Science.gov

Sample records for 1993 cooperative research group

  1. 77 FR 47882 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Clean Diesel VI Notice is hereby given that, on July 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...

  2. 75 FR 54651 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cable Television...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... research project. The membership in this group research project remains open, and CableLabs intends to file... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cable... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''),...

  3. 76 FR 60530 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Plastic Aerosol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Plastic...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Plastic Aerosol Research Group, L.L.C. (``PARG'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with...

  4. 77 FR 40085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-FDI Cooperation LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--FDI... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), FDI Cooperation LLC (``FDI'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the Federal...

  5. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on May 17, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...-- Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in...

  6. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance Testing Notice is... Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance Testing (``LDS-PT'')...

  7. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...., Salt Lake City, UT; Manufacturing Techniques, Inc. (MTEQ), Kilmarnock, VA; Phillips...

  8. 78 FR 73565 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium Notice is hereby given that, on October 17, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  9. 78 FR 24780 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Concrete...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Concrete... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Concrete... principal place of business of the standards development organization is Concrete Reinforcing...

  10. 76 FR 66325 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on September 26, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National... Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue...

  11. 75 FR 79024 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given, on November 4...-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department...

  12. 75 FR 24972 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on March... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II, (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications... 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the department on February 18, 2010....

  13. 76 FR 9811 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications simultaneously... the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003) The last notification was filed with the Department on...

  14. 75 FR 14192 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications simultaneously... 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department of Justice on December...

  15. 75 FR 4423 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II, (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications... 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department on November 9, 2009....

  16. 75 FR 62569 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II, (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed...

  17. 77 FR 36292 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Particle Sensor Performance and Durability Notice is hereby given that, on May... Particle Sensor Performance and Durability (``PSPD'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... the performance and durability of various particle sensor technologies on a diesel engine...

  18. 77 FR 15395 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and Equivalent Boquillas Formation, South-Central and West Texas (``Eagle Ford'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with...

  19. 78 FR 42977 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 15, 2012 (77 FR 15395). The last notification was... to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 11, 2012 (77 FR 73676). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation...

  20. 77 FR 31040 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... the Act on March 15, 2012 (77 FR 15395). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and Equivalent Boquillas Formation,...

  1. 78 FR 58559 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ...; Process Research, Trenton, NJ; and Sinton Instruments, Boulder, CO, have been added as parties to this... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--U.S... Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  2. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on March 7, 2011 (76 FR 12370). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993;...

  3. 75 FR 57502 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics Technology Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2010-22215 beginning on page 54914 in the issue...

  4. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is available... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with...

  5. 76 FR 72724 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National Warheads...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--National...(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the... Technologies Division, Herndon, VA; Phillips Plastic Corporation, Hudson, WI; R4 Incorporated, Eatontown,...

  6. 75 FR 65657 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Alliance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... and management through voluntary certification of businesses and water service providers. The AWS is... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Alliance... the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  7. 76 FR 79217 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 22, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  8. 75 FR 20002 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-OpenSAF Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Act on October 22, 2009 (74 FR 54594). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--OpenSAF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), OpenSAF Foundation...

  9. 75 FR 79025 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cable Television...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cable... the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. (``CableLabs'') has filed written notifications simultaneously...

  10. 78 FR 49770 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cable Television...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cable... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. (``CableLabs'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with...

  11. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  12. 75 FR 24973 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Coatings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Advanced... EMTEC, The Edison Materials Technology Center, Dayton, OH. The general area of Advanced Coatings..., pursuant to section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301...

  13. 78 FR 37572 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, Inc. D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., Inc., San Jose, CA; United Microelectronics Corp., Hsinchu, TAIWAN; Morgan Advanced Materials, Windsor... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Sematech...(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq....

  14. 76 FR 27351 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marine Well...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Marine Well Containment Venture Notice is hereby given that, on March 04, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  15. 76 FR 43348 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marine Well...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Marine Well Containment Venture Notice is hereby given that, on June 7, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Marine...

  16. 75 FR 62570 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marine Well...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Marine Well Containment Venture Notice is hereby given that, on August 18, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  17. 75 FR 69705 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marine Well...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Marine Well Containment Venture Notice is hereby given that, on September 29, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  18. 75 FR 65383 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), TeleManagement Forum... their locations: Etisalat Nigeria to Banana Island, Ikoyi, Lagos, NIGERIA; Bright Consulting to...

  19. 76 FR 71602 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), TeleManagement Forum... spa, Genova, ITALY; Etihad Atheeb Telecom Co., Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA; Etisalat Nigeria, Banana...

  20. 75 FR 11564 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), TeleManagement Forum...; Etisalat Cote d'Ivoire, Abidjan, IVORY COAST; Etisalat Misr, Cairo, EGYPT; Etisalat Nigeria, Banana...

  1. 76 FR 60530 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Council for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Science, Research Triangle Park, NC; Botanical Resources Australia, Sandy Bay, Tasmania, Australia... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Council... 29, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  2. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). The last... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on September 21, 2011 (76 FR 58539). Patricia A. Brink, Director of... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  3. 76 FR 46843 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Green Seal, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... 6(b) of the Act on March 7, 2011 (76 FR 12370). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Green Seal, Inc. Notice is hereby... Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Green Seal, Inc. (``Green Seal'') has...

  4. 75 FR 14190 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et sect. (``the Act''), Joint ] Venture to Perform Project Entitled... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture To Perform Project Entitled Robotic Rehabilitation of Aging Water Pipelines Notice is hereby...

  5. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.P.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  6. 76 FR 9812 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marinenet, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), MarineNet, LLC (``MarineNet'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the Federal... general area of MarineNet's planned activity is researching, evaluating, testing and developing a...

  7. 78 FR 45565 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 -- tranSMART...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...SMART Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on July 3, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), tranSMART...

  8. 76 FR 59161 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Limo Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... (72 FR 17583). The last notification was filed with the Department on March 23, 2011. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 28, 2011 (76 FR 23838... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Limo Foundation...

  9. 75 FR 42461 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Connected Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Connected Media Experience, Inc. Correction In notice document 2010-16862 beginning on page 40851 in the issue...

  10. 77 FR 74877 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cable Television...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on September 7, 1988 (53 FR... in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 17, 2010 (75 FR 79025... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993;...

  11. 76 FR 23839 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Opensaf Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), OpenSAF Foundation... extending the Act's provisions limiting the recovery of antitrust plaintiffs to actual damages...

  12. 78 FR 72713 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 20, 2012 (77 FR... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on May 10, 2013 (78 FR 27431). Patricia A... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D...

  13. 77 FR 71831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23754... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on September 14, 2012 (77 FR 56861). Patricia A... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D...

  14. 78 FR 27431 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 20, 2012 (77 FR... in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 4, 2012 (77 FR 71831... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D...

  15. 76 FR 48883 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; PXI Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 8, 2001 (66 FR 13971). The last... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 25, 2011 (76 FR 16820). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993;...

  16. 78 FR 24779 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-OPENSAF Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on May 16, 2008 (73 FR 28508... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23754). Patricia A. Brink... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), OpenSAF...

  17. 78 FR 36792 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Ford Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Ford... seq. (``the Act''), Ford Motor Company and General Motors Holdings LLC Collaboration (``Ford and GM... Section 6(b) of the Act, the identities of the parties to the venture are: Ford Motor Company,...

  18. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Green Seal, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Seal, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on January 26, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Green Seal, Inc. (``Green Seal'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  19. 75 FR 8116 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    .... (``the Act''), the Joint Venture under TIP Award No. 70NANB10H009 (``JV TIP H009'') has filed written... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture Under Tip Award No. 70NANB10H009 Notice is hereby given that, on January 15, 2010, pursuant...

  20. 75 FR 20002 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 Joint Venture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    .... (``the Act''), the Joint Venture under TIP Award Number: 7ONANB1OHOO1 (``Brewer-Swent'') has filed... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 Joint Venture Under Tip Award Number: 7ONANB1OHOO1 Notice is hereby given that, on February 3, 2010, pursuant...

  1. 75 FR 14192 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... seq. (the Act''), the Joint Venture under TIP Award No. 70NANB10H014 to Perform Project Entitled... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture Under Tip Award No. 70NANB10H014 To Perform Project Entitled: Automated Nondestructive...

  2. 75 FR 7628 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    .... (``the Act''), the Joint Venture under TIP Award No. 70NANB10H018 (``JV TIP H018'') has filed written... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture Under Tip Award No. 70NANB10H018 Notice is hereby given that, on January 11, 2010, pursuant...

  3. 75 FR 7628 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    .... (``the Act''), the Joint Venture under TIP Award Number: 70NANB10H012 (``JVTIP70NANB10H012'') has filed... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture Under TIP Award Number: 70NANB10H012 Notice is hereby given that, on January 14, 2010, pursuant...

  4. 76 FR 63658 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM..., ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May 2011 and August 2011 designated as Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is available at...

  5. 76 FR 1459 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM... as Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with...

  6. 75 FR 11196 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM..., ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May, 2009, and September, 2009, designated as Work Items. A complete listing of ASTM Work Items, along with a brief description of each, is available...

  7. 77 FR 64128 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... September 18, 2008 (73 FR 54170). The last notification was filed with the Department on November 2, 2010. A... FR 79025). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  8. 75 FR 79025 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... 6(b) of the ] Act on September 18, 2008 (73 FR 54170). The last notification was filed with the... Act on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 20003). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  9. 75 FR 20003 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Register pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act on September 18, 2008 (73 FR 54170). The last notification was... to section 6(b) of the Act on January 21, 2009 (74 FR 3641). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  10. 78 FR 64248 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... Act on June 13, 2013 (78 FR 35646). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  11. 77 FR 34069 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... March 8, 2012 (77 FR 14046). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  12. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was... to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 10, 2011 (76 FR 1459). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  13. 75 FR 65511 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 29, 1999 (64 FR... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 21, 2010 (75 FR 35089). Patricia A... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  14. 78 FR 1884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61786). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  15. 78 FR 14836 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on January 9, 2013 (78 FR 1884). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  16. 78 FR 35646 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... March 7, 2013 (78 FR 14836). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division...) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  17. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... 30, 2009 (74 FR 62599). The last notification was filed with the Department on July 27, 2011. A... (76 FR 59160). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  18. 76 FR 59160 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... November 30, 2009 (74 FR 62599). The last notification was filed with the Department on July 26, 2010. A... FR 54914). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  19. 76 FR 10067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...--Industrial Macromolecular Crystallography Association Correction In notice document 2011--2412 appearing on... and Production Act of 1993--Industrial Nacromolecular Crystallography Association'' should read... Macromolecular Crystallography Association''. 2. On the same page, in the second column, in the fourth line...

  20. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  1. Oxytocin modulates cooperation within and competition between groups: an integrative review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-03-01

    The author reviews evidence that hypothalamic release (or infusion) of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates the regulation of cooperation and conflict among humans because of three reasons. First, oxytocin enables social categorization of others into in-group versus out-group. Second, oxytocin dampens amygdala activity and enables the development of trust. Third, and finally, oxytocin up-regulates neural circuitries (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus) involved in empathy and other-concern. Consistent with an evolutionary perspective on the functionality of cooperation, it is concluded that oxytocin-motivated cooperation is mostly parochial-it motivates (i) in-group favoritism, (ii) cooperation towards in-group but not out-group members, and (iii) defense-motivated non-cooperation towards threatening outsiders. Thus, in addition to its well-known role in reproduction and pair-bond formation, oxytocin's primary functions include in-group "tend-and-defend." This review concludes with avenues for new research on oxytocin's functions in within-group cooperation and between-group competition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22227278

  2. 75 FR 80536 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Hills, MI, as a member, and the name of the member previously listed as Mercedes-Benz Research & Technology North America, Inc. is corrected to read Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America, Inc... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 2, 2006 (71 FR 32128). The last notification was...

  3. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater... Research Forum (PERF) Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater Effluents (``PERF... nutrients from wastewater, and engaging a third party consultant to summarize current state of...

  4. Research and technology, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the center's varied and productive research efforts for 1993. This year's report presents some of the challenging work recently accomplished in the areas of aerospace systems, flight operations and research, aerophysics, and space research.

  5. 77 FR 28405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on January 31..., 2012 (77 FR 14046). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on April 17, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  6. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on June 8, 2012. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 40086...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on July 5, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  7. 75 FR 45156 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on February 27..., 2009 (74 FR 15003). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 2, 2010, pursuant to Section...

  8. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on July 5..., 2012 (77 FR 54612). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on September 10, 2012, pursuant...

  9. 77 FR 14046 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on November 1..., 2011 (76 FR 78044). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on January 31, 2012, pursuant to...

  10. 76 FR 78044 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the... Act on August 2, 2010 (75 FR 45156). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on November 1, 2011, pursuant to...

  11. 77 FR 40086 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on April 17..., 2012 (77 FR 28405). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 8, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  12. 76 FR 9812 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Halon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 7, 1990 (55 FR 8204... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on May 10, 2006 (71 FR 27278) Patricia A. Brink... parties to this venture. Also, Aerojet, Rocket Research Company, Redmond, WA; Chemetron Fire...

  13. 77 FR 34067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Automation, Apex, NC; BBN Technologies Corp., Cambridge, MA; BioRobots, LLC, Cleveland, OH; Defense Research..., Inc. (GLSV), Houghton, MI; Integration Innovation Inc., Huntsville, AL; John H. Northrop & Associates..., Marina del Rey, CA; Valde Systems, Inc., Nashua, NH; and Virtus Advanced Sensors, Pittsburgh, PA,...

  14. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  15. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  16. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  17. 75 FR 27000 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-LiMo Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... 6(b) of the Act on April 9, 2007 (72 FR 17583). The last notification was filed with the Department... Act on December 17, 2010 (74 FR 66995). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  18. 76 FR 23838 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-LiMo Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 9, 2007 (72 FR 17583). The last notification was filed with... 6(b) of the Act on December 17, 2010 (75 FR 79025). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  19. 77 FR 1085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... Act on October 13, 2011 (76 FR 63658). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  20. 75 FR 65657 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... June 1, 2010 (75 FR 30440). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  1. 75 FR 30440 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11196). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  2. 78 FR 73883 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Die Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... (65 FR 39429). The last notification was filed with the Department on May 15, 2013. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 5, 2013 (78 FR 33859... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  3. 75 FR 45155 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Act on February 2, 2005 (70 FR 5486). The last notification was filed with the Department on April 6... (75 FR 24972). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  4. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... 6(b) of the Act on February 2, 2005 (70 FR 5486). The last notification was filed with the... Act on October 13, 2011 (76 FR 63659). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  5. 76 FR 43347 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... (65 FR 40127). The last notification was filed with the Department on March 21, 2011. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 28, 2011 (76 FR 23839... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  6. 78 FR 17431 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-PXI Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... (66 FR 13971). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 6, 2012. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 2, 2013 (78 FR 117... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  7. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-OpenSAF Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... 6(b) of the Act on May 16, 2008 (73 FR 28508). The last notification was filed with the Department... Act on January 31, 2012 (77 FR 4828). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  8. 75 FR 51115 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-PXI Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 8, 2001 (66 FR 13971). The last notification was... Section 6(b) of the Act on May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28294). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  9. 78 FR 67399 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-PXI System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 8, 2001 (66 FR 13971). The last notification was... Section 6(b) of the Act on August 15, 2013 (78 FR 49769). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  10. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  11. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  12. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  13. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  14. Communication in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkowski, Page

    This study explores aspects of the hypothesis that communication in cooperative learning groups mediates effects of cooperative learning. The study develops a taxonomy of the cooperative communications of groups of predominantly Anglo and Hispanic elementary school students attending a public school where teachers were being trained to implement…

  15. 76 FR 77251 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Consortium for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... are: Consortium for Command, Control, Communications and Computer Technologies, Washington, DC; 3D-4U... funding of certain research, development, testing and evaluation of prototypes to be conducted as...

  16. 76 FR 72723 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Fieldbus Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Commission disclosing (1) The name and principal place of business of the standards development organization... of business of the standards development organization is: Fieldbus Foundation, Austin, TX. More... research organizations working together) of automation infrastructure that provides integrity,...

  17. 78 FR 20141 - Notice Pursuant To the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Pistoia Alliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... 15, 2009 (74 FR 34364). The last notification was filed with the Department on September 20, 2012. A... FR 65413). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ... circumstances. Specifically, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA; Wolfram...

  18. 75 FR 65656 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Pistoia Alliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...) of the Act on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 34364). The last notification was filed with the Department on... August 18, 2010 (75 FR 51114). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division... circumstances. Specifically, Eagle Genomics Ltd., Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom;...

