob, G.

    2017-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mean-free-path (MFP) distribution of the energy carriers is crucial to engineer and tune the transport properties of materials. In this context, a significant body of work has investigated the phonon and electron MFP distribution, however, similar studies of the magnon MFP distribution have not been carried out so far. In this work, we used thickness-dependence measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck (LSSE) effect of yttrium iron garnet films to reconstruct the cumulative distribution of a SSE related effective magnon MFP. By using the experimental data reported by (Guo et al 2016 Phys. Rev. X 6 031012), we adapted the phonon MFP reconstruction algorithm proposed by (Minnich 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 205901) and apply it to magnons. The reconstruction showed that magnons with different MFP contribute in different manner to the total LSSE and the effective magnon MFP distribution spreads far beyond their typical averaged values.

  17. Statistical distributions of airborne PCB and pesticide concentrations measured at regional sites on the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gatz, D.F.; Sweet, C.W.; Basu, I.; Harlin, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to report results of testing measured concentrations of total PCBs and ten chlorinated pesticides in air and precipitation in the Great Lakes area for goodness-of-fit to the log normal distribution. Samples were collected at sites on Lakes Superior, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario in 1991--1993. With very few exceptions, distributions of concentrations in the gas and particle phases and in precipitation were not significantly different from log normal.

  18. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A

    2010-10-16

    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  19. 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae collected around the Japanese coast in the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Aono, T; Hirano, S

    1999-10-01

    Marine organisms, i.e. fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae, were collected in the early 1990s along the Sea of Japan coast and the Japanese Pacific coast and analyzed for their 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in muscle of fish were below 0.4 mBq/kg wet wt. and the lowest among the analyzed marine organisms. Most 137Cs concentrations in muscle of fish ranged from 100 to 300 mBq/kg wet wt. Higher concentrations of 239 + 240Pu, ranging from 1.6 to 5.7 mBq/kg wet wt., were observed in viscera of cephalopods than in their muscle. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in whole soft tissues of bivalves varied approximately one order of magnitude from 0.8 to 6.1 mBq/kg wet wt., while 137Cs concentrations had little variation, being approximately 60 mBq/kg wet wt. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in algae had a wide variation, ranging from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt., and were higher than those of the other marine organisms. No statistically significant difference in mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu was detected among the whole soft tissues of bivalves, viscera of cephalopods and crustaceans, and whole bodies of cephalopods and crustaceans within the 95% confidence limit. The mean concentrations of 137Cs became higher in the order, cephalopods and crustaceans and bivalves, algae, viscera of fish, muscles of fish. The mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu were comparable for algae collected along the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast. Furthermore, the difference in mean concentrations of 137Cs in algae between the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast was not statistically significant within the 95% confidence limit. These results can be considered to indicate no definite influence from radioactive dumping into the Japan Sea by the former USSR and Russia with respect to radioactive pollution of marine organisms collected along the Japanese coast.

  20. Have I Been a Data Scientist from the Start? Parallels from the Geographic Information Science Community in the Early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1990s the author came of age as the technology driving the geographic information system or GIS was beginning to successfully 'handle' geospatial data at a range of scales and formats, and a wide array of information technology products emerged from an expanding GIS industry. However, that small community struggled to reflect the diverse research efforts at play in understanding the deeper issues surrounding geospatial data, and the impediments to that effective use of that data. It was from this need that geographic information science or GIScience arose, to ensure in part that GIS did not fall into the trap of being a technology in search of applications, a one-time, one-off, non-intellectual 'bag of tricks' with no substantive theory underpinning it, and suitable only for a static period of time (e.g., Goodchild, 1992). The community has since debated the issue of "tool versus science' which has also played a role in defining GIS as an actual profession. In turn, GIS has contributed to "methodological versus substantive" questions in science, leading to understandings of how the Earth works versus how the Earth should look. In the author's experience, the multidimensional structuring and scaling data, with integrative and innovative approaches to analyzing, modeling, and developing extensive and spatial data from selected places on land and at sea, have revealed how theory and application are in no way mutually exclusive, and it may often be application that advances theory, rather than vice versa. Increasingly, both the system and science of geographic information have welcomed strong collaborations among computer scientists, information scientists, and domain scientists to solve complex scientific questions. As such, they have paralleled the emergence and acceptance of "data science." And now that we are squarely in an era of regional- to global-scale observation and simulation of the Earth, produce data that are too big, move too fast, and do not

  1. Measurement of the distribution coefficient of neodymium in cubic ZrO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, H.; Luther, K.-D.; Assmus, W.

    1993-05-01

    The incorporation of solute elements into single crystals has been examined for many years. In this paper we investigate the distribution coefficient of Nd 2O 3 in cubic stabilized zirconiumdioxide crystals. The distribution coefficient is measured as a function of the growth velocity. The validity of the Burton-Prim-Slichter theory [J.A. Burton, R.C. Prim and W.P. Slichter, J. Chem. Phys. 21 (1953) 1987] for the system zirconium dioxide/yttrium oxide is confirmed by the experimental results. The value for the equilibrium distribution coefficient is evaluated as k0 = 0.426.

