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Sample records for 1993 astm international standards

  1. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  2. 76 FR 63658 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM..., ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May 2011 and August 2011 designated as Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is available at...

  3. 75 FR 11196 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM..., ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May, 2009, and September, 2009, designated as Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is available...

  4. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs.

  5. 76 FR 1459 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM... as Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with...

  6. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  7. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of...

  8. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of...

  9. Standards activity for contamination control at ASTM and IEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jack T.

    2014-09-01

    The paper will discuss recent work at ASTM and IEST to update existing standards and introduce new standards. Committee work on standards of interest to contamination control engineers will be discussed. IEST-STD-CC1246E was released in the last year, and changes from revision D will be highlighted. A new ASTM Standard Practice for Spacecraft Hardware Thermal Vacuum Bakeout will also be emphasized.

  10. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is available... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with...

  11. Standard test method for vinyl chloride in workplace atmospheres (charcoal tube method). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.04 on Workplace Atmospheres. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published July 1998. Originally published as D 4766-88. Last previous edition D 4766-88(1993). Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  12. Standard specification for glass fiber felt thermal insulation. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-01-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-16 on Thermal Insulation and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.23 on Blanket and Loose Fill Insulation. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1996. Published January 1997. Originally published as C 1086-87. Last previous edition was C 1086-90a.

  13. Standard classification of coals by rank. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This classification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-5 on Coal and Coke and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D05.18 on Classification of Coals. The current edition was approved on Sep. 10, 1998. It was published in November 1998. It was originally published as D 388-34T. The last previous edition D 388-98.

  14. Standard specification for nuclear grade hafnium oxide pellets. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.03 on Neutron Absorber Materials Specifications. Current edition approved May 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as C 1076-87. Last previous edition C 1076-92.

  15. Interpreting the ASTM 'content standard for digital geospatial metadata'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nebert, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM and the Federal Geographic Data Committee have developed a content standard for spatial metadata to facilitate documentation, discovery, and retrieval of digital spatial data using vendor-independent terminology. Spatial metadata elements are identifiable quality and content characteristics of a data set that can be tied to a geographic location or area. Several Office of Management and Budget Circulars and initiatives have been issued that specify improved cataloguing of and accessibility to federal data holdings. An Executive Order further requires the use of the metadata content standard to document digital spatial data sets. Collection and reporting of spatial metadata for field investigations performed for the federal government is an anticipated requirement. This paper provides an overview of the draft spatial metadata content standard and a description of how the standard could be applied to investigations collecting spatially-referenced field data.

  16. Mobile robot and mobile manipulator research towards ASTM standards development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Legowik, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Performance standards for industrial mobile robots and mobile manipulators (robot arms onboard mobile robots) have only recently begun development. Low cost and standardized measurement techniques are needed to characterize system performance, compare different systems, and to determine if recalibration is required. This paper discusses work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and within the ASTM Committee F45 on Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles. This includes standards for both terminology, F45.91, and for navigation performance test methods, F45.02. The paper defines terms that are being considered. Additionally, the paper describes navigation test methods that are near ballot and docking test methods being designed for consideration within F45.02. This includes the use of low cost artifacts that can provide alternatives to using relatively expensive measurement systems.

  17. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. Copies may also be...

  18. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. Copies may also be...

  19. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. Copies may also be...

  20. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. Copies may also be...

  1. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. Copies may also be...

  2. Development of ASTM standards in support of advanced ceramics -- continuing efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.

    1998-02-01

    An update is presented of the activities of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee C-28 on Advanced Ceramics. Since its inception in 1986, this committee, which has five standard producing subcommittees, has written and published over 32 consensus standards. These standards are concerned with mechanical testing of monolithic and composite ceramics, nondestructive examination, statistical analysis and design, powder characterization, quantitative microscopy, fractography, and terminology. These standards ensure optimum material behavior with physical and mechanical property reproducibility, component reliability, and well-defined methods of data treatment and material analysis for both monolithic and composite materials. Committee C-28 continues to sponsor technical symposia and to cooperate in the development of international standards. An update of recent and current activities as well as possible new areas of standardization work will be presented.

  3. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... can be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken,...

  4. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... can be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken,...

  5. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... can be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken,...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... can be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken,...

  7. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... can be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken,...

  8. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    SciTech Connect

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  9. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  10. New ASTM Standards for Nondestructive Testing of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Lack of consensus standards containing procedural detail for NDE of polymer matrix composite materials: I. Flat panel composites. II. Composite components with more complex geometries a) Pressure vessels: 1) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). 2) composite pressure vessels (CPVs). III. Sandwich core constructions. Metal and brittle matrix composites are a possible subject of future effort.

  11. Standard guide for conducting static toxicity tests with Lemna gibba G3. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1991-06-01

    This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E47.01 on Aquatic Toxicology. Current edition approved Apr. 15, 1991. Published June 1991. Reapproved 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  12. Standard guide for acute toxicity test with the rotifer Brachionus. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1991-06-01

    This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E47.01 on Aquatic Toxicology. Current edition approved Sep. 15, 1991. Published November 1991. Reapproved 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  13. CCR+: Metadata Based Extended Personal Health Record Data Model Interoperable with the ASTM CCR Standard

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Jang, Tae Hun; Seo, Hwa Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Extension of the standard model while retaining compliance with it is a challenging issue because there is currently no method for semantically or syntactically verifying an extended data model. A metadata-based extended model, named CCR+, was designed and implemented to achieve interoperability between standard and extended models. Methods Furthermore, a multilayered validation method was devised to validate the standard and extended models. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Community Care Record (CCR) standard was selected to evaluate the CCR+ model; two CCR and one CCR+ XML files were evaluated. Results In total, 188 metadata were extracted from the ASTM CCR standard; these metadata are semantically interconnected and registered in the metadata registry. An extended-data-model-specific validation file was generated from these metadata. This file can be used in a smartphone application (Health Avatar CCR+) as a part of a multilayered validation. The new CCR+ model was successfully evaluated via a patient-centric exchange scenario involving multiple hospitals, with the results supporting both syntactic and semantic interoperability between the standard CCR and extended, CCR+, model. Conclusions A feasible method for delivering an extended model that complies with the standard model is presented herein. There is a great need to extend static standard models such as the ASTM CCR in various domains: the methods presented here represent an important reference for achieving interoperability between standard and extended models. PMID:24627817

  14. 77 FR 50113 - ASTM International-Food and Drug Administration Workshop on Absorbable Medical Devices: Lessons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Absorbable Medical Devices: Lessons Learned From Correlations of Bench Testing and Clinical Performance... ``ASTM International-FDA Workshop on Absorbable Medical Devices: Lessons Learned From Correlations of... interested in attending this public workshop must register online by November 13, 2012. Early registration...

  15. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.; Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  16. 76 FR 2056 - Incorporation of Revised ASTM Standards That Provide Flexibility in the Use of Alternatives to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... in high temperature applications, such as the use of thermometers in autoclaves, traditionally... Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke Using High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion Methods; ASTM D4294-98... Spectrometry; ASTM D1552-01, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature...

  17. International energy annual, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  18. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on March 7, 2011 (76 FR 12370). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993;...

  19. Standard specification for fibrous glass duct lining insulation (thermal and sound absorbing material). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-16 on Thermal Insulation and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.23 on Blanket and Loose Fill Insulation. Current edition approved Jan. 10, 1998 and published June 1998. It was originally published as C 1071-86. The last previous edition was C 1071-91.

  20. Impact of ASTM Standard E722 update on radiation damage metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, Kendall Russell

    2014-06-01

    The impact of recent changes to the ASTM Standard E722 is investigated. The methodological changes in the production of the displacement kerma factors for silicon has significant impact for some energy regions of the 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence response function. When evaluating the integral over all neutrons energies in various spectra important to the SNL electronics testing community, the change in the response results in an increase in the total 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence of 2 7%. Response functions have been produced and are available for users of both the NuGET and MCNP codes.

  1. ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

    2003-02-27

    Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information

  2. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  3. Annual book of ASTM standards. Part 17. Refractories, glass, and other ceramic materials; manufactured carbon and graphite products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The standards are assembled in each part in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designation numbers. Each part has two tables of contents: a list of the standards in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designations; and a list of the standards classified according to subject. A subject index of the standards and tentatives in each part appears at the back of each volume. This part contains standards concerning refractories; glass and glass products; ceramic whitewares; porcelain enamel and related ceramic-metal systems; ceramics for electronics; manufactured carbon and graphite products; and general methods of testing.

  4. Effect of crack curvature on stress intensity factors for ASTM standard compact tension specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alam, J.; Mendelson, A.

    1983-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (SIF) are calculated using the method of lines for the compact tension specimen in tensile and shear loading for curved crack fronts. For the purely elastic case, it was found that as the crack front curvature increases, the SIF value at the center of the specimen decreases while increasing at the surface. For the higher values of crack front curvatures, the maximum value of the SIF occurs at an interior point located adjacent to the surface. A thickness average SIF was computed for parabolically applied shear loading. These results were used to assess the requirements of ASTM standards E399-71 and E399-81 on the shape of crack fronts. The SIF is assumed to reflect the average stress environment near the crack edge.

  5. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Acceptance of standard. SUMMARY: The Consumer...

  6. International organization for standardization (ISO) 9000 and chemical agent standard analytical reference material (SASARM) quality system development and implementation. Phase 1. Final report, April 1993-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is in the process of developing an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 quality assurance (QA) system and a Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material (CASARM) QA program. Phase I of this process consisted of analyzing the current DPG QA system, defining the structure of the new QA system, determine how the ISO 9000 and the CASARM systems will interact, develop the new QA system and implementation plan, and develop the CASARM program and begin implementation. The initial phases of the system design and synthesis met the objectives established for Phase I of this methodology project. Phase II will complete the functional analysis, system design, and prototype implementation. The prototype will be analyzed for weaknesses in operation, personnel and equipment requirements, software, and cost effectiveness. The system will be modified, if needed, and implemented across the Materiel Test Directorate. The final stage of this methodology will be to achieve ISO 9000 registration. International Organization for Standardization(ISO) 9000, Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material(CASARM), Standardized Quality Assurance(QA), QA/Quality Control(QC).

  7. Manual sampling of coal from tops of railroad cars. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-5 on Coal and Coke and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D05.23 on Coal Sampling. The current edition was approved July 24, 1989 and published in August 1989.

  8. Considerations on the ASTM standards 1789-04 and 1422-05 on the forensic examination of ink.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    The ASTM standards on Writing Ink Identification (ASTM 1789-04) and on Writing Ink Comparison (ASTM 1422-05) are the most up-to-date guidelines that have been published on the forensic analysis of ink. The aim of these documents is to cover most aspects of the forensic analysis of ink evidence, from the analysis of ink samples, the comparison of the analytical profile of these samples (with the aim to differentiate them or not), through to the interpretation of the result of the examination of these samples in a forensic context. Significant evolutions in the technology available to forensic scientists, in the quality assurance requirements brought onto them, and in the understanding of frameworks to interpret forensic evidence have been made in recent years. This article reviews the two standards in the light of these evolutions and proposes some practical improvements in terms of the standardization of the analyses, the comparison of ink samples, and the interpretation of ink examination. Some of these suggestions have already been included in a DHS funded project aimed at creating a digital ink library for the United States Secret Service. PMID:20487143

  9. Development of ASTM Standard for SiC-SiC Joint Testing Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, George; Back, Christina

    2015-10-30

    As the nuclear industry moves to advanced ceramic based materials for cladding and core structural materials for a variety of advanced reactors, new standards and test methods are required for material development and licensing purposes. For example, General Atomics (GA) is actively developing silicon carbide (SiC) based composite cladding (SiC-SiC) for its Energy Multiplier Module (EM2), a high efficiency gas cooled fast reactor. Through DOE funding via the advanced reactor concept program, GA developed a new test method for the nominal joint strength of an endplug sealed to advanced ceramic tubes, Fig. 1-1, at ambient and elevated temperatures called the endplug pushout (EPPO) test. This test utilizes widely available universal mechanical testers coupled with clam shell heaters, and specimen size is relatively small, making it a viable post irradiation test method. The culmination of this effort was a draft of an ASTM test standard that will be submitted for approval to the ASTM C28 ceramic committee. Once the standard has been vetted by the ceramics test community, an industry wide standard methodology to test joined tubular ceramic components will be available for the entire nuclear materials community.

  10. 1989 annual book of ASTM standards. Section 5: Petroleum products, lubricants and fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume of standards pertains to petroleum products and lubricants and to catalysts. The standards presented include: Standard test method for estimation of net and gross heat of combustion of petroleum fuels; Standard guide for generation and dissipation of static electricity in petroleum fuel systems; and Standard test method for solidification point of petroleum wax.

  11. The history and development of FETAX (ASTM standard guide, E-1439 on conducting the frog embryo teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumont, J.N.; Bantle, J.A.; Linder, G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The energy crisis of the 1970's and 1980's prompted the search for alternative sources of fuel. With development of alternate sources of energy, concerns for biological resources potentially adversely impacted by these alternative technologies also heightened. For example, few biological tests were available at the time to study toxic effects of effluents on surface waters likely to serve as receiving streams for energy-production facilities; hence, we began to use Xenopus laevis embryos as test organisms to examine potential toxic effects associated with these effluents upon entering aquatic systems. As studies focused on potential adverse effects on aquatic systems continued, a test procedure was developed that led to the initial standardization of FETAX. Other .than a limited number of aquatic toxicity tests that used fathead minnows and cold-water fishes such as rainbow trout, X. laevis represented the only other aquatic vertebrate test system readily available to evaluate complex effluents. With numerous laboratories collaborating, the test with X. laevis was refined, improved, and developed as ASTM E-1439, Standard Guide for the Conducting Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Collabrative work in the 1990s yielded procedural enhancements, for example, development of standard test solutions and exposure methods to handle volatile organics and hydrophobic compounds. As part of the ASTM process, a collaborative interlaboratory study was performed to determine the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Parallel to these efforts, methods were also developed to test sediments and soils, and in situ test methods were developed to address "lab-to-field extrapolation errors" that could influence the method's use in ecological risk assessments. Additionally, a metabolic activation system composed of rat liver microsomes was developed which made FETAX more relevant to mammalian studies.

  12. ASTM F1717 standard for the preclinical evaluation of posterior spinal fixators: can we improve it?

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Luigi; Galbusera, Fabio; Villa, Tomaso; Costa, Francesco; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Preclinical evaluation of spinal implants is a necessary step to ensure their reliability and safety before implantation. The American Society for Testing and Materials reapproved F1717 standard for the assessment of mechanical properties of posterior spinal fixators, which simulates a vertebrectomy model and recommends mimicking vertebral bodies using polyethylene blocks. This set-up should represent the clinical use, but available data in the literature are few. Anatomical parameters depending on the spinal level were compared to published data or measurements on biplanar stereoradiography on 13 patients. Other mechanical variables, describing implant design were considered, and all parameters were investigated using a numerical parametric finite element model. Stress values were calculated by considering either the combination of the average values for each parameter or their worst-case combination depending on the spinal level. The standard set-up represents quite well the anatomy of an instrumented average thoracolumbar segment. The stress on the pedicular screw is significantly influenced by the lever arm of the applied load, the unsupported screw length, the position of the centre of rotation of the functional spine unit and the pedicular inclination with respect to the sagittal plane. The worst-case combination of parameters demonstrates that devices implanted below T5 could potentially undergo higher stresses than those described in the standard suggestions (maximum increase of 22.2% at L1). We propose to revise F1717 in order to describe the anatomical worst case condition we found at L1 level: this will guarantee higher safety of the implant for a wider population of patients. PMID:25319550

  13. Proceedings: Third International Zebra Mussel Conference, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Mussalli, Y.G.

    1993-06-01

    This Third International Conference on Zebra Mussels was held on February 23--26, 1993 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Conference was sponsored by American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Electric Power Research Institute, Environment Canada - Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Seal Grant Network, Ontario Hydro, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. There were 105 papers presented in 16 sessions over 4 days, typically with 2 sessions running concurrently. These sessions were devoted to the following general topics: General Information, Biological and Ecological Considerations, Chemical Treatments, and Non-Chemical Treatments. A panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted on the second day, two concurrent special meetings (Workshop on Application of Electric Power Technology for Biofouling and Research Protocol Panel Meeting) were held on the third day, and a poster session containing 56 poster papers was held on the fourth day. Approximately 700 people attended this conference. This report contains selected technical papers from the formal presentations and the poster session. Of these 49 selected papers, there are 9 papers related to general information, 8 papers related to biological and ecological considerations, 20 papers related to chemical treatments, and 12 papers related to nonchemical treatments. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. Standard test method for airborne asbestos concentration in ambient and indoor atmospheres as determined by transmission electron microscopy direct transfer (TEM). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.07 on Asbestos. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998. Published October 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  15. Occupational Standards: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao, Ed.

    These nine papers from a conference of the International Research Network for Training and Development focus on occupational classification, standards, and certification. "Introduction" (Joao Oliveria) presents synopses with highlights from the papers. Part I offers an overview of recent developments in the United States in "Occupational Standards…

  16. Primary Standards Laboratory report 1st half 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, W.G.T.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1993 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  17. 1993 DOE technical standards managers workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This workshop is focused on the benefits of the DOE technical standards program, which is focused toward the preferred use of non-Government standards for DOE activities and the development of DOE technical standards when non-Government standards are not available or are inappropriate. One goal of the program is to replace redundant site-specific standards with more universally accepted documents that have been scrutinized by experts. This replacement is discussed at the workshop along with the problems encountered and solutions found. The workshop provided an opportunity for geographically dispersed people to meet and advance their standards knowledge and efforts to support the program. Safety issues have been the driving force behind the program to date. Several companies offer products and services that support the development, processing, and retrieval of standards. This document mostly comprise vugraphs.

  18. PROPOSED ASTM METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS IN AIR BY TEM AND INFORMATION ON INTERFERING FIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft of the ASTM Test Method for air entitled: "Airborne Asbestos Concentration in Ambient and Indoor Atmospheres as Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy Direct Transfer (TEM)" (ASTM Z7077Z) is an adaptation of the International Standard, ISO 10312. It is currently...

  19. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  20. International Technology Exchange Division: 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) was established to ensure that reliable and acceptable technologies are available for implementation at DOE sites and that a technically trained work force is available to complete the EM mission by 2019. OTD established the International Technology Exchange Staff (ITES) to identify, evaluate, and acquire international technologies which can accelerate US DOE cleanup operations. ITES`s goal is to pursue international collaboration among government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify world-wide needs and available technologies that will meet US environmental needs in general, and EM cleanup needs in particular; and establish mechanisms by which US government ER/WM technologies will be transferred to the US private sector for commercialization and export to international markets. ITES has developed the following strategic objectives to implement its international goals: develop and implement EM`s policy for international programs in accordance with DOE and US Government policies and regulations; establish efficient and predictable international technology transfer mechanisms; assist the US private sector in the commercialization and deployment of federally funded EM technologies and related knowledge in international markets; leverage US and non-US resources to accelerate international development and regulatory acceptance of EM technologies; contribute to the improvement of EM`s training of US students, scientists, and managers on international environmental issues. A summary and descriptions of program activities and accomplishments are given for 17 programs which comprise the four main areas of the ITES program: Activities with the Former Soviet Union, International Technology Transfer, International Cooperation, and Information Systems and Publications. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. International petroleum statistics report, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992. Data for the United States are developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Office of Oil and Gas. Data for other countries are derived largely from published sources including International Energy Agency publications, the EIA International Energy Annual, and the trade press. (See sources after each section). All data are reviewed by the International Statistics Branch of EIA. All data have been converted to units of measurement familiar to the American public. Definitions of oil production and consumption are consistent with other EIA publications.

  2. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  3. Primary Standards Laboratory report, 2nd half 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) operates a system-wide primary standards and calibration program for the US Department of Energy, Albuquerque Field Office (DOE/AL). The PSL mission is as follows: to develop and maintain primary standards; to calibrate electrical, physical, and radiation reference standards for customer laboratories (DOE/AL nuclear weapon contractors); to conduct the technical surveys and measurement audits of these laboratories; and to recommend and implement system-wide improvements. This report summarizes activities of the PSL for the second half of 1993 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL Standards and Calibration Program. Specific areas covered include development projects, improvement projects, calibration and special measurements, surveys and audits, customer service, and significant events. Appendixes include certifications and reports;; a discussion about commercial calibration laboratories; PSL memoranda (PSLM); test numbers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), formerly the National Bureau of Standards (NBS); and DOE/PSL memoranda on the Standards and Calibration Program with emphasis on traceability of PSL calibrations.

  4. 77 FR 1085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... Act on October 13, 2011 (76 FR 63658). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  5. 75 FR 65657 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... June 1, 2010 (75 FR 30440). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  6. 75 FR 30440 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11196). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  7. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies.

  8. Development of an ASTM standard glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT), for high level radioactive waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-06-01

    The nation`s first, and the world`s largest, facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste in durable borosilicate glass has started operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The product specifications on the glass wasteform produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) required extensive characterization of the glass product before actual production began and for continued characterization during production. To aid in this characterization, a glass durability (leach) test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90 {plus_minus} 2{degree}C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples.

  9. International standardization of mechanical contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mellstam, S

    1983-06-01

    At least 12 countries have regulations for condoms, and because of the complicated regulations relating to condoms the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was asked to create a committee for contraceptives. Its objective is to promote the development of standards throughout the world to help the international exchange of goods and services. Following discussions between the World Health Organization (WHO) and ISO it was decided in 1974 to establish a technical ISO committee that would deal with international standards for mechanical contraceptives, comprising condoms, diaphragms, and IUDs. It was also decided that spermicides and oral contraceptives (OCs) should be excluded from the ISO effort, but that they should fall within the responsibility of WHO. The committee, entitled ISO/TC 157 Mechanical Contraceptives, was represented by 35 member countries in 1982. The object of standardizing condoms is to obtain a satisfactory quality that can be accepted throughout the world. To achieve that purpose, acceptable test methods and associated limit requirements and values must be determined, along with rules for storage, packaging, and labeling. The most important factors in determining condom quality are the need to reach agreement on an acceptable number of holes in the condom and the ability to establish limit values for the mechanical properties of the condom. Specific requirements regarding dimensions, resistance to storage, packaging, labeling, and appropriate storage are also important. Up to 1982 the work of ISO for condoms resulted in 8 published international standards, of which 6 deal with test methods, 1 with packaging and labeling, and 1 with storage. Agreement has also been reached within the ISO committee on an additional 3 draft standards. Due to the comparatively small use of diaphragms, standardization efforts in this area do not have the highest priority. ISO/TC 157 has formulated 10 drafts which are being prepared for distribution to

  10. 1993 IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) annual report.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-07-01

    Contents: I. General information. 1. Organization of the International Earth Rotation Service. 2. The rotation of the Earth and related space-time references. II. Central Bureau results. 1. Global analysis up to 1993. 2. Implementation of the IERS Celestial Reference Frame. 3. Implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame. 4. Evaluation of the Earth Orientation Parameters. III. Sub-bureaux reports. 1. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions. 2. Sub-Bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum. IV. Coordinating centres reports. 1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 2. Global Positioning System (GPS). 3. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). V. IERS Earth Rotation and Reference Frames Data Bank. 1. Central Bureau. 2. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions.

  11. Evaluating thin film fluid lubricants in a drain and dry mode using a pin and vee block test machine. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-2 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D02.L0.05 on Solid Lubricants. The current edition was approved Oct. 15, 1994 and published December 1994.

  12. DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

  13. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  14. The 1993 cell typings of the International Cell Exchange.

    PubMed

    Lau, M; Terasaki, P I; Park, M S

    1993-01-01

    1. This is a summary of the typings for 40 cells for Class I antigens and 20 cultured cell lines for Class II antigens through the International Cell Exchange. Serological typings were compared with DNA typing reports for Class II specificities. Presently, 283 laboratories participate in the monthly Class I exchange. Class II results were received from 124 serology labs and 81 DNA labs on a monthly basis. 2. In 1993, 12 A-locus antigens were typed and 8 specificities reached levels of 95% or greater average detection. Thirteen of the 33 B-locus antigens showed 95% or better mean agreement levels. There was an improvement in detection of B76 and B7801. 3. Discrepancy rates of 7 A-locus and 9 B-locus antigens typed 3 or more times were compared with the overall rates for each respective locus. The discrepancy rate of false negatives, ie, how often the antigen was missed for the recognized B-locus specificities, continued to be greater than those for the A-locus antigens. The discrepancy rates, especially the percent false-positive, decreased for A33 during the recent 6-year period. 4. We showed the number of labs with their total of false-negatives and false-positives. Twelve labs attained a final total of no misses for all antigens. In 1993, 11 labs achieved impressive perfect records (zero false negative and false positive) for all analyzed antigens. 5. Retyping results of 2 donors showed improved antigen detection, particularly of A2403, B70, and B76. 6. Eleven cells typed in previous cell exchanges as having new or rare variants were sequenced recently. The B*5102 and B*5901 cells were retyped as reference cells. A new A-locus variant detected in previous exchanges was recently confirmed by sequence work as A*8001. New variants of B5 and B22 were discussed. 7. In addition to the mean detection rates, the low and high levels were determined for 15 broad (11 DR & 4 DQ) specificities by serology and compared with those attained for the respective generic (low

  15. The Second International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin*

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, D. R.; Woodward, Patricia M.