  19. 78 FR 16868 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National Warheads...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with... Section 6(b) of the Act on December 11, 2012 (77 FR 73676). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... Research Corporation, Austin, TX; and Targeted GeoSystems, LLC, Madison, AL, have been added as parties...

  20. 78 FR 58558 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, Inc. d...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ..., GA; DISCO Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN; and ACM Research, Inc., Fremont, CA, have been added as parties... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on May 19, 1988 (53 FR 17987). The last notification was filed with the... Act on June 21, 2013 (78 FR 37572). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement,...

  1. 76 FR 65749 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-TAI and Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Federal Trade Commission disclosing (1) the identities of the parties to the venture and (2) the nature.... Pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act, the identities of the parties to the venture are: Southwest Research... all changes in planned activities. Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement,...

  2. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  3. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  4. The Cooperative Groups: past and future.

    PubMed

    Comis, R L

    1998-01-01

    The Cooperative Group system of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been in existence since the 1950s and has evolved to comprise 11 groups, the membership of which includes universities, Community Clinical Oncology Programs, and Cooperative Group Outreach Programs. The Cooperative Groups serve as models for cancer clinical trials throughout the world. However, in today's changing healthcare environment in the USA the Cooperative Groups need to adjust how they operate to ensure the continuation of their leadership role in cancer clinical trials. Government funds, the main source of support for the Cooperative Groups' activities, are shrinking and currently funding is only 50% of the recommended level. If the Cooperative Groups are to remain at the forefront, adjustments must be made in several areas: the Cooperative Groups need to provide an efficient and rapid scientific and legal mechanism to execute large phase III studies of the increasingly important portfolio of compounds being developed by industry more effectively. Industry has come to rely on contract research organizations for expedited testing of their products due to perceived inefficiency in these areas in the Cooperative Group mechanism. The Cooperative Groups are uniquely situated to provide in-depth evaluation of the newest therapies for regulatory agencies and interested health insurers, as well as provide health outcomes data, which are now much sought after by the healthcare industry. Managed care is shaping medical practice, including cancer care, throughout the USA. Finally, the Cooperative Groups need to foster greater international cooperation to speed technology transfers. The leaders of the Cooperative Groups are discussing new approaches to address these deficiencies, while complementing the existing NCI structure and recognizing the independence of each group. The objectives of these new approaches would be: to establish a structure whereby better contracts with industry for

  5. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research…

  6. Bibliography of surface-mine reclamation research: 1976--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crews, J.T.

    1999-06-01

    The report contains citations for 177 articles and publications that describe research on or related to the reclamation of surface-mined lands conducted from 1976 through 1993 by scientists with the Northeastern Research Station and cooperating organizations. A subject index is included.

  7. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  8. Working with Cooperative Small Groups. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diversified small groups in the classroom provide a good opportunity for students to share information and ideas with each other. The research on cooperative small groups points out the benefits of these interactions and describes the process as a powerful forum for developing students' critical thinking and higher-order skills: (1) Cooperative…

  9. Annual research briefs, 1993. [Center for Turbulence Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 annual progress reports of the Research Fellow and students of the Center for Turbulence Research are included. The first group of reports are directed towards the theory and application of active control in turbulent flows including the development of a systematic mathematical procedure based on the Navier Stokes equations for flow control. The second group of reports are concerned with the prediction of turbulent flows. The remaining articles are devoted to turbulent reacting flows, turbulence physics, experiments, and simulations.

  10. Field research, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This article summarizes field research during the 1993-94 field season in the Antarctic. Among other studies were descriptions of the following: Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the antarctic marginal ice zone; Long-term ecological research (LTER) on the Antarctic marine ecosystem: microbiology and carbon flux; Geologic record of late Wisconsinan/Holocene ice sheet advance and retreat from the Ross Sea; Late Quarernary paleoclimatic history of southern Chile: evidence from the marine record; Integrated biostratigraphy and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the Ross Sea: Implications for Cenozoic eustatic and climate change; Oxygen-isotope record from McMurdo dome and its relation to the geological climate record of the McMurdo Dry Valleys; Evaluation of processes at polar glacier grounding lines to constrain glaciological and oceanographic models; Reconstruction of paleotemperatures from precision borehole temperature logging; Cenozoic glacial and climatic history of the antarctic region; Observation and modeling studies of episodic events in the south polar atmospheric boundary layer; biogeochemistry of carbon and silica on the antarctic shelf; Chlorine and bromine containing trace gases in Antarctica; South Pole monitoring for climatic change; Aerosol Sampling at Palmer Station; several Ozone depletion studies.

  11. Research and development of methods/utilities and rules for managing cooperation for performance improvement in government offices. Second Technical progress report, September 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, H.A.

    1993-03-01

    Purpose is to help managers approach their responsibilities proactively, so that they can anticipate problems and take actions to alleviate or eliminate those problems. Continuous performance improvement, the philosophy behind total quality management, requires working cooperatively to do a little better each day. The most effective tools are working through a closed set of 9 methods: setting expectations, charting, defining indicators and standards, collecting and logging data, converting data to information, organizing and presenting information, reviewing status and progress, self-management, and appraising. In addition, there are 8 rules: focus on what you can do, supply physical evidence of progress, pay attention to detail, inspect (don`t expect), review progress routinely and frequently, face ``success/fail`` squarely, communicate crisply, and conduct honest, open appraisals. Scope and plans of the draft research plan (study areas) are described.

  12. U. S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Water-Resources Program Fiscal Year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a part- nership between the U.S. Geological Survey and State and local agencies. It provides a balanced approach to the study and resolution of water- related problems and to acquiring hydrologic data. The principal program objectives are to: (1) collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources, and (2) appraise the availa- bility and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through analytical and interpretive investi- gations. During fiscal year 1993, hydrologic data collection, interpretive investigations, and research were conducted by Geological Survey personnel in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and in several territories in cooperation with about 1,100 local, State, and regional agencies. In fiscal year 1993, Federal funding of $63.5 million was matched by cooperating agencies, which also provided almost $23 million unmatched for a total program of about $150 million. This amounted to nearly 40 percent of the total funds for Geological Survey water- resources activities. This report presents examples of current (1993) investigations. It also provides updated information on Cooperative Program investigations related to agricultural activities.

  13. Strategies to Increase Participation in Cooperative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines how focused organization, group roles, and gender grouping impact student participation when working in a cooperative group setting. Fifty-two sixth graders were studied for a period of nine weeks. Results show when students are organized in their cooperative groups, there will be an increase in student participation.…

  14. Grouping and Achievement in Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John

    2003-01-01

    Colleges typically group students homogeneously in classes by means of both admission requirements and course prerequisites, but when professors form cooperative learning groups within classes they generally use heterogeneous grouping. Authors compared heterogeneously and homogeneously grouped cooperative learning groups in six paired classes,…

  15. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  16. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  17. Cooperative Group Trials in the Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wade, James Lloyd; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 40 years the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has created a vibrant public-private partnership for the implementation of NCI sponsored cooperative group (Network) clinical trials throughout the United States and Canada. Over these four decades, the cancer clinical trials process has become more complex more precise and more resource intensive. During this same time period, financial resources to support the NCI community research initiative have become more constrained. The newest manifestation of NCI sponsored community based cancer clinical trial research, known as the National Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) began initial operation August 1st, 2014. This paper describes several key strategies that community sites may use to not only be successful, but to thrive in this new financially austere research environment. PMID:26433550

  18. Research and technology highlights, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of the research and technology activities supported by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. This report also describes some of the Center's most important research and testing facilities.

  19. Productive Group Work for Students. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    There is clear evidence that students who are involved in productive collaborative groups outperform their peers. Cooperative group work also results in improved self-esteem, improved relationships and enhanced social and decision-making skills. Johnson and Johnson (1993) identified the elements of a successful collaborative activity. They include…

  20. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  1. National Strategic Research Plan 1991, 1992, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This report updates the National Strategic Research Plan of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) and reports progress made from 1991 through 1993 as required by the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-553) which established the Institute. An executive summary…

  2. Global Change Research: Summaries of research in FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Global Research Program in FY 1993. This publication describes all of the projects funded by the Environmental Sciences Division of DOE under annual contracts, grants, and interagency agreements in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; its 3-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than 1 year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: climate modeling, quantitative links, global carbon cycle, vegetation research, ocean research, economics of global climate change, education, information and integration, and NIGEC. Within these categories, the descriptions are grouped alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers.

  3. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  4. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  5. Cooperative Work Groups: Preparing Students for the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Scott M.

    This book outlines how educators can design meaningful learning experiences that address standards and utilize cooperative learning, brain research, and the Internet to effectively develop a students' ability to thrive in the 21st century workplace. After an introduction that explains cooperative work groups, there are 13 chapters in four parts.…

  6. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists with…

  7. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    PubMed

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed.

  8. Initiation of a Nuclear Research Program at Fisk University in Cooperation with the Nuclear Physics Group at Vanderbilt University, August 15, 1997 - January 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W.E.; Hamilton, J.H.

    2002-10-01

    Carrying a spirit of a long history of cooperation in physics education and research between Fisk University and Vanderbilt University, the Nuclear Research Program in the Department of Physics at Fisk University was proposed in 1996 in cooperation with the Nuclear Physics Group at Vanderbilt University. An initial NRP program was commissioned in 1997 with the financial support from DOE. The program offers a great opportunity for students and faculty at Fisk University to directly access experimental nuclear data and analyzing facilities within the Nuclear Physics Group at Vanderbilt University for a quick start. During the program Fisk Faculty and students (along with the colleagues at Vanderbilt University) have achieved progress in a few areas. We have (a) established an in-house nuclear data processing and analysis program at Fisk University, (b) conducted hands-on nuclear physics experiments for a Fisk undergraduate student at Vanderbilt University, (c) participated in the UNIRIB research with radioactive ion beam and Recoil Mass Spectrometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and (d) studied {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission and in-beam nuclear reactions for exotic nuclei. Additionally, this work has produced publication in conference proceedings as well as referred journals. [2-7].

  9. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  10. Group Discussion and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…

  11. Summaries of FY 1993 Engineering Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the BES Engineering Research Program for fiscal year 1993; it provides a summary for each of the program projects in addition to a brief program overview. The report is intended to provide staff of Congressional committees, other executive departments, and other DOE offices with substantive program information so as to facilitate governmental overview and coordination of Federal research programs. Of equal importance, its availability facilitates communication of program information to interested research engineers and scientists. The organizational chart for the DOE Office of Energy Research (OER) on the next page delineates the six Divisions within the OER Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Each BES Division administers basic, mission oriented research programs in the area indicated by its title. The BES Engineering Research Program is one such program; it is administered by the Engineering and Geosciences Division of BES. In preparing this report we asked the principal investigators to submit summaries for their projects that were specifically applicable to fiscal year 1993. The summaries received have been edited if necessary.

  12. Human cooperation in groups: variation begets variation

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Pieter van den; Molleman, Lucas; Junikka, Jaakko; Puurtinen, Mikael; Weissing, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments on human cooperation have revealed that individuals differ systematically in their tendency to cooperate with others. It has also been shown that individuals condition their behaviour on the overall cooperation level of their peers. Yet, little is known about how individuals respond to heterogeneity in cooperativeness in their neighbourhood. Here, we present an experimental study investigating whether and how people respond to heterogeneous behaviour in a public goods game. We find that a large majority of subjects does respond to heterogeneity in their group, but they respond in quite different ways. Most subjects contribute less to the public good when the contributions of their peers are more heterogeneous, but a substantial fraction of individuals consistently contributes more in this case. In addition, we find that individuals that respond positively to heterogeneity have a higher general cooperation tendency. The finding that social responsiveness occurs in different forms and is correlated with cooperativeness may have important implications for the outcome of cooperative interactions. PMID:26531770

  13. 76 FR 39902 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... specified circumstances. Specifically, TravelSky Technology Limited, Beijing, People's Republic of China... Panama; and Association of Retail Travel Agents, Scottsdale, AZ, have been added as parties to this... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 16, 2010 (75 FR...

  14. 76 FR 23838 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 16, 2010 (75 FR 70031). ] The last notification... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act February 1, 2011 (76 FR 5610). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... OpenJaw Technologies Ltd., Dublin, IRELAND, have been added as parties to this venture. No...

  15. 76 FR 58540 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 16, 2010 (75 FR 70031). The last notification was filed with the... Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39902). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, MindTree Limited, Bangalore, INDIA; Goldenware...

  16. 76 FR 5610 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Section ] 6(b) of the Act on November 16, 2010 (75 FR 70031). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... specified circumstances. Specifically, Tripit, Inc., San Francisco, CA; LUTE, Zug, SWITZERLAND;...

  17. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  18. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  19. An essential partnership: patient advocates and cooperative groups.

    PubMed

    Collyar, Deborah

    2008-10-01

    Cancer patient advocates have been working with the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored cooperative groups since the early 1990s. These partnerships have evolved over time and have become integral to each cooperative group as they strive to develop and validate better cancer treatments so that patients live longer. Patient advocates are now involved in concept and protocol development in disease, modality, and administrative committees to confirm that requirements are relevant and feasible for cancer patients. Approval and activation steps also are key focus areas, as are recruitment plans. Patient advocates also participate in executive decisions in some cooperative groups to concentrate efforts on clinical trial results that improve patients' live rather than solely answering interesting scientific questions. Patient advocates also contribute collectively through the Patient Advisory Board (PAB) to the Coalition of Cancer Cooperative Groups by sharing best practices, addressing emerging research issues, and challenging cooperative group leadership to work together in new ways. These voluntary efforts with NCI and the cooperative groups endeavor to help fix problems in the research enterprise so that tangible results can be implemented more quickly for people. PMID:18929153

  20. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  1. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1993--June 30, 1993. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  2. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.; Moonier, P.; Schoessow, P.; Talaga, R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1993--December 31, 1993. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  3. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  4. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  5. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  6. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  7. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  8. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  9. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  10. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  11. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  12. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  13. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  14. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  15. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  16. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  17. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  18. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  19. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  20. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  1. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  2. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  3. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  4. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  5. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  6. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  7. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  8. Research, Technology, and Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Donald J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, which was created to improve and strengthen our educational system and which assists states and localities in assuming the increased control and responsibility over decision making. (JOW)

  9. Group Health Cooperative's community services initiative.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, K M; Beery, W L; Pearson, D C

    1993-12-01

    Service to the broader community is an important component of Group Health Cooperative's (GHC's) tradition, values, and mission. The role and potential of community services in a staff model HMO requires consensus, careful planning and communication, and attention to results. This paper describes GHC's efforts to define, implement, and sustain its community services initiative.

  10. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  11. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  12. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  13. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  14. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  15. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  16. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  17. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  18. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  19. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  20. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent’s fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  1. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  2. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  3. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  4. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  5. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  6. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  7. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  8. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  9. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  10. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  11. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  12. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  13. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  14. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  15. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  16. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  17. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  18. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  19. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  20. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  1. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  2. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  3. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  4. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  5. INEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from all the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, boron drug analysis), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented. Results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with boron neutron capture therapy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory are updated. Boron-containing drug purity verification is discussed in some detail. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging of boron in vivo are discussed. Several boron-carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux of the Petten (The Netherlands) High Flux Reactor beam (HFB11B), and comparison to predictions are shown.

  6. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  7. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  8. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  9. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  10. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  11. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  12. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  13. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  14. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those...