  2. Particle-size-distribution measurement using a Hankel transform of a Fraunhofer diffraction spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, S; Saito, H

    1983-11-01

    A new method for the measurement of the size distribution of circular particles by using a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is proposed, which basically consists of performing the following two steps: (1) a Hankel transform of the radial spectral intensity that is diffracted from randomly distributed circular objects and (2) a calculation of a correlation between the Hankel-transformed function and a characteristic operator, such as a digital third-derivative operator. The method provides continuous size distribution of circular objects with high resolution.

  3. Scoping Study on Research and Development Priorities for Distribution-System Phasor Measurement Units

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Stewart, Emma M.; Smith, Travis; Buckner, Mark; Kirkham, Harold; Tuffner, Francis; Schoenwald, David A.

    2016-04-01

    This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.

  4. Dynamic measurement of fluorescent proteins spectral distribution on virus infected cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ja-Yun; Wu, Ming-Xiu; Kao, Chia-Yun; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Hsu, I.-Jen

    2006-09-01

    We constructed a dynamic spectroscopy system that can simultaneously measure the intensity and spectral distributions of samples with multi-fluorophores in a single scan. The system was used to monitor the fluorescence distribution of cells infected by the virus, which is constructed by a recombinant baculoviruses, vAcD-Rhir-E, containing the red and green fluorescent protein gene that can simultaneously produce dual fluorescence in recombinant virus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda 21 cells (Sf21) under the control of a polyhedrin promoter. The system was composed of an excitation light source, a scanning system and a spectrometer. We also developed an algorithm and fitting process to analyze the pattern of fluorescence distribution of the dual fluorescence produced in the recombinant virus-infected cells. All the algorithm and calculation are automatically processed in a visualized scanning program and can monitor the specific region of sample by calculating its intensity distribution. The spectral measurement of each pixel was performed at millisecond range and the two dimensional distribution of full spectrum was recorded within several seconds. We have constructed a dynamic spectroscopy system to monitor the process of virus-infection of cells. The distributions of the dual fluorescence were simultaneously measured at micrometer resolution.

  5. New Scatterometer for Spatial Distribution Measurements of Light Scattering from Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawate, E.; Hain, M.

    2012-01-01

    A new scatterometer is composed of two ellipsoidal mirrors of revolution and an optical detection system. It enables us to absolutely measure diffuse reflectance and transmittance and to measure the spatial distribution of light scattering from almost all materials. The optical detection system has been developed both to measure total photo-intensity using a photodiode and to capture the imaging data using a CCD camera. This results in faster, more complete and often more accurate measurements than can be achieved with traditional goniometric methods and integrated sphere methods. The absolute total integrated reflectance and transmittance of well-known samples were measured and the spatial distribution of light scattering from a diffraction grating was captured and evaluated.

  6. Hardness and density distributions of pharmaceutical tablets measured by terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    May, Robert K; Su, Ke; Han, Lianghao; Zhong, Shuncong; Elliott, James A; Gladden, Lynn F; Evans, Mike; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J Axel

    2013-07-01

    We present terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) as a novel tool to quantify the hardness and surface density distribution of pharmaceutical tablets. Good agreement between the surface refractive index (SRI) measured by TPI and the crushing force measured from diametral compression tests was found using a set of tablets that were compacted at various compression forces. We also found a strong correlation between TPI results and tablet bulk density, and how these relate to tablet hardness. Numerical simulations of tablet surface density distribution by finite element analysis exhibit excellent agreement with the TPI measured SRI maps. These results show that TPI has an advantage over traditional diametral compression and is more suitable for nondestructive hardness and density distribution monitoring and control of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

  7. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A.; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Mobley, David L.; Chodera, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases—such as cyclohexane and water—measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  8. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge.

    PubMed

    Rustenburg, Ariën S; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A; Ortwine, Daniel F; Mobley, David L; Chodera, John D

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases-such as cyclohexane and water-measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  9. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Niyazov; L.B. Weinstein; et al

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for ''fast'' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back-to-back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  10. Dose distribution response in HDRB measured with EBT2 and compared with PLATO SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ruiz, L; Hernández-Oviedo, J O; Ruesga-Vazquez, D; Rivera-Montalvo, T

    2014-01-01

    Dose distribution of a High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (BHDR) oncological treatment with (192)Ir was measured using a Gafchromic EBT2 film. The film calibration was performed with a (60)Co unit and a LINAC of 6 mV and 18 mV. Gafchromic behavior of a dosimeter varies in respect of energy. Experimental results of dose distribution match with those planned in the PLATO commercial system, they also show that there is a difference of 2.11% between the planning system and isodoses measured.