    1966-01-01

    In 1961 the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization asked the National Institute for Medical Research, London, to collect and study material to replace the first International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin, stocks of which were running low. This paper describes the material that was contributed, its distribution into ampoules and the international collaborative assay to compare its biological activity with that of the first International Standard. On the basis of the results obtained the material has been established as the second International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin, with a potency of 1600 International Units per ampoule. The International Unit for Serum Gonadotrophin is thus defined as the activity contained in 0.003569 mg of the second International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin. PMID:5297810

  16. Reflections on International Bibliographic Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, W.

    This paper raises questions about many bibliographic standards developed over the past 20 years, and challenges librarians to consider how standards might evolve. A brief overview is given of the aims of Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC) and to some assumptions common to much standardization work in recent years inspired by the concept of UBC.…

  17. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  18. International Lessons about National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Houang, Richard; Shakrani, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Whether to adopt national standards and tests has long been a subject of lively debate in the United States. With 47 states now participating in the Common Core State Standards Initiative, and a commitment from Education Secretary Arne Duncan to allocate hundreds of millions in stimulus funds to the development of common tests, the country is…

  19. Upgrading UNLV's ASTM E477 test facility to meet the current requirements of ASTM E477

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojas, Ronn Reinier

    A by-product of Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is noise that is produced by fans, compressors, and other related equipments and the noises from the turbulence that is created by moving air. Sometimes, it is impractical to modify the sources of the noise, which requires designers to modify the path of the noise, the duct system. These modifications might include installing an in-duct silencer or acoustical lining on the inside walls of the ducts. The testing and the precise quantification of the performance of these silencers and duct linings are necessary for any designer to be able to make the correct modifications to the ventilation system. The ASTM E477 code calls for strict standardization of the testing of such noise attenuation devices. The ASTM E477 test facility used by the Center for Mechanical & Environmental Systems Technology (CMEST) at UNLV was first constructed in 1991 and required upgrades to meet the newer revisions of the ASTM code. This study includes making modifications to the facility (1) to increase sound input, (2) reduce sound leakage, and (3) to integrate the measurement systems. These upgrades will bring the facility into compliance with the current version of the ASTM E477 test standard.

  20. The Second International Standard for Bacitracin

    PubMed Central

    Lightbown, J. W.; Kogut, M.; Uemura, K.

    1964-01-01

    The National Institute for Medical Research, London, was requested by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to establish a second International Standard for Bacitracin since stocks of the first International Standard were running low. A batch of 500 g of zinc bacitracin was obtained in 1962 and was distributed into ampoules in 100-mg amounts and dried in vacuum; the ampoules were then filled with dry nitrogen and sealed. This proposed replacement material has been assayed biologically in terms of the first International Standard in seven laboratories in five countries by means of plate diffusion assays. In spite of a large difference in purity between the first and proposed second standards, the variation in the potencies obtained for the proposed second standard were small, although significant. This material has been established as the second International Standard for Bacitracin with a defined potency of 74 mg. The International Unit of Bacitracin is defined as the activity of 0.01351 mg of the second International Standard for Bacitracin. PMID:14230883

  1. Annual book of ASTM Standards 2005. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The standard part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrographic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

  2. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... their comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rules published June 1, 2012, at 77 FR 32444 and 77 FR 32465, is extended. Comments on the proposed rules must be received on or before August 15... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards...

  3. International Standard Classification of Education. Abridged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) has been designed as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling, and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally. The classification is designed for assembling data on current educational phenomena such as enrollment, teaching staff and…

  4. Annual book of ASTM Standards 2008. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-15

    The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The second part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrogrpahic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

  5. Internal wave variability in the Beaufort Sea during the winter of 1993/1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halle, Chris; Pinkel, Robert

    2003-07-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler observations were obtained at the Sea Ice Mechanics Initiative Ice Camp as it drifted through the Beaufort Sea over the winter of 1993-1994. In this paper, the variability of the internal wave field is examined. Initially (December 1993-January 1994), the camp drifted westward through the central Canada Basin (75°N, 139°-153°W). Numerous anticyclonic baroclinic eddies were encountered. Internal wave energy levels averaged 1/25 of the Garrett-Munk (GM) standard. Shear variance averaged 1/17 GM. During February-March 1994, the camp drifted meridionally along 156°W (near the Northwind Ridge), reversing direction several times. Large baroclinic vortices were not detected. Internal wave energy levels were significantly greater during this period, peaking at 1/6 GM. Shear variance peaked at 1/3 GM. The waves were predominantly near inertial, resulting from three distinct surface generation events. Downward vertical energy fluxes ranged from typical values of 0.02 mW/m2 to a peak value of 0.15 mW/m2. Two thirds of the downward flux was associated with waves of vertical scale greater than 55 m; the remainder with smaller-scale waves. Upward energy fluxes ranged from 0.02 mW/m2 (typical) to 0.10 mW/m2 (peak), supported almost entirely by the larger-scale waves. High ice-water relative velocities (atmospheric storms), accompanied by ice deformation, appear to be necessary, but not sufficient, to assure a downward propagating wave generation event. The highly variable mesoscale has a significant effect on the near-inertial wave field propagation. The data suggest that the vertical propagation of near-inertial waves is strongly affected by the depth variation of the vertical component of mesoscale vorticity. The large Beaufort Sea vortices appear to have a dual effect on the wave field. Enhanced vertical propagation speed (and decreased energy density) is found in the negative vorticity cores. Propagation into the positive vorticity

  6. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR... technology and has substantively amended them numerous times, most recently on September 21, 2012. 77 FR... surveillance standards to Part 543 on February 20, 2013 (78 FR 11793). The Commission received...

  7. CERT tribal internship program. Final intern report: David Conrad, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The intern`s report contains a Master`s thesis entitled, ``An implementation analysis of the US Department of Energy`s American Indian policy as part of its environmental restoration and waste management mission.`` This thesis examines the implementation of a working relationship between the Nez Perce Tribe and the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management at the Hanford reservation. It examines the relationship using a qualitative methodology and three generations of policy analysis literature to gain a clear understanding of the potential for successful implementation.

  8. Working towards compliance with international standards.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2004-04-01

    Developing countries are increasingly coming under pressure to improve their delivery of veterinary services as a prerequisite for entering the competitive arena of international trade in animals and animal products. The demands placed on developing countries by predominantly developed countries to comply with international disease prevention standards have also resulted in increasing demands on the financial, human and technological resources of these developing countries. The minimum requirements of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard-setting organisations, such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health), are evaluated in terms of the opportunities embedded within these guidelines for developing countries. Such an evaluation indicates that the rights and obligations contained in these standards, guidelines and recommendations do not necessarily protect only the interests of developed countries but also encourage developing countries to work towards the levels of compliance and disease prevention required by their potential trade partners. The costs of this compliance can be reduced by exploiting more cost-effective alternatives for delivering services, when dictated by budgetary constraints. International organisations have illustrated on many occasions, and through a variety of development programmes, that they do indeed realise their responsibility towards developing countries in the areas of increased capacity building and technical assistance. If international organisations can refocus their interventions on the actual and specific needs of developing countries, then they can help to expedite the process of compliance with international standards. PMID:15200089

  9. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  10. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards. PMID:21809769

  11. Second International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS-1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael; Money, John M.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of this second biannual international meeting was to provide a congenial forum for the exchange of information and new ideas for researchers from university, industry and government laboratories in the field of semiconductor devices and device physics. To this end, we have an unusually short period between the submission of papers and the conference, a speedy publication of the proceedings, poster sessions, panel discussions, and a wide dissemination of the conference proceedings. Our other goal is to make this conference truly international. To achieve this, the symposium has sub-committees in Asia, Europe and the former Soviet Union. This conference is organized in cooperation with the IEEE MTT Society, the European Physical Society, the United States National Committee of URSI and the Russian Physical Society. Generous financial support has been provided by the Army Research Office, the Office of Naval Research, the NASA Ames Research Center and the Soros International Science Foundation. Papers cover a broad range of topics, including novel and ultrasmall devices, photonics and optoelectronics, heterostructure and cryogenic devices, wide band gap semiconductors, thin film transistors, MOSFET technology and devices, carrier transport phenomena, materials and device characterization, simulation and modeling. It is hoped that such a broad range of topics will foster a cross-fertilization of the different fields related to semiconductor materials and devices.

  12. International standards for brucellosis prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Ragan, V; Vroegindewey, G; Babcock, S

    2013-04-01

    International standards are a crucial element in brucellosis prevention and management. They allow policy-makers, scientists, epidemiologists, laboratories and trade entities to have a common vocabulary for communication and understanding of the disease. These standards cover the entire spectrum of activities from surveillance, testing, prophylaxis, transport and trade to policy development, research and reporting. Developing, adhering to and monitoring standards increases both the effectiveness and efficiency of prevention and management programmes. Creating standards with the input of all stakeholders ensures that the standards do not adversely affect the requirements of any of the multiple parties involved. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in conjunction with its Member Countries, and through its standing and ad hoc committees plus expert input, has taken a key leadership role in developing and reviewing brucellosis standards. These standards are used to harmonise testing, prevention processes, vaccines and reporting, to support trade and to protect human and animal health. PMID:23837376

  13. Proceedings of the Third International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1993)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Robert (Compiler); Rigley, Jack (Compiler); Cassingham, Randy (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Satellite-based mobile communications systems provide voice and data communications to users over a vast geographic area. The users may communicate via mobile or hand-held terminals, which may also provide access to terrestrial cellular communications services. While the first and second International Mobile Satellite Conferences (IMSC) mostly concentrated on technical advances, this Third IMSC also focuses on the increasing worldwide commercial activities in Mobile Satellite Services. Because of the large service areas provided by such systems, it is important to consider political and regulatory issues in addition to technical and user requirements issues. Topics covered include: the direct broadcast of audio programming from satellites; spacecraft technology; regulatory and policy considerations; advanced system concepts and analysis; propagation; and user requirements and applications.

  14. Why Should Workers Know More about International Labour Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Zdenek

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness and importance of international labor standards for workers; workers' participation in the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) standard-setting activities and in the implementation of international labor standards; and the ILO's procedures of supervision. (CT)

  15. 76 FR 78614 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... International Trade Administration Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan... welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea (Korea) and Taiwan would likely lead to.... See Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of...

  16. International Labour Standards. A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Concerned with the standard-setting work of the International Labor Organization (ILO), this manual is chiefly intended to provide guidance for worker's education instructors and trade union officials. It contains nine chapters: (1) the ILO origins and history are traced and the structure is explained; (2 & 3) procedures for the origination and…

  17. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations..., 2002 (67 FR 43390), August 12, 2005 (70 FR 47108), and October 10, 2008 (73 FR 60498). In addition to... regulations, and the process NIGC should utilize to make revisions. 75 FR 70680 (Nov. 18, 2010). On April...

  18. An international computer protocol standard is essential

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the need for the development of an international communication protocol to avoid building or buying customized interfaces or gateways in order to connect two separate vendor's devices to the same computer. The article discuss the need for standards and details one electric cooperative's experience in converting their automated mapping and facilities management system to EPRI sponsored Utility Communications Architecture.

  19. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations... equivalently secure area with comparable controls. (3) Access to the count room during the count must be...) Controlled keys. Controls must be established and procedures implemented to safeguard the use, access,...

  20. Report of the first international workshop on human chromosome 14 mapping 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    The first International Workshop on Human Chromosome 14 mapping was held at Novotel in Toronto, Canada on June 9-12, 1993. There were 23 participants from nine countries. The goals of the workshop were to compile physical maps and a consensus linkage map, to consolidate available data on disease loci, to catalogue and facilitate distribution of resources and to encourage new collaborations and data sharing.

  1. 78 FR 19529 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...--International Kitchen Exhaust Cleaning Association Notice is hereby given that, on March 8, 2013, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), International Kitchen Exhaust Cleaning Association ] (``IKECA'') has filed written... activities are to develop national standards for cleaning, inspection, and maintenance of commercial...

  2. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  3. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-01

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  4. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as "Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle" create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

  5. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  6. Directions in General Relativity, Proceedings of the 1993 International Symposium, Maryland: Papers in Honor of Charles Misner.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Ryan, M. P., Jr.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    1993-07-01

    These two volumes are the proceedings of a major International Symposium on General Relativity held at the University of Maryland May 27-29, 1993 to celebrate the sixtieth birthdays of Professor Charles Misner and Professor Dieter Brill. The volumes cover classical general relativity, quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, canonical formulation and the initial value problem, topology and geometry of spacetime and fields, mathematical and physical cosmology, and black hole physics and astrophysics. As invited articles, the papers in these volumes have an aim that goes beyond that of a standard conference proceedings. Not only do the authors discuss the most recent research results in their fields, but many also provide historical perspectives on how their subjects developed and offer individual insights in their search for new directions.

  7. Directions in General Relativity, Proceedings of the 1993 International Symposium, Maryland: Papers in Honor of Dieter Brill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Jacobson, T. A.

    1993-07-01

    These two volumes are the proceedings of a major International Symposium on General Relativity held at the University of Maryland May 27-29, 1993 to celebrate the sixtieth birthdays of Professor Charles Misner and Professor Dieter Brill. The volumes cover classical general relativity, quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, canonical formulation and the initial value problem, topology and geometry of spacetime and fields, mathematical and physical cosmology, and black hole physics and astrophysics. As invited articles, the papers in these volumes have an aim that goes beyond that of a standard conference proceedings. Not only do the authors discuss the most recent research results in their fields, but many also provide historical perspectives on how their subjects developed and offer individual insights in their search for new directions.

  8. International Standard Reagents for HPV Detection

    PubMed Central

    Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2007-01-01

    Humam papillomavirus is the commonest genital viral infection in healthy sexually active subjects, and the presence of chronic or persistent HPV types in genital cells may constitute a prognostic marker of underlying, or predict future HPV-associated diseases. A variety of novel tests for detecting the presence of oncogenic HPV types in biological specimens have been reported. These are based on the various stages of infection and viral life cycle. HPV infects squamous epithelium with expression of various gene products intimately linked to epithelial cell differentiation. Hence, there are basically three classes of detectable markers directly derived from HPVs: molecular markers based on detection of nucleic acid sequences, serological markers based on detection of antibodies against viral proteins, and cellular markers based on detection of proteins expressed intracellularly, upon either infection or carcinogenesis. The nature of various assays and the development of international standard reagents for qualitative and quantitative assessment of assay performance are outlined. There is an increasing demand to develop standard tools to assess the quality of HPV detection systems, for regulatory and clinical management purposes. International standard reagents for HPV will help defining the analytical sensitivity and specificity of various detection methods, and will allow assuring that laboratory services used to evaluate disease burden, HPV vaccines, and cancer prevention strategies are accurate and comparable worldwide. The advancement of prophylactic vaccine candidates against HPV infections and related diseases stresses the increasing importance of HPV assays in monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination on disease burden. PMID:17627063

  9. Report of the Fourth International Workshop on human X chromosome mapping 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schlessinger, D.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Willard, H.F.

    1993-12-31

    Vigorous interactive efforts by the X chromosome community have led to accelerated mapping in the last six months. Seventy-five participants from 12 countries around the globe contributed progress reports to the Fourth International X Chromosome Workshop, at St. Louis, MO, May 9-12, 1993. It became clear that well over half the chromosome is now covered by YAC contigs that are being extended, verified, and aligned by their content of STSs and other markers placed by cytogenetic or linkage mapping techniques. The major aim of the workshop was to assemble the consensus map that appears in this report, summarizing both consensus order and YAC contig information.

  10. IRI, an International Standard for the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Triskova, L.; Friedrich, M.

    2003-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a data-based model of the ionosphere that has been steadily improved and updated by a joint working group of the Committee on Space Research and the International Union of Radio Science. We will report about the most recent IRI workshops and the improvements and additions planned for the next version of the model. In particular new models will be included for the D-region electron density (Friedrich et al., 2002), and for the ion densities (Triskova et al., 2003) the latter based on Atmosphere Explorer C, D, E and Intercosmos 24 data. A correction term will be introduced in the topside electron density model to alleviate problems at high solar activities and high altitudes (Bilitza, 2002). A special IRI task groups is working on an occurrence probability model for spread-F (Abdu et al., 2003) for inclusion in IRI. A quantitative description of ionospheric variability (standard deviation from monthly mean) is the goal of a special IRI task force activity at the International Center for Theoretical Physics (Radicella 2002). We will also report about activities to update IRI with actual measurements and thus obtain a more accurate description of the actual ionosphere. A proposal to make the IRI model the ISO standard for the ionosphere is now pending before the International Standardization Organization (ISO). The IRI homepage is at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/ionos/iri.html and a web-interface for computing and plotting IRI parameters can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/models/iri.html . Abdu, M. A., J. R de Souza, I. S. Batista, and J. H. A. Sobral, Equatorial Spread F statistics and their empirical modeling for the IRI: A regional model for the Brazilian longitude sector, Adv. Space Res., in press, 2003. Triskova, L., V. Truhlik and J. Smilauer, An empirical model of ion composition in the outer ionosphere, Adv. Space Res., in press, 2003 Bilitza, D., A Correction for the IRI Topside

  11. Improved nuclear safety through international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doctor, S. R.; Moffitt, R. L.; Taylor, T. T.; Trosman, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chemobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option—the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: • improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection • transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections • enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants.

  12. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z.

    2010-06-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  13. 78 FR 79319 - Amendment to Standards and Practices for All Appropriate Inquiries Under CERCLA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... standards and practices for all appropriate inquiries on November 1, 2005 (70 FR 66070). In that rule, EPA... Assessment Process'' and allow for its use to comply with the All Appropriate Inquiries Rule (78 FR 49690). A... Forestland or Rural Property'' (73 FR 78716). In November 2013, ASTM International published ASTM...

  14. International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics - 30 years of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George D.; Gonczy, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties/performance of brittle bodies (e.g., advanced ceramics and glasses) can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. For three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed numerous full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure various properties and performance of a monolithic and composite ceramics and coatings that, in some cases, may be applicable to glasses. These standards give the "what, how, how not, why, why not, etc." for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of advanced ceramics. Use of these standards provides accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Involvement in ASTM Committee C28 has included users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. who write, continually update, and validate through round robin test programmes, more than 45 standards in the 30 years since the Committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the ASTM Committee C28 standards and how to obtain them either as i) individual copies with full details or ii) a complete collection in one volume. A listing of other ASTM committees of interest is included. In addition, some examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics are employed to demonstrate their practical application.

  15. ERDEC contribution to the 1993 international treaty verification round robin exercise 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrbaugh, D.K.; Beaudry, W.T.; Bossle, P.C.; Lochner, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    In March 1993, the U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center along with 16 other laboratories, participated in the 4th International Treaty Verification Round Robin Exercise. The objective of the exercise was to evaluate the current recommended operating procedures for the analysis of scheduled compounds in soil and water matrices. Eleven spiked samples and blanks resulting from three different types of soil and one source of water were received. Analytical methods used to analyze the samples were GC/FID/FPD, GC/MS (EI and methane CI) , NMR (1H, 13C, and 31P), and HPLC/ion chromatography. Four schedule 2 degradation products of VX and BZ (methylphosphonic acid, 2-diisopropylamino-ethanol, 3-quinuclidinol, and benzilic acid) were unambiguously identified and quantitated in the samples. This report summarizes the analytical methodology used in this round robin and the results obtained. Round robin, Treaty verification, Water and soil samples.

  16. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  17. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  18. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is

  19. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating. PMID:19910270

  20. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating.

  1. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  2. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards....

  3. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  4. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  5. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  6. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  7. International standards pertaining to thermography practices, training and certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West Åkerblom, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    American, European and International societies establish standards for individuals and companies within the field of infrared thermography. Historically addressing non-destructive testing (NDT) applications and personnel, standards exist and are being developed within the fields of condition monitoring (CM) and building diagnostics. Incorrect reference to or application of standards and guidelines create widespread market confusion. What type of claim can be made against which standards? Does the standard apply to a company or an individual? To what or whom is the standard intended? Does reference to a standard guarantee compliance or imply quality? How does one become educated or involved in standards? An overview of international standards within the field of thermography (with brief reference to recognizable guidelines and standards such as ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CEN 473), their status and application will be presented.

  8. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  9. Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

  10. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Fuel Gas Code. International Green Construction Code. International Mechanical Code. ICC Performance... for Residential Construction in High Wind Regions. ICC 700: National Green Building Standard The... proposals from interested individuals and organizations involved in the construction industry as well as...

  11. International environmental management standards (ISO 9000`s less tractable siblings)

    SciTech Connect

    Cascio, J.

    1994-12-31

    Before the advent of ISO 9000 Quality Management standards, the International Organization for Standardization`s (ISO) nearly exclusive focus was on international technical and safety standards. Then, some ten years ago, this staid, Geneva based world standards harmonizer took a fateful step into a more exciting, through considerably less solid realm by impaneling a new technical committee (TC 176) to develop Quality Management standards for organizations. With that, it entered the relatively soft science of organizational management. This initial gamble paid off and resulted in the ISO 9000 series of Quality standards which have won adherents throughout the world and have (in some regions) become requirements of trade. Now, ISO has launched its second sally into the organizational management field by forming Technical Committee 207 to develop yet another set of management standards, this time focusing on the considerably less tractable subject of environmental protection activities within organizations.

  12. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1993. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 93 held at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on November 3-5, 1993. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  13. Science Education Standards: An International Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpwood, Graham

    1997-04-01

    The development of standards has become the latest strategy for governments concerned for the quality of education in science to employ in an effort to improve student achievement. In the past five years, not only the US but also Australia, New Zealand, England and Canada have developed new curriculum frameworks for science education. While making clear the expectations for student learning is clearly an important step towards improving achievement, I shall argue that on its own it is not enough and that fundamental change requires levels of public commitment to science and science education that have yet to be realised in the English-speaking democracies.

  14. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  15. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary......

  16. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal......

  17. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  18. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  19. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  20. A Proposal for an International Standard Object Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses extand paradigms (ISBN, ISSN, ISMN, and the emerging ISAN). Models a procedure for assigning ISONs (International Standard Object Number) to objects and their surrogates. Describes resources requisite to the construction of the ISON, and outlines the necessarily cooperative work ahead if an ISON is to become a standard for visual…

  1. Laser induced damage in optical materials: 7th ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1976-06-01

    The Seventh ERDA-ASTM-ONR-NBS Symposium on Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, on 29-31 July 1975. These Symposia are held as part of the activities in ASTM Subcommittee II on Lasers and Laser Materials, which is charged with the responsibilities of formulating standards and test procedures for laser materials, components, and devices. The Chairman of Subcommittee II is Haynes Lee, of Owens-Illinois, Inc. Co-chairmen for the Damage Symposia are Arthur Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory and Alexander J. Glass of Law-rence Livermore Laboratory. Over 150 attendees at the Symposium heard forty-five papers on topics relating fabrication procedures to laser induced damage in optical materials; on metal mirrors; in ir window materials; the multipulse, wavelength, and pulse length dependence of damage thresholds; damage in dielectric films and at exposed surfaces; as well as theoretical discussions on avalanche ionization and multiphoton processes of importance at shorter wavelengths. Of particular importance were the scaling relations developed from several parametric studies relating fundamental properties (refractive index, surface roughness etc.) to the damage threshold. This year many of the extrinsic influences tending to reduce a materials damage resistance were isolated such that measures of their egregious nature could be quantified. Much still needs to be accomplished to improve processing and fabrication procedures to allow a measurable approach to a materials intrinsic strength to be demonstrated.

