Science.gov

Sample records for 1994-1995 collider run

  1. 1987 DOE review: First collider run operation

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, S.; Crawford, J.; Dugan, G.; Edwards, H.; Finley, D.A.; Fowler, W.B.; Harrison, M.; Holmes, S.; Makara, J.N.; Malamud, E.

    1987-05-01

    This review covers the operations of the first run of the 1.8 TeV superconducting super collider. The papers enclosed cover: PBAR source status, fixed target operation, Tevatron cryogenic reliability and capacity upgrade, Tevatron Energy upgrade progress and plans, status of the D0 low beta insertion, 1.8 K and 4.7 K refrigeration for low-..beta.. quadrupoles, progress and plans for the LINAC and booster, near term and long term and long term performance improvements.

  2. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  3. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  4. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2002-12-23

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb{sup -1} could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at {radical}s {le} 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e{sup -}e{sup -} runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab{sup -1} program, expected to take the first 6-7 years

  5. INDEEP annual report (1994--1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1995-04-01

    This report is the first Annual Report of the International Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (INDEEP), summarizing the activities of the first year (1994--1995). During this time period, the authors conducted the following activities: (1) reviewed existing international demand-side management (DSM) program data bases; (2) reviewed participating country`s experience in DSM program evaluation; (3) prepared case studies on 1--4 DSM programs per country; (4) tested the DEEP data collection instrument (DCI) and prepared an INDEEP DCI; (5) contacted potential users of the INDEEP data base; and (6) organized an INDEEP workshop. As a result of these activities, the authors accomplished more in the first year than what was expected, so that the work planned for five years can be accomplished in a shorter period of time and with a reduced budget. The key findings from the first year are the following: (1) based on a review of the literature and discussions with DSM experts in the participating countries, they found the proposed INDEEP data base to be unique and not duplicative of other data bases; (2) after intensive ``field testing`` of the INDEEP data collection instrument (DCI) on 14 European DSM programs, a four-page DCI was developed that INDEEP experts agreed to use for data collection in the second year of the project; (3) based on informal networking, DCI field testing, meetings with potential users of the INDEEP data base, and the INDEEP workshop, they found substantial interest in the INDEEP project, particularly from DSM program designers; (4) discussions with DSM experts in the participating countries and at an INDEEP workshop attended by over 40 European DSM experts led to a consensus for the project to proceed for another year, focusing on: (a) additional data collection, (b) entering of data onto an Excel spreadsheet, and (c) close collaboration with potential users, building upon the existing network established in the first year.

  6. Nebraska Public Library Profile. 1994-1995 Statistical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Library Commission, Lincoln.

    This summary of Nebraska Library statistics for the 1994-1995 fiscal year is a compilation of data reported by 234 of the 256 public libraries in the state. The major urban libraries of Omaha and Lincoln serve 47% of the state population, while 75% of libraries in the state serve populations under 2,500. Even with limited resources, Nebraska…

  7. RHIC Performance as a 100 GeV Polarized Proton Collider in Run-9

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; DOttavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hahn, H.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Menga, P.M.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Pozdeyev, E.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    During the second half of Run-9, the Relativisitc Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided polarized proton collisions at two interaction points. The spin orientation of both beams at these collision points was controlled by helical spin rotators, and physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. Recent developments and improvements will be presented, as well as luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-9.

  8. Tevatron Collider Run II status and novel technologies for luminosity upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Shiltsev

    2004-07-20

    Over the past 2 years the Tevatron peak luminosity steadily progressed and reached the level of 92e30 cm-2s-1 which exceeds the original Run IIa goal. Over 0.57fb-1 have being delivered to each CDF and D0 experiments since the beginning of the Run II. In parallel to the Collider operation, we have started a project of the luminosity upgrade which should lead to peak luminosities of about 270e30 and total integrated luminosity of 4.4-8.5 fb-1 through FY2009. In this paper we describe the status of the Tevatron Collider complex, essence of the upgrades and novel accelerator technologies to be employed.

  9. GO, an exec for running the programs: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT, and TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaee, H.