  15. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  16. THE COOPERATIVE INTERNATIONAL NEUROMUSCULAR RESEARCH GROUP DUCHENNE NATURAL HISTORY STUDY—A LONGITUDINAL INVESTIGATION IN THE ERA OF GLUCOCORTICOID THERAPY: DESIGN OF PROTOCOL AND THE METHODS USED

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig M.; Henricson, Erik K.; Abresch, R. Ted; Han, Jay J.; Escolar, Diana M.; Florence, Julaine M.; Duong, Tina; Arrieta, Adrienne; Clemens, Paula R.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary natural history data in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is needed to assess care recommendations and aid in planning future trials. Methods The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) DMD Natural History Study (DMD-NHS) enrolled 340 individuals, aged 2–28 years, with DMD in a longitudinal, observational study at 20 centers. Assessments obtained every 3 months for 1 year, at 18 months, and annually thereafter included: clinical history; anthropometrics; goniometry; manual muscle testing; quantitative muscle strength; timed function tests; pulmonary function; and patient-reported outcomes/ health-related quality-of-life instruments. Results Glucocorticoid (GC) use at baseline was 62% present, 14% past, and 24% GC-naive. In those ≥6 years of age, 16% lost ambulation over the first 12 months (mean age 10.8 years). Conclusions Detailed information on the study methodology of the CINRG DMD-NHS lays the groundwork for future analyses of prospective longitudinal natural history data. These data will assist investigators in designing clinical trials of novel therapeutics. PMID:23677550

  17. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  18. The Effect of Group Research and Cooperative Reading-Writing-Application Techniques in the Unit of "What Is the Earth's Crust Made Of?" on The Academic Achievements of the Students and the Permanent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the group research technique and cooperative reading-writing application technique in the science and technology course in the unit of "what is the Earth's crust made of" on the academic achievement of the students and whether the change observed in the student achievement is permanent…

  19. Dental research productivity in Argentina (1993 to 2003).

    PubMed

    Collet, Ana M; Jara-Tracchia, Lilian; Palacios, Silvia B; Itoiz, Maria E

    2006-01-01

    The scientific presentations at the annual meetings of the Argentine Division of the I.A.D.R. (S.A.I.O.) are proof of the scientific production of this country in dental research. Our annual meetings provide a forum for the rapid communication and discussion of research. However, only peer-reviewed articles, published in journals indexed in worldwide-accepted databases such as MEDLINE are permanent records of the research work and can reach out to a global audience. A useful indicator of quality and publication efficiency of research work is the rate of publication (RP), i.e. relationship between the quantity of presentations and subsequent publications in peer-reviewed journals. Previous works analyzed the two periods: 1980-1989 and 1990-1995 (Acta Odont. Latinoamer 7(2):39-46,1993 and Acta Odont. Latinoamer. 10(1):63-69, 1997). The aim of this work was to update the informatiod and study the publication rate of national Dental research works. The 1669 works produced by national research centers presented at the Annual Meetings of the S.A.LO. from 1993 to 2003 were evaluated. Employing the authors' index of the programs of the Annual Meetings of the S.A.I.O. we searched for possible publications in MEDLINE. The references obtained were compared with the presentations (title and authors) disregarding those that had not been communicated previously at our Division meeting. Presentations and the corresponding publications were grouped according to research center and within each center according to subject area. The following parameters were obtained: PR, time between Presentation and publication and language of publication. PR increased in 1993-2003 (1/4.8, 20.79%) when compared to the periods studied previously (1/8, 12%). Most of the publications were in English and had been published within 4 years after presentation. The increase in the number of S.A.I.O. presentations published in peer-reviewed journals shows an improvement in terms of research productivity in

  20. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical publications announced in 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes the technical reporting that resulted from the scientific and engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1993. All the publications were announced in the 1993 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  1. Cooperative Learning--A Double-Edged Sword: A Cooperative Learning Model for Use with Diverse Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Although very little research has been done on cooperative learning (CL) in New Zealand, international research is positive about the educational benefits of working in culturally diverse groups. This paper presents the findings of a research project examining New Zealand experiences with CL in multicultural groups. Data were collected via surveys…

  2. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  3. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research....

  4. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research....

  5. Research and Evaluation Agenda 1993-94 for AISD 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The research and evaluation agenda for the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas) is determined for each school year, subject to current needs and requests. The evaluations and other major projects for 1993-94 will focus on three major areas. First is providing school support. Testing programs mandated by state law and district policy…

  6. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting (York, Ontario, Canada, May 28-June 1, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are presented in four sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; and (4) ad hoc groups. Papers include: (1) "What is a Square Root? A Study of Geometrical Representation in Different…

  7. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  8. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  9. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  10. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  11. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  12. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  13. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  14. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  17. Cooperative algorithm and group behavior in multirobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seong-Woo; Park, Kwang-Soo; Shin, Shang-Woon; Ahn, Doo-Sung

    2001-10-01

    In a multi-agent system, the action selection strategy is important for the cooperation and coordination of multi agents. However the overlap of actions selected individually by each robot makes the acquisition of cooperation behaviors less efficient. In addition to that, a complex and dynamic environment makes cooperation even more difficult. So in this paper, we propose a control algorithm which enables each robot to determine the action for the effective cooperation in multi-robot system. We employ a reinforcement learning in order to choose a proper action for each robot in its action subspace. In this paper, robot soccer system is adopted for the multi-robot environment. To play a soccer game, elementary actions such as shooting and passing must be provided. Q-learning, which is one of the popular methods for reinforcement learning, is used to determine what actions to take. Through simulations, the efficiency of own proposed algorithm is verified for the cooperation in multi robot system.

  18. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES - RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND FIELD EVALUATIONS - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings of the 1993 Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes, hosted by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the EPA in Dallas, Texas The symposium was the sixth annual meeting for the presentation of research conducts (by EPA's Biosystems Technology Dev...

  19. Center for modeling of turbulence and transition: Research briefs, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This research brief contains the progress reports of the research staff of the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) from June 1992 to July 1993. It is also an annual report to the Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion located at Ohio Aerospace Institute and NASA Lewis Research Center. The main objectives of the research activities at CMOTT are to develop, validate, and implement turbulence and transition models for flows of interest in propulsion systems. Currently, our research covers eddy viscosity one- and two-equation models, Reynolds-stress algebraic equation models, Reynolds-stress transport equation models, nonequilibrium multiple-scale models, bypass transition models, joint scalar probability density function models, and Renormalization Group Theory and Direct Interaction Approximation methods. Some numerical simulations (LES and DNS) have also been carried out to support the development of turbulence modeling. Last year was CMOTT's third year in operation. During this period, in addition to the above mentioned research, CMOTT has also hosted the following programs: an eighteen-hour short course on 'Turbulence--Fundamentals and Computational Modeling (Part I)' given by CMOTT at the NASA Lewis Research Center; a productive summer visitor research program that has generated many encouraging results; collaborative programs with industry customers to help improve their turbulent flow calculations for propulsion system designs; a biweekly CMOTT seminar series with speakers from within and without the NASA Lewis Research Center including foreign speakers. In addition, CMOTT members have been actively involved in the national and international turbulence research activities. The current CMOTT roster and organization are listed in Appendix A. Listed in Appendix B are the abstracts of the biweekly CMOTT seminar. Appendix C lists the papers contributed by CMOTT members.

  20. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  1. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

  2. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP: International Research Cooperation to Develop and Evaluate Tools and Techniques for Revitalization of Potentially Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the German Federal Mini...

  3. Practicing What We Preach: Teacher Reflection Groups on Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of teacher reflection groups to aid teachers in their efforts to facilitate cooperative learning among their students. It is argued that these teacher reflection groups function best when they are organized with reference to eight cooperative learning principles. Furthermore, it is suggested that these reflective…

  4. Who Cries Wolf, and When? Manipulation of Perceived Threats to Preserve Rank in Cooperative Groups

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Pat; Benard, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    People perform greater within-group cooperation when their groups face external threats, such as hostile outgroups or natural disasters. Researchers and social commentators suggest that high-ranking group members manipulate this “threat-dependent” cooperation by exaggerating threats in order to promote cooperation and suppress competition for their position. However, little systematic research tests this claim or possible situational moderators. In three studies, we use a cooperative group game to show that participants pay to increase others’ perceptions of group threats, and spend more on manipulation when holding privileged positions. This manipulation cost-effectively elicits cooperation and sustains privilege, and is fostered by competition over position, not only position per se. Less cooperative people do more manipulation than more cooperative people do. Furthermore, these effects generalize to broader definitions of privilege. Conceptually, these results offer new insights into an understudied dimension of group behavior. Methodologically, the research extends cooperative group games to allow for analyzing more complex group dynamics. PMID:24069239

  5. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    PubMed

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  6. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Changbing; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors), the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level. PMID:24533084

  7. Summaries of FY 1993 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the DOE`s many missions. The Geosciences Research Program is supported by the Office of Energy Research. The participants in this program include DOE laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the DOE and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar-atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  8. Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biele, Guido; Rieskamp, Jorg; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    What are the cognitive processes underlying cooperation in groups? This question is addressed by examining how well a reciprocity model, two learning models, and social value orientation can predict cooperation in two iterated n-person social dilemmas with continuous contributions. In the first of these dilemmas, the public goods game,…

  9. Cooperative Learning and Ability Grouping: An Issue of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Carol J.; Durden, William G.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on cooperative learning and ability grouping for gifted students and concludes that grouping, in and of itself, does not affect achievement and that grouping decisions need to be based on educational choices according to students' individual needs. Schools are encouraged to provide both ability grouping and…

  10. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  11. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action. PMID:26597333

  12. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action. PMID:26597333

  13. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  14. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-24

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  15. The 1993 Gordon Research Conference on Chronobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of biological timekeeping is now at a particularly fertile stage, encompassing multiple levels of biological organization, recruiting a wide array of disciplines and methodologies and uniting a host of investigators. This report summarizes a research conference on Chronobiology. Some of the topics focused on transcriptional and translational mechanisms of circadian rhythmicity, with discussions of putative 'clock genes' in cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, fruitflies, and hamsters. Cellular analysis, with emphasis on photoreceptors in frogs, neurons in molluscs, and testis in moths was addressed. New methods for investigating the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus were introduced.

  16. The Inter-Group Comparison – Intra-Group Cooperation Hypothesis: Comparisons between Groups Increase Efficiency in Public Goods Provision

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants’ level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application. PMID:23405262

  17. Reputation and the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Akiyama, Eizo

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas has been of considerable concern in various fields such as sociobiology, economics and sociology. It might be that, in the real world, reputation plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Recently, studies that have addressed indirect reciprocity have revealed that cooperation can evolve through reputation, even though pairs of individuals interact only a few times. To our knowledge, most indirect reciprocity models have presumed dyadic interaction; no studies have attempted analysis of the evolution of cooperation in large communities where the effect of reputation is included. We investigate the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups in which the reputation of individuals affects the decision-making process. This paper presents the following: (i) cooperation can evolve in a four-person case, (ii) the evolution of cooperation becomes difficult as group size increases, even if the effect of reputation is included, and (iii) three kinds of final social states exist. In medium-sized communities, cooperative species can coexist in a stable manner with betrayal species. PMID:16006331

  18. Organizing multicenter trials: lessons from the cooperative oncology groups.

    PubMed

    Carbone, P P; Tormey, D C

    1991-01-01

    The execution of cancer clinical therapy trials has evolved over the past 45 years and is centered in the Clinical Oncology Group mechanism. The organization, statistical and administrative support, protocol development, and quality control systems have been worked out well and can be described in detail through the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Prevention trials, on the other hand, are larger and fewer and take longer to complete. They involve people who are healthy or not as motivated to take pills or change lifestyle habits as those who are ill. The problems of compliance, toxicity, and costs become major issues. The practice of medicine is organized to take care of sick people and not healthy volunteers. We describe potential roles for Clinical Oncology Groups. These include preliminary tests of prevention agents for safety and toxicity much like Phase 1 trials with cytotoxic agents. A second important possible involvement would be to provide patients at high risk for developing second cancers, treatment- or non-treatment-induced, for prevention trials. A third set of individuals that can be recruited through current group resources are relatives of cancer patients who themselves might be highly motivated to participate in prevention trials. While the Clinical Oncology Groups may not have primary roles in prevention trials, they do represent a resource that has trial discipline and willingness and could facilitate the research efforts in chemoprevention.

  19. Trends and topics in sports research in the Social Science Citation Index from 1993 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-02-01

    This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.

  20. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard S; Boone, James L

    2010-08-21

    Two types of models aim to account the origins of rank differentiation and social hierarchy in human societies. Conflict models suggest that the formation of social hierarchies is synonymous with the establishment of relationships of coercive social dominance and exploitation. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation--the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject--may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. Little formal theoretical work, however, has established whether and under what conditions individuals would indeed prefer the establishment of more hierarchical relationships over more egalitarian alternatives. This paper provides an evolutionary game theoretical model for the acceptance of leadership in cooperative groups. We propose that the effort of a leader can reduce the likelihood that cooperation fails due to free-riding or coordination errors, and that under some circumstances, individuals would prefer to cooperate in a group under the supervision of a leader who receives a share of the group's productivity than to work in an unsupervised group. We suggest, in particular, that this becomes an optimal solution for individual decision makers when the number of group members required for collective action exceeds the maximum group size at which leaderless cooperation is viable.

  1. Cooperative research in space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This grant covered the period from July 1989 through September 30, 1995. The research covered a number of topics in the general area of space science. Specific research topics included: (1) Solar astronomy - largely in support of the Ulysses project; (2) Space Science - largely in support of instrumentation for several NASA satellite projects; (3) Cometary astronomy; and (4) Planetary Astronomy - largely supporting the NASA Infrared Heterodyne instrument.

  2. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological, and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research, and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1993.

  3. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  4. Optimal Grouping and Matching for Network-Coded Cooperative Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S; Shi, Y; Hou, Y T; Kompella, S; Midkiff, S F

    2011-11-01

    Network-coded cooperative communications (NC-CC) is a new advance in wireless networking that exploits network coding (NC) to improve the performance of cooperative communications (CC). However, there remains very limited understanding of this new hybrid technology, particularly at the link layer and above. This paper fills in this gap by studying a network optimization problem that requires joint optimization of session grouping, relay node grouping, and matching of session/relay groups. After showing that this problem is NP-hard, we present a polynomial time heuristic algorithm to this problem. Using simulation results, we show that our algorithm is highly competitive and can produce near-optimal results.

  5. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  6. Divorcing the puzzles: When group identities foster in-group cooperation.

    PubMed

    Seewald, Daniel; Hechler, Stefanie; Kessler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We argue that general social psychological mechanisms (e.g., common group identity) can account for prosocial behavior and cooperative norms without the need for punishing Big Gods. Moreover, prosocial religions often do not prevent conflict within their religious groups. Hence, we doubt whether Big Gods and prosocial religions are more effective than alternative identities in enhancing high-level cooperation. PMID:26948741

  7. Johnson Space Center Research and Technology 1993 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Center research and technology accomplishments during fiscal year 1993 are described and principle researchers and technologists are identified as contacts for further information. Each of the four sections gives a summary of overall progress in a major discipline, followed by detailed, illustrated descriptions of significant tasks. The four disciplines are Life Sciences, Human Support Technology, Solar Systems Sciences, and Space Systems Technology. The report is intended for technical and management audiences throughout the NASA and worldwide aerospace community. An index lists project titles, funding codes, and principal investigators.

  8. Toxic hazards research unit annual report 1993. Final report, 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, D.E.; Smith, P.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period 0 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. The THRU conducts descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology research and toxicological risk assessments to provide data to predict health hazards and to assess health risks associated with human exposure to chemicals and materials associated with military systems and operational environments. The report includes summaries of ongoing or completed research activities for the individual toxicology research requirements of the U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy; highlights of the research support elements and conference activities of the THRU; and appendices that describe the THRU organization and its publications and presentations. The majority of the report describes the progress attained in toxicological studies on a wide variety of chemicals and materials to include tetrachloroethylene, iodotrifluoromethane, ammonium dinitramide, HCFC- 123, trichloroethylene, toluene, liquid propellant formulation 1846, vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene mixture, methylene chloride, MIL-H-19457C hydraulic fluid, acrolein and acrolein/Syloid 244 mixture, 1 ,3,3-trinitroazetidine, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. The THRU also conducted research on lactational transfer and dermal absorption of chemicals, on toxicological risk assessment methods, and evaluated statistical methods for assessing military populations as a subgroup of the public at-large.

  9. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  10. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Jose A.; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce. PMID:25598347

  11. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce. PMID:25598347

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  13. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trasco, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A joint agreement between NASA/Goddard and The University of Maryland currently supports cooperative research in Satellite Based Studies of Photons and Charged Particles in the following areas: 1) Detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; 2) Research with several past and upcoming X-ray satellites; 3) High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; 4) Theoretical astrophysics.

  14. Communication on a problem solving task in cooperative learning groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Jo; Fawns, Rod

    1992-12-01

    There is some evidence from this study that reflectivity within cooperative learning groups develops over time. Preliminary observations suggest that Slavin's third and fourth levels of skills, those of reflection and reasoning and reconception and reformulation and Kempa and Ayob's higher levels of explanation and insight appear more advanced in groups strategically managed by teachers for such outcomes. Later analyses will permit more detailed accounts of the relationships between the teacher's management strategies, and reflection within groups of different gender composition.