  11. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  12. Testing and comparing of film-type sensor materials in measurement of plantar pressure distribution.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Satu; Salpavaara, Timo; Tuukkanen, Sampo

    2016-08-01

    Simple in-shoe sensors based on film-type sensor materials were developed in this study. Three sensor materials were tested: polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi). Plantar pressure distributions of a subject were measured with the developed in-shoe sensors; each consisting of three sensor channels (lateral and medial metatarsal heads and heel). In addition, piezoelectric sensor sensitivities and crosstalk between the sensor channels were determined. Differences between the tested film-type materials and measured plantar pressure distribution signals were studied.

  13. Velocity-space synthesis of ISEE-1 measurements of the three dimensional electron distribution function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Scudder, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    A computer package which produces contour plots of the three dimensional electron distribution function measured by an electron spectrometer aboard ISEE-1 is described. Examples of the contour plots and an explanation of how to use the program, including the necessary computer code for running the program on the GSFC 360/91 computer is presented. The method by which the discrete measurements of the distribution function, given by points on the four dimensional surface are synthesized into a smooth surface in a three dimensional space which can be contoured is described. The velocity components are parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively, in the proper frame of the electrons.

  14. A synopsis of 30 years of major accomplishments by the Pennsylvania Department of Health in Environmental Health (Part 2 of 2): the 1990s and the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Logue, James N; Sivarajah, Kandiah

    2010-12-01

    This article reviews significant environmental health projects conducted by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, particularly the Division of Environmental Health, during the 1990s and the following decade. The authors describe lessons learned from a new occupational health initiative, continuing work on the health assessment grant funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and a new Environmental Public Health Tracking grant funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in addition to emerging issues during these two decades.

  15. A hybrid fiber-optic sensing system for down-hole pressure and distributed temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Zhou, Xinlei; Yang, Bokai; Peng, Wei; Yu, Qingxu

    2015-10-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensing technique, combining the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) based pressure sensor with the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (IOFDR) based distributed temperature sensor (DTS), is presented for down-hole measurements. By using a laser diode as the common light source, a highly integrated hybrid EFPI/DTS sensing system has been developed with a single fiber. With the injection current of the laser diode below lasing threshold, the broadband spontaneous emission light is used for EFPI based pressure sensing; while with the injection current above the threshold, the stimulated emission light is used for Raman based distributed temperature sensing. There is no overlap between the spectral range of the reflected light from the EFPI sensor and the spectral range of the Raman scattered light. Pressure and distributed temperature can thus be measured by using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology. Experimental results show that both the pressure and the distributed temperature are measured with little interference. Furthermore, the pressure measurement can be compensated by the measured temperature values.

  16. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  17. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  18. Measurement of surface shear stress vector distribution using shear-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji-Song; Scholz, Peter; Gu, Liang-Xian

    2012-10-01

    The global wall shear stress measurement technique using shear-sensitive liquid crystal (SSLC) is extended to wind tunnel measurements. Simple and common everyday equipment is used in the measurement; in particular a tungsten-halogen light bulb provides illumination and a saturation of SSLC coating color change with time is found. Spatial wall shear stress distributions of several typical flows are obtained using this technique, including wall-jet flow, vortex flow generated by a delta wing and junction flow behind a thin cylinder, although the magnitudes are not fully calibrated. The results demonstrate that SSLC technique can be extended to wind tunnel measurements with no complicated facilities used.

  19. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Hampel, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other temperature field measurement approaches such as infrared cameras is that the object under investigation can be thermally insulated and the radiation properties of the surface do not affect the measurement accuracy. The sensor principle is therefore suited for various industrial monitoring applications. Its applicability for surface temperature monitoring has been demonstrated through heating and mixing experiments in a vessel. PMID:23353141

  20. Local T2 distribution measurements with DANTE-Z slice selection.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Oleg V; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-02-01

    A CPMG pulse sequence incorporated with a DANTE-Z slice selection scheme for measuring spatially-resolved T(2) distributions has been presented. The DANTE-Z pulse train with sinc-modulated pulses selects a single, quasi-rectangular slice of less than 0.8 cm wide at an arbitrary position over a 6-cm long sample. The measured T(2) distributions are of almost the same quality as regular (bulk) CPMG measurements, with the lower T(2) limit being as good as c.a. 0.5 ms. The sequence can be found useful as a supplement or alternative to MRI-based techniques for T(2) mapping in short relaxation time samples (water-saturated rocks, building materials, wood, food products, rubbers, etc.), particularly when T(2) is required to be measured at only few positions along the sample and the resolution of ~1 cm is acceptable.

  1. Local T2 distribution measurements with DANTE-Z slice selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    A CPMG pulse sequence incorporated with a DANTE-Z slice selection scheme for measuring spatially-resolved T2 distributions has been presented. The DANTE-Z pulse train with sinc-modulated pulses selects a single, quasi-rectangular slice of less than 0.8 cm wide at an arbitrary position over a 6-cm long sample. The measured T2 distributions are of almost the same quality as regular (bulk) CPMG measurements, with the lower T2 limit being as good as c.a. 0.5 ms. The sequence can be found useful as a supplement or alternative to MRI-based techniques for T2 mapping in short relaxation time samples (water-saturated rocks, building materials, wood, food products, rubbers, etc.), particularly when T2 is required to be measured at only few positions along the sample and the resolution of ˜1 cm is acceptable.