    1982-05-01

    An exec has been written and placed on the PEP group's public disk to facilitate the use of several PEP related computer programs available on VM. The exec's program list currently includes: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT, and TURTLE. In addition, provisions have been made to allow addition of new programs to this list as they become available. The GO exec is directly callable from inside the Wylbur editor (in fact, currently this is the only way to use the GO exec.). It provides the option of running any of the above programs in either interactive or batch mode. In the batch mode, the GO exec sends the data in the Wylbur active file along with the information required to run the job to the batch monitor (BMON, a virtual machine that schedules and controls execution of batch jobs). This enables the user to proceed with other VM activities at his/her terminal while the job executes, thus making it of particular interest to the users with jobs requiring much CPU time to execute and/or those wishing to run multiple jobs independently. In the interactive mode, useful for small jobs requiring less CPU time, the job is executed by the user's own Virtual Machine using the data in the active file as input. At the termination of an interactive job, the GO exec facilitates examination of the output by placing it in the Wylbur active file.

  10. GO, an exec for running the programs: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT and TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaee, H.

    1982-05-01

    An exec has been written and placed on the PEP group's public disk (PUBRL 192) to facilitate the use of several PEP related computer programs available on VM. The exec's program list currently includes: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT, and TURTLE. In addition, provisions have been made to allow addition of new programs to this list as they become available. The GO exec is directly callable from inside the Wylbur editor (in fact, currently this is the only way to use the GO exec.) It provides the option of running any of the above programs in either interactive or batch mode. In the batch mode, the GO exec sends the data in the Wylbur active file along with the information required to run the job to the batch monitor (BMON, a virtual machine that schedules and controls execution of batch jobs). This enables the user to proceed with other VM activities at his/her terminal while the job executes, thus making it of particular interest to the users with jobs requiring much CPU time to execute and/or those wishing to run multiple jobs independently. In the interactive mode, useful for small jobs requiring less CPU time, the job is executed by the user's own Virtual Machine using the data in the active file as input. At the termination of an interactive job, the GO exec facilitates examination of the output by placing it in the Wylbur active file.

  11. Onset and Forecast of the 1994-1995 El Nino Event: Equatorial Rossby Wave Reflection Evidenced by TOPEX/POSEIDON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Jean-Phillipe; Fu, L. L.; Perigaud, C.

    1996-01-01

    We found evidence in TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data that equatorial first meridionsl mode Rossby waves reflected at the Pacific western boundary into Kelvin waves during the January-july 1994 period prior to the 1994-1995 El Nino event.

  12. Nanosecond-Timescale Intra-Bunch-Train Feedback for the Linear Collider: Results of the FONT2 Run

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.; Dufau, M.; Kalinin, A.; Myatt, G.; Perry, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Hartin, T.; Hussain, S.M.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Adolphsen, C.; Frisch, J.C.; Hendrickson, L.; Jobe, R.K.; Markiewicz, T.; McCormick, D.J.; Nelson, J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-11

    We report on experimental results from the December 2003/January 2004 data run of the Feedback On Nanosecond Timescales (FONT) experiment at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator at SLAC. We built a second-generation prototype intra-train beam-based feedback system incorporating beam position monitors, fast analogue signal processors, a feedback circuit, fast-risetime amplifiers and stripline kickers. We applied a novel real-time charge-normalization scheme to account for beam current variations along the train. We used the system to correct the position of the 170-nanosecond-long bunchtrain at NLCTA. We achieved a latency of 53 nanoseconds, representing a significant improvement on FONT1 (2002), and providing a demonstration of intra-train feedback for the Linear Collider.