  15. Garnet: featured mineral group at the 1993 Tucson Show

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The garnets are a common but complex group of minerals. They are perhaps the mineral kingdom's best example of solid solution: a relationship in which minerals have chemical compositions that are intermediate between two or more ideal end-member species. In garnet, we deal with a complex group of solid-solution series between as many as 14 end-member minerals. The varying intergradations of solid solution between these different end-members help to explain the garnet group's variety of color, environment of occurrence, gem use, and variation in such physical properties as specific gravity, refractive index, and hardness. -from Author

  16. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of fiscal year 1993. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. The program advances the Laboratory`s core competencies, foundations, scientific capability, and permits exploration of exciting new opportunities. Reports are given from the following divisions: Accelerator and Fusion Research, Chemical Sciences, Earth Sciences, Energy and Environment, Engineering, Environment -- Health and Safety, Information and Computing Sciences, Life Sciences, Materials Sciences, Nuclear Science, Physics, and Structural Biology. (GHH)

  17. Expectation-driven migration promotes cooperation by group interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2012-06-01

    “Voting with feet” describes the prominent social phenomenon that people tend to move away from deteriorating neighborhoods and search for and join prosperous groups. To quantify the role this kind of expectation-driven migration plays in the evolution of cooperation, here we study a simple yet effective model of cooperation based on spatial public goods games. The population structure is characterized by a square lattice with some nodes being left empty. Individuals have expectations toward their current habitats. Dissatisfied players, whose expectation is not met after interacting with all directly connected neighbors, tend to abstain from the groups of low quality by moving away and explore the physical niches of avail. How fast interaction happens relatively to selection is regulated by the time-scale ratio of game interaction to natural selection. Under strong selection, simulation results show that cooperation is greatly improved for either low, moderate, or high expectations compared to whenever the expectation-driven migration is absent. Further explorations reveal that neither too high nor too low but rather a combination of moderate expectations and rapid interaction establishes cooperation for a moderate public goods enhancement factor. There exists an optimal interval of expectation level most favoring the evolution of cooperation as the required time-scale ratio is minimized.

  18. Exploring Technology Supported Collaborative and Cooperative Group Formation Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carapina, Mia; Boticki, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the systematic literature review paper (in progress), which analyzes technology enhanced collaborative and cooperative learning in elementary education worldwide from 2004 to 2015, focusing on the exploration of technology mediated group formation. The review paper reports on only a few cases of technology supported methods…

  19. Cooperative Skill Development in Equal Status Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, H. Wells; And Others

    The objective of the study was to (1) systematically study the process by which small group cooperation develops and to (2) produce guidelines that will be useful to teachers. The sample consisted of 84 seventh grade boys and girls of middle class families. Three randomly assigned samples (rotating, solid, and control) comprised the experimental…

  20. An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Composing Cooperative Learning Groups for Multiple Grouping Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Hwang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is known to be an effective educational strategy in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning efficacy. This is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve…

  1. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G.; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals. PMID:23390105

  2. 14 CFR § 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. § 1230.114 Section Â... SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those... research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of...

  3. Intergroup competition may not be needed for shaping group cooperation and cultural group selection.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Balliet, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Because intergroup interactions often are mixed-motive rather than strictly zero-sum, groups often negotiate settlements that enable both cultures to thrive. Moreover, group prosperity rests on in-group love (rather than out-group hate) that emerges also absent intergroup competition or comparison. It follows that cultural group selection (CGS) reflects group effectiveness in organizing in-group trust and cooperation, rather than winning (in)direct intergroup competitions. PMID:27562414

  4. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed. PMID:26177466

  5. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed.

  6. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions.

    PubMed

    Nax, Heinrich H; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-07-15

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner's dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others' individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for 'group scoring' but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed.

  7. In Brief: European cooperation in polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    A new European Polar Framework agreement aims to increase research cooperation, streamline links between many European national research programs in the Arctic and Antarctic, and possibly create international research teams similar to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The new framework includes commitments to collaborate on new multinational research initiatives and to have national polar programs converge where appropriate. “Recent environmental shifts in the poles have been large and rapid. By linking together Europe's polar research more closely we can get a better grasp on the wide-ranging series of changes taking place,” said Paul Egerton, executive director of the European Science Foundation's European Polar Board, which aims to facilitate cooperation among various organizations. The agreement was signed on 24 June by 26 European scientific institutions, including the British Antarctic Survey; the Agency of Culture, Education, Research and the Church Affairs, Greenland; the Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Germany; Italy's Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide; Norway's Norsk Polarinstitutt; and the Romanian Antarctic Foundation.

  8. EPA`s cooperative research opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gatchett, A.M.; Fradkin, L.; James, S.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the private sector find an increasing need for new cost-effective environmental technologies to treat, control, and prevent pollution. Many cooperative research programs to address this concern are available through the EPA. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) currently operates two of the most visible innovative technology development programs: (1) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program; (2) Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) Program. These programs work very closely with the other EPA program offices. A brief overview of these activities and the new Environmental Technology Initiative within EPA are presented in this paper.

  9. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  10. Hypervirulent Clone of Group B Streptococcus Serotype III Sequence Type 283, Hong Kong, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Irene; Fung, Kitty; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Luo, Ming Jing; Lai, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We describe a hypervirulent clone of group B Streptococcus serotype III, subtype 4, sequence type 283, that caused invasive disease with a predilection for meningitis in Hong Kong during 1993–2012. The organism is associated with high mortality and increased summer prevalence and is linked to diseased fish from freshwater fish farms. PMID:27648702

  11. Hypervirulent Clone of Group B Streptococcus Serotype III Sequence Type 283, Hong Kong, 1993-2012.

    PubMed

    Ip, Margaret; Ang, Irene; Fung, Kitty; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Luo, Ming Jing; Lai, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    We describe a hypervirulent clone of group B Streptococcus serotype III, subtype 4, sequence type 283, that caused invasive disease with a predilection for meningitis in Hong Kong during 1993-2012. The organism is associated with high mortality and increased summer prevalence and is linked to diseased fish from freshwater fish farms. PMID:27648702

  12. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  13. Inquiry and groups: student interactions in cooperative inquiry-based science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-03-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic inquiry based primary science class setting. Thirty-one upper primary students were videotaped working in cooperative inquiry based science activities. Cooperative talk and negotiation of the science content was analysed to identify any high-level group interactions. The data show that while all groups have incidences of high-level content-related group interactions, the frequency and duration of these interactions were limited. No specific pattern of preceding events was identified and no episodes of high-level content-related group interactions were immediately preceded by the teacher's interactions with the groups. This in situ study demonstrated that even without any kind of scaffolding, specific skills in knowing how to implement cooperative inquiry based science, high-level content-related group interactions did occur very briefly. Support for teachers to develop their knowledge and skills in facilitating cooperative inquiry based science learning is warranted to ensure that high-level content-related group interactions and the associated conceptual learning are not left to chance in science classrooms.

  14. Incidence of prostatic calcification in blacks in Washington, D.C., and selected African cities. Correlation of specimen roentgenographs and pathologic findings. Cooperative Prostatic Research Group.

    PubMed

    Kovi, J; Rao, M S; Heshmat, M Y; Akberzie, M E; Jackson, M A; Ogunmuyiwa, T A

    1979-10-01

    The incidence of calcification in the prostate gland of black men from Washington, D.C., and from Ibadan, Nigeria, and Accra, Ghana, West Africa, was assessed in a total of 874 consecutive, unselected prostate specimens removed at autopsy during a five-year period (1973--1978). In the combined series there was a significant positive association between prostatic calcification and age (p less than 0.001). The frequency of calcification was significantly higher in the Washington, D.C. series than in the West African series at all age levels (p less than 0.001). This difference most likely reflects the different dietary patterns of the two population groups.

  15. The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Dominic L.; Blount, Jonathan D.; Young, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating senescence. However, experimental evidence of oxidative costs of reproduction in the wild remains scarce. Here, we use a clutch-removal experiment to investigate the oxidative costs of reproduction in a wild cooperatively breeding bird, the white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. Our results reveal costs of reproduction that are dependent on group size: relative to individuals in groups whose eggs were experimentally removed, individuals in groups that raised offspring experienced an associated cost (elevated oxidative damage and reduced body mass), but only if they were in small groups containing fewer or no helpers. Furthermore, during nestling provisioning, individuals that provisioned at higher rates showed greater within-individual declines in body mass and antioxidant protection. Our results provide rare experimental evidence that reproduction can negatively impact both oxidative status and body mass in the wild, and suggest that these costs can be mitigated in cooperative societies by the presence of additional helpers. These findings have implications for our understanding of the energetic and oxidative costs of reproduction, and the benefits of cooperation in animal societies. PMID:26582023

  16. The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Cram, Dominic L; Blount, Jonathan D; Young, Andrew J

    2015-11-22

    Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating senescence. However, experimental evidence of oxidative costs of reproduction in the wild remains scarce. Here, we use a clutch-removal experiment to investigate the oxidative costs of reproduction in a wild cooperatively breeding bird, the white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. Our results reveal costs of reproduction that are dependent on group size: relative to individuals in groups whose eggs were experimentally removed, individuals in groups that raised offspring experienced an associated cost (elevated oxidative damage and reduced body mass), but only if they were in small groups containing fewer or no helpers. Furthermore, during nestling provisioning, individuals that provisioned at higher rates showed greater within-individual declines in body mass and antioxidant protection. Our results provide rare experimental evidence that reproduction can negatively impact both oxidative status and body mass in the wild, and suggest that these costs can be mitigated in cooperative societies by the presence of additional helpers. These findings have implications for our understanding of the energetic and oxidative costs of reproduction, and the benefits of cooperation in animal societies.

  17. Between-group competition, intra-group cooperation and relative performance

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan C.; Mantilla, César

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a new public goods experiment with an intra-group cooperation dilemma and inter-group competition. In our design subjects receive information about their relative individual and group performance after each round with non-incentivized and then incentivized group competition. We found that, on average, individuals with low relative performance reduce their contributions to the public good, but groups with low performance increase theirs. With incentivized competition, where the relative ranking of the group increases individual payoffs, the reaction to relative performance is larger with individuals contributing more to the group; further, we observe that the variance of strategies decreases as individual and group rankings increase. These results offer new insights on how social comparison shapes similar reactions in games with different incentives for group performance and how competition and cooperation can influence each other. PMID:25741258

  18. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  19. Evaluation of high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Texas, 1993. Interim research report, September 1993-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, R.H.; Morris, D.E.; Christiansen, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    The report evaluates the operation of freeway high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes in Texas through calendar year 1993. As of the end of 1993, HOV lanes were in operation of the five following Houston freeways: (1) Katy Freeway (I-10W); (2) North Freeway (I-45N); (3) Northwest Freeway (U.S. 290); (4) Gulf Freeway (I-45S); and (5) Southwest Freeway (U.S. 59S). The only HOV facility in operation in Dallas as of the end of 1993 was on the East R. L. Thornton Freeway (I-30E). The research report provides an analysis of data related to the: (1) operation of the HOV lanes; (2) operation of the freeway mainlanes; (3) combined HOV lane and freeway data; and (4) data relating to transit usage and operations. Both a `before` and `after` trend line analysis (where applicable) and a comparison to control freeways are used as a means of assessing the impacts of the HOV facilities.

  20. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  1. The Investigation of Peer Assessment in Primary School Cooperative Learning Groups with Respect to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    There are studies especially at higher education level investigating the subsequent responses of students towards reciprocity, tacit agreement and assessment of peers, but research on the effect of gender on peer assessment is limited. The present study focuses on whether peer assessment used in cooperative learning groups varies with respect to…

  2. The Effects of Differentiating Instruction by Learning Styles on Problem Solving in Cooperative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    It can be difficult to find adequate strategies when teaching problem solving in a standard based mathematics classroom. The purpose of this study was to improve students' problem solving skills and attitudes through differentiated instruction when working on lengthy performance tasks in cooperative groups. This action research studied for 15 days…

  3. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  4. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S; Macedo, Regina H

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker (Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  5. Oxytocin Conditions Intergroup Relations Through Upregulated In-Group Empathy, Cooperation, Conformity, and Defense.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Kret, Mariska E

    2016-02-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation; and to aggressively protect the in-group against outside threat. We review evidence that these components of human group psychology rest on and are modulated by the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin. It appears that oxytocin motivates and enables humans to 1) like and empathize with others in their groups, 2) comply with group norms and cultural practices, and 3) extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation, which may give rise to intergroup discrimination and sometimes defensive aggression against threatening (members of) out-groups. We explore the possibility that deficiencies in (components of) group psychology, seen in autistic spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and borderline personality and social anxiety disorders, may be reduced by oxytocin administration. Avenues for new research are highlighted, and implications for the role of oxytocin in cooperation and competition within and between groups are discussed.

  6. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Learning Achievement and Group Working Behavior of Junior Students in Modern French Literature Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orprayoon, Soudaya

    2014-01-01

    This study reported on the results of a quasi-experimental research to explore the effectiveness of using a cooperative learning method on students' academic achievement, their group working behavior and their perception and opinions towards cooperative learning in a Modern French Literature course. The sample included twelve junior students…

  7. THE COOPERATIVE INTERNATIONAL NEUROMUSCULAR RESEARCH GROUP DUCHENNE NATURAL HISTORY STUDY: GLUCOCORTICOID TREATMENT PRESERVES CLINICALLY MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONAL MILESTONES AND REDUCES RATE OF DISEASE PROGRESSION AS MEASURED BY MANUAL MUSCLE TESTING AND OTHER COMMONLY USED CLINICAL TRIAL OUTCOME MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    HENRICSON, ERIK K.; ABRESCH, R. TED; CNAAN, AVITAL; HU, FENGMING; DUONG, TINA; ARRIETA, ADRIENNE; HAN, JAY; ESCOLAR, DIANA M.; FLORENCE, JULAINE M.; CLEMENS, PAULA R.; HOFFMAN, ERIC P.; McDONALD, CRAIG M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has altered disease progression, necessitating contemporary natural history studies. Methods The Cooperative Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) DMD Natural History Study (DMD-NHS) enrolled 340 DMD males, ages 2–28 years. A comprehensive battery of measures was obtained. Results A novel composite functional “milestone” scale scale showed clinically meaningful mobility and upper limb abilities were significantly preserved in GC-treated adolescents/young adults. Manual muscle test (MMT)-based calculations of global strength showed that those patients <10 years of age treated with steroids declined by 0.4±0.39 MMT unit/year, compared with −0.4±0.39 MMT unit/year in historical steroid-naive subjects. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were relatively preserved in steroid-treated adolescents. The linearity and magnitude of decline in measures were affected by maturational changes and functional status. Conclusions In DMD, long-term use of GCs showed reduced strength loss and preserved functional capabilities and PFTs compared with previous natural history studies performed prior to the widespread use of GC therapy. PMID:23649481

  8. Conceptual change strategies and cooperative group work in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basili, Patricia A.; Sanford, Julie P.

    This study conducted at a suburban community college tested a method of conceptual change in which treatment students worked in small cooperative groups on tasks aimed at eliciting their misconceptions so that they could then be discussed in contrast to the scientific conceptions that had been taught in direct instruction. Categorizations of student understanding of the target concepts of the laws of conservation of matter and energy and aspects of the particulate nature of gases, liquids, and solids were ascertained by pre- and posttesting. Audiotapes of student verbal interaction in the small groups provided quantitative and qualitative data concerning student engagement in behaviors suggestive of the conditions posited to be part of the conceptual change process (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982). Chi-square analysis of posttests indicated that students in treatment groups had significantly lower (p < 0.05) proportion of misconceptions than control students on four of the five target concepts. Students who exhibited no change in concept state had a higher frequency of verbal behaviors suggestive of impeding conceptual change when compared to students who did change. Three factors emerged from qualitative analysis of group interaction that appeared to influence learning: (a) many students had flawed understanding of concepts that supported the target concepts; (b) student views towards learning science affected their engagement in assigned tasks, (c) good and poor group leaders had a strong influence on group success.

  9. Second International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS-1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael; Money, John M.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of this second biannual international meeting was to provide a congenial forum for the exchange of information and new ideas for researchers from university, industry and government laboratories in the field of semiconductor devices and device physics. To this end, we have an unusually short period between the submission of papers and the conference, a speedy publication of the proceedings, poster sessions, panel discussions, and a wide dissemination of the conference proceedings. Our other goal is to make this conference truly international. To achieve this, the symposium has sub-committees in Asia, Europe and the former Soviet Union. This conference is organized in cooperation with the IEEE MTT Society, the European Physical Society, the United States National Committee of URSI and the Russian Physical Society. Generous financial support has been provided by the Army Research Office, the Office of Naval Research, the NASA Ames Research Center and the Soros International Science Foundation. Papers cover a broad range of topics, including novel and ultrasmall devices, photonics and optoelectronics, heterostructure and cryogenic devices, wide band gap semiconductors, thin film transistors, MOSFET technology and devices, carrier transport phenomena, materials and device characterization, simulation and modeling. It is hoped that such a broad range of topics will foster a cross-fertilization of the different fields related to semiconductor materials and devices.