  2. IPDA PDS4 Project: Towards an International Planetary Data Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Roatsch, Thomas; Capria, Maria Teresa; Heather, David; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hughes, Steven; Stein, Thomas; Cecconi, Baptiste; Prashar, Ajay; Batanov, Oleg; Gopala Krishna, Barla

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with the main objective of facilitating discovery, access and use of planetary data managed across international boundaries. For this purpose, the IPDA has adopted the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard as the de-facto archiving standard, and is working towards the internationalisation of the new generation of the standards, called PDS4. PDS4 is the largest upgrade in the history of the PDS, and is a significant step towards an online, distributed, model-driven and service-oriented architecture international archive. Following the successful deployment of PDS4 to support NASA's LADEE and MAVEN missions, PDS4 was endorsed by IPDA in 2014. This has led to the adoption of PDS4 by a number of international space agencies (ESA, JAXA, ISRO and Roscosmos, among others) for their upcoming missions. In order to closely follow the development of the PDS4 standards and to coordinate the international contribution and participation in its evolution, a group of experts from each international agency is dedicated to review different aspects of the standards and to capture recommendations and requirements to ensure the international needs are met. The activities performed by this group cover the assessment and implementation of all aspects of PDS4, including its use, documentation, tools, validation strategies and information model. This contribution will present the activities carried out by this group and how this partnership between PDS and IPDA provides an excellent foundation towards an international platform for planetary science research.

  3. An International Centre for Standards Documentation: Proposals for Standardization of UDC Usage and the Mechanized Documentation of Information on Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Hans

    At present, there are several obstacles to efficient information retrieval regarding the world's standards. There is no uniformity in subject classification, although most standards are classified by the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC); there are no international indexes to the subjects covered; foreign standards and superseded standards…

  4. Ensuring global standards for medical graduates: a pilot study of international standard-setting.

    PubMed

    Stern, David T; Ben-David, Miriam Friedman; De Champlain, Andre; Hodges, Brian; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Schwarz, M Roy

    2005-05-01

    Increasing physician and patient mobility has led to a move toward internationalization of standards for physician competence. The Institute for International Medical Education proposed a set of outcome-based standards for student performance, which were then measured using three assessment tools in eight leading schools in China: a 150-item multiple-choice examination, a 15-station OSCE and a 16-item faculty observation form. The purpose of this study was to empanel a group of experts to determine whether international student-level performance standards could be set. The IIME convened an international panel of experts in student education with specialty and geographic diversity. The group was split into two, with each sub-group establishing standards independently. After a discussion of the borderline student, the sub-groups established minimally acceptable cut-off scores for performance on the multiple-choice examination (Angoff and Hofstee methods), the OSCE station and global rating performance (modified Angoff method and holistic criterion reference), and faculty observation domains (holistic criterion reference). Panelists within each group set very similar standards for performance. In addition, the two independent parallel panels generated nearly identical performance standards. Cut-off scores changed little before and after being shown pilot data but standard deviations diminished. International experts agreed on a minimum set of competences for medical student performance. In addition, they were able to set consistent performance standards with multiple examination types. This provides an initial basis against which to compare physician performance internationally.

  5. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    PubMed Central

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E.; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A. T.; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry. PMID:26973825

  6. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel.

    PubMed

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A T; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry. PMID:26973825

  7. Core Standards and Implementation of the International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, Daniel

    Solar System exploration in the 21st Century is ushering in a new paradigm with complex missions that are hosting instruments developed and managed by the international scientific community. Over the past decade, the European and United States space agencies have collaborated extensively to share common data standards for planetary science archiving, while, just recently, countries including Japan, India and China are now planning and executing robotic exploration missions of the solar system. The collective results yield an unprecedented volume of data across a large number of missions as compared with the last forty years of exploration. At the same time, resources from any one agency are scarce, requiring agencies to leverage existing standards and tools, where possible, and coordinate release and sharing of scientific data results to the worldwide scientific community. In 2006, the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) was founded which includes representatives on a Steering Committee from major space agencies around the world that are involved in planetary science exploration missions. The purpose of the IPDA is two pronged. First, it is to develop a set of data standards for archiving and sharing scientific data products across international agencies and missions. Second, to develop a set of technical information system standards allowing interoperability between agency data systems. These standards are critical to building compatible archives that will allow for science data from international missions to be both captured and shared in a consistent manner. The Planetary Data System (PDS) has a long history of providing data standards to missions for the explicit purpose of archiving and preserving data. These standards have been adopted by the European Space Agency in developing their Planetary Science Archive. In addition, at the time of the IPDA founding, the PDS Standards are considered the "de facto" standards for capturing and archiving planetary

  8. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  9. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a description of the activities and accomplishments of the American Society for Testing and Materials' U. S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 146 on Air Quality. The purpose of the TAG is to re...

  11. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  12. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  13. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  14. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  15. 78 FR 8431 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 172 RIN 2137-AE87 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR) Correction In rule document 2012-31243 appearing on pages...

  16. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  17. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... the International Green Construction Code which will become part of the family of 2012 International... proposals from interested individuals and organizations involved in the construction industry as well as the... standards as the basis for developing Federal regulations concerning new and existing construction. The...

  18. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  19. The breaking load method - Results and statistical modification from the ASTM interlaboratory test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, E. L.; Emptage, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    The breaking load test provides quantitative stress corrosion cracking data by determining the residual strength of tension specimens that have been exposed to corrosive environments. Eight laboratories have participated in a cooperative test program under the auspices of ASTM Committee G-1 to evaluate the new test method. All eight laboratories were able to distinguish between three tempers of aluminum alloy 7075. The statistical analysis procedures that were used in the test program do not work well in all situations. An alternative procedure using Box-Cox transformations shows a great deal of promise. An ASTM standard method has been drafted which incorporates the Box-Cox procedure.

  20. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  1. Michigan Network of Libraries for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. 1993 Revised Standards for Subregional Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    In November 1991, the State Librarian (Michigan) established a committee to review and revise the standards of service for the blind and physically handicapped. These revised standards define the general responsibilities of Michigan subregional libraries to their regional libraries and their borrowers. Responsibilities cover basic services such as…

  2. New methods determine pour point more accurately than ASTM D-97

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, H.U.; Dilawar, S.V.K.; Nautiyal, S.P.; Srivastava, S.P. )

    1993-11-01

    A new, alternative method determines petroleum fluid pour points with [+-] 1 C. precision and better accuracy than the standard ASTM D-97 procedure. The new method measures the pour point of transparent fluids by determining wax appearance temperature (WAT). Also, pour points of waxy crude oils can be determined by measuring a flow characteristic called restart pressure.

  3. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  4. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with Federal...

  5. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with...

  6. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  8. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 1. ASTM F2338-09 precision and bias studies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Godorov, Phillip; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method is applicable for leak-testing rigid and semi-rigid non-lidded trays; trays or cups sealed with porous barrier lidding materials; rigid, nonporous packages; and flexible, nonporous packages. Part 1 of this series describes the precision and bias studies performed in 2008 to expand this method's scope to include rigid, nonporous packages completely or partially filled with liquid. Round robin tests using three VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak testers (Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC, Tuckahoe, NY) were performed at three test sites. Test packages were 1-mL glass syringes. Positive controls had laser-drilled holes in the barrel ranging from about 5 to 15 microm in nominal diameter. Two different leak tests methods were performed at each site: a "gas leak test" performed at 250 mbar (absolute) and a "liquid leak test" performed at about 1 mbar (absolute). The gas leak test was used to test empty, air-filled syringes. All defects with holes > or = 5.0 microm and all no-defect controls were correctly identified. The only false negative result was attributed to a single syringe with a < 5.0-microm hole. Tests performed using a calibrated air leak supported a 0.10-cm3 x min(-1) (ccm) sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). The liquid leak test was used to test both empty, air-filled syringes and water-filled syringes. Test results were 100% accurate for all empty and water-filled syringes, both without holes and with holes (5, 10, and 15 microm). Tests performed using calibrated air flow leaks of 0, 0.05, and 0.10 ccm were also 100% accurate; data supported a 0.10-ccm sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). Quantitative differential pressure results strongly correlated to hole size using either liquid or gas vacuum decay leak tests. The higher vacuum liquid leak test gave noticeably higher pressure readings when water was present in the

  9. Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?

    PubMed

    Maher, Dermot

    2009-10-01

    Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

  10. Examining Visual Literacy, 1983-1989: A Seven-Year IVLA Bibliography [and] International Visual Literacy Association, Inc. Readings Bibliography--1990-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice D., Comp.

    Two bibliographies of publications from the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) are presented. The first covers the period from 1983 through 1989 and lists 261 publications from the IVLA at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The second covers from 1990 through 1993 and lists 201 publications. The comprehensive…

  11. ASTM/NBS base stock consistency study

    SciTech Connect

    Frassa, K.A.

    1980-11-01

    This paper summarizes the scope of a cooperative ASTM/NBS program established in June 1979. The contemplated study will ascertain the batch-to-batch consistency of re-refined and virgin base stocks manufactured by various processes. For one year, approximately eight to ten different base stocks samples, will be obtained by NBS every two weeks. One set of bi-monthly samples will be forwarded to each participant, on a coded basis monthly. Seven to eight samples will be obtained from six different re-refining processes and two virgin oil samples from a similar manufacturing process. The participants will report their results on a monthly basis. The second set of samples will be retained by NBS for an interim monthly sample study, if required, based on data analysis. Each sample's properties will be evaluated using various physical tests, chemical tests, and bench tests. The total testing program should define the batch-to-batch base stock consistency short of engine testing.

  12. Standards in capstone design courses and the engineering curriculum.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In 1990, I was the group leader of Research and Development for Surgitek, a urological device manufacturer in Racine, Wisconsin, which was the market leader in ureteral stents. I recognized the need for an industry standard for ureteral stents, felt that taking a leadership role in the development of a new standard would be a good professional development activity, and volunteered to serve as the chair of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, now known as ASTM International) Task Group on Ureteral Stents. After several years, the standard was approved, and I continue to serve as the chair of the ASTM Subcommittee on Urological Materials and Devices. This experience helped me understand the value of industry standards, expanded my professional network and visibility within the medical device industry, and helped develop my leadership skills.

  13. Laser induced damage in optical materials: ninth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1978-08-01

    The Ninth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 4-6 October 1977. The symposium was under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy (formerly ERDA), and the Office of Naval Research. About 185 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, Union of South Africa, and the Soviet Union. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Laser Windows and Materials, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, Laser Glass and Glass Lasers, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the uv region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were also discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The Tenth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 12-14 September 1978 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  14. Laser induced damage in optical materials: 8th ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1977-05-01

    The Eighth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, from 13 to 15 July 1976. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Office of Naval Research. About 160 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Brazil. The Symposium was divided into five half-day sessions concerning Bulk Material Properties and Thermal Behavior, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Film Properties, Thin Film Damage, and Scaling Laws and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to new materials for use at 10.6 microm in mirror substrates, windo s, and coatings. New techniques in film deposition and advances in diamond-turning of optics were described. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons of the Symposium. The Ninth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 4-6 October 1977 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  15. Portals, A Journal of the Idaho Council of the International Reading Association, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, James, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This first volume of "Portals: A Journal of the Idaho Council International Reading Association" presents those interested in literacy development with a new forum for discussion of ideas, trends, and issues related to literacy teaching and learning. Articles in the first issue are: "Caleb's Journal" (Ann Desaulniers); "Literature That Stirs the…

  16. International workshop on chromosome 6. Final report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, J.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes planning for and a brief description of the events concerning the First International Workshop in Human Chromosome 6 which took place June 7--9, 1992 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The complete publication of the workshop report is slated to appear in the Journal of Cytogenetica and Cell Genetics.

  17. International Consensus on Allergen Immunotherapy II: Mechanisms, standardization, and pharmacoeconomics.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robyn; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Sublett, James L; Sugita, Kazunari; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-02-01

    This article continues the comprehensive international consensus (ICON) statement on allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The initial article also recently appeared in the Journal. The conclusions below focus on key mechanisms of AIT-triggered tolerance, requirements in allergen standardization, AIT cost-effectiveness, and regulatory guidance. Potential barriers to and facilitators of the use of AIT are described in addition to future directions. International allergy specialists representing the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization critically reviewed the existing literature and prepared this summary of recommendations for best AIT practice. The authors contributed equally and reached consensus on the statements presented herein. PMID:26853128

  18. International Consensus on Allergen Immunotherapy II: Mechanisms, standardization, and pharmacoeconomics.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robyn; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Sublett, James L; Sugita, Kazunari; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-02-01

    This article continues the comprehensive international consensus (ICON) statement on allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The initial article also recently appeared in the Journal. The conclusions below focus on key mechanisms of AIT-triggered tolerance, requirements in allergen standardization, AIT cost-effectiveness, and regulatory guidance. Potential barriers to and facilitators of the use of AIT are described in addition to future directions. International allergy specialists representing the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization critically reviewed the existing literature and prepared this summary of recommendations for best AIT practice. The authors contributed equally and reached consensus on the statements presented herein.

  19. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  20. Integrated Procedures for Flight and Ground Operations Using International Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John

    2011-01-01

    Imagine astronauts using the same Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM's) as the ground personnel who assemble or maintain their flight hardware, and having all of that data interoperable with design, logistics, reliability analysis, and training. Modern international standards and their corresponding COTS tools already used in other industries provide a good foundation for streamlined technical publications in the space industry. These standards cover everything from data exchange to product breakdown structure to business rules flexibility. Full Product Lifecycle Support (PLCS) is supported. The concept is to organize, build once, reuse many ways, and integrate. This should apply to all future and some current launch vehicles, payloads, space stations/habitats, spacecraft, facilities, support equipment, and retrieval ships.

  1. Professional Development: International and National Perspectives. Four Presentations from AAHE's National Conference on School/College Collaboration, 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Sato, Nancy; Paine, Lynn; Snowball, Diane

    The four papers presented here address teacher development from an international viewpoint. In "Professional Development and Standards" (Linda Darling-Hammond) it is suggested that U.S. educators engage in new kinds of collaborations with universities, and it proposes a shift from information transmittal to "co-construction" of knowledge state…

  2. An evaluation of efforts by nuclear power plants to use ASTM D3803-89

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    The number of nuclear power plants are now using ASTM D3803-89, {open_quotes}Standard Test Method for Nuclear-Grade Activated Carbon{close_quotes} for routine surveillance testing of adsorbents. In order to judge the impact of this change, we have gathered radioiodine removal test results from our data base on a system-by-system basis (i.e. control room, technical support center, and spent fuel pool) and compared test results obtained for the same kind of systems using the new and older test methods. Included in this comparison are systems with and without humidity control. Results are discussed from the standpoint of what to expect if a change to testing using ASTM D3803-89 is contemplated, especially regarding test results in light existing acceptance criteria. Additionally, the results are discussed from the standpoint of the sensitivity of the ASTM test method to detect when the performance of the carbon in air cleaning systems has been compromised (compared to the older methods). Finally, we offer some suggestions for how other plants might upgrade their carbon testing to incorporate testing to ASTM D3803-89.

  3. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Biodiesel Standard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedi...

  4. Laser-induced damage in optical materials: sixteenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Guenther, A H; Milam, D; Newnam, B E

    1987-03-01

    The Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, CO, 15-17 Oct. 1984. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Approximately 180 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives from England, France, The Netherlands, Scotland, and West Germany. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Materials and Measurements, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high-power apparatus. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6,microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin-film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. Harold E. Bennett of the U.S. Naval Weapons Center, Arthur H. Guenther of the U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, David Milam of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos National Laboratory were cochairmen of the Symposium.

  5. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  6. The optimization of mechanical properties for nuclear transportation casks in ASTM A350 LF5

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.; Honeyman, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Transport flasks are required for the movement of spent nuclear fuel. Due to their nature of operation, it is necessary that these flasks are produced from forged steels with exceptional toughness properties. The material specification generally cited for flask manufacture is ASTM A350 Grade LF5 Class 1, a carbon-manganese-nickel alloy. The range of chemical analysis permitted by this specification is very broad and it is the responsibility of the material manufacturer to select a composition within this range which will satisfy all the mechanical properties requirements, and to ensure safe and reliable performance. Forgemasters Steel and Engineering Limited have experience in the manufacture of large high integrity fuel element flask forgings which extend over several decades. This experience and involvement in international standards in US, Europe and Japan has facilitated the development of an optimized analysis with a low carbon content, nickel levels towards the top end of the allowed range, a deliberate aluminum addition to control grain size and strictly controlled residual element levels. The resultant steel has excellent low temperature impact properties which greatly exceed the requirements of the specification. This analysis is now being adopted for the manufacture of all current transport flasks.

  7. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  8. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1–3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

  9. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

  10. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  11. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  12. International standards for optical circuit board fabrication, assembly and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitwon, Richard; Immonen, Marika; Wang, Kai; Itoh, Hideo; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Wu, Jinhua; Zhu, Long Xiu; Yan, Hui Juan; Worrall, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The commercial adoption of electro-optical printed circuit board (EOCB) technology will be accelerated by the development of industrial and conformity standards for high volume fabrication, connector assembly and waveguide measurement. In this paper, we introduce international standardisation activities surrounding EOCBs and report on industrial processes developed for the high volume fabrication of complex EOCBs with embedded multimode polymer waveguides including a first connector standard for polymer waveguide termination. We focus on solving a serious historic problem with the measurement of optical waveguide systems, namely the lack of harmonised measurement conditions for optical waveguides, which to this day gives rise to strong inconsistencies in the results of measurements by different parties on the same waveguide. We report on the development of a standard to ensure repeatable measurement of optical waveguides, whereby we demonstrate how the application of a measurement identification system and proposed reference measurement conditions can bring variation in measurement results to within 5%, thereby serving as the basis for a formal reliable optical waveguide measurement methodology.

  13. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  14. International Micrographics Standards: Report of the 1979 Paris Meeting of ISO/TC171.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heynen, Jeffrey

    1980-01-01

    Describes a meeting of the technical committee on micrographics of the International Organization for Standardization, and fcuses on the committee's work relating to the reproduction of library materials within the general context of international standards-making activities. (FM)

  15. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P<0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P<0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child's BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  16. 77 FR 64055 - Safety Standard for Bassinets and Cradles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... and cradles. (75 FR 22303, April 28, 2010). Through ongoing consultation and assessment of the... International (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials), ASTM F2194-12, ``Standard Consumer.../cradles, prior to testing, must be smooth and free of splinters. 3. Bassinets/cradles must not...

  17. Objectives And Structures Of The International Organization For Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reihlen, Helmut

    1989-04-01

    I am certainly pleased to be with you here today, and to speak to you on the subject of international standardization. The work of some of the ISO technical committees, such as ISO/TC 36 "Cinematography", ISO/TC 42 "Photograhy" and, of course, ISO/TC 172 "Optics and optical instruments" may be familiar to many of you and their activities will be presented in your technical sessions. Rather than going into the detail of these technical committees it might be appropriate that, in my capacity as Vice-President of ISO, I present to you an overview of the organization, what it aims to do, with what means, what its achievements are and how it does its job in practice.

  18. Fracture Toughness of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Applying ASTM C1421

    DOE PAGES

    Swab, Jeffrey J.; Tice, Jason; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2014-11-03

    The three methods of determining the quasi-static Mode I fracture toughness (KIc) (surface crack in flexure – SC, single-edge precracked beam – PB, and chevron notched beam – VB) found in ASTM C1421 were applied to a variety of advanced ceramic materials. All three methods produced valid and comparable KIc values for the Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4 and SiAlON ceramics examined. However, not all methods could successfully be applied to B4C, ZrO2 and WC ceramics due to a variety of material factors. The coarse-grained microstructure of one B4C hindered the ability to observe and measure the precracks generated in the SCmore » and PB methods while the transformation toughening in the ZrO2 prevented the formation of the SC and PB precracks and thus made it impossible to use either method on this ceramic. The high strength and elastic modulus of the WC made it impossible to achieve stable crack growth using the VB method because the specimen stored a tremendous amount of energy prior to fracture. Even though these methods have passed the rigors of the standardization process there are still some issues to be resolved when the methods are applied to certain classes of ceramics. We recommend that at least two of these methods be employed to determine the KIc, especially when a new or unfamiliar ceramic is being evaluated.« less

  19. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 6th ASTM Symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1975-03-01

    The Sixth ASTM-ONR-NBS Symposium on Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado on 22-23 May 1974. Over 150 attendees at the Symposium heard thirty-one papers on topics relating to laser induced damage in crystalline and nonlinear optical materials, at dielectric surfaces, and in thin film coatings as well as discussions of damage problems in the ir region due both to cw and pulsed irradiation. In addition, several reports on the theoretical analysis of laser-materials interaction relative to the damage progress were given, along with tabulations of fundamental materials properties of importance in evaluation of optical material response to high-power laser radiation. Attention was given to high-power laser system design considerations that relate to improved system performance and reliability when various damage mechanisms are operable in such systems. A workshop on the machining of optics was held, and nine papers on various facets of the topic were presented dealing with machining procedures, surface characterization of machined elements, coating of machined components, and the polishing and damage resistance of polished, coated, and bare metal reflectors. PMID:20134954

  20. 76 FR 37953 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0... for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: The... standards of performance for new stationary compression ignition internal combustion engines under...

  1. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  2. Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

  3. Laser induced damage in optical materials: tenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1979-07-01

    The tenth annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 12-14 September 1978. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. About 175 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, West Germany, and the Soviet Union. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning the measurement of absorption characteristics, bulk material properties, mirrors and surfaces, thin film damage, coating materials and design, and breakdown phenomena. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was also discussed. In commemoration of the tenth symposium in this series, a number of comprehensive review papers were presented to assess the state of the art in various facets of laser induced damage in optical materials. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The eleventh annual symposium is scheduled for 30-31 October 1979 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  4. Laser induced damage in optical materials: eleventh ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Glass, A J; Guenther, A H; Newnam, B

    1980-07-15

    The eleventh Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 30-31 October 1979. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. About 150 scientists attended the symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, West Germany, and Denmark. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning transparent optical materials and the measurement of their properties, mirrors and surfaces, thin film characteristics, thin film damage, considerations for high-power systems, and finally theory and breakdown. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high-power apparatus. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was discussed in detail. Harold E. Bennett of the Naval Weapons Center, Alexander J. Glass of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory were cochairpersons. The twelfth annual symposium is scheduled for 30 September-1 October 1980 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  5. Laser induced damage in optical materials: twelfth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Glass, A J; Guenther, A H; Newnam, B

    1981-09-01

    The twelfth annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 30 Sept.-l Oct., 1980. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-l, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific research. Over 150 scientists attended the symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Japan, and West Germany. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning materials and measurements, mirrors and surfaces, thin films, and finally fundamental mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high power systems. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was discussed in detail. Harold E. Bennett of the Naval Weapons Center, Alexander J. Glass of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos National Laboratory were cochairmen of the symposium. The thirteenth annual symposium is scheduled for 17-18 Nov. 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  6. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M.; Barry, Catherine P.; Choi, Won S.; Abravaya, Klara B.; Schneider, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  7. Replacement of the International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin and the Use of the Standard in the Flocculation Test

    PubMed Central

    Spaun, J.; Lyng, J.

    1970-01-01

    Since 1935 the International Unit for Tetanus Antitoxin has been defined as the activity contained in a certain weight of the first International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin. As stocks of this standard had become depleted, 11 laboratories in 8 countries were requested to participate in a collaborative assay of a preparation proposed as a replacement. The assay results were analysed and presented to the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 1969 which established the preparation studied as the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin and defined the International Unit for Tetanus Antitoxin as the activity contained in 0.03384 mg of the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin. This definition would ensure the continuity of the size of this international unit. The analysis of the collaborative studies also showed that the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin has suitable properties for use in the flocculation test for the determination of the antigen content of tetanus toxoids in Lf values. The designation Lf-equivalent is described and the problems relating to the use of this term for the expression of results of in vitro assays are analysed in relation to the use of international units for expressing results of in vivo assays. As the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin has an in vivo/in vitro ratio of 1.4, the Lf-equivalent of this antitoxin is 1.4 times less than its unitage. PMID:5310949

  8. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... that provided national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark... Docket Center (6102T), National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  9. Biobanking of CSF: international standardization to optimize biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte E; Tumani, Hayrettin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mollenhauer, Brit

    2014-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects pathophysiological aspects of neurological diseases, where neuroprotective strategies and biomarkers are urgently needed. Therefore, biobanking is very relevant for biomarker discovery and evaluation of neurological diseases. Important and unique features of CSF biobanking are intensive collaboration in international networks and the tight application of standardized protocols. The current adoption of standardized protocols for CSF and blood collection as presented in this review enables biomarker studies in large cohorts of patients and controls. Another topic of this review is the selection of control groups, which influences the outcome of biomarker investigations. Control groups in CSF biobanks mainly consist of different disease controls. This is in part due to the fact that lumbar punctures are mostly performed for clinical indications and rarely for research purposes only, as it is a relatively invasive procedure. Moreover, there is a lack of homogenous criteria and definition of control groups. We therefore propose uniform consensus definitions for such control groups in biomarker research, i.e. Healthy controls (HC), Spinal anesthesia subjects (SAS), Symptomatic controls (SC), Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (CINDC), Peripheral Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (PINDC) and Non-inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (NINDC). Another important aspect of CSF biobanking is quality control. Systematic studies to address effects of pre-analytical and storage variation on a broad range of CSF proteins are needed. In conclusion, biomarker research in neurodegenerative diseases has entered a new era due to the collaborative and multicenter efforts of many groups. The streamlining of biobanking procedures, including quality control, and the selection of optimal control groups for investigating biomarkers are important improvements to perform high quality biomarker studies.