  13. Transient State Machine Enabled from the Colliding and Coalescence of a Swarm of Autonomously Running Liquid Metal Motors.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lei; He, Zhizhu; Yao, Youyou; Liu, Jing

    2015-10-21

    Internally triggered motion of an object owns important potential in diverse application areas ranging from micromachines, actuator or sensor, to self-assembly of superstructures. A new conceptual liquid metal machine style has been presented here: the transient state machine that can work as either a large size robot, partial running elements, or just divide spontaneously running swarm of tiny motors. According to need, the discrete droplet machines as quickly generated through injecting the stream of a large liquid metal machine can combine back again to the original one. Over the process, each tiny machine just keeps its running, colliding, bouncing, or adhesion states until finally assembling into a single machine. Unlike the commonly encountered rigid machines, such transient state system can be reversible in working shapes. Depending on their surface tension, the autonomously traveling droplet motors can experience bouncing and colliding before undergoing total coalescence, arrested coalescence, or total bounce. This finding would help mold unconventional robot in the sense of transient state machine that could automatically transform among different geometries such as a single or swarm, small or large size, assembling and interaction, etc. It refreshes people's basic understandings on machines, liquid metal materials, fluid mechanics, and micromotors. PMID:26280352

  14. SDA-based diagnostic and analysis tools for Collider Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, T.B.; Lebrun, P.; Panacek, S.; Papadimitriou, V.; Slaughter, J.; Xiao, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Operating and improving the understanding of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex for the colliding beam experiments requires advanced software methods and tools. The Shot Data Analysis (SDA) has been developed to fulfill this need. Data from the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is stored in a relational database, and is served to programs and users via Web-based tools. Summary tables are systematically generated during and after a store. These tables (the Supertable, the Recomputed Emittances, the Recomputed Intensities and other tables) are discussed here.

  15. Search for chargino and neutralino at Run II of the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Canepa, Anadi; /Purdue U.

    2006-08-01

    In this dissertation we present a search for the associated production of charginos and neutralinos, the supersymmetric partners of the Standard Model bosons. We analyze a data sample representing 745 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF experiment at the p{bar p} Tevatron collider. We compare the Standard Model predictions with the observed data selecting events with three leptons and missing transverse energy. Finding no excess, we combine the results of our search with similar analyses carried out at CDF and set an upper limit on the chargino mass in SUSY scenarios.

  16. Data acquisition and analysis for the Fermilab Collider RunII

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. G. Lebrun et al.

    2004-07-07

    Operating and improving the understanding of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex for the colliding beam experiments requires advanced software methods and tools. The Shot Data Acquisition and Analysis (SDA) has been developed to fulfill this need. The SDA takes a standard set of critical data at relevant stages during the complex series of beam manipulations leading to {radical}(s) {approx} 2 TeV collisions. Data is stored in a relational database, and is served to programs and users via Web based tools. Summary tables are systematically generated during and after a store. Written entirely in Java, SDA supports both interactive tools and application interfaces used for in-depth analysis. In this talk, we present the architecture and described some of our analysis tools. We also present some results on the recent Tevatron performance as illustrations of the capabilities of SDA.

  17. Coherent photoproduction of vector mesons in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions: Update for run 2 at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzey, V.; Kryshen, E.; Zhalov, M.

    2016-05-01

    We make predictions for the cross sections of coherent photoproduction of ρ ,ϕ ,J /ψ ,ψ (2 S ) , and Υ (1 S ) mesons in Pb-Pb ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) at √{sN N}=5.02 TeV in the kinematics of run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider extending the approaches successfully describing the available Pb-Pb UPC data at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV . Our results illustrate the important roles of hadronic fluctuations of the photon and inelastic nuclear shadowing in photoproduction of light vector mesons on nuclei and the large leading twist nuclear gluon shadowing in photoproduction of quarkonia on nuclei. We show that the ratio of ψ (2 S ) and J /ψ photoproduction cross sections in Pb-Pb UPCs is largely determined by the ratio of these cross sections on the proton. We also argue that UPCs with electromagnetic excitations of the colliding ions followed by the forward neutron emission allows one to significantly increase the range of photon energies accessed in vector meson photoproduction on nuclei.

  18. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oide, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of the LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface in order to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules, and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is the fourth layer of the Run 2 Pixel Detector, and it was installed at a radius of 3.3 cm in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and the new smaller-radius beam pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance is expected to improve through the reduction of pixel size. As well, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system were adopted. An overview of the IBL project as well as the experience in its construction is presented, focusing on adopted technologies, module and staves production, qualification of assembly procedure, integration of staves around the beam pipe, and commissioning of the detector.