  10. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperative research in coal liquefaction is presented. Topics include: Sulfate-promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium US coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; examination of ferric sulfide as a liquefaction catalyst; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; spectroscopic studies of coal macerals depolymerization catalyzed by iron chloride; characterization of catalysts used in coal hydrogenation systems; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; mass spectrometry of coal derived liquids: determination of molecular weight distributions; catalyst cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; direct determination of hydroaromatic structures in coal and coal conversion products by catalytic dehydrogenation; surface characterization of APCSB coals by XPS; computation chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; the role of hydrogen during liquefaction using donor and non-donor solvents; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds: new approaches to low-temperature liquefaction; an investigation into the reactivity of isotetralin and tetralin using molecular orbital calculations; coal liquefaction modification for enhanced reactivity; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction -- potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; and improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and coprocessing.

  11. Group B rotaviruses similar to strain CAL-1, have been circulating in Western India since 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, S. D.; Zade, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    Generally, group A rotaviruses are the most common cause of paediatric diarrhoea. However, group B rotavirus, adult diarrhoea rotavirus (ADRV), was found to be involved in epidemics of severe gastroenteritis in several areas of China during 1982-1983 and had resulted in more than one million cases among adults as well as older children. Human group B rotavirus has been rarely reported outside China, but has been detected first from five adults with diarrhoea in Kolkata, India during 1997-1998 (strain CAL-1). During epidemiological studies at the National Institute of Virology (NIV) on hospitalized diarrhoea patients at Pune, India, faecal specimens from patients of >5 years age, which were negative for group A rotavirus by ELISA were tested by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). We detected rotavirus RNA migration patterns similar to that of group B rotavirus in three faecal specimens from adults, two from the specimens collected in 1993 and one in 1998 from sporadic diarrhoea cases. RT-PCR was carried out using primers derived from gene 8 which codes for the NS2 protein, followed by nested PCR, which confirmed the presence of group B rotavirus in all three specimens. The sequences of the PCR products of NIV specimens were compared with that of CAL-1, ADRV and IDIR (infectious diarrhoea of infant rat) belonging to group B rotaviruses. The sequence analysis of the PCR products showed the highest identity with CAL-1, which was reported from Kolkata, India during 1997--1998. The finding suggests that human group B rotaviruses have been circulating in Pune. India, since 1993. This emerging virus may lead to more severe disease among adults in India. There is a need for surveillance of group B rotavirus infections, especially in adult diarrhoea cases and seroepidemiological studies on group B rotavirus are required among humans and animals of Western Maharashtra, India. PMID:15310177

  12. The foundress's dilemma: group selection for cooperation among queens of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Zachary; Sasaki, Takao; Haney, Brian; Janssen, Marco; Pratt, Stephen C; Fewell, Jennifer H

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is a fundamental problem in biology, especially for non-relatives, where indirect fitness benefits cannot counter within-group inequalities. Multilevel selection models show how cooperation can evolve if it generates a group-level advantage, even when cooperators are disadvantaged within their group. This allows the possibility of group selection, but few examples have been described in nature. Here we show that group selection can explain the evolution of cooperative nest founding in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus. Through most of this species' range, colonies are founded by single queens, but in some populations nests are instead founded by cooperative groups of unrelated queens. In mixed groups of cooperative and single-founding queens, we found that aggressive individuals had a survival advantage within their nest, but foundress groups with such non-cooperators died out more often than those with only cooperative members. An agent-based model shows that the between-group advantage of the cooperative phenotype drives it to fixation, despite its within-group disadvantage, but only when population density is high enough to make between-group competition intense. Field data show higher nest density in a population where cooperative founding is common, consistent with greater density driving the evolution of cooperative foundation through group selection. PMID:27465430

  13. The foundress's dilemma: group selection for cooperation among queens of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Zachary; Sasaki, Takao; Haney, Brian; Janssen, Marco; Pratt, Stephen C; Fewell, Jennifer H

    2016-07-28

    The evolution of cooperation is a fundamental problem in biology, especially for non-relatives, where indirect fitness benefits cannot counter within-group inequalities. Multilevel selection models show how cooperation can evolve if it generates a group-level advantage, even when cooperators are disadvantaged within their group. This allows the possibility of group selection, but few examples have been described in nature. Here we show that group selection can explain the evolution of cooperative nest founding in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus. Through most of this species' range, colonies are founded by single queens, but in some populations nests are instead founded by cooperative groups of unrelated queens. In mixed groups of cooperative and single-founding queens, we found that aggressive individuals had a survival advantage within their nest, but foundress groups with such non-cooperators died out more often than those with only cooperative members. An agent-based model shows that the between-group advantage of the cooperative phenotype drives it to fixation, despite its within-group disadvantage, but only when population density is high enough to make between-group competition intense. Field data show higher nest density in a population where cooperative founding is common, consistent with greater density driving the evolution of cooperative foundation through group selection.

  14. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  15. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-09-18

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

  16. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  17. Professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, R. Scott

    This study examined the effectiveness of professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science classrooms on student achievement, attitudes, and behavior. The researcher utilized three standardized benchmark assessments, Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, Instructional Attitudinal Scale, and office referral and suspension records to measure effectiveness. Students involved in small cooperative groups demonstrated an increase of academic performance on standardized assessments. The attitudinal surveys measured student perceived attitudes toward specific forms of instruction and toward the mathematics and science classroom in general. On the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, the students' perceived understanding of teacher attitudes indicated a significant decrease in classroom teachers' positive attitudes during the treatment group. Additionally, office referral ratings indicated that student behavior improved.

  18. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  19. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Belinsky, S.A.; Bradley, P.L.

    1993-11-01

    This annual report for the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute for 1992-1993 consists of 60 individual reports prepared separately by investigators describing progress in their own projects. Most papers are 2-5 pages long.

  20. Enrollment Projections and Management: FY 1993. Research Report Number 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD. Office of Planning and Evaluation.

    This report presents a brief enrollment history of Howard Community College (HCC) for 1975 to 1991 and provides enrollment projections through 1993. In addition, the report discusses the use of the age cohort model to project credit enrollments, the change ratio model to project credit and credit-free enrollments, and the use of multivariate…

  1. You Can Be in a Group and Still Not Cooperate. Collaborative Approaches and Cooperative Learning Activities for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…

  2. The 1993/1994 NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program (GSRP) attempts to reach a culturally diverse group of promising U.S. graduate students whose research interests are compatible with NASA's programs in space science and aerospace technology. Each year we select approximately 100 new awardees based on competitive evaluation of their academic qualifications, their proposed research plan and/or plan of study, and their planned utilization of NASA research facilities. Fellowships of up to $22,000 are awarded for one year and are renewable, based on satisfactory progress, for a total of three years. Approximately 300 graduate students are, thus, supported by this program at any one time. Students may apply any time during their graduate career or prior to receiving their baccalaureate degree. An applicant must be sponsored by his/her graduate department chair or faculty advisor; this book discusses the GSRP in great detail.

  3. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  4. "You Don't Have to Like Me, but You Have to Respect Me": The Impacts of Assertiveness, Cooperativeness, and Group Satisfaction in Collaborative Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambertz-Berndt, Megan M.; Blight, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cooperativeness, assertiveness, group satisfaction, leader grade, and leadership negotiation in a collaborative assignment conducted in a small group. Researchers manipulated the assignment of team members who reported on measures of group satisfaction and original scales of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Respondents…

  5. 77 FR 25488 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... to bring similar contributions to this type of research, to consider submitting proposals for... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated...

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, David; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Taki, Doug

    1994-06-01

    In 1990 the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River Sockeye salmon as endangered. As a result, Snake River Sockeye were listed and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding efforts to enhance sockeye stocks. Recovery efforts include development of a brood stock program, genetics work, describing fish community dynamics in rearing lakes, and completing limnology studies. The SBT, in cooperation with Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), are directing fish community and limnology studies. IDFG is managing the brood stock program. The University of Idaho and NMFS are completing genetics work. Part I of this document is the SBT 1993' annual report that describes findings related to fish community research. Part II is a document completed by Utah State University (USU). The SBT subcontracted USU to complete a limnology investigation on the Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Management suggestions in Part II are those of USU and are not endorsed by the SBT and may not reflect the opinions of SBT biologists.

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  8. Photovoltaics: Program overview fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This overview is divided into sections titled: 1993 PV program accomplishments, PV systems for today`s markets generate power and experience, systems development and testing prepares products for market, advances in manufacturing hasten availability of innovations, cooperative research improves PV technology, additional achievements in cooperative R&D, and summary of PV program services. Figs, tabs.

  9. Is cooperation viable in mobile organisms? Simple Walk Away rule favors the evolution of cooperation in groups.

    PubMed

    Aktipis, C Athena

    2011-07-01

    The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the 'Walk Away' rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and 'Walk Away' from groups providing low returns. Implementing this conditional movement rule in a public goods game leads to a number of interesting findings: 1) cooperators have a selective advantage when thresholds are high, corresponding to low tolerance for defectors, 2) high thresholds lead to high initial rates of movement and low final rates of movement (after selection), and 3) as cooperation is selected, the population undergoes a spatial transition from high migration (and a many small and ephemeral groups) to low migration (and large and stable groups). These results suggest that the very simple 'Walk Away' rule of leaving uncooperative groups can favor the evolution of cooperation, and that cooperation can evolve in populations in which individuals are able to move in response to local social conditions. A diverse array of organisms are able to leave degraded physical or social environments. The ubiquitous nature of conditional movement suggests that 'Walk Away' dynamics may play an important role in the evolution of social behavior in both cognitively complex and cognitively simple organisms.

  10. Component, group and demographic Allee effects in a cooperatively breeding bird species, the Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps).

    PubMed

    Keynan, Oded; Ridley, Amanda R

    2016-09-01

    In population dynamics, inverse density dependence can be manifested by individual fitness traits (component Allee effects), and population-level traits (demographic Allee effects). Cooperatively breeding species are an excellent model for investigating the relative importance of Allee effects, because there is a disproportionately larger benefit to an individual of being part of a large group. As a consequence, larger groups have greater performance than small groups, known as the group Allee effect. Although small populations of cooperative breeders may be prone to all levels of Allee effects, empirical evidence for the existence of a demographic Allee effects is scarce. To determine the extent to which Allee effects are present in a cooperatively breeding species, we used a comprehensive 35-year life history database for cooperatively breeding Arabian babblers (Turdoides squamiceps). Firstly, we confirmed the existence of a component Allee effect by showing that breeding individuals in large groups receive greater benefits than those in small groups; second, we confirmed the existence of group Allee effect by showing that larger groups survive longer. And thirdly, we identified a demographic Allee effect by showing that per capita population growth rate is positively affected by population density. Finally, we found that emigration and immigration rates, although dependent on group size, do not buffer against component and group-level Allee effects becoming a demographic Allee effect. Our finding of the existence of all three levels of Allee effects in a cooperative breeder may have important implications for future research and conservation decisions.

  11. Component, group and demographic Allee effects in a cooperatively breeding bird species, the Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps).

    PubMed

    Keynan, Oded; Ridley, Amanda R

    2016-09-01

    In population dynamics, inverse density dependence can be manifested by individual fitness traits (component Allee effects), and population-level traits (demographic Allee effects). Cooperatively breeding species are an excellent model for investigating the relative importance of Allee effects, because there is a disproportionately larger benefit to an individual of being part of a large group. As a consequence, larger groups have greater performance than small groups, known as the group Allee effect. Although small populations of cooperative breeders may be prone to all levels of Allee effects, empirical evidence for the existence of a demographic Allee effects is scarce. To determine the extent to which Allee effects are present in a cooperatively breeding species, we used a comprehensive 35-year life history database for cooperatively breeding Arabian babblers (Turdoides squamiceps). Firstly, we confirmed the existence of a component Allee effect by showing that breeding individuals in large groups receive greater benefits than those in small groups; second, we confirmed the existence of group Allee effect by showing that larger groups survive longer. And thirdly, we identified a demographic Allee effect by showing that per capita population growth rate is positively affected by population density. Finally, we found that emigration and immigration rates, although dependent on group size, do not buffer against component and group-level Allee effects becoming a demographic Allee effect. Our finding of the existence of all three levels of Allee effects in a cooperative breeder may have important implications for future research and conservation decisions. PMID:27215636

  12. 75 FR 14191 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Act on February 2, 2009 (74 FR 8813). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust..., Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL has been added as a party to this venture. No other changes have been made...

  13. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... the Act on March 15, 2012 (77 FR 15395). The last notification was filed with the Department on April... 24, 2012 (77 FR 31040). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING... actual damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, Marathon Oil Company, Upstream...

  14. 76 FR 66324 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ..., NY; Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Saitama, JAPAN; Space Exploration Technologies Corp., Hawthorne, CA; United... January 22, 2002 (67 FR 2910). The last notification was filed with the Department on July 22, 2008. A... FR 48242). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...

  15. 76 FR 43347 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on February 26, 2009 (74 FR 8813). The last notification was filed with...) of the Act on June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31816). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement,...

  16. 75 FR 4422 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on February 25, 2008 (73 FR 10064). The last notification was... December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66995). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust...

  17. 75 FR 66792 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... February 25, 2008 (73 FR 10064). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 10, 2009. A notice was published in the Federal Register on January 27, 2010 (75 FR 4422). Patricia A....

  18. 75 FR 16178 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... the Act on November 7, 2007 (72 FR 62870). Patricia A. Prink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust... circumstances. Specifically, ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX; and Shell International Exploration &...

  19. 76 FR 70759 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... with the Attorney General and the Federal Trade Commission disclosing (1) The identities of the parties... Shanghai E-Propulsion Auto Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The general area of... battery topologies, chemistries and manufacturers to assist in the selection of cells for a...

  20. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... General and the Federal Trade Commission disclosing (1) The identities of the parties to the venture and... specified circumstances. Pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act, the identities of the parties to the venture... project remains open, and P3 intends to file additional written ] notification disclosing all changes...

  1. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Pipes Under Generalized High Strain Conditions Notice is hereby given that, on May 17, 2011, pursuant to... FlawPRO for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded Pipes Under Generalized High Strain Conditions (``Flaw... software (hereafter called FlawPRO TM Version 4) that includes a comprehensive high-strain...

  2. 76 FR 58539 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... specified circumstances. Specifically, Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.--PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL;...

  3. Using Cooperative Small Groups in Introductory Accounting Classes: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miglietti, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Effective use of cooperative learning groups requires the following: attention to group formation, orientation that sets clear expectations and guidelines, activities to develop teamwork skills, peer evaluation, and other assessments that recognize and measure individual effort on group projects. (SK)

  4. Collective induction without cooperation? Learning and knowledge transfer in cooperative groups and competitive auctions.

    PubMed

    Maciejovsky, Boris; Budescu, David V

    2007-05-01

    There is strong evidence that groups perform better than individuals do on intellective tasks with demonstrably correct solutions. Typically, these studies assume that group members share common goals. The authors extend this line of research by replacing standard face-to-face group interactions with competitive auctions, allowing for conflicting individual incentives. In a series of studies involving the well-known Wason selection task, they demonstrate that competitive auctions induce learning effects equally impressive as those of standard group interactions, and they uncover specific and general knowledge transfers from these institutions to new reasoning problems. The authors identify payoff feedback and information pooling as the driving factors underlying these findings, and they explain these factors within the theoretical framework of collective induction.

  5. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends...

  6. Treatment of polycythaemia vera by radiophosphorus or busulphan: a randomized trial. "Leukemia and Hematosarcoma" Cooperative Group, European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer (E.O.R.T.C.).

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1978 a Phase III cooperative study was performed in polycythaemia vera (PCV) patients who had not been treated previously with any specific therapy other than phlebotomy. 293 patients were included and allocated at random for either radiophosphorus therapy (146) or busulphan treatment (147). Additional phlebotomies were indicated in both groups, to keep the haematocrit at 42-47%. 285 patients were evaluable after the study was completed, of whom 50% have an 8-year follow-up. Both groups were comparable with respect to age, clinical symptoms and haematological parameters immediately before randomization. The duration of the first remission and the overall survival were significantly better in the busulphan group. This difference remains significant after correction for differences between the two groups with respect to sex-ratio and phlebotomy before and the start of therapy. Busulphan induced a longer first remission (P less than 0.001) and a longer overall survival (P less than 0.02). PMID:7020738

  7. Molecular analysis of group A streptococcal isolates associated with scarlet fever in southern Taiwan between 1993 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsu, Shui-Yuan; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lin, Ming T; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2003-10-01

    Collected between 1993 and 2002 at a Taiwanese university hospital, 77 group A streptococcus isolates associated with scarlet fever were grouped by emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The predominance of an emm1 clone before 1996 and the presence of genetically diverse emm1 and emm4 strains thereafter were found.