  2. FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT FOR LONG GLASS AND CARBON FIBER REINFORCED INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J; Nguyen, Ba N.; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.

  3. Real-space measurement of potential distribution in PECVD ONO electrets by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, F; Thielemann, C

    2016-05-20

    Multilayers of silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (ONO) are known for their good electret properties due to deep energy traps near the material interfaces, facilitating charge storage. However, measurement of the space charge distribution in such multilayers is a challenge for conventional methods if layer thickness dimensions shrink below 1 μm. In this paper, we propose an atomic force microscope based method to determine charge distributions in ONO layers with spatial resolution below 100 nm. By applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on freshly cleaved, corona-charged multilayers, the surface potential is measured directly along the z-axis and across the interfaces. This new method gives insights into charge distribution and charge movement in inorganic electrets with a high spatial resolution.

  4. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  5. Calibration of an acoustic system for measuring 2-D temperature distribution around hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Chen, Ying

    2013-04-01

    One of the fundamental purposes of quantitative acoustic surveys of seafloor hydrothermal vents is to measure their 2-D temperature distributions. Knowing the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances between the underwater transducers in an acoustic tomography system is fundamental to the overall accuracy of the temperature reconstruction. However, commercial transducer sources typically do not supply the needed data. Here we present a novel calibration algorithm to automatically determine the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances. The possible system latency error and the resulting temperature error are derived and analyzed. We have also developed the experimental setup for calibration. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration method, an experimental study was performed on acoustic imaging of underwater temperature fields in Lake Qiezishan, located at Longling County, Yunnan Province, China. Using the calibrated data, the reconstructed temperature distributions closely resemble the actual distributions measured with thermocouples, thus confirming the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  6. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  7. Two Instruments for Measuring Distributions of Low-Energy Charged Particles in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, Michel; Fryer, Thomas B.; Witteborn, Fred C.

    1961-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that the bulk of interplanetary gas consists of protons with energies between 0 and 20 kev and concentrations of 1 to 105 particles/cu cm. Methods and instrumentation for measuring the energy and density distribution of such a gas are considered from the standpoint of suitability for space vehicle payloads. It is concluded that electrostatic analysis of the energy distribution can provide sufficient information in initial experiments. Both magnetic and electrostatic analyzers should eventually be used. Several instruments designed and constructed at the Ames Research Center for space plasma measurements, and the methods of calibration and data reduction are described. In particular, the instrument designed for operation on solar cell power has the following characteristics: weight, 1.1 pounds; size, 2 by 3 by 4 inches; and power consumption, 145 mw. The instrument is designed to yield information on the concentration, energy distribution, and the anisotropy of ion trajectories in the 0.2 to 20 kev range.

  8. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively. PMID:21267082

  9. Carrier Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS): a new approach for the measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bjoern; Fischer, Holger; Kansy, Manfred; Seelig, Anna; Assmus, Frauke

    2015-02-20

    Here we present a miniaturized assay, referred to as Carrier-Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS) for fast and reliable measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients, log D(oct). By introducing a filter support for octanol, phase separation from water is facilitated and the tendency of emulsion formation (emulsification) at the interface is reduced. A guideline for the best practice of CAMDIS is given, describing a strategy to manage drug adsorption at the filter-supported octanol/buffer interface. We validated the assay on a set of 52 structurally diverse drugs with known shake flask log D(oct) values. Excellent agreement with literature data (r(2) = 0.996, standard error of estimate, SEE = 0.111), high reproducibility (standard deviation, SD < 0.1 log D(oct) units), minimal sample consumption (10 μL of 100 μM DMSO stock solution) and a broad analytical range (log D(oct) range = -0.5 to 4.2) make CAMDIS a valuable tool for the high-throughput assessment of log D(oc)t.

  10. Retrieval of the vertical distribution of chemical components in the mesosphere from simultaneous measurements of ozone and hydroxyl distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, M. Yu.; Feigin, A. M.; Sonnemann, G. R.

    2006-09-01

    We propose a method for retrieval of directly unmeasurable concentrations of minor gas constituents of the mesosphere from available experimental data using simplified models of atmospheric photochemical systems. The method is used for processing of the results of simultaneous measurements of ozone and hydroxyl concentrations within the framework of the CRISTA-MAHRSI satellite experiments. As a result, vertical distributions of concentrations of three more key chemical components of the mesosphere, namely, atomic oxygen, atomic hydrogen, and hydroperoxide, were retrieved. It is shown that a limiting altitude-dependent ratio between OH and O3 concentrations is valid in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. It is found that CRISTA-MAHRSI data satisfy this ratio up to an altitude of 87 km, but a strong discrepancy between theory and experiment arises in the upper region.