  19. Sustained utility implementation of photovoltaics. TEAM-UP pre-cursor project, 1994-1995, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, D.E.; Collier, D.; Miller, K.; Jonas, T.; Gerlach, P.

    1998-05-01

    Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) is a leader in utility grid-connected applications of PVs with the world`s largest distributed PV power system. SMUD is continuing its ambitious sustained, orderly development (SOD) commercialization effort of the grid-connected, utility PV market. This program us aimed at developing the experience needed to successfully integrate PV as distributed generation into the utility system, develop market and long-term business strategies and to stimulate the collaborative processes needed to accelerate the cost-reductions necessary for PV to be cost-competitive in these applications by about the year 2002. This report documents the progress made in the 1994/1995 SMUD PV Program under this contract and the PV projects partially supported by this contract.

  20. Polar stratospheric clouds observed at Eureka (80°N, 86°W) in the Canadian Arctic during the 1994/1995 winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; Uchino, O.; Itabe, T.; Shibata, T.; Mizutani, K.; Fujimoto, T.

    1997-09-01

    A lidar system was installed at Eureka (80°N, 86°W) in January 1993 to monitor stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). In the winter of 1994/1995, PSCs were found at altitudes of around 20km in the middle of December. In early January 1995, PSCs were observed at altitudes from 14.3 km to 16 km, where the temperature ranged from 199K to 202K. Since this range is higher than the frost point of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the particles in these PSCs may have consisted of sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT).

  1. Ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  2. The Insertable B-Layer of the ATLAS experiment for the Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guescini, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new Service Quarter Panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam pipe at a radial distance of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. The realization of the IBL required the development of several new technologies and solutions in order to overcome the challenges introduced by the extreme environment and working conditions, such as the high radiation levels, the high pixel occupancy and the need of an exceptionally low material budget. Two silicon sensor technologies have been adopted for the IBL modules: planar and 3D. Both of these are connected via bump-bonding to the new FE-I4 front-end read-out chip. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the IBL project as well as the experience in its construction is presented, focusing on adopted technologies, modules and staves production, qualification of assembly procedure, integration of staves around the beam pipe and commissioning of the detector.

  3. Fluorescence-based characterization of phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacterial communities in the Arabian Sea during the Northeast and early Southwest Monsoon (1994 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelle Wood, A.; Lipsen, Michael; Coble, Paula

    1999-08-01

    Scanning fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in the fluorescence signature of phycoerythrin-containing organisms in the Arabian Sea during the early Northeast and early Southwest Monsoon (1994-1995). Phycoerythrin (PE) emission spectra were relatively invariant among all the samples collected on either cruise; the relatively symmetrical PE emission peaks showed maxima at wavelengths ranging from 563-572 nm. PE excitation spectra always showed either a strong shoulder or a peak at wavelengths absorbed maximally by phycourobilin (PUB) chromophores as well as a peak at wavelengths absorbed maximally by phycoerythrobilin (PEB) chromophores. Thus, the Arabian Sea appears to be different from the Black Sea or Gulf of Maine in that PUB-lacking forms of PE rarely, if ever, dominate the PE signal. Fluorescence excitation signatures differed in the relative excitation of PE emission by wavelengths absorbed by PUB (˜495 nm, Ex PUB) and by wavelengths absorbed by PEB (˜550 nm, Ex PEB); these were distinguished by having either very low (˜0.6), very high (˜1.8), or intermediate Ex PUB:Ex PEB ratios. The distribution of samples with different PE fluorescence signatures was investigated extensively during the early Southwest Monsoon, and communities characterized by the low Ex PUB:Ex PEB ratios were closely associated with cooler (24-27°C), fresher (35.7-36.25 psu) water influenced by coastal upwelling. In general, "ambient" surface water of the Arabian Sea during the early Southwest Monsoon was of intermediate temperature (27-29°C) and salinity (36.15-36.4 psu) and showed intermediate or high values for Ex PUB:Ex PEB. This suggests that the PE fluorescence signature can be used to follow the fate of upwelling-influenced water masses and the populations they transport.