  10. Airport technology international 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiorcopulo, George

    The present survey of developments in airport technologies and their management discusses airport extensions and upgradings, airport developments in China, polluter penalization, airport effects on environments, European ground-handling methods, ATC in Europe, EC duty-free sales at airports, and the privatization of airport security. Also discussed are airport advertising, new alternatives in air-cargo handling, ATC training, taxi-guidance systems, and the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions on the ground. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  11. Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard? Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    ACT examined the international competitiveness of college and career ready standards in the policy research report, Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard? In this study, ACT performed a linking analysis to identify the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) scores in reading and…

  12. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  13. Fracture Toughness of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Applying ASTM C1421

    SciTech Connect

    Swab, Jeffrey J.; Tice, Jason; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2014-11-03

    The three methods of determining the quasi-static Mode I fracture toughness (KIc) (surface crack in flexure – SC, single-edge precracked beam – PB, and chevron notched beam – VB) found in ASTM C1421 were applied to a variety of advanced ceramic materials. All three methods produced valid and comparable KIc values for the Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4 and SiAlON ceramics examined. However, not all methods could successfully be applied to B4C, ZrO2 and WC ceramics due to a variety of material factors. The coarse-grained microstructure of one B4C hindered the ability to observe and measure the precracks generated in the SC and PB methods while the transformation toughening in the ZrO2 prevented the formation of the SC and PB precracks and thus made it impossible to use either method on this ceramic. The high strength and elastic modulus of the WC made it impossible to achieve stable crack growth using the VB method because the specimen stored a tremendous amount of energy prior to fracture. Even though these methods have passed the rigors of the standardization process there are still some issues to be resolved when the methods are applied to certain classes of ceramics. We recommend that at least two of these methods be employed to determine the KIc, especially when a new or unfamiliar ceramic is being evaluated.

  14. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

  16. 78 FR 77660 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Safety Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... modifications. 75 FR 81766. On December 9, 2013, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for full-size cribs, ASTM F1169-13, which was codified at 16 CFR part 1219. 78 FR 73692. Sections 8 and 9 of the ASTM... 1220. 75 FR 81766. Sections 9 and 10 of ASTM F406-10a, contain requirements for marking, labeling,...

  17. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages 6674-6724 in the issue of...

  18. The Impact of International Standardization on the Rules of Entry for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannan, Judith Proctor

    1975-01-01

    The major provisions of the International Serials Data System and International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials are presented and related to present rules of entry for serials as detailed in the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. (Author)

  19. Revision of Standard Method of Test for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this grant is to revise ASTM Standard Method of Test E-399 for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials based on users' experience, and to harmonize the Method with international standards in the interest of U. S. competitive participation in the global marketplace. Rewriting and reformatting the Method are well along. Research laboratories here and abroad have been engaged in developing technical bases for the Method's novel revision items. Close liaison is being maintained with experts in the field here and abroad to ensure consensus agreement on all substantive matters in anticipation of an eventual circulation of the document for ASTM worldwide approval.

  20. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

  1. International comparisons of intensive care: informing outcomes and improving standards

    PubMed Central

    Prin, Meghan; Wunsch, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Interest in international comparisons of critical illness is growing, but the utility of these studies is questionable. This review examines the challenges of international comparisons and highlights areas where international data provide information relevant to clinical practice and resource allocation. Recent findings International comparisons of ICU resources demonstrate that definitions of critical illness and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds vary due to differences in ability to provide organ support and variable staffing. Despite these limitations, recent international data provide key information to understand the pros and cons of different availability of ICU beds on patient flow and outcomes, and also highlight the need to ensure long-term follow-up due to heterogeneity in discharge practices for critically ill patients. With increasing emphasis on curbing costs of healthcare, systems that deliver lower cost care provide data on alternative options, such as regionalization, flexible allocation of beds, and bed rationing. Summary Differences in provision of critical care can be leveraged to inform decisions on allocation of ICU beds, improve interpretation of clinical outcomes, and assess ways to decrease costs of care. International definitions of key components of critical care are needed to facilitate research and ensure rigorous comparisons. PMID:22954664

  2. Internal Standards: A Source of Analytical Bias For Volatile Organic Analyte Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity betw...

  3. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR RESEARCH INTEGRITY: AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    A movement to promulgate international ethics standards covering areas of conduct other than research with human subjects has now begun to gain momentum. This commentary explains why it is important to develop international research integrity standards and some of the problems that must be overcome to bring them to fruition. PMID:20183162

  4. What States Should Know about International Standards in Science: Highlights from Achieve's Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Achieve, through support from the Noyce Foundation, examined ten sets of international standards with the intent of informing the development of both the conceptual framework and Next Generation Science Standards. Achieve selected countries based on their strong performance on international assessments and/or their economic, political, or cultural…

  5. The Role of Internal Standards and their Interaction with Soils Impact Accuracy of Volatile Organics Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods 8260C/5035 and 8261A include mixing soil with water and addition of internal standards prior to analyses but the equilibration of internal standards with the soil is not required. With increasing total organic carbon (...

  6. The International Standard for the Description of Archives: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Describes progress in the efforts to develop an international standard for the description of archives (ISAD(G)) under the auspices of the International Council on Archives (ICA). Reconciling national standards from various countries is discussed; and provenance, access points, authority files, and a hierarchy of levels of arrangement are…

  7. 78 FR 73692 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Infant Bath Seats, Toddler Beds, and Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...)); toddler beds (76 FR 22030 (April 20, 2011)); and full-size cribs (75 FR 81789 (December 28, 2010)). The... to make the standard more stringent. (75 FR 31691). On May 16, 2012, ASTM notified the CPSC that ASTM... FR 4542 (July 31, 2012). Subsequently, ASTM notified us on September 25, 2013, that ASTM has...

  8. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. PMID:24013124

  9. 78 FR 64248 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... Act on June 13, 2013 (78 FR 35646). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  10. 77 FR 34069 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... March 8, 2012 (77 FR 14046). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  11. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was... to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 10, 2011 (76 FR 1459). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  12. 78 FR 1884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61786). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  13. 78 FR 14836 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on January 9, 2013 (78 FR 1884). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  14. 78 FR 35646 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... March 7, 2013 (78 FR 14836). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division...) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  15. 75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... of International Standards Strategic Plan can be accessed at: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs...://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . Documents Copies of documents for the UNSCOE TDG meeting....phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international also provides additional information regarding the UNSCOE...

  16. 76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... of International Standards Strategic Plan can be accessed at: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs....dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . PHMSA's site at...

  17. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  18. Low-energy photon spectroscopy data in support of ASTM method development

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, D. E.; Boone, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry (C-INC) Radioassay Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation since 1948 to measure fission-product and actinide activities from the U.S. weapons testing program. Since the cessation of testing in 1992, the facility has remained in continuous operation by analyzing samples for environmental, bioassay and research projects. In addition to the many gamma spectroscopy systems, two independent planar germanium detectors are employed for measurement of x-rays and low-energy gsunma rays. 'These counters were used to collect data of select isotopes to support the development of a new ASTM standard, 'Standard Practice for High-Resolution Low-Energy Photon Spectrometry of Water'. This standard is being developed by ASTM Subcommittee D19.04 as a tool for measurement of low-energy gamma-rays and x-rays fiom approximately 4 keV to 150 keV. This work describes empirical counting results obtained fkom traceable sources covering the energy range of interest. Specifically, the isotopes used were 5%i, 55Fe, Am, I, Cd, and 57C0 which provide a range of 5.9 to 136 keV. Mixed nuclide sources were also counted for the purpose of providing data for coincidence summing effects. All data is presented in hardcopy and accompanying electronic form.

  19. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the International Plant Protection Convention of the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization has been approved for incorporation by reference in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (b)...

  20. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by the International Plant Protection Convention of the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization has been approved for incorporation by reference in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (b)...

  1. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  2. Verification of the ASTM G-124 Purge Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Katherine E.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    ASTM G-124 seeks to evaluate combustion characteristics of metals in high-purity (greater than 99%) oxygen atmospheres. ASTM G-124 provides the following equation to determine the minimum number of purges required to reach this level of purity in a test chamber: n = -4/log10(Pa/Ph), where "n" is the total number of purge cycles required, Ph is the absolute pressure used for the purge on each cycle and Pa is the atmospheric pressure or the vent pressure. The origin of this equation is not known and has been the source of frequent questions as to its accuracy and reliability. This paper shows the derivation of the G-124 purge equation, and experimentally explores the equation to determine if it accurately predicts the number of cycles required.

  3. Prospects for Adapting Current ASTM Wear and Erosion Tests for Bulk Materials to Thin Films, Coatings, and Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2007-01-01

    Most of ASTM Committee G2's erosion, wear, and friction test standards were developed for use with bulk materials, yet there is a growing need to evaluate the tribological behavior of films, coatings, and surface treatments (FCSTs), some that affect layers only tens of nanometers to a few micrometers thick. Tribotesting standards for bulk materials can sometimes be modified for use on FCSTs, but the conditions and methods developed for bulk materials may sometimes be too severe or inapplicable. An internet search and literature review indicated that a number of G2 Committee standards are currently being used for FCSTs. Of these, ASTM G99 and G65 seem to be the most popular. When attempting to apply an existing wear standard for bulk materials to FCSTs, two key issues must be addressed: (1) whether changes are needed in the magnitudes of the applied conditions, and (2) whether more precise methods are needed to measure the magnitude of surface damage. Straightforward calculations underscore the limitations for wear measurement of thin layers when evaluated using block-on-ring and pin-on-disk tests. Finally, suggestions are given for modifying selected ASTM G2 standards to enable their use on films, coatings, and surface treatments.

  4. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  5. Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility device…

  6. New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirvastava, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

  7. Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…

  8. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  9. Directory of International and Regional Organizations Conducting Standards-Related Activities, May 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenberg, Maureen

    1989-05-01

    The directory contains information on 338 international and regional organizations which conduct standardization, certification, laboratory accreditation, or other standards-related activities. The volume describes their work in these areas, the scope of each organization, national affliations of members, U.S. participants, restrictions on membership, as well as the availability of any standards in English. The volume is designed to serve the needs of Federal agencies and standards writers for information on international and regional organizations involved in standardization and related activities. It may also be useful to manufacturers, engineers, purchasing agents, and others.

  10. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  11. International regulations and standards for avian influenza, including the vaccine standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Bruschke, C J M; Pittman, M; Laddomada, A

    2009-04-01

    For avian influenza the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has laid down international standards on notification, trade, diagnosis, surveillance and the production and use of vaccine. These standards are science- and risk-based to ensure safe trade in poultry and poultry products without unjustified barriers. The European Union, with its 27 Member States, has in place harmonised legislation in line with OIE standards. Early detection, rapid diagnosis, notification and high quality Veterinary Services are crucial for ensuring a rapid response to avian influenza outbreaks and for swiftly reducing the risk of virus spread via trade. Depending on the situation, vaccination may also be a very important tool for disease control. The use of high quality vaccines and postvaccination monitoring are essential for the successful implementation of vaccination. Compliance with international standards is of paramount importance for protecting animal and human health in the global crisis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 subtype.

  12. FDA use of international standards in the premarket review process.

    PubMed

    Rechen, E; Barth, D J; Marlowe, D; Kroger, L

    1998-01-01

    "This is an exciting time," says Eric Rechen, policy analyst in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Device Evaluation (ODE). "We're entering an era in which standards will have a more prominent role in the review of medical devices than ever before." During the past 10 years, there has been significant growth in the importance of standards in regulatory processes, as Donald J. Barth, regulatory staff manager for the Medical Products Group at Hewlett Packard Company, notes in setting the stage for discussion of the latest developments. Donald Marlowe, director of the FDA's Office of Science and Technology, and Rechen explain the use of standards in the regulatory review process as part of FDA efforts to ensure public safety in a time of shrinking agency resources. Marlowe discusses provisions of the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 that allow manufacturers to submit a declaration of conformity to a standard to satisfy premarket review requirements. A guidance on the recognition and use of consensus standards, a list of recognized standards, and a list of frequently asked questions are available at the Web site of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at www.fda.gov/cdrh and via the AAMI Web site at www.aami.org. The information is also available by telephone via CDRH Facts on Demand at 800-899-0381. Rechen provides details about the two new approaches for premarket notifications available under the new 510(k) paradigm. Manufacturers may demonstrate substantial equivalence through special and abbreviated 510(k)s in addition to traditional 510(k)s. A copy of the new 510(k) paradigm is available at the AAMI and CDRH Web sites and through Facts on Demand. As the FDA and many manufacturers enter the new world of abbreviated and special 510(k)s, Larry Kroger, GE Medical Systems, provides his comments based on the 4 years of experience manufacturers of diagnostic x-ray products have had with simplified 510(k)s. A comparison of the European

  13. PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

  14. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  15. ASTM and VAMAS activities in titanium matrix composites test methods development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Harmon, D. M.; Bartolotta, P. A.; Russ, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium matrix composites (TMC's) are being considered for a number of aerospace applications ranging from high performance engine components to airframe structures in areas that require high stiffness to weight ratios at temperatures up to 400 C. TMC's exhibit unique mechanical behavior due to fiber-matrix interface failures, matrix cracks bridged by fibers, thermo-viscoplastic behavior of the matrix at elevated temperatures, and the development of significant thermal residual stresses in the composite due to fabrication. Standard testing methodology must be developed to reflect the uniqueness of this type of material systems. The purpose of this paper is to review the current activities in ASTM and Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) that are directed toward the development of standard test methodology for titanium matrix composites.

  16. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pim M W; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C

    2015-06-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For these considerations, it was assumed that current developments in genetic testing and Internet possibilities mean that, now, all donors are potentially identifiable by their offspring, so no distinction was made between anonymous and non-anonymous donation. Genetic considerations did not lead to restrictive limits (indicating that up to 200 offspring or more per donor may be acceptable except in isolated social-minority situations). Psychosocial considerations on the other hand led to proposals of rather restrictive limits (10 families per donor or less). Operational and ethical considerations did not lead to more or less concrete limits per donor, but seemed to lie in-between those resulting from the aforementioned ways of viewing the issue. In the end, no unifying agreed figure could be reached; however the consensus was that the number should never exceed 100 families. The conclusions of the group are summarized in three recommendations. PMID:25817048

  17. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliveries", and the name of key players, in different combinations.
RESULTS—It is clear that the tobacco industry, through the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA), play a major role in determining the scientific evidence and suggesting the standards that are eventually adopted as international standards for tobacco and tobacco products in several areas, including the measurement of cigarette tar and nicotine yield.
CONCLUSIONS—ISO's tobacco and tobacco products standards are not adequate to guide tobacco products regulatory policies, and no health claims can be made based on ISO's tobacco products standards. There is an urgent need for tobacco control advocates and groups worldwide to be more involved with the work of the ISO, both directly and through their national standardisation organisations.


Keywords: tar and nicotine measurement; International Organization for Standardization; ISO; Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco; CORESTA; regulatory policy PMID:11387528

  18. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  19. Standardization and harmonization of the blood count: the role of International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH).

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M

    1990-01-01

    Scientific principles of standardization were first applied in haematology in 1963 when the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology was established with a primary objective to improve the measurement of haemoglobin. Subsequently, ICSH has established Expert Panels on a wide range of haematological topics, including especially a Panel on Cytometry. The purpose of haematological standardization is to obtain precision, accuracy, specificity and harmonization of results between different laboratories in all countries and also between different instruments or methods in the same laboratory. To achieve these objectives ICSH sponsors collaborative studies by scientists from academic centres and from industry and uses a consensus procedure for establishing standards on the basis of the scientific data, followed by an educational programme to ensure that the standards are adopted worldwide. ICSH defines material standards and standardized methods. Material standards are classified as primary international standards, certified reference materials, secondary standards and calibrators. These must be distinguished from control preparations which are intended exclusively for quality control. Standardization of methods must also be considered at four levels: definitive, reference, selected and routine. Each has a place in practice but their roles must be clearly defined. ICSH has an established protocol for evaluation of automated blood cell counters. This defines the levels of precision and accuracy of instrument performance. It is also necessary to assess "clinical utility". The main requirement of the practising haematologist is clinical reliability and harmonization of results for comparability. One of the major functions of ICSH is to provide an interface for collaboration between the manufacturers who develop the instruments and the users in order to achieve this goal.

  20. Survey and qualification of internal standards for quantification by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; Mathiasson, Marie; Bekiroglu, Somer; Hakkarainen, Birgit; Bowden, Tim; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2010-09-01

    In quantitative NMR (qNMR) selection of an appropriate internal standard proves to be crucial. In this study, 25 candidate compounds considered to be potent internal standards were investigated with respect to the ability of providing unique signal chemical shifts, purity, solubility, and ease of use. The (1)H chemical shift (delta) values, assignments, multiplicities and number of protons (for each signal), appropriateness (as to be used as internal standards) in four different deuterated solvents (D(2)O, DMSO-d(6), CD(3)OD, CDCl(3)) were studied. Taking into account the properties of these 25 internal standards, the most versatile eight compounds (2,4,6-triiodophenol, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-nitrobenzene, 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethyl terephthalate, 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid) were qualified using both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and NMR spectroscopy employing highly pure acetanilide as the reference standard. The data from these two methods were compared as well as utilized in the quality assessment of the compounds as internal standards. Finally, the selected internal standards were tested and evaluated in a real case of quantitative NMR analysis of a paracetamol pharmaceutical product. PMID:20207092

  1. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  2. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  3. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend the interim rule addressing lifesaving equipment... liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatuses with recently adopted international standards...

  4. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... audit report required pursuant to 25 CFR part 571. (3) Review of internal audit. (i) The CPA must... GAAP, GAAS, and standards promulgated by GASB and FASB. In the event of a conflict between the MICS...

  5. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... audit report required pursuant to 25 CFR part 571. (3) Review of internal audit. (i) The CPA must... GAAP, GAAS, and standards promulgated by GASB and FASB. In the event of a conflict between the MICS...

  6. Cross-section analyses of attitudes towards science and nature from the International Social Survey Programme 1993, 2000, and 2010 surveys.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Joseph Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores public attitudes towards science and nature in twelve countries using data from the International Social Survey Programme environment modules of 1993, 2000, and 2010. Analysis of attitude items indicates technocentric and pessimistic dimensions broadly related to the Dominant Social Paradigm and New Environmental Paradigm. A bi-axial dimension scale is utilized to classify respondents among four environmental knowledge orientations. Discernible and significant patterns are found among countries and their populations. Relationships with other substantial variables in the surveys are discussed and findings show that the majority of industrialized countries are clustered in the rational ecologist categorization with respondents possessing stronger ecological consciousness and optimism towards the role of modern institutions, science, and technology in solving environmental problems.

  7. Educational Exchange and Global Competence. International Conference on Educational Exchange (46th, Washington, D.C., November 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on International Educational Exchange, New York, NY.

    This booklet presents the highlights of the 46th International Conference on Educational Exchange including the texts of three speeches given at the Conference. Conference sessions addressed global competence from the perspective of international exchanges, various professions, and the formal educational system, as well as the relation of global…

  8. [From manual workshop to international standard maker: exploration on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.

  9. Standards for Day and Resident Camps: The Accreditation Programs of the American Camping Association. 1990 Edition, Revised 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    This book outlines standards that provide a basis for camp accreditation and site approval by the American Camping Association (ACA), Inc. The purpose of the ACA accreditation programs is to educate camp owners and directors in the administration of key aspects of camp operation, particularly those related to program quality and the health and…

  10. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information technology? 542.16 Section 542.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.16 What are the minimum internal control.... (2) (f) Document storage. (1) Documents may be scanned or directly stored to an unalterable...

  11. International Labour Standards and Technical Co-Operation: The Case of Special Public Works Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jean

    1989-01-01

    Applies international labor standards to results of the International Labour Office's special public works programs to discover whether program intentions have been met. Finds that while productive employment has been pursued, popular participation is not occurring and such issues as (1) forced labor, (2) child employment, and (3) inequality of…

  12. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and the transportation in commerce of hazardous materials in accordance with the International Civil... international transport standards and regulations authorized in paragraph (a) of this section (e.g., paragraph 1... transported in the United States in full compliance (i.e., packaged, marked, labeled, classed,...

  13. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  14. Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we

  15. Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjicharalambous, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

  16. Current Status of International Airborne Platform Data and Instrument Interface Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Matt; Webster, Chris; Freundinger, Larry

    2016-06-01

    Commission I of the International Society for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing formed working group I/1 for the purpose of standardizing airborne platform interfaces. The primary mission of this working group is to promote the standardization of instrument interfaces, data formats, and supporting infrastructures; and to facilitate more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective international science flight operations. Within WGI/1 are a number of focused subgroups. This paper addresses the efforts of some of these subgroups having interdependent and overlapping interests; including the development of standard software interfaces for sensors, standardized approaches to management of information over potentially intermittent wireless data links, the development of standardized processing algorithms, and data archival format standards. The data in this report reflect the outcome of work-to-date in the current subgroups.

  17. Verbo-Visual Literacy: Understanding and Applying New Educational Communication Media Technologies. Selected Readings from the Symposium of the International Visual Literacy Association (Delphi, Greece, June 25-29, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos, Ed.

    This document contains the welcoming and keynote addresses and selected papers from a 1993 symposium of the International Visual Literacy Association. Topics addressed in the papers include: visual literacy; research methodology and design for content analysis of visual images; multimedia as courseware; design issues in authoring multimedia…

  18. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-09-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research.

  19. Ethical issues in tissue banking for research: the prospects and pitfalls of setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J; Murray, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or international regulations that include an official oversight mechanism and sanctions for noncompliance, and about who should participate in the harmonization process. Moreover, the normative assumptions and political dynamics that shape global policymaking need to be addressed. This commentary explores the policy implications and normative questions raised by the idea of international ethical guidelines for the use of biotechnologies and biotechnological resources such as stored samples of human tissue.

  20. Evolution of an International External Quality Assurance Model To Support Laboratory Investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Developed for the SIREVA Project in Latin America, from 1993 to 2005▿

    PubMed Central

    Lovgren, Marguerite; Talbot, James A.; Brandileone, Maria Cristina; Casagrande, Silvana T.; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Regueira, Mabel; Corso, Alejandra; Heitmann, Ingrid; Maldonado, Aurora; Echániz-Avilés, Gabriela; Soto-Noguerón, Araceli; Hortal, María; Camou, Teresa; Gabastou, Jean-Marc; Fabio, José Luis Di

    2007-01-01

    In 1993 the Pan American Health Organization initiated a laboratory-based surveillance system, called the SIREVA project, to learn about Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive disease in Latin American children. In 1994, National Laboratories in six countries were trained to perform serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing using broth microdilution to determine the MIC for specified antibiotics. An international External Quality Assurance (EQA) program was developed to monitor and support ongoing laboratory performance. The EQA program was coordinated by the National Centre for Streptococcus (NCS), Edmonton, Canada, and included external proficiency testing (EPT) and a validation process requiring regular submission of a sample of isolates from each laboratory to the NCS for verification of the serotype and MIC. In 1999, the EQA program was decentralized to use three of the original laboratories as regional quality control centers to address operational concerns and to accommodate the growth of the laboratory network to more than 20 countries including the Caribbean region. The overall EPT serotyping accuracies for phase I (1993 to 1998) and phase II (1999 to 2005) were 88.0 and 93.8%, respectively; the MIC correlations within ±1 log2 dilution of the expected result were 83.0 and 91.0% and the interpretive category agreements were 89.1 and 95.3%. Overall, the validation process serotyping accuracies for phases I and II were 81.9 and 88.1%, respectively, 80.4 and 90.5% for MIC agreement, and 85.8 and 94.3% for category agreement. These results indicate a high level of testing accuracy in participating National Laboratories and a sustained increase in EQA participation in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:17687007

  1. Evolution of an international external quality assurance model to support laboratory investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, developed for the SIREVA project in Latin America, from 1993 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Lovgren, Marguerite; Talbot, James A; Brandileone, Maria Cristina; Casagrande, Silvana T; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Regueira, Mabel; Corso, Alejandra; Heitmann, Ingrid; Maldonado, Aurora; Echániz-Avilés, Gabriela; Soto-Noguerón, Araceli; Hortal, María; Camou, Teresa; Gabastou, Jean-Marc; Di Fabio, José Luis

    2007-10-01

    In 1993 the Pan American Health Organization initiated a laboratory-based surveillance system, called the SIREVA project, to learn about Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive disease in Latin American children. In 1994, National Laboratories in six countries were trained to perform serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing using broth microdilution to determine the MIC for specified antibiotics. An international External Quality Assurance (EQA) program was developed to monitor and support ongoing laboratory performance. The EQA program was coordinated by the National Centre for Streptococcus (NCS), Edmonton, Canada, and included external proficiency testing (EPT) and a validation process requiring regular submission of a sample of isolates from each laboratory to the NCS for verification of the serotype and MIC. In 1999, the EQA program was decentralized to use three of the original laboratories as regional quality control centers to address operational concerns and to accommodate the growth of the laboratory network to more than 20 countries including the Caribbean region. The overall EPT serotyping accuracies for phase I (1993 to 1998) and phase II (1999 to 2005) were 88.0 and 93.8%, respectively; the MIC correlations within +/-1 log(2) dilution of the expected result were 83.0 and 91.0% and the interpretive category agreements were 89.1 and 95.3%. Overall, the validation process serotyping accuracies for phases I and II were 81.9 and 88.1%, respectively, 80.4 and 90.5% for MIC agreement, and 85.8 and 94.3% for category agreement. These results indicate a high level of testing accuracy in participating National Laboratories and a sustained increase in EQA participation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  2. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    PubMed

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively.