  8. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  9. A simple rule for the evolution of contingent cooperation in large groups.

    PubMed

    Schonmann, Roberto H; Boyd, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Humans cooperate in large groups of unrelated individuals, and many authors have argued that such cooperation is sustained by contingent reward and punishment. However, such sanctioning systems can also stabilize a wide range of behaviours, including mutually deleterious behaviours. Moreover, it is very likely that large-scale cooperation is derived in the human lineage. Thus, understanding the evolution of mutually beneficial cooperative behaviour requires knowledge of when strategies that support such behaviour can increase when rare. Here, we derive a simple formula that gives the relatedness necessary for contingent cooperation in n-person iterated games to increase when rare. This rule applies to a wide range of pay-off functions and assumes that the strategies supporting cooperation are based on the presence of a threshold fraction of cooperators. This rule suggests that modest levels of relatedness are sufficient for invasion by strategies that make cooperation contingent on previous cooperation by a small fraction of group members. In contrast, only high levels of relatedness allow the invasion by strategies that require near universal cooperation. In order to derive this formula, we introduce a novel methodology for studying evolution in group structured populations including local and global group-size regulation and fluctuations in group size.

  10. Group size, individual role differentiation and effectiveness of cooperation in a homogeneous group of hunters.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, R; Muro, C; Spector, L; Coppinger, R P

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of cooperation in wolf-pack hunting is studied using a simple, homogeneous, particle-based computational model. Wolves and prey are modelled as particles that interact through attractive and repulsive forces. Realistic patterns of wolf aggregation readily emerge in numerical simulations, even though the model includes no explicit wolf-wolf attractive forces, showing that the form of cooperation needed for wolf-pack hunting can take place even among strangers. Simulations are used to obtain the stationary states and equilibria of the wolves and prey system and to characterize their stability. Different geometric configurations for different pack sizes arise. In small packs, the stable configuration is a regular polygon centred on the prey, while in large packs, individual behavioural differentiation occurs and induces the emergence of complex behavioural patterns between privileged positions. Stable configurations of large wolf-packs include travelling and rotating formations, periodic oscillatory behaviours and chaotic group behaviours. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which larger pack sizes can trigger collective behaviours that lead to the reduction and loss of group hunting effectiveness, thus explaining the observed tendency of hunting success to peak at small pack sizes. They also explain how seemingly complex collective behaviours can emerge from simple rules, among agents that need not have significant cognitive skills or social organization. PMID:24694897

  11. Group size, individual role differentiation and effectiveness of cooperation in a homogeneous group of hunters.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, R; Muro, C; Spector, L; Coppinger, R P

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of cooperation in wolf-pack hunting is studied using a simple, homogeneous, particle-based computational model. Wolves and prey are modelled as particles that interact through attractive and repulsive forces. Realistic patterns of wolf aggregation readily emerge in numerical simulations, even though the model includes no explicit wolf-wolf attractive forces, showing that the form of cooperation needed for wolf-pack hunting can take place even among strangers. Simulations are used to obtain the stationary states and equilibria of the wolves and prey system and to characterize their stability. Different geometric configurations for different pack sizes arise. In small packs, the stable configuration is a regular polygon centred on the prey, while in large packs, individual behavioural differentiation occurs and induces the emergence of complex behavioural patterns between privileged positions. Stable configurations of large wolf-packs include travelling and rotating formations, periodic oscillatory behaviours and chaotic group behaviours. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which larger pack sizes can trigger collective behaviours that lead to the reduction and loss of group hunting effectiveness, thus explaining the observed tendency of hunting success to peak at small pack sizes. They also explain how seemingly complex collective behaviours can emerge from simple rules, among agents that need not have significant cognitive skills or social organization.

  12. Group size, individual role differentiation and effectiveness of cooperation in a homogeneous group of hunters

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, R.; Muro, C.; Spector, L.; Coppinger, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation in wolf-pack hunting is studied using a simple, homogeneous, particle-based computational model. Wolves and prey are modelled as particles that interact through attractive and repulsive forces. Realistic patterns of wolf aggregation readily emerge in numerical simulations, even though the model includes no explicit wolf–wolf attractive forces, showing that the form of cooperation needed for wolf-pack hunting can take place even among strangers. Simulations are used to obtain the stationary states and equilibria of the wolves and prey system and to characterize their stability. Different geometric configurations for different pack sizes arise. In small packs, the stable configuration is a regular polygon centred on the prey, while in large packs, individual behavioural differentiation occurs and induces the emergence of complex behavioural patterns between privileged positions. Stable configurations of large wolf-packs include travelling and rotating formations, periodic oscillatory behaviours and chaotic group behaviours. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which larger pack sizes can trigger collective behaviours that lead to the reduction and loss of group hunting effectiveness, thus explaining the observed tendency of hunting success to peak at small pack sizes. They also explain how seemingly complex collective behaviours can emerge from simple rules, among agents that need not have significant cognitive skills or social organization. PMID:24694897

  13. Influence of Group Processing on Achievement and Perception of Social and Academic Support in Elementary Inexperienced Cooperative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertucci, Andrea; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Conte, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-one elementary school students who had never participated in cooperative learning lessons before were included in this study. Students were randomly assigned to the conditions of cooperative learning with and without group processing and participated to 5 instructional sessions during a period of approximately 15 instructional days. Results…

  14. Equipped for the Future Research Report: Building the Framework, 1993-1997. EFF Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet

    This report focuses on the research aspects of the Equipped for the Future (EFF) project that works toward system reform for adult literacy and lifelong learning. Section 1 describes the EFF process 1993-97, the impetus for EFF, and approaches to system reform. Section 2 explores the research processes EFF uses to build a framework that could…

  15. 1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

  16. Positive Outcomes of Group Learning in the ABLE Classroom. Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Beverly J.; McKenna, Gail Kaylor

    In the fall of 1993, a study was begun on how adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students reacted to working in groups. The research was conducted through a joint vocational school's ABLE program using three target groups at two of its ABLE centers. The groups met two times per week and were facilitated by three different teachers. More…

  17. Effects of Cooperative Grouping on Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, Joy B.; Good, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Determined was the effect that cooperative groups heterogeneously based on proportional reasoning ability have on problem solving in regular and honors high school chemistry. Characteristics of successful and unsuccessful problem solvers individually and in groups are discussed. (KR)

  18. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  19. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  20. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  1. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    The summary reports of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1992 are included. In this report, 104 summaries of researches using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and 9 summaries of the researches using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) are collected.

  2. Dynamic-persistence of cooperation in public good games when group size is dynamic.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Marco A; Goldstone, Robert L

    2006-11-01

    The evolution of cooperation is possible with a simple model of a population of agents that can move between groups. The agents play public good games within their group. The relative fitness of individuals within the whole population affects their number of offspring. Groups of cooperators evolve but over time are invaded by defectors which eventually results in the group's extinction. However, for small levels of migration and mutation, high levels of cooperation evolve at the population level. Thus, evolution of cooperation based on individual fitness without kin selection, indirect or direct reciprocity is possible. We provide an analysis of the parameters that affect cooperation, and describe the dynamics and distribution of population sizes over time. PMID:16872637

  3. The empirical evidence that does not support cultural group selection models for the evolution of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2016-01-01

    I outline key empirical evidence from my research and that of other scholars, testing the role of cultural group selection (CGS) in the evolution of human cooperation, which Richerson et al. failed to mention and which fails to support the CGS hypothesis. PMID:27561888

  4. The empirical evidence that does not support cultural group selection models for the evolution of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2016-01-01

    I outline key empirical evidence from my research and that of other scholars, testing the role of cultural group selection (CGS) in the evolution of human cooperation, which Richerson et al. failed to mention and which fails to support the CGS hypothesis.

  5. Maryland 2000. Journal of the Maryland Association for Institutional Research, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A., Ed.; Huntington, Robin B., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume offers nine papers on higher education research in Maryland all of which were presented at annual meetings from 1990 through 1993. The following papers are included: (1) "The Geo-Demographic Approach to Student Recruitment: The PG-TRAK90" Lifestyle Cluster System" (Karl Boughan); (2) "Evaluating College Services: A QUEST for…

  6. Outcomes for Children and Adolescents after Residential Treatment: A Review of Research from 1993 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research review is to determine what factors increase the likelihood that positive individual and systemic changes occur for children and adolescents following discharge from residential treatment. Residential treatment outcome studies from 1993 to 2003 that fulfilled predetermined criteria were located through 4 on-line…

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

  8. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  9. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Catherine C; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara; Wilson, Rick K

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation.

  10. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  11. 76 FR 13663 - Cooper Tools, Currently Known as Apex Tool Group, LLC, Hicksville, OH; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., applicable to workers of Cooper Tools, Hicksville, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production. The notice was published in the Federal Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30069). At the request of... Employment and Training Administration Cooper Tools, Currently Known as Apex Tool Group, LLC, Hicksville,...

  12. Using technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning for student comprehension and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-05-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.

  13. Investment and Return in International Space Life Sciences Research Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically-related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resource and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss three possible levels of cooperation: sharing of data from independent investigations, harmonious integration of pre-designed independent investigations, and de novo design of an integrated suite of investigations using a joint investigator team. The degree of investment and potential return for each level of cooperation will be described.

  14. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy Order DOE 5000.4A establishes DOE`s policy and guidelines regarding Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) at its multiprogram laboratories. As described in 5000.4A, LDRD is ``research and development of a creative and innovative nature which is selected by the Laboratory Director or his or her designee, for the purpose of maintaining the scientific and technological vitality of the Laboratory and to respond to scientific and technological opportunities in conformance with the guidelines in this Order. LDRD includes activities previously defined as ER&D, as well as other discretionary research and development activities not provided for in a DOE program.`` Consistent with the Mission Statement and Strategic Plan provided in PNL`s Institutional Plan, the LDRD investments are focused on developing new and innovative approaches in research related to our ``core competencies.`` Currently, PNL`s core competencies have been identified as integrated environmental research; process technology; energy systems research. In this report, the individual summaries of Laboratory-level LDRD projects are organized according to these core competencies. The largest proportion of Laboratory-level LDRD funds is allocated to the core competency of integrated environmental research. A significant proportion of PNL`s LDRD funds are also allocated to projects within the various research centers that are proposed by individual researchers or small research teams. The projects are described in Section 2.0. The projects described in this report represent PNL`s investment in its future and are vital to maintaining the ability to develop creative solutions for the scientific and technical challenges faced by DOE and the nation. In accordance with DOE guidelines, the report provides an overview of PNL`s LDRD program and the management process used for the program and project summaries for each LDRD project.

  16. Cooperative Group, Risk-Taking and Inclusion of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…

  17. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation.

  18. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation. PMID:22796271

  19. SERS internship Fall 1992--Spring 1993: Abstract and research papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-05

    This report contains the abstracts and research papers by students on a variety of topics in engineering, genetics, solid state physics, thermonuclear energy, astrophysics, and other science related topics.

  20. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl

    1993-10-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990, 1991, and 1992). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate candidate fungicides.

  1. Group size effect on cooperation in one-shot social dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Hélène; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Social dilemmas are central to human society. Depletion of natural resources, climate protection, security of energy supply, and workplace collaborations are all examples of social dilemmas. Since cooperative behaviour in a social dilemma is individually costly, Nash equilibrium predicts that humans should not cooperate. Yet experimental studies show that people do cooperate even in anonymous one-shot interactions. In spite of the large number of participants in many modern social dilemmas, little is known about the effect of group size on cooperation. Does larger group size favour or prevent cooperation? We address this problem both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we find that there is no general answer: it depends on the strategic situation. Specifically, we find that larger groups are more cooperative in the Public Goods game, but less cooperative in the N-person Prisoner's dilemma. Theoretically, we show that this behaviour is not consistent with either the Fehr & Schmidt model or (a one-parameter version of) the Charness & Rabin model, but it is consistent with the cooperative equilibrium model introduced by the second author. PMID:25605124

  2. Group size effect on cooperation in one-shot social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Barcelo, Hélène; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-21

    Social dilemmas are central to human society. Depletion of natural resources, climate protection, security of energy supply, and workplace collaborations are all examples of social dilemmas. Since cooperative behaviour in a social dilemma is individually costly, Nash equilibrium predicts that humans should not cooperate. Yet experimental studies show that people do cooperate even in anonymous one-shot interactions. In spite of the large number of participants in many modern social dilemmas, little is known about the effect of group size on cooperation. Does larger group size favour or prevent cooperation? We address this problem both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we find that there is no general answer: it depends on the strategic situation. Specifically, we find that larger groups are more cooperative in the Public Goods game, but less cooperative in the N-person Prisoner's dilemma. Theoretically, we show that this behaviour is not consistent with either the Fehr &Schmidt model or (a one-parameter version of) the Charness &Rabin model, but it is consistent with the cooperative equilibrium model introduced by the second author.

  3. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted during the academic year 1992-1993 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 17-18 June 1993. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors and air traffic management. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  4. Effects of dynamical grouping on cooperation in N-person evolutionary snowdrift game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, M.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2011-09-01

    A population typically consists of agents that continually distribute themselves into different groups at different times. This dynamic grouping has recently been shown to be essential in explaining many features observed in human activities including social, economic, and military activities. We study the effects of dynamic grouping on the level of cooperation in a modified evolutionary N-person snowdrift game. Due to the formation of dynamical groups, the competition takes place in groups of different sizes at different times and players of different strategies are mixed by the grouping dynamics. It is found that the level of cooperation is greatly enhanced by the dynamic grouping of agents, when compared with a static population of the same size. As a parameter β, which characterizes the relative importance of the reward and cost, increases, the fraction of cooperative players fC increases and it is possible to achieve a fully cooperative state. Analytically, we present a dynamical equation that incorporates the effects of the competing game and group size distribution. The distribution of cooperators in different groups is assumed to be a binomial distribution, which is confirmed by simulations. Results from the analytic equation are in good agreement with numerical results from simulations. We also present detailed simulation results of fC over the parameter space spanned by the probabilities of group coalescence νm and group fragmentation νp in the grouping dynamics. A high νm and low νp promotes cooperation, and a favorable reward characterized by a high β would lead to a fully cooperative state.

  5. Cooperative research in high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Details of the activities conducted under the joint effort of the University of Maryland and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics are detailed for the period July 1989 through April 1994. The research covered a variety of topics including: (1) detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; (2) support work for several x-ray satellites; (3) high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; (4)theoretical astrophysics; and (5) active galaxies.

  6. Cooperative analysis expert situation assessment research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccown, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    For the past few decades, Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has been conducting research in Artificial Intelligence (AI). When the recent advances in hardware technology made many AI techniques practical, the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Directorate of RADC initiated an applications program entitled Knowledge Based Intelligence Systems (KBIS). The goal of the program is the development of a generic Intelligent Analyst System, an open machine with the framework for intelligence analysis, natural language processing, and man-machine interface techniques, needing only the specific problem domain knowledge to be operationally useful. The development of KBIS is described.

  7. Advances in Education Research. Volume 1, No. 1., Summer 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advances in Education Research, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen previously published articles from selected journals are presented, which concentrate on educationally disadvantaged children and youth, and are grouped under the four general themes or categories of children and youth, school practices, community involvement, and policy issues related to the Chapter 1 program. All the articles have been…

  8. Structural dynamics division research and technology accomplishments for FY 1993 and plans for FY 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynne, Eleanor C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose is to present the Structural Dynamics Division's research accomplishments for F.Y. 1993 and research plans for F.Y. 1994. The work under each Branch (technical area) is described in terms of highlights of accomplishments during the past year and highlights of plans for the current year as they relate to 5-year plans for each technical area. This information will be useful in program coordination with other government organizations and industry in areas of mutual interest.

  9. Summary of Research Report Cooperative Agreement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several areas of work related to commercialization of technology developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) are discussed in this report. The areas are: (1) perform a feasibility study to develop a software commercialization center is at ARC; (2) perform preliminary work for formation of joint development of sensor technology for telemedicine applications; (3) development of a discovery interview process and staff training to assist the commercialization of technology developed at Ames, specifically aimed at working with researchers; (4) develop partners to further develop and commercialize image compression technology developed at AMES; (5) assist efforts to commercialize a software technology which imparts the ability to establish relevance-based retrieval in the handling of large repositories of information; (6) explore the development of cryocooler technology using pulse tube refrigeration; (7) assess interest in commercialization of a new method of measuring skin friction drag on wind tunnel models using liquid crystal material; (8) attempt to incorporate emerging technologies in the infrastructure of natural hazards mitigation; and (9) forming a nonprofit organization, "The Bootstrap Alliance", whose mission is to promote the use of digital technologies for collaborative problem solving. The results of these initiatives are discussed.