  4. Exotic colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1994-11-01

    The motivation, feasibility and potential for two unconventional collider concepts - the Gamma-Gamma Collider and the Muon Collider - are described. The importance of the development of associated technologies such as high average power, high repetition rate lasers and ultrafast phase-space techniques are outlined.

  5. Photon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J

    2002-10-07

    A photon collider interaction region has the possibility of expanding the physics reach of a future TeV scale electron-positron collider. A survey of ongoing efforts to design the required lasers and optics to create a photon collider is presented in this paper.

  6. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  7. Search for top quark at Fermilab Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, K.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    The status of a search for the top quark with Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), based on a data sample recorded during the 1988--1989 run is presented. The plans for the next Fermilab Collider run in 1992--1993 and the prospects of discovering the top quark are discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.

    2009-10-19

    Parameters are given of muon colliders with center of mass energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV. Pion production is from protons on a mercury target. Capture, decay, and phase rotation yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling reduces the emittances until the trains are merged into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in 6 dimensions is then applied, followed by final transverse cooling in 50 T solenoids. After acceleration the muons enter the collider ring. Ongoing R&D is discussed.

  9. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  10. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2010-01-08

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  11. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2009-04-13

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  12. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  13. Quantum-beamsstrahlung laser collider

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Chattopadyay, S.; Xie, M.

    1997-11-01

    An e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider at energies beyond a TeV runs into a problem of severe beamsstrahlung, characterized by {Upsilon} on the order of unity (and beyond). In the regime of extremely high {Upsilon} the beamsstrahlung may be largely suppressed due to the quantum effect. In the design of an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider there are two ways to satisfy the collider physics constraints. One is to decrease the number of particles per bunch (and thus to increase the repetition rate) and the other is to decrease the longitudinal bunch length. The former approach can limit {Upsilon}, while the latter boosts it. (It may be useful to reevaluate the future collider parameters in view of this.) The laser wakefield driver for a collider in comparison with the microwave driver naturally offers a very short bunch length, which is appropriate for the latter collider option. The authors show that this choice of collider design with a short bunch length and high {Upsilon} has advantages and provide sample design parameters at 5 TeV. Such sample design parameters challenge them in a number of fronts, such as the preservation of high quality bunches, efficient high repetition rate lasers, etc. The collision point physics simulated by the CAIN code shows a surprisingly well preserved luminosity spectrum.

  14. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…

  15. The AMATYC Review. 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Designed as an avenue of communication for mathematics educators concerned with the views, ideas, and experiences of two-year college students and teachers, this journal contains articles on mathematics exposition and education, and regular features presenting book and software reviews and math problems. In addition to regular features such as…

  16. Arizona Public Library Statistics. 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1994-95. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise,and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups: (1)…

  17. Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

  18. Beam instrumentation for the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald S.; Jansson, Andreas; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches and many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for future colliders.

  19. Positrons for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ecklund, S.

    1987-11-01

    The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)

  20. High Energy Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.; Gallardo, J. C.

    INTRODUCTION PHYSICS CONSIDERATIONS GENERAL REQUIRED LUMINOSITY FOR LEPTON COLLIDERS THE EFFECTIVE PHYSICS ENERGIES OF HADRON COLLIDERS HADRON-HADRON MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST CIRCULAR e^{+}e^- MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST e^{+}e^- LINEAR COLLIDERS LUMINOSITY CONVENTIONAL RF SUPERCONDUCTING RF AT HIGHER ENERGIES γ - γ COLLIDERS μ ^{+} μ^- COLLIDERS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES DESIGN STUDIES STATUS AND REQUIRED R AND D COMPARISION OF MACHINES CONCLUSIONS DISCUSSION

  1. First Run II results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    S. Donati

    2002-06-04

    In this paper we report on the first run II results from the CDF experiment. A brief description of the Tevatron collider and CDF detector upgrades and performance achieved in the first part of run II is followed by the CDF expectations in the fields of beauty, top, electroweak and Higgs physics.