  3. An Experimental Copyright Moratorium: Study of a Proposed Solution to the Copyright Photocopying Problem. Final Report to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The Committee to Investigate Copyright Problems (CICP), a non-profit organization dedicated to resolving the conflict known as the "copyright photocopying problem" was joined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), a large national publisher of technical and scientific standards, in a plan to simulate a long-proposed solution to…

  4. Trace iodine quantitation in biological samples by mass spectrometric methods: the optimum internal standard.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kirk, Andrea B

    2009-07-15

    Accurate quantitation of iodine in biological samples is essential for studies of nutrition and medicine, as well as for epidemiological studies for monitoring intake of this essential nutrient. Despite the importance of accurate measurement, a standardized method for iodine analysis of biological samples is yet to be established. We have evaluated the effectiveness of (72)Ge, (115)In, and (129)I as internal standards for measurement of iodine in milk and urine samples by induction coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and of (35)Cl(18)O(4)(-), (129)I(-), and 2-chlorobenzenesulfonate (2-CBS) as internal standards for ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS). We found recovery of iodine to be markedly low when IC-MS/MS was used without an internal standard. Percent recovery was similarly low using (35)Cl(18)O(4) as an internal standard for milk and unpredictable when used for urine. 2-Chlorobenzebenzenesulfonate provided accurate recovery of iodine from milk, but overestimated iodine in urine samples by as much as a factor of 2. Percent recovery of iodine from milk and urine using ICP-MS without an internal standard was approximately 120%. Use of (115)In predicted approximately 60% of known values for both milk and urine samples. (72)Ge provided reasonable and consistent percent recovery for iodine in milk samples (approximately 108%) but resulted in approximately 80% recovery of iodine from urine. Use of (129)I as an internal standard resulted in excellent recovery of iodine from both milk and urine samples using either IC-MS/MS and ICP-MS.

  5. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM

  6. Minutes. Accredited Standards Committee on Acoustics, S1. US tag for ISO/TC 43 acoustics and IEC/TC 29 electroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    The following items were discussed: approval of the minutes of the Ottawa, Canada meeting held 20 May 1993; organization; standards approved by ANSI in 1992/1993 and published (or being published) by ASA; organizational matters and reports on working groups, including reports on letter ballots and international matters; work items without working groups; international matters; review of standards more than five years in existence; new international standards available; procedural ballots; other business; new business; future meetings; and adjournment.

  7. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  8. 78 FR 13243 - Updates to Standards Incorporated by Reference; Reapproved ASTM Standards; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Register. To that end, we published a request for comments on November 30, 2012, (77 FR 71369) to... follows: Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1231, 1321(j)(1)(C), (j)(5), (j)(6), and (m)(2); sec. 2, E.O. 12777, 56 FR... continues to read as follows: Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1231, 1321(j); 46 U.S.C. 3703; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757,...

  9. Open System Interconnection - NASA program communications of the future. [developed by International aorganization for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards are being developed by the ISO and the Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph with the support of industry. These standards are being developed to allow the interconnecting of computer systems and the interworking of applications such that the applications can be independent of any equipment manufacturer. Significant progress has been made, and the establishment of government OSI standards is being considered. There is considerable interest within NASA in the potential benefits of OSI and in communications standards in general. The OSI standards are being considered for possible application in the Space Station onboard data management system. The OSI standards have reached a high level of maturity, and it is now imperative that NASA plan for future migration to OSI where appropriate.

  10. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  11. International standards related to the classification and deregulation of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Linsley, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    Although solid radioactive waste management is mainly a national concern, there are some aspects that have international implications. One important example is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, which results in the release of materials that could be reused and recycled. It is possible that these materials could enter international trade, especially if the material is a metal. It is clearly desirable, therefore, to have appropriate international standards to help regulate trade. This paper describes recent international developments relating to the establishment of radiological criteria for the release of materials from regulatory control (clearance). There have already been some experiences of clearance and the transfer of recycled materials within Europe, and this paper reviews that experience. It also discusses recent developments in relation to the international classification of radioactive waste. PMID:17033457

  12. 25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... issued. (c) The internal audit or accounting departments shall review the reports required in paragraph... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum...

  13. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.14 What are the minimum internal...

  14. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  15. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  16. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  17. 77 FR 45242 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... stringent. 75 FR 31691. ASTM notified us that the current version of the ASTM standard for infant bath seats..., with two modifications to ] make the standard more stringent. 75 FR 81766. ASTM notified us that the..., family child care homes, and places of public accommodation. 75 FR 81786-87. The crib rule...

  18. Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lisa; Nguyen, Binh; Auten, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The "NCAA Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility" provides specific criteria to be used as a guide in reviewing the initial eligibility (graduation, core curriculum, grade-point average and ACT/SAT test scores) of students who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-United States educational…

  19. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  20. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  1. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  2. India Needs International Standards in Accreditation Problems in Adoption and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper outlines in brief, need and importance of introducing global quality standards in accreditation, prescribed by the international agreement "Washington Accord". This agreement is initially provisional and after scrutiny, if found fit, it is upgraded to Signatory status. It is this status which empowers students of engineering,…

  3. Using ASBO International's Standards To Map Your Professional Growth and Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Explores various definitions of what constitutes a profession and what characteristics determine a professional. Identifies the need for continued professional growth and development related to the new Association of School Business Officials, International, "Professional Standards" (2001). Examples illustrate how individual school business…

  4. Functional Competency Development Model for Academic Personnel Based on International Professional Qualification Standards in Computing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumthong, Suwut; Piriyasurawong, Pullop; Jeerangsuwan, Namon

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a functional competency development model for academic personnel based on international professional qualification standards in computing field and examines the appropriateness of the model. Specifically, the model consists of three key components which are: 1) functional competency development model, 2) blended training…

  5. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... standards of performance (``NSPS'') for stationary internal combustion engines (ICE) (78 FR 6674). Following... stationary RICE on March 3, 2010, (75 FR 9648) and August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51570). The EPA received petitions... of the final NESHAP and NSPS for stationary RICE (78 FR 6674, January 30, 2013). The Office...

  6. Evaluation of Vocational Services Provided to Jordanian Disabled People According to International Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vocational rehabilitation services provided to people with disabilities according to international standards in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of (56) managers and teachers in four specialized centers in vocational rehabilitation. The findings showed that the compatibility degree ranged…

  7. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  8. Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report examines how performance standards in reading and math on PLAN[R], the organization's college and career readiness assessment for 10th graders, compare to performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide assessment of 15-year-old students' academic achievement. The results show that the performance…

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of AACSB International's 2013 Accreditation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Morgan P.; Franklin, Geralyn McClure; Grimmer, Martin; Heriot, Kirl C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of an exploratory survey designed to measure AACSB member deans' perceptions about the recently revised 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Accreditation Standards. In April of 2013, AACSB International released a major revision of its accreditation…

  10. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  11. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) with diphenylcarbazide using internal standard and derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, K; Wróbel, K; López-de-Alba, P L; López-Martínez, L

    1997-11-01

    In the present work, erioglaucine A was applied as internal standard to enhanced spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) with diphenylcarbazide. The following procedure was used: (1) addition of internal standard and formation of ion pairs of Cr (VI) with benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTAB) (sample volume 100 ml), (2) extraction to 10 ml of methylene chloride, (3) evaporation in nitrogen stream, and (4) redissolution in a micro-volume with addition of diphenylcarbazide for color development (final volume 200 mul). The preconcentration factor achieved was about 400 and it was shown that, using internal standard, the analytical errors due to sample treatment were reduced. The analytical signals for chromium and internal standard were obtained at 591.30 and 653.50 nm from first derivative spectra, normalized against (1)D(653.50nm). The analytical characteristics evaluated were: detection limit = 0.06 mug l(-1), quantification limit = 0.19 mug l(-1), precision for 1 mug l(-1) 14.2%, and for 10 mug l(-1) 3.2%, correlation coefficient of linear regression was 0.9985. The proposed procedure was applied to determination of chromium (VI) in tap water. Total chromium was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, the recovery of hexavalent chromium added was then evaluated and compared with the results of the proposed procedure. In this experiment, good agreement was obtained between results obtained by the two methods. PMID:18966962

  12. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  13. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  14. Calibration of replacement international standard and European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Sesardic, D; Winsnes, R; Rigsby, P; Gaines-Das, R

    2001-06-01

    We report here the characterisation of a preparation of diphtheria toxoid, adsorbed, and its calibration by twenty laboratories in fourteen countries in terms of the Second International Standard (I.S.) for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed, coded sample A (DIXA) using the established World Health Organisation (WHO)/European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) challenge methods. The replacement standard preparation was found to have a unitage of 160 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration by in vivo bioassay. Stability was assessed within the collaborative study, and as part of candidate characterisation. Results suggest that the replacement standard will have satisfactory stability. This study also provided an opportunity to investigate serology as alternative to in vivo bioassay for potency testing of diphtheria vaccines. Six laboratories participated by performing serology according to in-house protocol. The calibration of the replacement standard in a mouse Vero cell assay gave a significantly higher results than in the established WHO/Ph Eur methods. Based on the results of this study and with the agreement of participants, the candidate standard was established as the Third International Standard for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed (coded 98/560) by the WHO Expert Committee of Biological Standardization in October 1999. The same preparation was also established as the second Ph Eur Biological Reference Preparation (Ph Eur BRP, batch no. 3) by the Steering Committee of the Biological Standardisation Programme of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and approved by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission.

  15. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Neymotin, L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions.

  16. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  17. CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems - International data communications standards for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1990-01-01

    Established in 1982, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that is staffed by data-handling experts from nearly all of the world's major space agencies. Its goal is to develop standard data-communications techniques so that several agencies may cross-support each other's data flow and thus allow complex, international missions to be flown. Under the general umbrella of Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS), an international CCSDS task force was formed in 1985 to develop standard data-communications concepts for manned missions, such as the Space Station Freedom and the Hermes space plane, and large unmanned vehicles, such as polar orbiting platforms. The history of the CCSDS and the development of the AOS recommendation are reviewed, and the user services and protocols embodied in its systems architecture are introduced.

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures and international standardization for those methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.

    2014-01-01

    Testing methods for mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures had been developed rapidly after 1980, however, until 1985 many researches on cryogenic structural materials have been reported using their own methods and new materials have been developed for ITER. Since 1986, a series of international inter-laboratory comparisons on the evaluation of mechanical properties of cryogenic structural materials have been performed among the participants of US-Japan cooperation project and VAMAS (the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) in order to establish unified test methods. Through these international collaborations and Round-Robin Tests, we have accumulated knowledge about mechanical tests at 4 K, and have prepared a draft of an international standard for tensile testing in liquid helium. After testing conditions, strain measurements and other technical points have been discussed, those drafts were submitted to ISO. The outline, development, and discussion of the documents so far, with the results of RRTs, were discussed.

  19. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 4(th) International Standard for Streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Jorajuria, S; Raphalen, C; Dujardin, V; Daas, A

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the 4(th) World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for Streptomycin. Fourteen laboratories from different countries participated. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 3(rd) IS for Streptomycin was used as a reference. Based on the results of the study, the 4(th) IS for Streptomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 with an assigned potency of 76 000 International Units (IU) per vial. The 4(th) IS for Streptomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  20. Development of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test procedures to measure induced ionizing radiation effects in broadband and remote Raman fiber optic spectroscopic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, Roger A.; Saggese, Steven J.

    1994-12-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has established a radiation standard working group under the auspices of the E13.09 subcommittee on fiber optics, which reports to the E13 committee on molecular spectroscopy. The goal of this working group is to develop and publish standards to qualify fiber optic spectroscopic systems for use in adverse nuclear environments. These goals are in line with the charter of the ASTM organization that is `the development of standards on characteristics and performance of materials, products, systems and services; and the promotion of related knowledge.' Under preliminary efforts to promote the use of fiber optic spectroscopic systems in adverse nuclear environments with an emphasis on nuclear waste storage facilities and nuclear generating stations, two draft standard guides have been prepared to measure ionizing radiation induced spectral changes in optical fibers and cables for use in Broadband systems and remote Raman fiber optic spectroscopic systems.

  1. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  2. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 3rd international standard for neomycin.

    PubMed

    Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) 3(rd) International Standard (IS) for neomycin. Ten laboratories from different countries participated in the collaborative study. The potency of the candidate material, a freeze-dried preparation, was estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 2(nd) IS for neomycin was used as a standard. Based on the results of the study, the 3(rd) IS for neomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2012 with an assigned potency of 19,050 IU per vial. The 3(rd) IS for neomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  3. World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Blümel, Johannes; Mizusawa, Saeko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Sakata, Hidekatsu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Nübling, C. Micha; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique–based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but assay sensitivity can vary widely. To improve interlaboratory results for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA, a candidate World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) strain was evaluated in a collaborative study involving 23 laboratories from 10 countries. The IS, code number 6329/10, was formulated by using a genotype 3a HEV strain from a blood donation, diluted in pooled human plasma and lyophilized. A Japanese national standard, representing a genotype 3b HEV strain, was prepared and evaluated in parallel. The potencies of the standards were determined by qualitative and quantitative assays. Assay variability was substantially reduced when HEV RNA concentrations were expressed relative to the IS. Thus, WHO has established 6329/10 as the IS for HEV RNA, with a unitage of 250,000 International Units per milliliter. PMID:23647659

  4. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  5. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  6. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.

  7. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-01

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  8. International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, A.R.; Loppinet, A.; Reeve, P.T.N.; Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.; Vanzini, R.

    1995-12-01

    A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ``internationalization`` of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry.

  9. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy E; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2006-12-01

    Development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by two contemporaneous events: the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the World Health Organization (WHO). If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues would have to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and how to define optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, on the basis of available data, it cannot be ruled out that some of the observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents would have to include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  10. Proposed Standards for Medical Education Submissions to the Journal of General Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Judith L.; Gerrity, Martha S.; Kalet, Adina L.; Kogan, Jennifer R.; Spickard, Anderson; Wayne, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    To help authors design rigorous studies and prepare clear and informative manuscripts, improve the transparency of editorial decisions, and raise the bar on educational scholarship, the Deputy Editors of the Journal of General Internal Medicine articulate standards for medical education submissions to the Journal. General standards include: (1) quality questions, (2) quality methods to match the questions, (3) insightful interpretation of findings, (4) transparent, unbiased reporting, and (5) attention to human subjects’ protection and ethical research conduct. Additional standards for specific study types are described. We hope these proposed standards will generate discussion that will foster their continued evolution. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0676-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18612716

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS FOR EVALUATING THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: FIERY DISCUSSIONS, COMMON PURPOSE, A PROVEN WIN-WIN PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND ASTM COMMITTEE E47 (NON-PEER REV'D. JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of standards through the consensus based process is often a long and arduous process even in the best of circumstances. The impetus to develop standards is a need to obtain high quality data for the evaluation of questions that often pertain to the development of...

  12. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    PubMed

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards

  13. A decade of international cooperation brings a standard seismic point of view

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, H. S

    1971-01-01

    Whether in a castle in Italy, a police station in Iceland, o an abandoned gold mine in Australia, the sensitive instruments in the Worldwide Seismograph Network send a steady flow of standard earthquake records to the geophysical scientific community. They provide the raw data that make possible very precise earthquake studies, precise because the instruments are identical and their product standard. A truly international program, this network of 115 stations in 61 countires and territories has laid the foundation for reserach in seismology for many years to come. 

  14. ISBD(S), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials; Recommended by the Joint Working Group on the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials set up by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing and the IFLA Committee on Serial Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--provides a format for the international communication of bibliographic information so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(S) standards are limited to the descriptive…

  15. Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Bai, Kaijie; Lu, Jidong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement's accuracy and precision, a new internal standardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic elements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standardization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system. supported by Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology of China (No. SKL2013KF03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51206055, 51476061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014ZZ0014), the New Star of Pearl River on Science and Technology of Guangzhou, China (No. 2014J2200054), the Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (No. KLB10004) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and

  16. Short tandem repeat profiling provides an international reference standard for human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masters, John R.; Thomson, Jim A.; Daly-Burns, Bernadette; Reid, Yvonne A.; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Packer, Phil; Toji, Lorraine H.; Ohno, Tadao; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Arlett, Colin F.; Kelland, Lloyd R.; Harrison, Maureen; Virmani, Arvind; Ward, Timothy H.; Ayres, Karen L.; Debenham, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    Cross-contamination between cell lines is a longstanding and frequent cause of scientific misrepresentation. Estimates from national testing services indicate that up to 36% of cell lines are of a different origin or species to that claimed. To test a standard method of cell line authentication, 253 human cell lines from banks and research institutes worldwide were analyzed by short tandem repeat profiling. The short tandem repeat profile is a simple numerical code that is reproducible between laboratories, is inexpensive, and can provide an international reference standard for every cell line. If DNA profiling of cell lines is accepted and demanded internationally, scientific misrepresentation because of cross-contamination can be largely eliminated. PMID:11416159

  17. Synthesis of stable isotope labelled internal standards for drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies.

    PubMed

    Atzrodt, J; Blankenstein, J; Brasseur, D; Calvo-Vicente, S; Denoux, M; Derdau, V; Lavisse, M; Perard, S; Roy, S; Sandvoss, M; Schofield, J; Zimmermann, J

    2012-09-15

    The syntheses of stable isotope labelled internal standards of important CYP-isoform selective probes, like testosterone 1, diclofenac 3, midazolam 5, and dextromethorphan 7, as well as their corresponding hydroxylated metabolites 6β-hydroxytestosterone 2, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4, 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6 and dextrorphan 8 are reported. Microwave-enhanced H/D-exchange reactions applying either acid, base, or homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysis, or combinations thereof proved to be highly efficient for direct deuterium labelling of the above mentioned probes. Compared to conventional stepwise synthetic approaches, the combination of H/D exchange and biotransformation provides the potential for considerable time- and cost savings, in particular for the synthesis of the stable isotope labelled internal standards of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4 and 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6. PMID:22890009

  18. Determination of acidity constants by the capillary electrophoresis internal standard method. IV. Polyprotic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2013-03-01

    The IS-CE method is developed for pK(a) determination of polyprotic compounds. In this method, the internal standard (IS) and the polyprotic test compound are injected into the capillary electrophoresis (CE) system in buffers with appropriate pH. The pH of the buffers is not externally measured, but determined inside the capillary from the mobilities of the internal standards. Then the pK(a) values of the polyprotic compounds are obtained by fitting its mobilities to the in situ pH values. The method is faster than the classical CE method (a diprotic compound can be done in less than 15 min), and also than other methods like potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. The method has been successfully applied to 20 polyprotic test compounds of different chemical nature, including compounds with extreme or very close pK(a) values.

  19. Synthesis of stable isotope labelled internal standards for drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies.

    PubMed

    Atzrodt, J; Blankenstein, J; Brasseur, D; Calvo-Vicente, S; Denoux, M; Derdau, V; Lavisse, M; Perard, S; Roy, S; Sandvoss, M; Schofield, J; Zimmermann, J

    2012-09-15

    The syntheses of stable isotope labelled internal standards of important CYP-isoform selective probes, like testosterone 1, diclofenac 3, midazolam 5, and dextromethorphan 7, as well as their corresponding hydroxylated metabolites 6β-hydroxytestosterone 2, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4, 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6 and dextrorphan 8 are reported. Microwave-enhanced H/D-exchange reactions applying either acid, base, or homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysis, or combinations thereof proved to be highly efficient for direct deuterium labelling of the above mentioned probes. Compared to conventional stepwise synthetic approaches, the combination of H/D exchange and biotransformation provides the potential for considerable time- and cost savings, in particular for the synthesis of the stable isotope labelled internal standards of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4 and 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6.

  20. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Huggett, A; Petersen, B J; Walker, R; Fisher, C E; Notermans, S H; Rombouts, F M; Abbott, P; Debackere, M; Hathaway, S C; Hecker, E F; Knaap, A G; Kuznesof, P M; Meyland, I; Moy, G; Narbonne, J F; Paakkanen, J; Smith, M R; Tennant, D; Wagstaffe, P; Wargo, J; Würtzen, G

    1998-06-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure to reach these goals. The interaction between risk assessors and risk managers is considered vital to this procedure. This paper reports the outcome of a meeting of risk assessors and risk managers on specific aspects of risk analysis and its application to international standard setting for food additives and contaminants. Case studies on aflatoxins and aspartame were used to identify the key steps of the interaction process which ensure scientific justification for risk management decisions. A series of recommendations were proposed in order to enhance the scientific transparency in these critical phases of the standard setting procedure.

  1. Task group to develop list of environmental standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new task group designed to develop a list of existing and potential standards that are applicable to environmental contamination problems in soil, rock, and groundwater has been established by the American Society for Testing a n d Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee on Geotechnics of Waste Management. The list currently includes over 60 existing and draft ASTM standards from ASTM committees in the areas of site characterization, construction evaluation, and geosynthetics.

  2. Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, K

    2011-03-01

    Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. PMID:21212077

  3. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C Micha; Baylis, Sally A; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the "1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection" (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing.

  4. Collaborative study for the establishment of the second international standard for gramicidin.

    PubMed

    Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2010-10-01

    An international collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) to establish the WHO second International Standard (IS) for gramicidin as the stocks of the 1st IS, established in 1964, were close to depletion. The candidate material did not show any sign of potency loss when kept at elevated temperatures of + 4 °C, + 20 °C, + 37 °C and + 45 °C for 3 months. Six laboratories from 5 countries as well as the EDQM laboratory participated in the collaborative study. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 1st IS for gramicidin was used as standard. Based on the results of the study, the 2nd IS for gramicidin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2008 with an assigned potency of 1070 International Units per mg (IU/mg). The 2nd IS for gramicidin is available from the EDQM.

  5. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  6. International standards for tuberculosis care: relevance and implications for laboratory professionals.

    PubMed

    Pai, M; Daley, P; Hopewell, P C

    2007-04-01

    On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems. PMID:17582176

  7. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and ‘alter-standardization’ in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field. PMID:26983174

  8. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-02-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and 'alterstandardization' in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field.

  9. Interpreting international governance standards for health IT use within general medical practice.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Rachel J; Williams, Patricia A H

    2014-01-01

    General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation (ISO) released a new global standard in May 2013 entitled, ISO/IEC 27014:2013 Information technology - Security techniques - Governance of information security. This standard, applicable to organisations of all sizes, offers a framework against which to assess and implement the governance components of information security. The standard demonstrates the relationship between governance and the management of information security, provides strategic principles and processes, and forms the basis for establishing a positive information security culture. An analysis interpretation of this standard for use in Australian general practice was performed. This work is unique as such interpretation for the Australian healthcare environment has not been undertaken before. It demonstrates an application of the standard at a strategic level to inform existing development of an information security governance framework.