  11. IN SITU APPARENT CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AT A HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the bulk electrical conductivity and microbial population distribution in sediments at a site contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The bulk conductivity was measured using in situ vertical resistivity probes, while the most probable number met...

  12. Effect of Skull Resistivity on the Relative Sensitivity Distributions of EEG and MEG Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Tampere University of Technology Ragnar Granit Institute Tampere, Finland Performing Organization Report Number...has been supported by the Ragnar Granit Foundation. REFERENCES [1] J. Malmivuo and R. Plonsey, Bioelectromagnetism - Principles and...SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF EEG AND MEG MEASUREMENTS J. A. Malmivuo1, V. Suihko2 1Ragnar Granit Institute, Tampere University of Technology

  13. Soil temperature variability in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts variability in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...

  14. Measuring Particle Size Distribution using Laser Diffraction: Implications for Predicting Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to predict soil hydraulic properties frequently require information on the particle size distribution (PSD). The objectives of this study were to investigate various protocols for rapidly measuring PSD using the laser diffraction technique, compare the obtained PSDs with those determined usi...

  15. Optimization of the multi-electrode electrostatic sensor for velocity distribution measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenbiao; Wu, Weiping

    2014-04-01

    Measuring the velocity distribution of dilute gas-solid two-phase flow is necessary for industrial process monitor and control. However, in order to get correct measurement of the velocity distribution, the effective correlation calculation by non-corresponding side electrode couples of the electrostatic sensor was needed. By introducing the principle of electrostatic correlation based velocity distribution measurement method, the importance of the effective correlation calculation by non-corresponding side electrode couples was emphasized in this paper. In order to ensure effective correlation calculation by non-corresponding side electrode couples was emphasized in this paper. In order to ensure effective correlation calculation by non-corresponding side electrode couples, effective correlation analysis of multi-electrode electrostatic sensor was carried out and effective correlation analysis method was proposed. According to this method, the structure of multi-electrode electrostatic sensor was optimized. Finally, experimental results show that correlation calculation of non-corresponding side electrode couples could be done effectively by the optimized multi-electrode electrostatic sensor. This result lays a foundation for further research on velocity distribution measurement.

  16. A system for measuring the pulse height distribution of ultrafast photomultipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    A system for measuring the pulse height distribution of gigahertz bandwidth photomultipliers was developed. This system uses a sampling oscilloscope as a sample-hold circuit and has a bandwidth of 12 gigahertz. Test results are given for a static crossed-filed photomultiplier tested with a demonstration system. Calculations on system amplitude resolution capabilities are included for currently available system components.

  17. Mixture of normal distributions in multivariate null intercept measurement error model.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Reiko; Pinto Júnior, Dorival Leão; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Bolfarine, Heleno

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose the use of a multivariate null intercept measurement error model, where the true unobserved value of the covariate follows a mixture of two normal distributions. The proposed model is applied to a dental clinical trial presented in Hadgu and Koch (1999). A Bayesian approach is considered and a Gibbs Sampler is used to perform the computations.

  18. An Investigation of Some Distributional Characteristics of the Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; And Others

    The distributional characteristics of the Kaiser-Rice measure of sampling adequacy (MSA) were investigated with sample correlation matrices from multivariate normal populations where the level of correlation (LC) was systematically varied. Two additional variables were manipulated--sample size (SS) and number of variables (NV). Ten matrices were…

  19. An Investigation of Some Distributional Characteristics of the Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The distributional characteristics of Kaiser's Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) were investigated in sample matrices generated from multivariate normal populations of specified correlation levels. Systematic variation of sample size and number of variables revealed the overall MSA to be most influenced by the number of variables. (Author/JKS)

  20. Hydrometeor Size Distribution Measurements by Imaging the Attenuation of a Laser Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    The optical extinction of a laser due to scattering of particles is a well-known phenomenon. In a laboratory environment, this physical principle is known as the Beer-Lambert law, and is often used to measure the concentration of scattering particles in a fluid or gas. This method has been experimentally shown to be a usable means to measure the dust density from a rocket plume interaction with the lunar surface. Using the same principles and experimental arrangement, this technique can be applied to hydrometeor size distributions, and for launch-pad operations, specifically as a passive hail detection and measurement system. Calibration of a hail monitoring system is a difficult process. In the past, it has required comparison to another means of measuring hydrometeor size and density. Using a technique recently developed for estimating the density of surface dust dispersed during a rocket landing, measuring the extinction of a laser passing through hail (or dust in the rocket case) yields an estimate of the second moment of the particle cloud, and hydrometeor size distribution in the terrestrial meteorological case. With the exception of disdrometers, instruments that measure rain and hail fall make indirect measurements of the drop-size distribution. Instruments that scatter microwaves off of hydrometeors, such as the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler), vertical wind profilers, and microwave disdrometers, measure the sixth moment of the drop size distribution (DSD). By projecting a laser onto a target, changes in brightness of the laser spot against the target background during rain and hail yield a measurement of the DSD's second moment by way of the Beer-Lambert law. In order to detect the laser attenuation within the 8-bit resolution of most camera image arrays, a minimum path length is required. Depending on the intensity of the hail fall rate for moderate to heavy rainfall, a laser path length of 100 m is sufficient to measure variations in

  1. Non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement in a Hall effect thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Carl R.; Farnell, Casey C.; Farnell, Cody C.; Martinez, Rafael A.; Liu, David; Branam, Richard D.; Williams, John D.