  10. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  11. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  12. Cooperative Study Groups: Give Your Students the Home Team Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…

  13. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  14. Inter-Organizational Cooperation in a Competitive Research Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Inter-organizational cooperation was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research…

  15. 78 FR 55731 - Health Workforce Research Center Cooperative Agreement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... cooperative agreement program. Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) HRSA-13-185, issued on November 26, 2012... assistance (TA). The FOA identified five broad areas of focus for research in HWRCs: Allied health, long-term... workforce policy and planning questions. Though the FOA indicated the intent to fund only one...

  16. The JSC Research and Development Annual Report 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Issued as a companion to Johnson Space Center's Research and Technology Annual Report, which reports JSC accomplishments under NASA Research and Technology Operating Plan (RTOP) funding, this report describes 47 additional projects that are funded through sources other than the RTOP. Emerging technologies in four major disciplines are summarized: space systems technology, medical and life sciences, mission operations, and computer systems. Although these projects focus on support of human spacecraft design, development, and safety, most have wide civil and commercial applications in areas such as advanced materials, superconductors, advanced semiconductors, digital imaging, high density data storage, high performance computers, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, sensors, biotechnology, medical devices and diagnosis, and human factors engineering.

  17. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  18. Summaries of FY 1993 research in the chemical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The summaries in photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations and analysis, heavy element chemistry, chemical engineering sciences, and advanced battery technology are arranged according to national laboratories and offsite institutions. Small business innovation research projects are also listed. Special facilities supported wholly or partly by the Division of Chemical Sciences are described. Indexes are provided for selected topics of general interest, institutions, and investigators.

  19. Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Research at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2000-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    A brief introductory overview of multi-vehicle cooperative control research conducted at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center from 2000 - 2014. Both flight research projects and paper studies are included. Since 2000, AFRC has been almost continuously pursuing research in the areas of formation flight for drag reduction and automated cooperative trajectories. An overview of results is given, including flight experiments done on the FA-18 and with the C-17. Other multi-vehicle cooperative research is discussed, including small UAV swarming projects and automated aerial refueling.

  20. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  1. Research in theoretical nuclear physics. Final report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Udagawa, Takeshi

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the accomplishments in basic research in nuclear physics carried out by the theoretical nuclear physics group in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, during the period of April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1996. The work done covers three separate areas, low energy nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, and nuclear structure studies. Although the various subjects are spread among different areas, they are all based on two techniques that they have developed in previous years. These techniques are: (a) a powerful method for continuum-random-phase-approximation (CRPA) calculations of the nuclear response; and, (b) the direct reaction approach to complete and incomplete fusion reactions, which enables them to describe on a single footing all the different types of nuclear reactions, i.e., complete fusion, incomplete fusion and direct reactions, in a systematic way based on a single theoretical framework. In this report, the authors first summarize their achievements in these three areas, and then present final remarks.

  2. Cooperative Research between NREL and Solar Junction Corp: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-306

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.

    2015-03-01

    NREL and Solar Junction Corp. will perform cooperative research on materials and devices that are alternatives to standard approaches with the goal of improving solar cell efficiency while lowering cost. The general purpose of this work is to model the performance of a multi-junction concentrator cell of Solar Junction, Inc. design under normal concentrator operating conditions.

  3. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  4. Group Size Effect on Cooperation in One-Shot Social Dilemmas II: Curvilinear Effect

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In a world in which many pressing global issues require large scale cooperation, understanding the group size effect on cooperative behavior is a topic of central importance. Yet, the nature of this effect remains largely unknown, with lab experiments insisting that it is either positive or negative or null, and field experiments suggesting that it is instead curvilinear. Here we shed light on this apparent contradiction by considering a novel class of public goods games inspired to the realistic scenario in which the natural output limits of the public good imply that the benefit of cooperation increases fast for early contributions and then decelerates. We report on a large lab experiment providing evidence that, in this case, group size has a curvilinear effect on cooperation, according to which intermediate-size groups cooperate more than smaller groups and more than larger groups. In doing so, our findings help fill the gap between lab experiments and field experiments and suggest concrete ways to promote large scale cooperation among people. PMID:26182247

  5. 78 FR 40746 - Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program; Office of Urban...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative... applications for the Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program project... Indian organization to act as an education and research partner for OUIHP and urban Indian...

  6. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future...

  7. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future...

  8. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future...

  9. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) modal studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  10. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  11. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with reference…

  12. The Effect of Cooperative Groups on Math Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batton, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that many students have difficulty with mathematics, which can be attributed to many factors including math anxiety. Students who experience math anxiety have poor attitudes towards mathematics and perform below grade level based on class and statewide assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to…

  13. Brookhaven highlights. Report on research, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Belford, M.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report highlights the research activities of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period dating from October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. There are contributions to the report from different programs and departments within the laboratory. These include technology transfer, RHIC, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, physics, biology, national synchrotron light source, applied science, medical science, advanced technology, chemistry, reactor physics, safety and environmental protection, instrumentation, and computing and communications.

  14. The foundress’s dilemma: group selection for cooperation among queens of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Zachary; Sasaki, Takao; Haney, Brian; Janssen, Marco; Pratt, Stephen C.; Fewell, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is a fundamental problem in biology, especially for non-relatives, where indirect fitness benefits cannot counter within-group inequalities. Multilevel selection models show how cooperation can evolve if it generates a group-level advantage, even when cooperators are disadvantaged within their group. This allows the possibility of group selection, but few examples have been described in nature. Here we show that group selection can explain the evolution of cooperative nest founding in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus. Through most of this species’ range, colonies are founded by single queens, but in some populations nests are instead founded by cooperative groups of unrelated queens. In mixed groups of cooperative and single-founding queens, we found that aggressive individuals had a survival advantage within their nest, but foundress groups with such non-cooperators died out more often than those with only cooperative members. An agent-based model shows that the between-group advantage of the cooperative phenotype drives it to fixation, despite its within-group disadvantage, but only when population density is high enough to make between-group competition intense. Field data show higher nest density in a population where cooperative founding is common, consistent with greater density driving the evolution of cooperative foundation through group selection. PMID:27465430

  15. Group penalty on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2010-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that aims to integrate group penalty into the framework of evolutionary games. Existing groups are deleted whenever the collective gains of the focal individuals are less than a deletion threshold value. Meanwhile, newcomers are added after each game iteration to maintain the fixed population size. The networking effect is also studied via four representative interaction networks which are associated with the population structure. We conclude that the cooperation level has a strong dependence on the deletion threshold, and the suitable value range of the deletion threshold which is associated with the maximal cooperation frequency has been found. Simulation results also show that optimum values of the deletion threshold can still warrant the most potent promotion of cooperation, irrespective of which of the four topologies is applied.

  16. Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Richerson, Peter; Baldini, Ryan; Bell, Adrian V; Demps, Kathryn; Frost, Karl; Hillis, Vicken; Mathew, Sarah; Newton, Emily K; Naar, Nicole; Newson, Lesley; Ross, Cody; Smaldino, Paul E; Waring, Timothy M; Zefferman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Human cooperation is highly unusual. We live in large groups composed mostly of non-relatives. Evolutionists have proposed a number of explanations for this pattern, including cultural group selection and extensions of more general processes such as reciprocity, kin selection, and multi-level selection acting on genes. Evolutionary processes are consilient; they affect several different empirical domains, such as patterns of behavior and the proximal drivers of that behavior. In this target article, we sketch the evidence from five domains that bear on the explanatory adequacy of cultural group selection and competing hypotheses to explain human cooperation. Does cultural transmission constitute an inheritance system that can evolve in a Darwinian fashion? Are the norms that underpin institutions among the cultural traits so transmitted? Do we observe sufficient variation at the level of groups of considerable size for group selection to be a plausible process? Do human groups compete, and do success and failure in competition depend upon cultural variation? Do we observe adaptations for cooperation in humans that most plausibly arose by cultural group selection? If the answer to one of these questions is "no," then we must look to other hypotheses. We present evidence, including quantitative evidence, that the answer to all of the questions is "yes" and argue that we must take the cultural group selection hypothesis seriously. If culturally transmitted systems of rules (institutions) that limit individual deviance organize cooperation in human societies, then it is not clear that any extant alternative to cultural group selection can be a complete explanation.

  17. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics between JHU and GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This grant was awarded to establish and support cooperative research programs between the Center of Astrophysical Sciences (CAS) at the Johns Hopkins University and the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics (LHEA) at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goals o f the program are to facilitate, encourage and initiate: (1) sharing of resources, knowledge and expertise in the general astrophysics, and relevant databases; (2) new collaborations and projects between the two institutions and its scientists, (3) training and mentoring of JHU students and junior researchers by way of connecting them with appropriate researchers and experts at the LHEA.

  18. Multi Groups Cooperation based Symbiotic Evolution for TSK-type Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Design

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Chang; Hsu, Yung-Chi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a TSK-type neuro-fuzzy system with multi groups cooperation based symbiotic evolution method (TNFS-MGCSE) is proposed. The TNFS-MGCSE is developed from symbiotic evolution. The symbiotic evolution is different from traditional GAs (genetic algorithms) that each chromosome in symbiotic evolution represents a rule of fuzzy model. The MGCSE is different from the traditional symbiotic evolution; with a population in MGCSE is divided to several groups. Each group formed by a set of chromosomes represents a fuzzy rule and cooperate with other groups to generate the better chromosomes by using the proposed cooperation based crossover strategy (CCS). In this paper, the proposed TNFS-MGCSE is used to evaluate by numerical examples (Mackey-Glass chaotic time series and sunspot number forecasting). The performance of the TNFS-MGCSE achieves excellently with other existing models in the simulations. PMID:21709856

  19. 75 FR 66797 - PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”) Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC'') Internal Firm Services Client... read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group... PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group. The...

  20. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  1. A strategic conflict avoidance approach based on cooperative coevolutionary with the dynamic grouping strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xuejun; Wei, Jian; Hwang, Inseok; Zhu, Yanbo; Cai, Kaiquan

    2016-07-01

    Conflict avoidance plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the air traffic management system. Recently, the strategic conflict avoidance (SCA) problem has attracted more and more attention. Taking into consideration the large-scale flight planning in a global view, SCA can be formulated as a large-scale combinatorial optimisation problem with complex constraints and tight couplings between variables, which is difficult to solve. In this paper, an SCA approach based on the cooperative coevolution algorithm combined with a new decomposition strategy is proposed to prevent the premature convergence and improve the search capability. The flights are divided into several groups using the new grouping strategy, referred to as the dynamic grouping strategy, which takes full advantage of the prior knowledge of the problem to better deal with the tight couplings among flights through maximising the chance of putting flights with conflicts in the same group, compared with existing grouping strategies. Then, a tuned genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to different groups simultaneously to resolve conflicts. Finally, the high-quality solutions are obtained through cooperation between different groups based on cooperative coevolution. Simulation results using real flight data from the China air route network and daily flight plans demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of conflicts and the average delay effectively, outperforming existing approaches including GAs, the memetic algorithm, and the cooperative coevolution algorithms with different well-known grouping strategies.

  2. Using Student Group Leaders to Motivate Students in Cooperative Learning Methods in Crowded Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Rifat; Efe, Hulya Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of employing student group leaders on the motivation of group members during co-operative learning activities in a secondary school classroom in Turkey. The study was carried out in a period of eight weeks in biology classes during which "living things" and "ecology" topics were taught to a class of 45 students…

  3. Gender, Group Composition, Cooperation, and Self-Efficacy in Computer Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of Norwegian college students that investigated whether gender, group composition, or self-efficacy in computing has any impact on cooperation, giving or getting task-related help, and level of activity in student groups. Results confirms gender differences in self-efficacy in computing. (Author/LRW)

  4. Interagency Advanced Power Group, Joint Electrical and Nuclear Working Group, meeting minutes, November 16--17, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Reports on soldier power R&D review, N-MCT power electronic building blocks, silicon carbide power semiconductor work, and ground based radar were made to the Power Conditioning Panel. An introduction to high temperature electronics needs, research and development was made to the High Temperature Electronics Subcommittee. The Pulse Power Panel received reports on the navy ETC gun, and army pulse power. The Superconductivity Panel received reports on high-tc superconducting wires, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and superconducting applications. The Nuclear Working Group received presentations on the Topaz nuclear power program, and space nuclear work in the Department of Energy.

  5. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Shalvi, Shaul; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  6. Gas Research Institute, annual report 1993. The business side of technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    By any measure, 1993 was a pivotal year for the Gas Research Institute and its stakeholders. The authors completed a top-to-bottom restructuring of GRI that began in 1992, clarifying for members and staff our new expectations for excellence. With invaluable guidance from our members and others, the authors gained approval from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for a new funding mechanism to support the GRI R D program for 1994 and 1995. And they made changes to emphasize more strongly than ever the business side of technology, striving to better understand the competitive and regulatory forces that affect the technology choices the members and their customers make. In this report, the authors will spotlight these and other 1993 accomplishments and outline the challenges ahead for 1994.

  7. The Fairfax County (Va.) Principals' Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Todd

    1987-01-01

    Describes the activities developed for the "Students with Special Needs" group of the Fairfax County Principals' Research Group. The "Research Group" has shown that principals can implement ideas that do not emerge from any other source in the school system. (MD)

  8. Family planning operations research and program evaluation literature review; • a selected annotated bibliography: pakistan 1968-1993.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Z; Huschle-Delobel, G; Lush, L; Cernada, G; Rob, U; Ahmad, M S

    1994-01-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of operations research and program evaluation articles and reports on family planning program activities in Pakistan from 1968-1993. Some thirty references are summarized including study design, methodology, and major findings.

  9. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  10. Cognitive cooperation : When the going gets tough, think as a group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David Sloan; Timmel, John J; Miller, Ralph R

    2004-09-01

    Cooperation can evolve in the context of cognitive activities such as perception, attention, memory, and decision making, in addition to physical activities such as hunting, gathering, warfare, and childcare. The social insects are well known to cooperate on both physical and cognitive tasks, but the idea of cognitive cooperation in humans has not received widespread attention or systematic study. The traditional psychological literature often gives the impression that groups are dysfunctional cognitive units, while evolutionary psychologists have so far studied cognition primarily at the individual level. We present two experiments that demonstrate the superiority of thinking in groups, but only for tasks that are sufficiently challenging to exceed the capacity of individuals. One of the experiments is in a brain-storming format, where advantages of real groups over nominal groups have been notoriously difficult to demonstrate. Cognitive cooperation might often operate beneath conscious awareness and take place without the need for overt training, as evolutionary psychologists have stressed for individual-level cognitive adaptations. In general, cognitive cooperation should be a central subject in human evolutionary psychology, as it already is in the study of the social insects.

  11. Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Jennifer K.; Ligocki, Isaac Y.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Reddon, Adam R.; Garvy, Kelly A.; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E.; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Balshine, Sigal; Hamilton, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a colonial, cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Dominant males sired 76% of offspring in their group, whereas dominant females mothered 82% of offspring in their group. Subordinate reproduction was frequent, occurring in 47% of sampled groups. Subordinate males gained more paternity in groups located in high-density areas and in groups with many subordinate males. Dominant males and females in large groups and in groups with many reproductively mature subordinates had higher rates of parentage loss, but only at the colony edge. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive quantification of reproductive sharing among groups of wild N. pulcher, a model species for the study of cooperation and social behaviour. Further, we demonstrate that the frequency of extra-pair parentage differs across small social and spatial scales. PMID:26136450

  12. Structural dynamics division research and technology accomplishments for FY 1992 and plans for FY 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynne, Eleanor C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Structural Dynamics Division's research accomplishments for F.Y. 1992 and research plans for F.Y. 1993. The work under each Branch (technical area) is described in terms of highlights of accomplishments during the past year and highlights of plans for the current year as they relate to 5-year plans for each technical area. This information will be useful in program coordination with other government organizations and industry in areas of mutual interest.

  13. Structural mechanics division research and technology accomplishments for CY 1992 and plans for CY 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, John B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the Structural Mechanics Division's research accomplishments for C.Y. 1992 and plans for C.Y. 1993. The technical mission and goals of the division and its constituent research branches are described. The work under each branch is described in terms of highlights of accomplishments during the past year and plans for the current year as they relate to branch long range goals. This information is useful in program coordination with other government organizations, universities, and industry in areas of mutual interest.

  14. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    DOE PAGES

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; Schluenzen, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form,more » or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.« less

  15. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; Schluenzen, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form, or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.

  16. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  17. Effect of Linkage Groups on Motional Cooperativity in Secondary Relaxations of Some Glassy Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Yee, Albert F.