  10. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1... Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 63 FR 16979 (April 7, 1998). Antidumping Duty Order on Welded ASTM... for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for the welded form of chromium-nickel pipe designated ASTM...

  11. Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: Review of existing EMF guidelines, standards and regulations. Final report, January-June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Goellner, D.; Wilson, B.; Reiter, R.; Pilla, A.; Hankin, N.

    1993-08-01

    Although there are no maglev or other advanced high-speed rail systems currently operating in the United States, EMF exposure is still of concern as it relates top 60 hertz (Hz) power transmission and distribution lines and electrical appliances. The report provides information on existing and proposed EMF guidelines, standards and regulations at the international, national, state, and local levels. It covers fields in the frequency range of 0-100 Ghz and includes EMF exposures for both the general public and workers. Whereas the above frequency range includes radio frequencies and microwave frequencies, the main focus for the United States is on extremely low frequencies (ELF), such as those associated with the use of electric power. However, there is some discussion of regulation of higher frequency ranges in other countries.

  12. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  13. Guide to ASTM test methods for the analysis of coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Kishore Nadkarni

    2008-07-01

    The guide includes brief descriptions of all 56 ASTM test methods that cover the physical, chemical, and spectroscopic analytical techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively identify over 40 chemical and physical properties of coal, coke, their products, and by-products.

  14. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  15. Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be

  16. A NEW APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY DECOMISSIONING STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence M. Zull; Richard H. Meservey; Lawrence E. Boing

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Reutilization (DDR) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is to advance the technology of decontamination, decommissioning, and reutilization of nuclear and former nuclear installations, materials, facilities, and sites [1]. This includes sharing collective decommissioning experiences and lessons learned with others in the industry. An integral part of the work of the DDR Division is the preparation of voluntary decommissioning standards through its recently re-established DDR Standards Committee. This Committee intends to support development of various standards with other divisions of the ANS. The Committee also intends to participate with external organizations to disseminate information and lessons learned regarding decontamination activities, and participate in the development of voluntary decommissioning standards. External organizations, such as ASTM International, are involved in the development of consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work. This paper describes the work of the DDR Standards Committee on a new co-operative initiative with ASTM International to develop voluntary consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work.

  17. Quantitation of biological retinoids by high-pressure liquid chromatography: primary internal standardization using tritiated retinoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1986-02-15

    A single method is described for quantitation of 14 retinoids found in biological material. The method consists of reversed-phase HPLC, internal standardization, and carrier extraction procedures with three synthetic retinoids. Primary standardization of HPLC uv detector is achieved using tritiated all-trans-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl palmitate, and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Extraction methods are standardized by correlating the uv absorbance of retinoids at 340 nm with radioactivity of tritiated retinoids of known specific activity. Quantitation of 10 pg of tritiated or 5 ng of nonradioactive retinoid per 0.1 g sample in a polarity range from 4-oxo-retinoic acid to retinyl stearate can be achieved in a single, 50-min chromatographic run. A single HPLC pump, a C/sub 18/ reversed-phased analytical column, a multistep three-solvent gradient, and inexpensive solvents based on methanol, water, and chloroform comprise this cost-effective chromatographic system. Our primary standardization method allows investigators employing different procedures to compare results between laboratories by standardizing the HPLC uv detector with commercially available tritiated retinoids. With this method we were able to quantitate nanomolar amounts of endogenous retinoic acids and retinyl esters, that HPLC uv only conditions usually would not detect in the circulation and liver of rats under physiological conditions.

  18. Collaborative study for the calibration of a replacement International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Rob; Stickings, Paul; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Iwaki, Masaaki; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of a collaborative study for the establishment of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed. Two candidate preparations were included in the study, one of which was established as the 4th IS for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed at the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting in October 2010. This preparation was found to have a unitage of 490 IU/ampoule, based on calibration in guinea pig challenge assays. Results from mouse challenge assays suggest that the relative performance of two candidate preparations may differ significantly between guinea pigs and mice. The authors note that the number of laboratories that performed guinea pig challenge assays, which are used to calibrate and assign IU, is much lower than in previous collaborative studies and this may have implications for calibration of replacement standards in the future. The issue of assigning separate units to the IS for guinea pig and mouse assays is discussed. The study also assessed performance of the replacement standard in serological assays which are used as alternative procedures to challenge assays for tetanus potency testing. Results suggest that the replacement standard is suitable for use as the reference vaccine in serological assays.

  19. Commutability of the First World Health Organization International Standard for Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Preiksaitis, J.; Tong, Y.; Pang, X.; Sun, Y.; Tang, L.; Cook, L.; Pounds, S.; Fryer, J.; Caliendo, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA has become a standard part of care for many groups of immunocompromised patients; recent development of the first WHO international standard for human CMV DNA has raised hopes of reducing interlaboratory variability of results. Commutability of reference material has been shown to be necessary if such material is to reduce variability among laboratories. Here we evaluated the commutability of the WHO standard using 10 different real-time quantitative CMV PCR assays run by eight different laboratories. Test panels, including aliquots of 50 patient samples (40 positive samples and 10 negative samples) and lyophilized CMV standard, were run, with each testing center using its own quantitative calibrators, reagents, and nucleic acid extraction methods. Commutability was assessed both on a pairwise basis and over the entire group of assays, using linear regression and correspondence analyses. Commutability of the WHO material differed among the tests that were evaluated, and these differences appeared to vary depending on the method of statistical analysis used and the cohort of assays included in the analysis. Depending on the methodology used, the WHO material showed poor or absent commutability with up to 50% of assays. Determination of commutability may require a multifaceted approach; the lack of commutability seen when using the WHO standard with several of the assays here suggests that further work is needed to bring us toward true consensus. PMID:26269622

  20. Upcoming new international measurement standards in the field of building acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goydke, Hans

    2002-11-01

    The extensively completed revision of most of the ISO measurement standards in building acoustics mainly initiated by the European Commissions demand for harmonized standards emphasized the insight that the main goal to avoid trade barriers between the countries can only be reached when the standards sufficiently and comprehensively cover the field when they are related to the actual state of the art and when they are sufficiently related to practice. In modern architecture one can observe the rapid change in the use of building materials, for instance regarding the use of glass. Lightweight constructions as well as heavyweight building elements with additional linings are increasingly in common use and unquestionably there are consequences to be considered regarding the ascertainment of sound insulation properties. Besides others, International Standardization is unsatisfactory regarding the assessment of noise in buildings from waste water installations, in the low frequency area and in general regarding the expression of uncertainty of measurements. Intensity measurements in building acoustics, rainfall noise assessment, estimation of sound insulation, impulse response measurement methods, assessment of sound scattering are examples of upcoming standards.

  1. The Meaning of Curriculum-Related Examination Standards in Scotland and England: A Home-International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Gray, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which examination standards are conceptualised and operationalised differently across nations has not been given sufficient attention. The international literature on standard-setting has been dominated by the psychometrics tradition. Broader conceptualisations of examination standards have been discussed in the literature in England,…

  2. Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative

  3. The URSI/COSPAR Standard for the Ionosphere: International Reference Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawer, K.; Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Triskova, L.; Oyama, K.

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is the standard for ionospheric densities and temperatures recommended by the International Union of Radio science (URSI) and the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). The IRI Working Group consists of a team of 43 experts who work on different aspects of the modeling problem. By charter IRI is a data-based (empirical) model that attempts to represent the combined ionospheric data base of ground and space measurements as accurate as possible. IRI provides monthly averages of the electron density, total electron content, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition (O+, H+, He+, N+, O2+, NO+, Cluster) and vertical ion drift (at the equator). If measured values are available the IRI profile can be updated with E and F peak densities and heights. IRI shortcomings, improvements, new additions, and applications are discussed during annual workshops. This talk will review the current status of the IRI project and describe the most recent version of the model, IRI-2000.

  4. The test technology of electrical safety performances based on IEC international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Dong; Wang, Yanlin

    2008-10-01

    The test technology of electrical safety performance based on IEC international standards is put forward in the paper, including mainly four test parameters: leakage current, high-voltage withstand, insulation resistance and ground resistance. The definitions, the types, the testing purposes and methods of these parameters are also proposed. Based on the technology, we construct a system for data collection, processing and controlling with a PC, a high-performance microcomputer ADμC842 and a FPGA, and adopts a VI technology to develop an integrated testing system for electrical safety performance. The system can be applied to both the certification testing of products and quality control in manufacturing and provides an authenticating measure for the domestic electrical equipments to enter international markets.

  5. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Polymer Additives with MALDI-TOF MS Using an Internal Standard Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

  7. Quantitative analysis of polymer additives with MALDI-TOF MS using an internal standard approach.

    PubMed

    Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

  8. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    PubMed Central

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  9. The current state of the international standard for exchange of optical data in electronic form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormell, Prudence M. J. H.

    2006-06-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is developing a standard for the exchange of optical data in electronic form between different design programs. In order that the data be completely unambiguous an on-line Properties Dictionary is also being established, when finished this should be available to subscribers to ISO and will enable optical designers and manufacturing industry to access information accurately and transfer this information without manual intervention, across many boundaries. The Neutral Optical Data Interchange Format (NODIF) will use this dictionary to define the optical data that can be passed between to any CAD programs that are STEP compliant. NODIF is of concern to software developers, the Properties Dictionary is of concern to manufacturers.

  10. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe. PMID:20166316

  11. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt. PMID:27405171

  13. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt.

  14. International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry Cell Sorter Biosafety Standards

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Kevin L.; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H.; Wadley, Robert B.; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99–117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414–437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. PMID:24634405

  15. Minutes: Accredited Standards Committee on Mechanical Vibration and Shock, S2. US TAG for ISO/TC 108 Mechanical Vibration and Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    Topics include: approval of minutes of Ottawa, Canada meeting, held 19 May 1993; organization; standards approved by ANSI in 1992/1993 and published (or being published) by ASA; organizational matters and reports on working groups, including reports on letter ballots and international matters; International Organization for Standardization (ISO); International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC); review of standards more than five years in existence; new international standards available from ANSI; documents from other organizations submitted to S2 for vote and/or comment; procedural ballots; other business; future meetings; and adjournment.

  16. Report from AmSECT’s International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion: American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology Standards and Guidelines for Perfusion Practice: 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Robert A.; Bronson, Shahna L.; Dickinson, Timothy A.; Fitzgerald, David C.; Likosky, Donald S.; Mellas, Nicholas B.; Shann, Kenneth G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: One of the roles of a professional society is to develop standards and guidelines of practice as an instrument to guide safe and effective patient care. The American Society of Extracorporeal Technology (AmSECT) first published its Essentials for Perfusion Practice, Clinical Function: Conduct of Extracorporeal Circulation in 1993. The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (ICEBP), a committee within AmSECT, was tasked with updating this document in 2010. The aim of this report is to describe the method of development and content of AmSECT’s new professional standards and guidelines. The ICEBP committee independently evaluated and provided input regarding the current “Essentials and Guidelines.” Structural changes were made to the entire document, and a draft document was developed, presented, and circulated to the AmSECT Board of Directors and broader membership for comment. Informed by these reviews, a revised document was then presented to the Society for a membership vote. The final document consists of 15 areas of practice covered by 50 Standards and 38 Guidelines (see Appendix 1) with the first standard focusing on the development of institutional protocols to support their implementation and use. A majority of the membership voted to accept the document (81.2% of the voting membership accepting, 18.8% rejecting). After an audit of the balloting process by AmSECT’s Ethics Committee, the results were reported to the membership and the document was officially adopted on July 24, 2013. The Standards and Guidelines will serve as a useful guide for cardiac surgical teams that wish to develop institution-specific standards and guidelines to improve the reliability, safety, and effectiveness of adult cardiopulmonary bypass. The ICEBP recognizes that the development of a Standards and Guidelines statement alone will not change care. Safe, reliable, and effective care will be best served through the development and implementation of

  17. Stable isotope coded derivatizing reagents as internal standards in metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Bruheim, Per; Kvitvang, Hans Fredrik Nyvold; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2013-06-28

    Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometric (MS) detection have become the two main techniques for the analysis of metabolite pools (i.e. Metabolomics). These technologies are especially suited for Metabolite Profiling analysis of various metabolite groups due to high separation capabilities of the chromatographs and high sensitivity of the mass analysers. The trend in quantitative Metabolite Profiling is to add more metabolites and metabolite groups in a single method. This should not be done by compromising the analytical precision. Mass spectrometric detection comes with certain limitations, especially in the quantitative aspects as standards are needed for conversion of ion abundance to concentration and ionization efficiencies are directly dependent on eluent conditions. This calls for novel strategies to counteract all variables that can influence the quantitative precision. Usually, internal standards are used to correct any technical variation. For quantitation of single or just a few analytes this can be executed with spiking isotopically labeled standards. However, for more comprehensive analytical tasks, e.g. profiling tens or hundreds of analytes simultaneously, this strategy becomes expensive and in many cases isotopically labeled standards are not available. An alternative is to introduce a derivatizing step where the sample is derivatized with naturally labeled reagent, while a standard solution is separately derivatized with isotopically labeled reagent and spiked into the sample solution prior to analysis. This strategy, named isotope coded derivatization - ICD, is attractive in the emerging field of quantitative Metabolite Profiling where current protocols can easily comprise over hundred metabolites. This review provides an overview of isotopically labeled derivatizing reagents that have been developed for important metabolite groups with the aim to improve analytical performance and precision.

  18. Quantitative MALDI tandem mass spectrometric imaging of cocaine from brain tissue with a deuterated internal standard.

    PubMed

    Pirman, David A; Reich, Richard F; Kiss, András; Heeren, Ron M A; Yost, Richard A

    2013-01-15

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is an analytical technique used to determine the distribution of individual analytes within a given sample. A wide array of analytes and samples can be investigated by MSI, including drug distribution in rats, lipid analysis from brain tissue, protein differentiation in tumors, and plant metabolite distributions. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is a soft ionization technique capable of desorbing and ionizing a large range of compounds, and it is the most common ionization source used in MSI. MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) is generally considered to be a qualitative analytical technique because of significant ion-signal variability. Consequently, MSI is also thought to be a qualitative technique because of the quantitative limitations of MALDI coupled with the homogeneity of tissue sections inherent in an MSI experiment. Thus, conclusions based on MS images are often limited by the inability to correlate ion signal increases with actual concentration increases. Here, we report a quantitative MSI method for the analysis of cocaine (COC) from brain tissue using a deuterated internal standard (COC-d(3)) combined with wide-isolation MS/MS for analysis of the tissue extracts with scan-by-scan COC-to-COC-d(3) normalization. This resulted in significant improvements in signal reproducibility and calibration curve linearity. Quantitative results from the MSI experiments were compared with quantitative results from liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS results from brain tissue extracts. Two different quantitative MSI techniques (standard addition and external calibration) produced quantitative results comparable to LC-MS/MS data. Tissue extracts were also analyzed by MALDI wide-isolation MS/MS, and quantitative results were nearly identical to those from LC-MS/MS. These results clearly demonstrate the necessity for an internal standard for quantitative MSI experiments. PMID:23214490

  19. Utilizing Internal Standard Responses to Assess Risk on Reporting Bioanalytical Results from Hemolyzed Samples.

    PubMed

    Fung, Eliza N; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Allentoff, Alban; Ji, Qin C

    2015-09-01

    Bioanalytical analysis of toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic samples is an integral part of small molecule drugs development and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been the technique of choice. One important consideration is the matrix effect, in which ionization of the analytes of interest is affected by the presence of co-eluting interfering components present in the sample matrix. Hemolysis, which results in additional endogenous components being released from the lysed red blood cells, may cause additional matrix interferences. The effects of the degree of hemolysis on the accuracy and precision of the method and the reported sample concentrations from hemolyzed study samples have drawn increasing attention in recent years, especially in cases where the sample concentrations are critical for pharmacokinetic calculation. Currently, there is no established procedure to objectively assess the risk of reporting potentially inaccurate bioanalytical results from hemolyzed study samples. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different degrees of hemolysis on the internal standard peak area, accuracy, and precision of the analyses of BMS-906024 and its metabolite, BMS-911557, in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. In addition, we proposed the strategy of using the peak area of the stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) from the LC-MS/MS measurement as the surrogate marker for risk assessment. Samples with peak areas outside of the pre-defined acceptance criteria, e.g., less than 50% or more than 150% of the average IS response in study samples, plasma standards, and QC samples when SIL-IS is used, are flagged out for further investigation. PMID:25975617

  20. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

  1. International Comparison of FTIR measurements traceable to HITRAN and Gravimetrically prepared Gas Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, F.; Joële, V.; Philippe, M.; Faraz, I.; Robert, W.

    2009-12-01

    An international comparison is being organised to compare measurement results of gas concentration that are traceable to the HITRAN database with SI traceable values based on gravimetrically prepared gas standards. The results of the comparison will allow potential biases for specific gas species in the HITRAN database to be identified. The comparison is being performed on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) but the developed methodology is applicable to the majority of gas species in the HITRAN database. There is a high international priority attached to activities which reduce NOx in the atmosphere. The current level of permitted emissions is typically between 50 μmol/mol and 100 μmol/mol, but lower values are expected in the future. Currently, ambient air quality monitoring regulations also require the measurement of NOx mole fractions of 0.2 μmol/mol. To determine accurately the NO2 mole fraction at ambient levels high quality primary gas references are desirable. However, since NO2 is a reactive gas, stability problems in the gas standards below mole fractions of 100 μmol/mol, and particularly below 10 μmol/mol, has been observed and studied at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures during the last years. An international comparison of NO2 measurement capabilities between National Metrology Institutes, coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, was initiated in June 2009. The comparison consists in two main protocols, the protocol CCQM-K74 and the protocol CCQM-P110. The procedure CCQM-K74 comparison is designed to evaluate the level of comparability of the laboratories’ measurement capabilities for NO2 at a nominal mole fraction of 10 μmol/mol based on their own measurement capabilities. The CCQM-P110 protocol, open only to laboratories maintaining Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy facilities, aims to evaluate the level of comparability of laboratories’ NO2 measurement capabilities based on FTIR spectroscopy traceable to primary

  2. 77 FR 14046 - Amended Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1085). Patricia A. Brink... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR...

  3. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

  4. An evaluation of the contribution of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) to leprosy control in India based on the implementation of multiple drug therapy (MDT) 1981-1993.

    PubMed

    Peat, M; Brolin, L; Ganapati, R; McDougall, A C; Revankar, C R; Watson, J W

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) first supported the National Leprosy Control Programme in India in 1978. In 1981/82 priority was given to the implementation of multiple drug therapy (MDT), starting in two high-endemic districts, and gradually extending to a total of 19 districts in the years by 1993. SIDA then decided to undertake a detailed evaluation of its 12-year contribution and this was carried out by an international team between November 1993 and April 1994. In terms of epidemiological and public health impact, the main results were impressive and clear-cut; 837,519 cases (old and newly arising) were successfully treated, with few complications and a low rate of relapse. The voluntary reporting rate had improved significantly. Data relating to new case detection, child and disability rates were, however, less clear and difficult to interpret. Deficiencies were also identified in the areas of health education, community participation, gender issues, disability prevention and management, rehabilitation, operational research and assessment of cost-effectiveness. These problems should not, however, detract from the contribution of SIDA, from 1981 onwards, in establishing the implementation of MDT in two 'pilot' districts at an early and important stage in the history of the MDT programme in India. SIDA also made significant contributions in other areas, namely pre-MDT 'screening' of registers in 45 endemic districts in 1990-1993, appointment of consultant leprologists at district level, group education activities, annual meetings of voluntary agencies and the development of a monitoring and information system, with computer facilities, at national level. This paper describes the design and methodology, main findings and conclusions of the evaluation, based on the final report and the appendices submitted to SIDA in Stockholm in April 1994.

  5. Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report. Appendix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This appendix accompanies the report "Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report," a study conducted by Achieve to compare the science standards of 10 countries. This appendix includes the following: (1) PISA and TIMSS Assessment Rankings; (2) Courses and Levels…

  6. Reproducible vapor-time profiles using solid-phase microextraction with an externally sampled internal standard.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William; Moore, Stephanie; Schantz, Michele

    2012-06-29

    Determination of the dynamic nature of vapor/odor release has application in a wide variety of systems. This study applies automated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) utilizing an externally sampled internal standard (ESIS) to determine the vapor-time profile of odor delivery devices for three classes of explosive compounds. The profiles of delivery systems for target odorants 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EH), and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) as canine training aids were compared over a period of 70 h. Strategies for evaluating the vapor-time profile of components with widely differing volatility are considered. An approach to quantifying the vapor concentration is described. The differences in the vapor-time profiles are examined and suggestions for selecting the best representative odor delivery technique are outlined. PMID:22633864

  7. Increasing Allele Detection by Altering the Quantity of Internal Lane Standard.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Jessica M; Michalik, Monnie; Dukes, Mary Jones; Wojtkiewicz, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic injection (EI) is the primary method used in forensic laboratories to load amplified PCR product in capillary electrophoresis for short tandem repeat (STR) fragment separation. Because all samples subjected to capillary electrophoresis use internal lane standard (ILS), this study investigated the consequence of varying the volume of ILS and its effects on allele peak heights and number of alleles detected. Results demonstrated that when the volume of ILS is reduced, the average peak height and number of alleles increased, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the detection method. Sizing anomalies were observed; however, they did not adversely affect accuracy and precision. The method developed in this study offers a simple and universal procedure to increase the alleles detected in forensic STR analysis. Reducing the volume of ILS to achieve greater sensitivity is applicable to all STR amplification kits and capillary electrophoresis instruments currently used in forensic DNA analysis. PMID:26390320

  8. Heteromer score-using internal standards to assess the quality of proteomic data.

    PubMed

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, Stephen J

    2014-05-01

    In the cell, the majority of proteins exist in complexes. Most of these complexes have a constant stoichiometry and thus can be used as internal standards. In this rapid communication, we show that it is possible to calculate a correlation coefficient that reflects the reproducibility of the analytical approach used. The abundance of one subunit in a heterodimer is plotted against the abundance of the other, and this is repeated for all subunits in all heteromers found in the data set. The correlation coefficient obtained (the "heteromer score") is a new bioinformatic tool that is independent of the method used to collect the data, requires no special sample preparation and can be used retrospectively on old datasets. It can be used for quality control, to indicate when a change becomes significant or identify complexes whose stoichiometry has been perturbed during the experiment.

  9. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Joel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M.; Ackerson, Teri; Bernhardt, Julie; Davie, Charlie; George, Mary G.; Gething, Stephanie; Kelly, Adam G.; Lindsay, Patrice; Liu, Liping; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Morgan, Louise; Norrving, Bo; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Silver, Frank L.; Smith, Eric E.; Williams, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures was defined for use in a variety of healthcare settings. Methods— A modified Delphi process was implemented with an international expert panel representing patients, advocates, and clinical specialists in stroke outcomes, stroke registers, global health, epidemiology, and rehabilitation to reach consensus on the preferred outcome measures, included populations, and baseline risk adjustment variables. Results— Patients presenting to a hospital with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were selected as the target population for these recommendations, with the inclusion of transient ischemic attacks optional. Outcome categories recommended for assessment were survival and disease control, acute complications, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes proposed for assessment at 90 days were pain, mood, feeding, selfcare, mobility, communication, cognitive functioning, social participation, ability to return to usual activities, and health-related quality of life, with mobility, feeding, selfcare, and communication also collected at discharge. One instrument was able to collect most patient-reported subdomains (9/16, 56%). Minimum data collection for risk adjustment included patient demographics, premorbid functioning, stroke type and severity, vascular and systemic risk factors, and specific treatment/care-related factors. Conclusions— A consensus stroke measure Standard Set was developed as a simple, pragmatic method to increase the value of stroke care. The set should be validated in practice when used for monitoring and comparisons across different care settings. PMID:26604251

  10. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  12. A novel reductive amination method with isotopic formaldehydes for the preparation of internal standard and standards for determining organosulfur compounds in garlic.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Cheng; Liu, Meng-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Reng; Huang, Mei-Fang; Liang, Shih-Shin

    2016-04-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is a long-cultivated plant that is widely utilized in cooking and has been employed as a medicine for over 4000 years. In this study, we fabricated standards and internal standards (ISs) for absolute quantification via reductive amination with isotopic formaldehydes. Garlic has four abundant organosulfur compounds (OSCs): S-allylcysteine, S-allylcysteinine sulfoxide, S-methylcysteine, and S-ethylcysteine are abundant in garlic. OSCs with primary amine groups were reacted with isotopic formaldehydes to synthesize ISs and standards. Cooked and uncooked garlic samples were compared, and we utilized tandem mass spectrometry equipped with a selective reaction monitoring technique to absolutely quantify the four organosulfur compounds.