    2017-01-01

    A means is presented to determine the Hall current density distribution in a closed drift thruster by remotely measuring the magnetic field and solving the inverse problem for the current density. The magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned just outside the thruster channel on a 1.5 kW Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted hollow cathode. In the sensor array location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 G, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is approximately tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Because of the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field does provide the current density distributions. These distributions are shown as a function of time in contour plots. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the average discharge current ranged from 6.1 to 7.3 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 1.5 kW exhibited a breathing mode frequency of 24 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  2. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, M.; Oyama, K.-I.; Abe, T.; Yau, A. W.

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  3. Flight Investigation of the Effects of Pressure-Belt Tubing Size on Measured Pressure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Natale A.; vanDam, Cornielious P.; Brown, Phillip W.; Rivers, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The pressure-belt technique is commonly used to measure pressure distributions on lifting and nonlifting surfaces where flush, through-the-surface measurements are not possible. The belts, made from strips of small-bore, flexible plastic tubing, are surface-mounted by a simple, nondestructive method. Additionally, the belts require minimal installation time, thus making them much less costly to install than flush-mounted pressure ports. Although pressure belts have been used in flight research since the early 1950s, only recently have manufacturers begun to produce thinner, more flexible tubing, and thin, strong adhesive tapes that minimize the installation-induced errors on the measurement of surface pressures. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of pressure-belt tubing size on the measurement of pressure distributions. For that purpose, two pressure belts were mounted on the right wing of a single-engine, propeller-driven research airplane. The outboard pressure belt served as a baseline for the measurement and the comparison of effects. Each tube had an outer diameter (OD) of 0.0625 in. The inboard belt was used to evaluate three different tube sizes: 0.0625-, 0.1250-, and 0.1875-in. OD. A computational investigation of tube size on pressure distribution also was conducted using the two-dimensional Multielement Streamtube Euler Solver (MSES) code.

  4. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, M; Oyama, K-I; Abe, T; Yau, A W

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  5. Non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement in a Hall effect thruster.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Carl R; Farnell, Casey C; Farnell, Cody C; Martinez, Rafael A; Liu, David; Branam, Richard D; Williams, John D

    2017-01-01

    A means is presented to determine the Hall current density distribution in a closed drift thruster by remotely measuring the magnetic field and solving the inverse problem for the current density. The magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned just outside the thruster channel on a 1.5 kW Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted hollow cathode. In the sensor array location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 G, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is approximately tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Because of the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field does provide the current density distributions. These distributions are shown as a function of time in contour plots. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the average discharge current ranged from 6.1 to 7.3 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 1.5 kW exhibited a breathing mode frequency of 24 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  6. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoyama, M.; Yau, A. W.; Oyama, K.-I.; Abe, T.

    2011-07-15

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  7. On the feasibility of measuring urban air pollution by wireless distributed sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Moltchanov, Sharon; Levy, Ilan; Etzion, Yael; Lerner, Uri; Broday, David M; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of air pollution on human-wellbeing requires high-resolution measurements. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate pollution levels but due to their sparse distribution they cannot capture the highly resolved spatial variations within cities. Similarly, dedicated field campaigns can use tens of measurement devices and obtain highly dense spatial coverage but normally deployment has been limited to short periods of no more than few weeks. Nowadays, advances in communication and sensory technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of wireless distributed air monitoring nodes, yet their sensor ability to capture the spatiotemporal pollutant variability at the sub-neighborhood scale has never been thoroughly tested. This study reports ambient measurements of gaseous air pollutants by a network of six wireless multi-sensor miniature nodes that have been deployed in three urban sites, about 150 m apart. We demonstrate the network's capability to capture spatiotemporal concentration variations at an exceptional fine resolution but highlight the need for a frequent in-situ calibration to maintain the consistency of some sensors. Accordingly, a procedure for a field calibration is proposed and shown to improve the system's performance. Overall, our results support the compatibility of wireless distributed sensor networks for measuring urban air pollution at a sub-neighborhood spatial resolution, which suits the requirement for highly spatiotemporal resolved measurements at the breathing-height when assessing exposure to urban air pollution.