    2000-03-01

    In our previous research we found that the secondary relaxation of bisphenol-A (BPA) polycarbonate is due to a cooperative motion which includes several repeat units. Clearly the linkage between neighboring BPA segments must play an important role. It is expected that a more flexible linkage would require less motional cooperativity. To demonstrate this idea, polyformals based on the comonomers BPA, tetramethyl-BPA and methylenechloride with controlled sequence structure were synthesized and DMA studies were conducted. The results show that the secondary relaxation behavior of copolyformals is not dependent on the block length of BPA segments, which suggest that the molecular motion does not require in-chain cooperation. The lower in-chain motional cooperativity of BPA-polyformal is attributed to the lower rotational energy barrier of the formal linkage.

  18. The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.

    PubMed

    Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S

    2016-01-01

    We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations. PMID:27561995

  19. The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.

    PubMed

    Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S

    2016-01-01

    We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations.

  20. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, Catherine C.; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation. PMID:27574971

  1. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Catherine C; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara; Wilson, Rick K

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation. PMID:27574971

  2. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  3. [Scientific cooperation: limiting freedom of research by criminal law?].

    PubMed

    Dölling, D

    2000-09-01

    Even after the strengthening by the law of 1997, the German criminal law regarding corruption is no obstacle for cooperation between medical research and industry. The injustice of corruption is an irregular exchange between performing one's duty and benefits. According to this, an enterprise may give funds to a scientist for research purposes if no counter performance exceeding the research is associated with this. However, it makes a difference if the scientist has to show his appreciation by influencing economic decisions of the clinic in favor of the enterprise. In case of such an injustice, it is, under the new law, no longer important if the benefit is destined for the scientist himself or for another person or organization. Thus, it is in the interest of both research and industry to avoid the suspicion of corruption in the first place. A prerequisite for this is the strict observance of the legal and administrative regulations concerning projects financed by third-party funds.

  4. Research in elementary particle physics. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.

    1992-10-01

    We describe theoretical work on effective action expansion on an effective low energy theory of hadrons and lattice gauge theories. The high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University has analyzed data on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF. The LSND neutrino experiment is preparing to take data in 1993. IMB data has been analyzed. Preparations for a beam test at KEK for IMB are in progress. Dumand is preparing to test one string of the detector early next summer. The ZEUS electron proton colliding beam experiment has started to take data. Early results have been reported.

  5. The Cooperative Research Centres Programme: An Australian Initiative to Link Research to Commercialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegart, Greg

    1996-01-01

    In Australia, Cooperative Research Centres strengthen linkages between universities as producers and industry as users of research. Shifting perspectives on the functions of universities, industry, and government are driven by the need for wealth creation, global competitiveness, and optimum linkages between research and commercialization. (SK)

  6. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  7. Cooperative Member Education Campaign. Instructions to Learning Group Leaders and Hand-Outs to Learning Group Participants. Course One. Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Lands, Resettlement and Rural Development, Harare (Zimbabwe).

    This booklet contains most of the materials needed by the learning group leaders and group participants in Zimbabwe's Cooperative Member Education Campaign. The 10 meetings in this course focus on cooperatives. Detailed instructions for learning group leaders present specific suggestions for conducting the meetings, including what to say,…

  8. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  9. Informal Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: The Effect of Scaffolding on Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Christopher; Costley, Jamie; Han, Seung Lock

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of group work scaffolding on participation. The procedural scaffolding of two cooperative learning techniques, Numbered Heads Together and Think-Pair-Share, are compared based on levels of participation, learning, and satisfaction they elicit. Aspects of participation that are examined include levels of group…

  10. Perceptions of Group-Led Online Discussions: The Benefits of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Lanter, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a cooperative learning activity, students were randomly assigned to small groups and asked to lead an online discussion. Responses to a survey administered at the completion of the course suggest that the activity was effective in meeting its goals of promoting student interaction and increasing perceived student…

  11. Cooperative CBI: The Effects of Heterogeneous versus Homogeneous Grouping on the Learning of Progressively Complex Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; Hannafin, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes study that compared the achievement of high and low ability eighth-grade students working cooperatively during computer-based instruction. Homogeneous and heterogeneous grouping based on ability are explained, posttest results are analyzed, and implications for instructional design are discussed. (23 references) (Author/LRW)

  12. Investigating the Impact of Mediated Learning Experiences on Cooperative Peer Communication during Group Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert; Dinos, Sokratis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how structured Mediated Learning Experiences may improve peer-cooperative communication within problem-solving task exercises. Two groups (n = 22) of Year 8 students (mean age 13 +/- 5 months) were randomly selected to participate in this study. The study began with two one-hour sessions of activity-based problem-solving…

  13. Generative Teaching: An Enhancement Strategy for the Learning of Economics in Cooperative Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourilsky, Marilyn; Wittrock, Merlin C.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing the learning of economics among 76 public high school seniors from lower socioeconomic levels by teaching them to use generative comprehension procedures in cooperative learning groups was attempted. Comparison with 66 controls indicated facilitative effects of generative teaching in increasing confidence in correctness of answers and…

  14. Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, Shlomo

    1980-01-01

    Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for effects on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and small-group…

  15. Social Interaction Rules in Cooperative Learning Groups for Students at Risk for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuester, Deitra A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of providing social participation rules on the performance and social behavior of a school-based sample of 10-14-year-old students at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 34) who worked cooperatively in same-gender triads with typical peers (n = 92). The design was primarily a 2 (population group)…

  16. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research: 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1993-1994 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, July 14-15, 1994. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to aircraft and airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  17. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Volume 8, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission`s rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance.

  18. Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program. Annual report to the Department of Energy, Revised December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ogeka, G.J.; Romano, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program is a discretionary research and development tool critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the laboratory. It is also a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, within the overall mission of the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report summarizes research which was funded by this program during fiscal year 1993. The research fell in a number of broad technical and scientific categories: new directions for energy technologies; global change; radiation therapies and imaging; genetic studies; new directions for the development and utilization of BNL facilities; miscellaneous projects. Two million dollars in funding supported 28 projects which were spread throughout all BNL scientific departments.

  19. Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Richerson, Peter; Baldini, Ryan; Bell, Adrian V; Demps, Kathryn; Frost, Karl; Hillis, Vicken; Mathew, Sarah; Newton, Emily K; Naar, Nicole; Newson, Lesley; Ross, Cody; Smaldino, Paul E; Waring, Timothy M; Zefferman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Human cooperation is highly unusual. We live in large groups composed mostly of non-relatives. Evolutionists have proposed a number of explanations for this pattern, including cultural group selection and extensions of more general processes such as reciprocity, kin selection, and multi-level selection acting on genes. Evolutionary processes are consilient; they affect several different empirical domains, such as patterns of behavior and the proximal drivers of that behavior. In this target article, we sketch the evidence from five domains that bear on the explanatory adequacy of cultural group selection and competing hypotheses to explain human cooperation. Does cultural transmission constitute an inheritance system that can evolve in a Darwinian fashion? Are the norms that underpin institutions among the cultural traits so transmitted? Do we observe sufficient variation at the level of groups of considerable size for group selection to be a plausible process? Do human groups compete, and do success and failure in competition depend upon cultural variation? Do we observe adaptations for cooperation in humans that most plausibly arose by cultural group selection? If the answer to one of these questions is "no," then we must look to other hypotheses. We present evidence, including quantitative evidence, that the answer to all of the questions is "yes" and argue that we must take the cultural group selection hypothesis seriously. If culturally transmitted systems of rules (institutions) that limit individual deviance organize cooperation in human societies, then it is not clear that any extant alternative to cultural group selection can be a complete explanation. PMID:25347943

  20. Migrant Farmworkers in the United States. Implementation of the Helsinki Accords. Briefings of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (July 20, 1992; October 9, 1992; February 19, 1993; March 1, 1993; April 8, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Washington, DC.

    The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) monitors and encourages human rights compliance by signatories of the Helsinki Final Act of 1975. Language pertaining to migrant workers is found in all major CSCE documents, and the examination of migrant farmworker issues represents part of the Commission's ongoing review of U.S.…

  1. Learning from Older Citizens' Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andy; Boyce, Melanie; O'Brien, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to an ongoing conversation in gerontology about the importance of training and involving older people in research. Currently, the literature rarely distinguishes between the one-off involvement of older citizens in research projects and the development of research groups led by older people that sustain over time as well as the…

  2. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used. PMID:8639796

  3. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  4. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  5. Subordinate male meerkats prospect for extra-group paternity: alternative reproductive tactics in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Spong, Goran; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2007-07-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, subordinates typically suffer strong constraints on within-group reproduction. While numerous studies have highlighted the additional fitness benefits that subordinates might accrue through helping, few have considered the possibility that subordinates may also seek extra-group matings to improve their chances of actually breeding. Here, we show that subordinate males in cooperative meerkat, Suricata suricatta, societies conduct frequent extraterritorial forays, during periods of peak female fertility, which give rise to matings with females in other groups. Genetic analyses reveal that extra-group paternity (EGP) accrued while prospecting contributes substantially to the reproductive success of subordinates: yielding the majority of their offspring (approx. 70%); significantly reducing their age at first reproduction and allowing them to breed without dispersing. We estimate that prospecting subordinates sire 20-25% of all young in the population. While recent studies on cooperative birds indicate that dominant males accrue the majority of EGP, our findings reveal that EGP can also arise from alternative reproductive tactics employed exclusively by subordinates. It is important, therefore, that future attempts to estimate the fitness of subordinate males in animal societies quantify the distribution of extra-group as well as within-group paternity, because a substantial proportion of the reproductive success of subordinates may otherwise go undetected.

  6. Subordinate male meerkats prospect for extra-group paternity: alternative reproductive tactics in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Spong, Goran; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2007-07-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, subordinates typically suffer strong constraints on within-group reproduction. While numerous studies have highlighted the additional fitness benefits that subordinates might accrue through helping, few have considered the possibility that subordinates may also seek extra-group matings to improve their chances of actually breeding. Here, we show that subordinate males in cooperative meerkat, Suricata suricatta, societies conduct frequent extraterritorial forays, during periods of peak female fertility, which give rise to matings with females in other groups. Genetic analyses reveal that extra-group paternity (EGP) accrued while prospecting contributes substantially to the reproductive success of subordinates: yielding the majority of their offspring (approx. 70%); significantly reducing their age at first reproduction and allowing them to breed without dispersing. We estimate that prospecting subordinates sire 20-25% of all young in the population. While recent studies on cooperative birds indicate that dominant males accrue the majority of EGP, our findings reveal that EGP can also arise from alternative reproductive tactics employed exclusively by subordinates. It is important, therefore, that future attempts to estimate the fitness of subordinate males in animal societies quantify the distribution of extra-group as well as within-group paternity, because a substantial proportion of the reproductive success of subordinates may otherwise go undetected. PMID:17456454

  7. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  8. Summaries of BFRL fire research in-house projects and grants, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1993-09-01

    The report describes the fire research projects performed in the Building and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and under its extramural grants program during fiscal year 1993. The BFRL Fire Research Program has directed its efforts under three program thrusts. The in-house priority projects, grants, and externally-funded efforts thus form an integrated, focussed ensemble. The publication is organized along those lines: fire risk and hazard prediction - carbon monoxide prediction, turbulent combustion, soot, engineering analysis, fire hazard assessment, and large fires; fire safety of products and materials - materials combustion, furniture flammability, and wall and ceiling fires; and advanced technologies for fire sensing and control - fire detection and fire suppression. For the convenience of the reader, an alphabetical listing of all grants is contained in Part 2.0.

  9. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  10. [Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Ricardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  11. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M.; Pontuschka, Nídia N.; Felipone, Sonia M. N.; dos Santos, Tereza L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

  12. Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

    2013-10-01

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

  13. Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

    2013-09-27

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  14. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: nursing discipline.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2013-06-01

    Integration of the nursing discipline within cooperative groups conducting pediatric oncology clinical trials provides unique opportunities to maximize nursing's contribution to clinical care, and to pursue research questions that extend beyond cure of disease to address important gaps in knowledge surrounding the illness experience. Key areas of importance to the advancement of the nursing discipline's scientific knowledge are understanding the effective delivery of patient/family education, and reducing illness-related distress, both of which are integral to facilitating parental/child coping with the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer, and to promoting resilience and well-being of pediatric oncology patients and their families.

  15. Linking body mass and group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Bateman, Andrew W; English, Sinead; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-11-01

    Social and environmental factors influence key life-history processes and population dynamics by affecting fitness-related phenotypic traits such as body mass. The role of body mass is particularly pronounced in cooperative breeders due to variation in social status and consequent variation in access to resources. Investigating the mechanisms underlying variation in body mass and its demographic consequences can help elucidate how social and environmental factors affect the dynamics of cooperatively breeding populations. In this study, we present an analysis of the effect of individual variation in body mass on the temporal dynamics of group size and structure of a cooperatively breeding mongoose, the Kalahari meerkat, Suricata suricatta. First, we investigate how body mass interacts with social (dominance status and number of helpers) and environmental (rainfall and season) factors to influence key life-history processes (survival, growth, emigration and reproduction) in female meerkats. Next, using an individual-based population model, we show that the models explicitly including individual variation in body mass predict group dynamics better than those ignoring this morphological trait. Body mass influences group dynamics mainly through its effects on helper emigration and dominant reproduction. Rainfall has a trait-mediated, destabilizing effect on group dynamics, whereas the number of helpers has a direct and stabilizing effect. Counteracting effects of number of helpers on different demographic rates, despite generating temporal fluctuations, stabilizes group dynamics in the long term. Our study demonstrates that social and environmental factors interact to produce individual variation in body mass and accounting for this variation helps to explain group dynamics in this cooperatively breeding population.

  16. Linking body mass and group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Bateman, Andrew W; English, Sinead; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-11-01

    Social and environmental factors influence key life-history processes and population dynamics by affecting fitness-related phenotypic traits such as body mass. The role of body mass is particularly pronounced in cooperative breeders due to variation in social status and consequent variation in access to resources. Investigating the mechanisms underlying variation in body mass and its demographic consequences can help elucidate how social and environmental factors affect the dynamics of cooperatively breeding populations. In this study, we present an analysis of the effect of individual variation in body mass on the temporal dynamics of group size and structure of a cooperatively breeding mongoose, the Kalahari meerkat, Suricata suricatta. First, we investigate how body mass interacts with social (dominance status and number of helpers) and environmental (rainfall and season) factors to influence key life-history processes (survival, growth, emigration and reproduction) in female meerkats. Next, using an individual-based population model, we show that the models explicitly including individual variation in body mass predict group dynamics better than those ignoring this morphological trait. Body mass influences group dynamics mainly through its effects on helper emigration and dominant reproduction. Rainfall has a trait-mediated, destabilizing effect on group dynamics, whereas the number of helpers has a direct and stabilizing effect. Counteracting effects of number of helpers on different demographic rates, despite generating temporal fluctuations, stabilizes group dynamics in the long term. Our study demonstrates that social and environmental factors interact to produce individual variation in body mass and accounting for this variation helps to explain group dynamics in this cooperatively breeding population. PMID:24749732

  17. Gas Research Institute 1994-1998 research and development plan and 1994 research and development program. Research and development plan reference, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The planning framework of Gas Research Institute and compliance with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission guidelines are explained. The report presents the 6-year (1993 to 1998) project-area-level contract obligation and cofunding budgets necessary to carry out the overall R and D program, explains program structural changes, and lists significant increases and decreases in GRI project-area funding compared to the 1993-1997 R and D Plan. It also summarizes each project area in terms of its objectives, project-level budgets, activity duration, milestones, goals, accomplishments, and planned products. Appendices include rosters of member companies, the Board of Directors, and advisory bodies; definitions of program and budget terms; and a list of other publications on the subject of GRI's R and D plan and program.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  19. Cross-Bridge Group Ensembles Describing Cooperativity in Thermodynamically Consistent Way

    PubMed Central

    Kalda, Mari; Peterson, Pearu; Vendelin, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to incorporate cooperativity into Huxley-type cross-bridge model in thermodynamically consistent way. While the Huxley-type models assume that cross-bridges act independently from each other, we take into account that each cross-bridge is influenced by its neighbors and cooperativity is induced by tropomyosin movement. For that, we introduce ensembles of cross-bridge groups connected by elastic tropomyosin. By taking into account that the mechanical displacement of tropomyosin induces free energy change of the cross-bridge group ensemble, we develop the formalism for thermodynamically consistent description of the cooperativity in muscle contraction. An example model was composed to test the approach. The model parameters were found by optimization from the linear relation between oxygen consumption and stress-strain area as well as experimentally measured stress dynamics of rat trabecula. We have found a good agreement between the optimized model solution and experimental data. Simulations also showed that it is possible to study cooperativity with the approach developed in this work. PMID:26361396

  20. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.