  13. Fast high-throughput method for the determination of acidity constants by capillary electrophoresis. II. Acidic internal standards.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2010-12-24

    A fast method for the determination of acidity constants by CZE has been recently developed. This method is based on the use of an internal standard of pK(a) similar to that of the analyte. In this paper we establish the reference pK(a) values of a set of 24 monoprotic neutral acids of varied structure that we propose as internal standards. These compounds cover the most usual working pH range in CZE and facilitate the selection of adequate internal standards for a given determination. The reference pK(a) values of the acids have been established by the own internal standard method, i.e. from the mobility differences between different acids of similar pK(a) in the same pH buffers. The determined pK(a) values have been contrasted to the literature pK(a) values and confirmed by determination of the pK(a) values of some acids of the set by the classical CE method. Some systematic deviations of mobilities have been observed in NaOH buffer in reference to the other used buffers, overcoming the use of NaOH in the classical CE method. However, the deviations affect in a similar degree to the test compounds and internal standards allowing thus, the use of NaOH buffer in the internal standard method. This fact demonstrates the better performance of the internal standard method over the classical method to correct mobility deviations, which together with its fastness makes it an interesting method for the routine determination of accurate pK(a) values of new pharmaceutical drugs and drug precursors.

  14. Establishment of replacement International Standard 13/132 for human antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Rijpkema, Sjoerd; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Guy, Edward C

    2016-09-01

    Sixteen laboratories carried out a collaborative study to validate 13/132 as a replacement International Standard (IS) for TOXM (3rd IS for anti-Toxoplasma Serum, Human, 1000 IU). 13/132 is a freeze dried preparation of pooled human plasma from six donors who experienced a recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. The potency of 13/132 was compared to TOXM and 01/600 (1st IS for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, Human, 20 IU). Samples were tested for IgA, IgG, IgG avidity and IgM in agglutination assays; enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), enzyme linked fluorescent assays, immunoblots, immunofluorescence assays and the Sabin-Feldman dye test for Ig. 13/132 was strongly positive for Ig, IgA, IgG and IgM and the reproducibility was very good. 13/132 contains high levels of anti-Toxoplasma Ig, IgG and IgM and its potency falls between TOXM and 01/600. The avidity of IgG was found to be low, similar to the avidity of IgG from TOXM. 13/132 was established by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 4th IS for Antibodies, Human, to T. gondii with an assigned unitage of 160 IU per ampoule for Ig by dye test and 263 U per ampoule for IgG by ELISA. PMID:27378430

  15. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine. PMID:24110023

  16. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    SciTech Connect

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R.; Goble, W.; Kumar, V.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  17. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine.

  18. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  19. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  20. Novel Instrument for Automated pK(a) Determination by Internal Standard Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan M; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí; Smejkal, Petr; Breadmore, Michael C

    2015-06-16

    The internal standard capillary electrophoresis method (IS-CE) has been implemented in a novel sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument for the high-throughput determination of acidity constants (pK(a)) regardless of aqueous solubility, number of pK(a) values, or structure. This instrument comprises a buffer creation system that automatically mixes within a few seconds four reagents for in situ creation of the separation electrolyte with a pH range of 2-13, ionic strength of 10-100 mM and organic solvent content from 0% to 40%. Combined with 1.2 kV/cm and a short effective length (15 cm to the UV detector) fast 20 s electrophoretic separations can be obtained. The low standard deviation of the replicates and the low variation compared to reference values show that this system can accurately determine acidity constants of drugs by IS-CE. A single pK(a) can be determined in 2 min and a set of 20 measurements in half an hour, allowing rapid, simple, and flexible determination of pK(a) values of pharmaceutical targets.

  1. Improved theophylline serum analysis by an appropriate internal standard for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D G; Davis, H L; Johnson, G E

    1976-06-23

    A gas chromatographic method is presented for the measurement of theophylline in serum. To serum samples containing the drug the internal standard, 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine, was added and the serum was saturated with ammonium carbonate. A mixture of isopropanol-chloroform (5:95) was used for extraction. The organic phase was filtered and evaporated. The residue, dissolved in chloroform, was extracted with sodium hydroxide. The basic solution was acidified, washed with hexane and reextracted with isopropanol-chloroform. The organic phase was dried with anhydrous sodium sulphate before evaporation. The sample was derivatized with n-Butyl-8 reagent. 85% of theophylline was recovered by extraction. 3-Isobutyl-l-methylxanthine was recovered with the same efficiency as theophylline and gas chromatographed well. The standard curve was linear between 1.0 and 50.0 mug/ml theophylline. No interference was encountered from normal serum constituents or methylxanthines such as caffeine, theobromine, or 3-methylxanthine. Serum samples were stared in the refrigerator for two weeks without significant loss of drug. The precision and accuracy of the method were good.

  2. Development of the ASTM sequence IIIE engine oil oxidation and wear test

    SciTech Connect

    Smolenski, D.J.; Bergin, S.P

    1988-01-01

    The ASTM Sequence IIID engine-dynamometer test has been used to evaluate the high-temperature protection provided by engine oils with respect to valve train wear, viscosity increase (oil thickening), deposits, and oil consumption. The obsolescence of the engine used in this test along with the need to define even higher levels of performance associated with a new oil category (SG) prompted efforts at developing a replacement test. This paper describes the hardware and procedure development of this replacement test, the ASTM Sequence IIIE test. Test precision and correlation with field and Sequence IIID results on a series of reference oils is also discussed.

  3. Wide range stress intensity factor expressions for ASTM E 399 standard fracture toughness specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srawley, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    For each of the two types of specimens, bend and compact, described previously for plane strain fracture toughness of materials, E 399, a polynominal expression is given for calculation of the stress intensity factor, K, from the applied force, P, and the specimen dimensions. It is explicitly stated, however, that these expressions should not be used outside the range of relative crack length, a/W, from 0.45 to 0.55. While this range is sufficient for the purpose of E 399, the same specimen types are often used for other purposes over a much wider range of a/W; for example, in the study of fatigue crack growth. Expressions are presented which are at least as accurate as those in E 399-74, and which cover much wider ranges of a/W: for the three-point bend specimen from 0 to 1; and for the compact specimen from 0.2 to 1. The range has to be restricted for the compact specimen because of the proximity of the loading pin holes to the crackline, which causes the stress intensity factor to be sensitive to small variations in dimensions when a/W is small. This is a penalty inherently associated with the compactness of the specimen.

  4. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... credit procedures, pit credit play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the... for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including...

  5. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... credit procedures, pit credit play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the... for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including...

  6. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... internal combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This action proposes to amend... internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and...

  7. An Audit of Emergency Department Accreditation Based on Joint Commission International Standards (JCI)

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Motamedi, Maryam; Etemad, Mania; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Kaghazchi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite thousands of years from creation of medical knowledge, it not much passes from founding the health care systems. Accreditation is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation, quality enhancement, and the safety of health care systems. This study was conducted to assess the results of emergency department (ED) accreditation in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013 in terms of domesticated standards of joint commission international (JCI) standards. Methods: This cohort study with a four-month follow up was conducted in the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital in 2013. The standard evaluation checklist of Iran hospitals (based on JCI standards) included 24 heading and 337 subheading was used for this purpose. The effective possible causes of weak spots were found and their solutions considered. After correction, assessment of accreditation were repeated again. Finally, the achieved results of two periods were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities had the score of below 50%. The mean of total score for accreditation in ED in the first period was 60.4±30.15 percent and in the second period 68.9±22.9 (p=0.005). Strategic plans, head of department, head nurse, resident physician, responsible nurse for the shift, and personnel file achieved the score of 100%. Of total headings below 50% in the first period just in two cases, collection and analysis of data with growth of 40% as well as competency and capability test for staffs with growth of 17%, were reached to more than 50%. Conclusion: Based on findings of the present study, the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital reached the score of below 50% in six heading of quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data

  8. Creating an educationally minded schedule: one approach to minimize the impact of duty hour standards on intern continuity clinic experience.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Dominick; Kerrey, M Kathleen; Sucharew, Heidi; Klein, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    To determine if implementing an educationally minded schedule utilizing consecutive night shifts can moderate the impact of the 2011 duty hour standards on education and patient continuity of care in longitudinal primary care experience (continuity clinic). A 14-month pre-post study was performed in continuity clinic with one supervising physician group and two intern groups. Surveys to assess attitudes and education were distributed to the supervising physicians and interns before and after the changes in duty hour standards. Intern groups' schedules were reviewed for the number of regular and alternative day clinic (i.e. primary care experience on a different weekday) sessions and patient continuity of care. Fifteen supervising physicians and 51 interns participated (25 in 2011, 26 in 2012). Intern groups' comfort when discussing patient issues, educational needs and teamwork perception did not differ. Supervising physicians' understanding of learning needs and provision of feedback did not differ between groups. Supervising physicians indicated a greater ability to provide feedback and understand learning needs during regular continuity clinic sessions compared with alternative day clinics (all p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between intern groups in the number of regularly scheduled continuity clinics, alternative day clinics or patient continuity of care. The 2011 duty hour standards required significant alterations to intern schedules, but educationally minded scheduling limited impact on education and patient continuity in care. PMID:24841768

  9. Creating an educationally minded schedule: one approach to minimize the impact of duty hour standards on intern continuity clinic experience.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Dominick; Kerrey, M Kathleen; Sucharew, Heidi; Klein, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    To determine if implementing an educationally minded schedule utilizing consecutive night shifts can moderate the impact of the 2011 duty hour standards on education and patient continuity of care in longitudinal primary care experience (continuity clinic). A 14-month pre-post study was performed in continuity clinic with one supervising physician group and two intern groups. Surveys to assess attitudes and education were distributed to the supervising physicians and interns before and after the changes in duty hour standards. Intern groups' schedules were reviewed for the number of regular and alternative day clinic (i.e. primary care experience on a different weekday) sessions and patient continuity of care. Fifteen supervising physicians and 51 interns participated (25 in 2011, 26 in 2012). Intern groups' comfort when discussing patient issues, educational needs and teamwork perception did not differ. Supervising physicians' understanding of learning needs and provision of feedback did not differ between groups. Supervising physicians indicated a greater ability to provide feedback and understand learning needs during regular continuity clinic sessions compared with alternative day clinics (all p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between intern groups in the number of regularly scheduled continuity clinics, alternative day clinics or patient continuity of care. The 2011 duty hour standards required significant alterations to intern schedules, but educationally minded scheduling limited impact on education and patient continuity in care.

  10. Cryogenic insulation standard data and methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although some standards exist for thermal insulation, few address the sub-ambient temperature range and cold-side temperatures below 100 K. Standards for cryogenic insulation systems require cryostat testing and data analysis that will allow the development of the tools needed by design engineers and thermal analysts for the design of practical cryogenic systems. Thus, this critically important information can provide reliable data and methodologies for industrial efficiency and energy conservation. Two Task Groups have been established in the area of cryogenic insulation systems Under ASTM International's Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation. These are WK29609 - New Standard for Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems and WK29608 - Standard Practice for Multilayer Insulation in Cryogenic Service. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Thermal Energy Laboratory of LeTourneau University are conducting Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) of selected insulation materials. Each lab carries out the measurements of thermal properties of these materials using identical flat-plate boil-off calorimeter instruments. Parallel testing will provide the comparisons necessary to validate the measurements and methodologies. Here we discuss test methods, some initial data in relation to the experimental approach, and the manner reporting the thermal performance data. This initial study of insulation materials for sub-ambient temperature applications is aimed at paving the way for further ILS comparative efforts that will produce standard data sets for several commercial materials. Discrepancies found between measurements will be used to improve the testing and data reduction techniques being developed as part of the future ASTM International standards.

  11. Standardization of a new batch of purified tuberculin (PPD) intended for international use

    PubMed Central

    Guld, Johannes; Bentzon, M. Weis; Bleiker, M. A.; Griep, W. A.; Magnusson, Mogens; Waaler, Hans

    1958-01-01

    A new batch of PPD tuberculin, RT 23, prepared at the request of UNICEF by the Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, has been compared with previous batches of tuberculin from the Statens Seruminstitut and with the International Standard for the Purified Protein Derivative of Mammalian Tuberculin. The comparisons were made by intradermal tuberculin testing. The majority of tests were carried out in human subjects with various types and levels of tuberculin sensitivity—namely, tuberculous patients in the Netherlands; BCG-vaccinated as well as spontaneously tuberculin-sensitive army recruits in the Netherlands; BCG-vaccinated schoolchildren in Denmark; population groups in the tropics (Mauritius and Nigeria) including a high proportion of persons with low-grade sensitivity. In addition, comparisons were made in guinea-pigs sensitized in different ways. For these comparisons, RT 23 was diluted both with phosphate-buffered saline alone (as were the other preparations) and with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.05‰ Tween 80 as a stabilizing agent. The results were found to differe significantly with the type and level of sensitivity of the groups tested. Thus, while the potency ratio of RT 23 and the International Standard is about 2:1 in BCG-vaccinated persons, it is about 1:1 in persons with naturally acquired tuberculin sensitivity. RT 23 in diluent containing Tween 80 elicited larger reactions than did RT 23 in ordinary diluent; however, when reactions of the same size were compared, a difference in character was observed: the reactions to RT 23 diluted with Tween 80 were softer and less frequently bullous. On the basis of the results—in terms of reaction size—obtained in patients and in non-vaccinated recruits, it is suggested that one unit of RT 23 should be defined as 0.02 μg of the dry substance; for use as a first or single dose in routine testing, 0.02 μg of RT 23 in diluent stabilized with Tween 80, or 0.06 μg in diluent without Tween 80, is

  12. Standardization of microcystin extraction from fish tissues: a novel internal standard as a surrogate for polar and non-polar variants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Juliette L; Boyer, Gregory L

    2009-02-01

    Microcystins (MCs), a class of potent liver/hepatopancreatic toxins produced by numerous species of freshwater cyanobacteria, are well known for their toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. The extraction efficiencies of MCs can vary greatly as a result of matrix differences and/or differences in the extraction solvents, techniques, and clean-up steps utilized. Here we report the preparation of a unique internal standard, (S-hydroxypropyl-cys7)microcystin-LR (thiol-LR), with a mass different than any known MCs, which can be spiked into field samples and quantified via HPLC-MS along with endogenous MCs. Thiol-LR is modified at the Mdha residue, and therefore, provides an accurate measure of only free MCs that are not covalently bound to endogenous thiols in the matrix. The internal standard proved to be a good surrogate for MC-RR, -LR, and -LA in fish liver tissue. In fish muscle tissue, thiol-LR was a good surrogate for polar variants, MC-RR and -LR, but was less representative of the non-polar variant, MC-LA. Coupling of the internal standard (8 microg/g ww tissue) with HPLC-MS detection will standardize the quantification of free microcystins across species, tissue types, and extraction methods, making the estimation of exposure risk more reliable.

  13. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the

  14. Combustion Gas Properties I-ASTM Jet a Fuel and Dry Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Wear, J. D.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of computations was made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for ASTM jet A fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0.

  15. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability.

  16. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  17. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  18. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  19. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  20. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  1. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization international standards for human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and type 18 DNA.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dianna E; Baylis, Sally A; Padley, David; Heath, Alan B; Ferguson, Morag; Pagliusi, Sonia R; Quint, Wim G; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-06-15

    A World Health Organization collaborative study was conducted to evaluate candidate international standards for human papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 DNA (NIBSC code 06/202) and HPV Type 18 DNA (NIBSC code 06/206) for use in the amplification and detection steps of nucleic acid-based assays. The freeze-dried candidate international standards were prepared from bulk preparations of cloned plasmid containing full-length HPV-16 or HPV-18 genomic DNA. Nineteen laboratories from 13 countries participated in the study using a variety of commercial and in-house quantitative and qualitative assays. The data presented here indicate that, upon freeze-drying, there is no significant loss in potency for the candidate HPV-18 DNA and a slight loss in potency for the candidate HPV-16 DNA; although this is likely not scientifically relevant when assay precision is considered. In general, the individual laboratory mean estimates for each study sample were grouped +/- approximately 2 log(10) around the theoretical HPV DNA concentration of the reconstituted ampoule (1 x 10(7) HPV genome equivalents/mL). The agreement between laboratories is improved when potencies are made relative to the candidate international standards, demonstrating their utility in harmonizing amplification and detection steps of HPV-16 and -18 DNA assays. Degradation studies indicate that the candidate international standards are extremely stable and suitable for long-term use. Based on these findings, the candidate standards were established as the 1st WHO international standards for HPV-16 DNA and HPV-18 DNA, each with a potency of 5 x 10(6) international units (IU) per ampoule or 1 x 10(7) IU mL(-1) when reconstituted as directed.

  2. Internal standards in fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy1 1 Publication authorized by the Director, U.S. Geological Survey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, I.; Axelrod, J.M.

    1955-01-01

    The use of internal standards in the analysis of ores and minerals of widely-varying matrix by means of fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy is frequently the most practical approach. Internal standards correct for absorption and enhancement effects except when an absorption edge falls between the comparison lines or a very strong emission line falls between the absorption edges responsible for the comparison lines. Particle size variations may introduce substantial errors. One method of coping with the particle size problem is grinding the sample with an added abrasive. ?? 1955.

  3. Using the CEN/ISO standard for categorial structure to harmonise the development of WHO international terminologies.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jean M; Kumar, Anand; Bousquet, Cédric; Trombert, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Semantic interoperability (SIOp) is a major issue for health care systems having to share information across professionals, teams, legacies, countries, languages and citizens. The World Health Organisation (WHO) develops and updates a family of health care terminologies (ICD, ICF, ICHI and ICPS) and has embarked on an open web-based cooperation to revise ICD 11 using ontology driven tools. The International Health Terminology Standard Development Organisation (IHTSDO) updates, translates and maps SNOMED CT to ICD 10. We present the application of the CEN/ISO standard on categorial structure to bind terminologies and ontologies to harmonise and to map between these international terminologies.

  4. Physiological Employment Standards III: physiological challenges and consequences encountered during international military deployments.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Castellani, John W; Warr, Bradley J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Henning, Paul C; Spiering, Barry A; Scofield, Dennis E

    2013-11-01

    Modern international military deployments in austere environments (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) place considerable physiological demands on soldiers. Significant physiological challenges exist: maintenance of physical fitness and body composition, rigors of external load carriage, environmental extremes (heat, cold, and altitude), medical illnesses, musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic brain injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder, and environmental exposure hazards (i.e., burn pits, vehicle exhaust, etc.). To date there is very little published research and no comprehensive reviews on the physiological effects of deployments. The purpose of this paper is to overview what is currently known from the literature related mainly to current military conflicts with regard to the challenges and consequences from deployments. Summary findings include: (1) aerobic capacity declines while muscle strength, power and muscular endurance appear to be maintained, (2) load carriage continues to tax the physical capacities of the Soldier, (3) musculoskeletal injuries comprise the highest proportion of all injury categories, (4) environmental insults occur from both terrestrial extremes and pollutant exposure, and (5) post-deployment concerns linger for traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. A full understanding of these responses will assist in identifying the most effective risk mitigation strategies to ensure deployment readiness and to assist in establishment of military employment standards. PMID:23430237

  5. Mental health legislation in Lebanon: Nonconformity to international standards and clinical dilemmas in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Hala; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Mental health legislation represents an important mean of protecting the rights of persons with mental disabilities by preventing human rights violations and discrimination and by legally reinforcing the objectives of a mental health policy. The last decade has seen significant changes in the laws relating to psychiatric practice all over the world, especially with the implementation of the Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD). In this paper, we review the existing legislation in Lebanon concerning the following areas in mental health: treatment and legal protection of persons with mental disabilities, criminal laws in relation to offenders with mental disorders, and laws regulating incapacity. We will discuss these texts in comparison with international recommendations and standards on the rights of persons with disabilities, showing the recurrent contradiction between them. Throughout our article, we will address the clinical dilemmas that Lebanese psychiatrists encounter in practice, in the absence of a clear legislation that can orient their decisions and protect their patients from abuse.

  6. Determination of miconazole in pharmaceutical creams using internal standard and second derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, K; Wróbel, K; de la Garza Rodríguez, I M; López-de-Alba, P L; López-Martínez, L

    1999-06-01

    A simple method is proposed for miconazole determination in pharmaceutical creams, based on extraction and second derivative spectrophotometry. In the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (0.5%) and sulphuric acid (0.4 mol l(-1)), the miconazole and internal standard (IS) (methylene blue) were extracted to 100 microl of methylene chloride. The organic phase was evaporated in the nitrogen stream and the dry residue was dissolved in methanol (1.5 ml). The analytical signal was obtained as the ratio between second derivative absorbances measured at 236.9 nm (miconazole) and at 663.2 nm (IS). The use of IS in such multi-stage procedure enabled quite good analytical performance in calibration range 50.0 400 mg l(-1): linear correlation coefficient 0.9995, precision (measured as CV for ten replicates) at 50.0 mg l(-1) and at 400 mg l(-1) of miconazole was 1.5 and 0.5% respectively. Four commercial pharmaceutical creams were analyzed and the results obtained were in good agreement with the results obtained by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  7. Development of an evaluation methodology for triple bottom line reports using international standards on reporting.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  8. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  9. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  10. Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David W.

    1997-12-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol. Quantitative analysis of either the acetone or ethyl acetate in the nail polish removers is accomplished by comparing the analyte peak intensities with that of an internal standard. The system in which deuterated acetone is used as a solvent and methylene chloride as an internal standard gave precise results for both commercial removers and for standards prepared from pure acetone or an ethyl acetate/ethanol mixture. As recovery from the standards was approximately 96 - 98% of what was anticipated, the analysis of the commercial products is also believed to be accurate.

  11. Electronic book format EPUB and Japanese typography : Mainstream people in Japan are unlikely to win international standardization battles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Makoto

    EPUB3 is an electronic book format based on Web technologies such as HTML and CSS. EPUB3 is internationalized; in particular, it supports Japanese typography. Features such as vertical writing were introduced by first creating CSS Writing Modes and CSS Text at W3C and then creating EPUB3 at IDPF on top of them. On the basis of this standardization experience, common pitfalls for Japanese in international standardization are pointed out and a promising approach is suggested.

  12. Effects of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) on CIE documentary standards for radiometry, photometry, and colorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, K.D.; Hsia, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The differences between ITS-90 and IPTS-68 (International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968) above 1235 K are described. It is shown that none of the following CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage or International Commission on Illumination) definitions or recommendations require revision because of the introduction of the ITS-90: International Lighting Vocabulary definitions; CIE Standard Illuminants A, D(65), other illuminants; and sources for realizing CIE Illuminants. The effect of the ITS-90 on previously calibrated sources for realizing CIE illuminants is negligibly small.

  13. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one... the limitations on operation of emergency stationary engines to allow emergency engines to operate...

  14. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  15. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  16. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  17. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  3. 76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION....gov/hazmat/regs/international . Following the 40th session of the UNSCOE TDG, PHMSA will place a copy... site at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . PHMSA's site at...

  4. 77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . Failure to pre-register may delay your access to... will be posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER....gov/hazmat/regs/international provides additional information regarding the UNSCOE TDG and...

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  6. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... ignition (CI) reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE) (75 FR 9648). The final NESHAP for... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. 75 FR 32612 (June 8, 2010). In that action, EPA... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...

  7. NASA metrology and calibration, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Th sixteenth annual workshop of NASA's Metrology and Calibration Working Group was held April 20-22, 1993. The goals of the Working Group are to provide Agencywide standardization of individual metrology programs, where appropriate; to promote cooperation and exchange of information within NASA, with other Government agencies, and with industry; to serve as the primary Agency interface with the National Institute of Standards and Technology; and to encourage formal quality control techniques such as Measurement Assurance Programs. These proceedings contain unedited reports and presentations from the workshop and are provided for information only.

  8. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  9. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  10. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  11. 25 CFR 543.20 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... performed in accordance with 25 CFR 547.12. (l) Verifying downloads. Following download of any Class II... information technology and information technology data? 543.20 Section 543.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.20 What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and...

  12. 25 CFR 543.20 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... performed in accordance with 25 CFR 547.12. (l) Verifying downloads. Following download of any Class II... information technology and information technology data? 543.20 Section 543.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.20 What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and...