  8. In situ exhaust cloud measurements. [particle size distribution and cloud physics of rocket exhaust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne in situ exhaust cloud measurements were conducted to obtain definitions of cloud particle size range, Cl2 content, and HCl partitioning. Particle size distribution data and Cl2 measurements were made during the May, August, and September 1977 Titan launches. The measurements of three basic effluents - HCl, NO sub X, and particles - against minutes after launch are plotted. The maximum observed HCl concentration to the maximum Cl2 concentration are compared and the ratios of the Cl2 to the HCl is calculated.

  9. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  10. Drag and distribution measurements of single-element fuel injectors for supersonic combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The drag caused by several vortex generating fuel injectors for scramjet combustors was measured in a Mach 2 to 3.5 airstream. Injector drag was found to be strongly dependent on injector thickness ratio. The distribution of helium injected into the stream was measured both in the near field and the far field of the injectors for a variety of pressure ratios. The far field results differed appreciably from measurements in the near field. Injection pressure ratio was found to profoundly influence the penetration. One of the aerowing configurations tested yielded low drag consistent with desirable penetration and spreading characteristics.

  11. Trustworthiness of measurement devices in round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (RRDPS QKD) has been proposed to raise the noise tolerability of the channel. However, in practice, the measurement device in RRDPS QKD may be imperfect. Here, we show that, with these imperfections, the security of RRDPS may be damaged by proposing two attacks for RRDPS systems with uncharacterized measurement devices. One is valid even for a system with unit total efficiency, while the other is valid even when a single-photon state is sent. To prevent these attacks, either security arguments need to be fundamentally revised or further practical assumptions on the measurement device should be put.

  12. Noninvasive Measurement of the Pressure Distribution in a Deformable Micro-Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Yakhot, Victor; Ekinci, Kamil L.

    2013-11-01

    Direct and noninvasive measurement of the pressure drop in test sections of a rigid micro-channel is a challenging task. In a micro-channel with compliant walls, however, it is possible to determine the pressure field under flow from the local deflection of the channel walls. Here, we present a robust analytical approach for determining the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel under flow. In this method, we first measure the channel deflection profile as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure; this initial measurement provides the constitutive curves for the deformable channel. We then match the deflection profile under flow to the constitutive curves, obtaining the hydrodynamic pressure distribution. We have tested and validated the developed mapping on planar micro-fluidic channels. This method remains accurate in a broad parameter space, and can find possible applications in microfluidics and for characterizing biological flows. We acknowledge generous support from the US NSF through Grant No. CMMI-0970071.

  13. A method for depth-dose distribution measurements in tissue irradiated by a proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, G.; Birattari, C.; Bartolo, D. de

    1994-12-31

    The use of protons and heavy ions for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant disease has aroused a growing interest in the last decade. The notable advantage of heavy charged particles over photons in external beam radiotherapy lies in the possibility of irradiating a small localized region within the body, keeping a low value for the entrance dose. Owing to this high disuniformity of energy deposition, an essential requirement for treatment planning is a precise evaluation of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose. The proposed method for depth-dose distribution measurements utilizes a chemical dosimeter (ferrous sulphate solution plus sulfuric acid and eventually xylenol orange) incorporated in a gelatine, whose role is the maintenance of spatial information. Ionizing radiation causes a variation in some parameters of the system such as the proton relaxation rates in the solution (measurable by NMR analysis) or the optical absorption of the gel in the visible spectrum (measurable by spectrophotometry).

  14. Strain Distribution Measurement in Stainless Steels by Convergent-Beam Electron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masakazu; Aoyama, Takashi; Nakata, Kiyotomo; Suzuki, Takaya

    1995-01-01

    A convergent-beam electron diffraction technique was utilized to measure local strain distributions in stainless steels. Electron beams were focused into {210} crystal planes and the higher order Laue zone (HOLZ) lines diffracted from {375} and {119} planes were characterized by measuring the distances between the intersections of these HOLZ lines. Four parameters, including strains in three directions and one magnification factor, were calculated based on the least squares method. Strain distributions near a chromium carbide precipitate were measured in sensitized SUS 304 and it was confirmed that parallel tensile strain and vertical compressive strain to the edge of the precipitate existed and that they decreased with the distance from the edge of precipitate.

  15. Novel technique for distributed fibre sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering measurements of birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    A novel distributed fibre sensing technique is described and experimentally validated, based on birefringence measurements using coherent Rayleigh scattering. It natively provides distributed measurements of temperature and strain with more than an order of magnitude higher sensitivity than Brillouin sensing, and requiring access to a single fibre-end. Unlike the traditional Rayleigh-based coherent optical time-domain reflectometry, this new method provides absolute measurements of the measurand and may lead to a robust discrimination between temperature and strain in combination with another technique. Since birefringence is purposely induced in the fibre by design, large degrees of freedom are offered to optimize and scale the sensitivity to a given quantity. The technique has been validated in 2 radically different types of birefringent fibres - elliptical-core and Panda polarization-maintaining fibres - with a good repeatability.