  13. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  14. Deconstructing Institutionalisation of the European Standards for Quality Assurance: From Instrument Mixes to Quality Cultures and Implications for International Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The paper enquires into the implementation of the European Standards and Guidelines for Internal Quality Assurance of Higher Education Institutions (ESG 1). The enquiry uses data from universities in the Czech Republic and compares them against those obtained in the relevant pan-European survey. The aims are to empirically deconstruct ESG 1…

  15. Adherence to ethical standards in publishing scientific articles: a statement from the International Journal of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Shewan, Louise G; Coats, Andrew J S

    2012-11-29

    All authors of manuscripts in the International Journal of Cardiology are required to make a binding statement that they as authors adhere to the following principles: 1. That the corresponding author has the approval of all other listed authors for the submission and publication of all versions of the manuscript. 2. That all people who have the right to be recognised as authors have been included on the list of authors and everyone listed as an author has made an independent material contribution to the manuscript. 3. That the work submitted in the manuscript is original and has not been published elsewhere and is not presently under consideration of publication by any other journal other than in oral, poster or abstract format. 4. That the material in the manuscript has been acquired according to modern ethical standards and has been approved by the legally appropriate ethical committee. 5. That the article does not contain material copied from anyone else without their written permission and that all material which derives from prior work, including from the same authors, is properly attributed to the prior publication by proper citation. 6. That all material conflicts of interest have been declared including the use of paid medical writers and their funding source. 7. That the manuscript will be maintained on the servers of the journal and held to be a valid publication by the journal only as long as all statements in these principles remain true. 8. That if any of the statements above ceases to be true the authors have a duty to notify the journal as soon as possible so that the manuscript can be withdrawn. PMID:23106906

  16. Organizational leadership: A study on the affects of certification to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowart, Jewel S.

    Compliance to requirements of ISO is an important leadership problem for the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and the Aviation, Space and Defense (AS&D) companies. Furthermore, the IAQG seeks to understand the valuation of ISO/AS9100 requirements (2009), audit practices, management functions, business performance, customer satisfaction, and potential future concepts for the standard to assure quality. Since the release of the AS9100C total certification growth surpassed 1,100,000 organizations in 2010 with ISO 9001 series adoption and implementation governing business operations (ASQ, 2012b; ISO, 2011; Bernardo, Llach, & Marimon, 2011). Historians such as Crosby, Juran, Deming, and others established the foundation for quality assurance. Several researchers explored the issues which complicate overall benefits of ISO certification (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2012; Karthi et al., 2012; Sampaio et al., 2009). This study examined the effects on AS&D industries from ISO compliance to identify the implications (of ever-changing requirements) through an online survey of 15,000 practitioners. The research illuminated how ISO affects AS&D industries with current and future requirements for certification. The data showed that 75% of survey respondents report implementation of the AS9100C requirements still has benefits that outweigh the cost. Findings suggest that AS&D industries perceive significant value in the AS9100C document as part of the overall ISO 9000 series. In general, the comments from the survey can provide insight into the affects of ISO certification. The study concludes by recommending continued research to learn of further impacts from ISO certification within AS&D industries to improve the AS9100 document requirements for quality management systems.

  17. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Firnhaber, M.; Yegorova, L.; Brockmeier, U.

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  18. Selenium determination in biscuits and pasta: development of chronopotentiometric stripping determination by using a sulphide as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Svarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Stojanović, Zorica

    2013-10-15

    Being common in chromatographic techniques internal standard method is rarely applied in electrochemical stripping determinations. One of the reasons for such rare use of this elegant quantification method is because optimal conditions of accumulation at the electrode for individual compounds producing a reproducible signal may vary significantly. These criteria are much stricter when selenium is in question due to very complex mechanism of its accumulation at mercury electrodes which implies simultaneous cathodic mercury dissolution and chemical reaction. Elements that are in the analytical step stripped cathodically from mercury electrodes are rare, further limiting the application of the internal standard method when electrochemical selenium determination is in question. In this work the possibility of using sulphide for selenium quantification by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis was investigated. Optimal experimental parameters were defined in two-component systems. Dimensionless factors defining the ratio of proportionality constants of the two elements were calculated for different selenium concentration ranges at different sulphide contents. Sulphide content that was chosen as adequate for selenium concentrations reasonably to be expected in food samples was 500 µg/dm(3). Determined detection limit of chronopotentiometric stripping determination of selenium by using a sulphide as an internal standard was 0.04 µg/dm(3) (RSD=7.6%; n=5). Defined quantification method was confirmed by analysing spiked standard solutions and standard reference material. The method was used for selenium determination in biscuit and pasta samples. Calculated contents were statistically compared with those obtained by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  19. 25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following standards shall apply if a rabbit ear or wheel system is utilized: (i) A dedicated camera shall be... Tribal gaming regulatory authority upon request. (i) System security standards. (1) All keys...

  20. Establishment of the first international standard for PEGylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF): Report of an international collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian; Thorpe, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility of developing a suitable international reference standard for determination of in vitro biological activity of human sequence recombinant PEG-G-CSF products with a 20 kD linear PEG linked to the N-terminal methionyl residue of G-CSF (INN Filgrastim), produced using a conjugation process and coupling chemistry similar to that employed for the lead PEGfilgrastim product. Based on initial data which showed that the current WHO 2nd international standard, IS for G-CSF (09/136) or alternatively, a PEG-G-CSF standard with a unitage traceable to the G-CSF IS may potentially serve as the IS for PEG-G-CSF products, two candidate preparations of PEG-G-CSF were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC. These preparations were tested by 23 laboratories using in vitro bioassays in a multi-centre collaborative study. Results indicated that on the basis of parallelism, the current WHO 2nd IS for G-CSF or any of the PEG-G-CSF samples could be used as the international standard for PEG-G-CSF preparations. However, because of the variability in potency estimates seen when PEG-G-CSF preparations were compared with the current WHO 2nd IS for G-CSF, a candidate PEG-G-CSF was suitable as the WHO IS. The preparation 12/188 was judged suitable to serve as the WHO IS based on in vitro biological activity data. Therefore, the preparation coded 12/188 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2013 as the WHO 1st IS for human PEGylated G-CSF with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000 IU per ampoule. PMID:25450254

  1. Uptakes of Cs and Sr on San Joaquin soil measured following ASTM method C1733.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Petri, E.T.

    2012-04-04

    Series of tests were conducted following ASTM Standard Procedure C1733 to evaluate the repeatability of the test and the effects of several test parameters, including the solution-to-soil mass ratio, test duration, pH, and the concentrations of contaminants in the solution. This standard procedure is recommended for measuring the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of a contaminant in a specific soil/groundwater system. One objective of the current tests was to identify experimental conditions that can be used in future interlaboratory studies to determine the reproducibility of the test method. This includes the recommendation of a standard soil, the range of contaminant concentrations and solution matrix, and various test parameters. Quantifying the uncertainty in the distribution coefficient that can be attributed to the test procedure itself allows the differences in measured values to be associated with differences in the natural systems being studied. Tests were conducted to measure the uptake of Cs and Sr dissolved as CsCl and Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in a dilute NaHCO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} solution (representing contaminants in a silicate groundwater) by a NIST standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). Tests were run to measure the repeatability of the method and the sensitivity of the test response to the reaction time, the mass of soil used (at a constant soil-to-solution ratio), the solution pH, and the contaminant concentration. All tests were conducted in screw-top Teflon vessels at 30 C in an oven. All solutions were passed through a 0.45-{mu}m pore size cellulose acetate membrane filter and stabilized with nitric acid prior to analysis with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scoping tests with soil in demineralized water resulted in a solution pH of about 8.0 and the release of small amounts of Sr from the soil. Solutions were made with targeted concentrations of 1 x 10{sup -6} m, 1 x 10{sup -5} m, 2.5 x 10{sup -5} m, 5

  2. Field Test Protocol. Standard Internal Load Generation for Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  3. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  4. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1994-03-01

    This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  5. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... this meeting by completing the form at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . Failure to... available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Vincent.../main/dgdb/dgsubc3/c3rep.html . PHMSA's site at...

  6. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... accessed at: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . The public is invited to attend without... results on PHMSA's Hazardous Materials Safety Homepage at...

  7. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... internal combustion engines. The amendments inadvertently removed paragraphs from the regulation. EPA is... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3)....

  8. Visual Literacy in the Digital Age: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (25th, Rochester, New York, October 13-17, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Darrel G.; And Others

    This document contains selected papers from the 25th annual conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA). Topics addressed in the papers include the following: visual literacy; graphic information in research and education; evaluation criteria for instructional media; understanding symbols in business presentations;…

  9. Dreams and Dynamics. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, September 27-30, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannesdottir, Sigrun Klara, Ed.; And Others

    The themes of the 22nd Annual International Association of School Librarianship conference were: "Building a Picture of Society in the Year 2000"; "Literature--Themes of the '90s Towards the Future"; "Education--Partnerships To Develop Life-Long Learners"; and "Technology into the 21st Century." The following papers were selected for publication…

  10. Improvements for comparative analysis of changes in diversity of microbial communities using internal standards in PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Dorthe Groth; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2005-08-01

    The use of internal standards both during DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE procedure gives the opportunity to analyse the relative abundance of individual species back to the original sample, thereby facilitating relative comparative analysis of diversity. Internal standards were used throughout the DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE to compensate for experimental variability. Such variability causes decreased reproducibility among replicate samples as well as compromise comparisons between samples, since experimental errors cannot be differentiated from actual changes in the community abundance and structure. The use of internal standards during DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE is suitable for ecological and ecotoxicological experiments with microbial communities, where relative changes in the community abundance and structure are studied. We have developed a protocol Internal Standards in Molecular Analysis of Diversity (ISMAD) that is simple to use, inexpensive, rapid to perform and it does not require additional samples to be processed. The internal standard for DNA extraction (ExtrIS) is a fluorescent 510-basepair PCR product which is added to the samples prior to DNA extraction, recovered together with the extracted DNA from the samples and analysed with fluorescence spectrophotometry. The use of ExtrIS during isolation of sample DNA significantly reduced variation among replicate samples. The PCR internal standard (PCR(IS)) originates from the Drosophila melanogaster genome and is a 140-basepair long PCR product, which is amplified by non-competitive primers in the same PCR reaction tubes as the target DNA and analysed together with the target PCR product on the same DGGE gel. The use of PCR(IS) during PCR significantly reduced variation among replicate samples both when assessing total PCR product and when comparing bands representing species on a DGGE gel. The entire ISMAD protocol was shown to accurately describe changes in relative abundance in an environmental sample

  11. Progress in the global standardization of gravity: an analysis of the Woollard and Rose international gravity values

    SciTech Connect

    Woollard, G.P.; Godley, V.M.

    1980-12-01

    The history of improvements in the global standarization of gravity values since the advent of high range gravimeters in 1948 is reviewed. In particular the gravity base values given in SEG special publication International Gravity Measurements (Woolard and Rose, 1963) are evaluated against the most recent set of standarized gravity base values, The International Gravity Standardization Net, 1971 (Morelli et al, 1974). Adjunct IGSN 71 values prepared by the US Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (unpublished) are also used to give a more comprehensive worldwide comparison of values.

  12. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... major developments in the accountability and financial management profession and emphasize specific considerations applicable to the government environment. The draft of the proposed changes to Standards...

  13. 18O-labeled proteome reference as global internal standards for targeted quantification by selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L; Moore, Ronald J; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2011-12-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the application of stable isotope-labeled synthetic peptides as internal standards can be prohibitive for screening a large number of candidate proteins as often required in the preverification phase of discovery studies. Herein we present a proof of concept study using an (18)O-labeled proteome reference as global internal standards (GIS) for SRM-based relative quantification. The (18)O-labeled proteome reference (or GIS) can be readily prepared and contains a heavy isotope ((18)O)-labeled internal standard for every possible tryptic peptide. Our results showed that the percentage of heavy isotope ((18)O) incorporation applying an improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into the labeled mouse plasma reference. Reliable quantification was observed with high reproducibility (i.e. coefficient of variance <10%) for analyte concentrations that were set at 100-fold higher or lower than those of the GIS based on the light ((16)O)/heavy ((18)O) peak area ratios. The utility of (18)O-labeled GIS was further illustrated by accurate relative quantification of 45 major human plasma proteins. Moreover, quantification of the concentrations of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen was illustrated by coupling the GIS with standard additions of purified protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of (18)O-labeled proteome reference as GIS provides a convenient, low cost, and effective strategy for relative quantification of a large number of candidate proteins in biological or clinical samples using SRM.

  14. 18O-Labeled Proteome Reference as Global Internal Standards for Targeted Quantification by Selected Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol W.; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2011-10-11

    Selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biological and biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the use of stable isotope labeled synthetic peptides as internal standards is prohibitive for quantitatively screening large numbers of candidate proteins as often required in the pre-verification phase of biomarker discovery. Herein we present the proof-of-concept experiments of using an 18O-labeled 'universal' reference as comprehensive internal standards for quantitative SRM-MS analysis. With an 18O-labeled whole proteome sample as reference, every peptide of interest will have its own corresponding heavy isotope labeled internal standard, thus providing an ideal approach for quantitative screening of a large number of candidates using SRM-MS. Our results showed that the 18O incorporation efficiency using a recently improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated, a level comparable to 13C/15N labeled synthetic peptides in terms of heavy isotope incorporation. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into mouse plasma with an 18O-labeled mouse plasma reference. A dynamic range of four orders of magnitude in relative concentration was obtained with high reproducibility (i.e., coefficient of variance <10%) based on the 16O/18O peak area ratios. Absolute and relative quantification of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen were demonstrated by coupling an 18O-labeled reference with standard additions of protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of 18O-labeled reference provides a convenient and effective strategy for quantitative SRM screening of large number of candidate proteins.

  15. Guidelines of the Office International des Epizooties for laboratory quality evaluation, for international reference standards for antibody assays and for laboratory proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    Three guidelines, adopted by the International Committee of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), have been combined for publication in a single document. The Guidelines for evaluating laboratory quality (adopted in 1995) form part of the OIE Guidelines for evaluating Veterinary Services. General requirements for equipment, staffing and management of laboratories are outlined. The guidelines for international reference standards for antibody assays (adopted in 1998) provide general rules governing the preparation of immune sera by OIE Reference Laboratories. A data sheet should accompany each preparation dispatched from the laboratory, and details are given of the information to be contained in the data sheet. The guidelines are to be used in conjunction with the OIE Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Guidelines on the proficiency of laboratory testing (adopted in 1996) describe how the operation of a laboratory can be assessed by inter-laboratory testing, and by voluntary participation in an accreditation (quality assurance) audit, operated by an independent authority. Criteria for assessing serological testing are provided.

  16. Standard Setting Lessons Learned in the South African Context: Implications for International Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitoniak, Mary J.; Yeld, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Criterion-referenced assessments have become more common around the world, with performance standards being set to differentiate different levels of student performance. However, use of standard setting methods developed in the United States may be complicated by factors related to the political and educational contexts within another country. In…

  17. Increasing the Validity of Angoff Standards through Analysis of Judge-Level Internal Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauser, Jerome C.; Clauser, Brian E.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend past work with the Angoff method for setting standards by examining judgments at the judge level rather than the panel level. The focus was on investigating the relationship between observed Angoff standard setting judgments and empirical conditional probabilities. This relationship has been used as a…

  18. 77 FR 70390 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... and Standards Directorate, Office of Design and Engineering Standards, Lifesaving and Fire Safety.... Taking of Private Property H. Civil Justice Reform I. Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting The Coast Guard does not plan...

  19. 75 FR 32611 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... standards would reduce nitrogen oxides by an estimated 1,100 tons per year, particulate matter by an... were initially published on July 11, 2006 (71 FR 39153). New source performance standards implement... NSPS put Federal restrictions on emissions of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NO X ),...

  20. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 2(nd) International Standard for Bleomycin Complex A2/B2.

    PubMed

    Jorajuria, S; Raphalen, C; Dujardin, V; Daas, A

    2015-01-01

    Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for bleomycin complex A2/B2. Eight laboratories from different countries participated. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 1(st) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 was used as a reference. Based on the results of the study, the 2(nd) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2014 with an assigned potency of 12 500 International Units (IU) per vial. The 2(nd) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  1. International Water Information Systems: Evolving the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System to a Standards-based Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D. W.; Taylor, P.; Arctur, D. K.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project is migrating core components of its service-oriented infrastructure to information models and service interfaces being standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), through coordination with the joint Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG) of the OGC and the World Meteorological Organization. The CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure for hydrologic observations will rely on OGC service standards including Web Map Service (WMS) for map portrayal, Web Feature Service (WFS) for delivery of geographic feature information, Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) for discovery in service catalogs, and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for data delivery. These standards will be supplemented by additional services and corresponding standards, such as the Water Quality Exchange (WQX), which is presently in use at the USGS and US EPA for delivery of water quality and ex situ analytical data. One of the key standards being developed through the OGC process is Water Markup Language (WaterML) 2.0, which specifies standard encoding for the representation of in-situ hydrological observations. Implemented as an application schema of OGC Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, focusing on encoding different types of hydrologic time series. In addition to developing this exchange standard, the HDWG conducts Interoperability Experiments (IE) to test WaterML 2.0 and OGC services to see they meet the requirements of the Hydrologic community. The Groundwater IE tested cross border exchange of water information between the US and Canada, and exercised, not only a prototype of WaterML 2.0, but existing standards GeoSciML and GroundwaterML. A Surface Water IE is testing 3 use cases focusing on cross-border exchange of surface water information, hydrologic forecasting, and automated monthly and yearly volume calculations from large

  2. Station coordinates in the Standard Earth III system derived by using camera data from ISAGEX. [International Satellite Geodesy Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.; Latimer, J.; Mendes, G.

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous and individual camera observations of Geos 1, Geos 2, Pageos, and Midas 4 obtained during the International Satellite Geodesy Experiment are used to determine station coordinates. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Standard Earth III system of coordinates is utilized to tie the geometrical network to a geocentric system and as a reference for calculating satellite orbits. The normal systems for geometrical and dynamical solutions are combined.

  3. International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working formulation of a standardized nomenclature for cardiac allograft vasculopathy-2010.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Dipchand, Anne; Ensminger, Stephan M; Hiemann, Nicola E; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Madsen, Joren; Parameshwar, Jayan; Starling, Randall C; Uber, Patricia A

    2010-07-01

    The development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains the Achilles heel of cardiac transplantation. Unfortunately, the definitions of cardiac allograft vasculopathy are diverse, and there are no uniform international standards for the nomenclature of this entity. This consensus document, commissioned by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation Board, is based on best evidence and clinical consensus derived from critical analysis of available information pertaining to angiography, intravascular ultrasound imaging, microvascular function, cardiac allograft histology, circulating immune markers, non-invasive imaging tests, and gene-based and protein-based biomarkers. This document represents a working formulation for an international nomenclature of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, similar to the development of the system for adjudication of cardiac allograft rejection by histology.

  4. International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working formulation of a standardized nomenclature for cardiac allograft vasculopathy-2010.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Dipchand, Anne; Ensminger, Stephan M; Hiemann, Nicola E; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Madsen, Joren; Parameshwar, Jayan; Starling, Randall C; Uber, Patricia A

    2010-07-01

    The development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains the Achilles heel of cardiac transplantation. Unfortunately, the definitions of cardiac allograft vasculopathy are diverse, and there are no uniform international standards for the nomenclature of this entity. This consensus document, commissioned by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation Board, is based on best evidence and clinical consensus derived from critical analysis of available information pertaining to angiography, intravascular ultrasound imaging, microvascular function, cardiac allograft histology, circulating immune markers, non-invasive imaging tests, and gene-based and protein-based biomarkers. This document represents a working formulation for an international nomenclature of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, similar to the development of the system for adjudication of cardiac allograft rejection by histology. PMID:20620917

  5. Reliable LC-MS quantitative glycomics using iGlycoMab stable isotope labeled glycans as internal standards.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiyue; Tello, Nadia; Harvey, Alex; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Glycans have numerous functions in various biological processes and participate in the progress of diseases. Reliable quantitative glycomic profiling techniques could contribute to the understanding of the biological functions of glycans, and lead to the discovery of potential glycan biomarkers for diseases. Although LC-MS is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative glycomics, the variation of ionization efficiency and MS intensity bias are influencing quantitation reliability. Internal standards can be utilized for glycomic quantitation by MS-based methods to reduce variability. In this study, we used stable isotope labeled IgG2b monoclonal antibody, iGlycoMab, as an internal standard to reduce potential for errors and to reduce variabililty due to sample digestion, derivatization, and fluctuation of nanoESI efficiency in the LC-MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans released from model glycoproteins, human blood serum, and breast cancer cell line. We observed an unanticipated degradation of isotope labeled glycans, tracked a source of such degradation, and optimized a sample preparation protocol to minimize degradation of the internal standard glycans. All results indicated the effectiveness of using iGlycoMab to minimize errors originating from sample handling and instruments. PMID:26913967

  6. Lipophilic benzamide and anilide derivatives as high-performance liquid chromatography internal standards: application to sirolimus (rapamycin) determination.

    PubMed

    Ferron, G M; Conway, W D; Jusko, W J

    1997-12-01

    Finding a suitable internal standard in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is often difficult. A general approach for selecting and synthesizing the proper internal standard is presented and applied to a validated method for quantitation of sirolimus in several biological matrices. A series of fifteen N-alkylbenzamides, N-alkyltoluamides and N-alkanoylanilines with a log P range of 3.51 to 6.68 were synthesized as internal standards; N-undecyl-o-toluamide was evaluated most extensively. Sirolimus quantitation involves a simple sample clean-up procedure followed by isocratic chromatography on a heated C18 analytical column with an 70% methanol-water mobile phase and ultraviolet detection at 278 nm. This method was linear from 2.5 to 200 ng with a limit of quantitation of 2.5 ng using a 1-ml blood sample. Sirolimus recovery was above 72.1%. The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 11.7%. Several drugs and sirolimus metabolites do not interfere with the analysis. This method was used to measure sirolimus in blood from rats, rabbits and humans.

  7. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  12. Comparative results of autogenous ignition temperature measurements by ASTM G 72 and pressurized scanning calorimetry in gaseous oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Lowrie, R.

    1986-01-01

    The autogenous ignition temperature of four materials was determined by ASTM (G 72) and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry at 0.68-, 3.4-, and 6.8-MPa oxygen pressure. All four materials were found to ignite at lower temperatures in the ASTM method. The four materials evaluated in this program were Neoprene, Vespel SP-21, Fluorel E-2160, and nylon 6/6.

  13. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  14. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed.

  15. Technical Study Addresses a Key Challenge to Harmonizing U.S. and International PV Module Standards (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NREL builds community and industry support by addressing concerns voiced by key standards organizations. Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers in the United States test the safety of their products using standards developed through consensus processes. Because U.S. PV module safety standards are not aligned with international standards, manufacturers must test their modules twice - and sometimes maintain separate product lines. By meeting with standards organizations such as the Solar ABCs and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leaders have worked to identify different stakeholders priorities and concerns. UL, specifically, has expressed concern that the international standards do not address all possible risks. For example, new encapsulant materials could soften at high temperatures and frameless modules could slide apart, exposing live electrical parts or allowing glass to fall on a person below. The deformation of a solid material under the influence of mechanical stresses is known as 'creep.' Current module qualification tests are limited to 85 C, whereas modules can, for short times, reach 105 C outdoors. In response to UL's concern, NREL designed and executed an experiment to compare on-sun and accelerated rates of creep for modules fabricated with various encapsulants, including some that have low melting points. Objectives were to (1) evaluate the potential for creep in outdoor exposure, (2) provide guidance on the risks and design needs with thermoplastic materials, and (3) provide a basis for modifying standards to account for materials with potential to creep. The study tested experimental materials with eight representative encapsulants in both outdoor and indoor (chamber) exposure. The study found that modules with materials that were expected to creep did so in the indoor exposure, but not in most outdoor environments and mounting configurations. The results provide a basis for defining an accelerated test needed to

  16. Internal quality audit and quality standards as a method of quality improvement at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nasić, Mirjana; Pokupec, Rajko; Katusić, Damir; Miklić, Pavle; Suić, Ivan; Galić, Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Quality assessment of clinical health care with the programme of quality standard is a method of health management, through which better efficiency and safety of health outcomes can be achieved. In the period from 2002 to 2004, a pilot program of quality has been carried out on the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Center in Zagreb. Seven internal audit teams of hospital commission and teams of hospital departments were evaluating introducing practice for quality standards every three months. In the period of two years improvement in all standards of quality has been noticed (expressed in percent of progress towards the ideal result of 100%): personnel 20%, patient rights 15%, medical equipment 40%, quality of emergency service 60%, implementation of clinical guidelines and criteria for elective admission 55%, quality of risk prevention 70%, quality of medical records 60%. The two-years-improvement dynamics of about 46%, first year 24%.

  17. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels?...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels?...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special...