  16. A method to optimize sampling locations for measuring indoor air distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Shen, Xiong; Li, Jianmin; Li, Bingye; Duan, Ran; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Liu, Junjie; Chen, Qingyan

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air distributions, such as the distributions of air temperature, air velocity, and contaminant concentrations, are very important to occupants' health and comfort in enclosed spaces. When point data is collected for interpolation to form field distributions, the sampling locations (the locations of the point sensors) have a significant effect on time invested, labor costs and measuring accuracy on field interpolation. This investigation compared two different sampling methods: the grid method and the gradient-based method, for determining sampling locations. The two methods were applied to obtain point air parameter data in an office room and in a section of an economy-class aircraft cabin. The point data obtained was then interpolated to form field distributions by the ordinary Kriging method. Our error analysis shows that the gradient-based sampling method has 32.6% smaller error of interpolation than the grid sampling method. We acquired the function between the interpolation errors and the sampling size (the number of sampling points). According to the function, the sampling size has an optimal value and the maximum sampling size can be determined by the sensor and system errors. This study recommends the gradient-based sampling method for measuring indoor air distributions.

  17. Measurements of charge distributions of the fragments in the low energy fission reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Taofeng; Han, Hongyin; Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Liming; Zhu, Liping; Xia, Haihong

    2013-01-01

    The measurement for charge distributions of fragments in spontaneous fission 252Cf has been performed by using a unique style of detector setup consisting of a typical grid ionization chamber and a ΔΕ-Ε particle telescope, in which a thin grid ionization chamber served as the ΔΕ-section and the E-section was an Au-Si surface barrier detector. The typical physical quantities of fragments, such as mass number and kinetic energies as well as the deposition in the gas ΔΕ detector and E detector were derived from the coincident measurement data. The charge distributions of the light fragments for the fixed mass number A2* and total kinetic energy (TKE) were obtained by the least-squares fits for the response functions of the ΔΕ detector with multi-Gaussian functions representing the different elements. The results of the charge distributions for some typical fragments are shown in this article which indicates that this detection setup has the charge distribution capability of Ζ:ΔΖ>40:1. The experimental method developed in this work for determining the charge distributions of fragments is expected to be employed in the neutron induced fissions of 232Th and 238U or other low energy fission reactions.

  18. Alfvénic oscillations of the electron distribution function: Linear theory and experimental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J. W. R. Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S.

    2015-12-10

    Wave propagation can be an accurate method for determining material properties. High frequency whistler mode waves (0.7 < ω/|Ω{sub ce}| < 1) in an overdense plasma (ω{sub pe} > |Ω{sub ce}|) are damped primarily by Doppler-shifted electron cyclotron resonance. A kinetic description of whistler mode propagation parallel to the background magnetic field shows that damping is proportional to the parallel electron distribution function. This property enables an experimental determination of the parallel electron distribution function using a measurement of whistler mode wave absorption. The whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic uses this technique on UCLA’s Large Plasma Device (LaPD) to measure the distribution of high energy electrons (5 − 10v{sub te}) with 0.1% precision. The accuracy is limited by systematic effects that need to be considered carefully. Ongoing research uses this diagnostic to investigate the effect of inertial Alfvén waves on the electron distribution function. Results presented here verify experimentally the linear effects of inertial Alfvén waves on the reduced electron distribution function, a necessary step before nonlinear physics can be tested. Ongoing experiments with the whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic are making progress toward the first direct detection of electrons nonlinearly accelerated by inertial Alfvén waves, a process believed to play an important role in auroral generation.

  19. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  20. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-03: Four-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using Plastic Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M; Kozuka, T; Oguchi, M; Nishio, T; Haga, A; Hanada, T; Kabuki, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop the detector for the four-dimensional dose distribution measurement. Methods: We made the prototype detector for four-dimensional dose distribution measurement using a cylindrical plastic scintillator (5 cm diameter) and a conical reflection grass. The plastic scintillator is used as a phantom. When the plastic scintillator is irradiated, the scintillation light was emitted according to absorbed dose distribution. The conical reflection grass was arranged to surround the plastic scintillator, which project to downstream the projection images of the scintillation light. Then, the projection image was reflected to 45 degree direction by flat reflection grass, and was recorded by camcorder. By reconstructing the three-dimensional dose distribution from the projection image recorded in each frame, we could obtain the four-dimensional dose distribution. First, we tested the characteristic according to the amount of emitted light. Then we compared of the light profile and the dose profile calculated with the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results: The dose dependency of the amount of light showed linearity. The pixel detecting smaller amount of light had high sensitivity than the pixel detecting larger amount of light. However the difference of the sensitivity could be corrected from the amount of light detected in each pixel. Both of the depth light profile through the conical reflection grass and the depth dose profile showed the same attenuation in the region deeper than peak depth. In lateral direction, the difference of the both profiles was shown at outside field and penumbra region. We consider that the difference is occurred due to the scatter of the scintillation light in the plastic scintillator block. Conclusion: It was possible to obtain the amount of light corresponding to the absorbed dose distribution from the prototype detector. Four-dimensional dose distributions can be reconstructed with high accuracy by the correction of