  2. Collider and detector protection at beam accidents

    SciTech Connect

    I. L. Rakhno; N. V. Mokhov; A. I. Drozhdin

    2003-12-10

    Dealing with beam loss due to abort kicker prefire is considered for hadron colliders. The prefires occurred at Tevatron (Fermilab) during Run I and Run II are analyzed and a protection system implemented is described. The effect of accidental beam loss in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on machine and detector components is studied via realistic Monte Carlo calculations. The simulations show that beam loss at an unsynchronized beam abort would result in severe heating of conventional and superconducting magnets and possible damage to the collider detector elements. A proposed set of collimators would reduce energy deposition effects to acceptable levels. Special attention is paid to reducing peak temperature rise within the septum magnet and minimizing quench region length downstream of the LHC beam abort straight section.

  3. Photon collider Higgs factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  4. State of hadron collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Grannis, P.D. |

    1993-12-01

    The 9th Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics in Tsukuba Japan demonstrated clearly the enormous breadth of physics accessible in hadron cowders. Although no significant chinks were reported in the armor of the Standard Model, new results presented in this meeting have expanded our knowledge of the electroweak and strong interactions and have extended the searches for non-standard phenomena significantly. Much of the new data reported came from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab cowder. Superb operation of the Tevatron during the 1992-1993 Run and significant advances on the detector fronts -- in particular, the emergence of the new D0 detector as a productive physics instrument in its first outing and the addition of the CDF silicon vertex detector -- enabled much of this advance. It is noteworthy however that physics from the CERN collider experiments UA1 and UA4 continued to make a large impact at this meeting. In addition, very interesting summary talks were given on new results from HERA, cosmic ray experiments, on super-hadron collider physics, and on e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} experiments at LEP and TRISTAN. These summaries are reported in elsewhere in this volume.

  5. Azimuthal decorrelation of jets widely separated in rapidity at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung

    1996-09-01

    We present preliminary results from an analysis of the azimuthal decorrelation of dijet events as a function of their separation in pseudorapidity using the data collected during the 1994-1995 collider run. These results are compared to a parton shower Monte Carlo (HERWIG) and a theoretical prediction using BFKL resummation.

  6. Barefoot Running

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Scott; Cotton, Jon; Bechtold, Megan; Toby, E. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that running barefoot can lead to improved strength and proprioception. However, the duration that a runner must train barefoot to observe these changes is unknown. Hypothesis: Runners participating in a barefoot running program will have improved proprioception, increased lower extremity strength, and an increase in the volume or size of the intrinsic musculature of the feet. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In this 8-week study, 29 runners with a mean age of 36.34 years were randomized into either a control group (n = 10) who completed training in their regular running shoes or to an experimental barefoot group (n = 14). Pretraining tests consisted of a volumetric measurement of the foot followed by a strength and dynamic balance assessment. Five subjects completed the pretests but did not complete the study for reasons not related to study outcomes. Participants then completed 8 weeks of training runs. They repeated the strength and dynamic balance assessment after 8 weeks. Results: Significant changes from baseline to 8 weeks were observed within the barefoot group for single-leg hop (right, P = .0121; left, P = .0430) and reach and balance (right, P = .0029) and within the control group for single–left leg hop (P = .0286) and reach and balance (right, P = .0096; left, P = .0014). However, when comparing the differences in changes from baseline to 8 weeks between the barefoot and control groups, the improvements were not significant at the .05 level for all measures. Conclusion: Although statistically significant changes were not observed between the pre- and posttest evaluations in strength and proprioception with the 8-week low-intensity barefoot running regimen, this does not necessarily mean that these changes do not occur. It is possible that it may take months or years to observe these changes, and a short course such as this trial is insufficient. PMID:26535308

  7. Measurement of sigma(p anti-p -> t anti-t) in the tau + jets channel by the D� experiment at Run II of the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Arov, Mikhail; /Northern Illinois U.

    2008-07-01

    The top quark is the heaviest and most mysterious of the known elementary particles. Therefore, careful study of its production rate and other properties is of utmost importance for modern particle physics. The Tevatron is the only facility currently capable of studying top quark properties by on-shell production. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section is one of the major goals of the Tevatron Run II physics program. It provides an excellent test of QCD at energies exceeding 100 GeV. We report on a new measurement of p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t} production at {radical} = 1.96 TeV using 350 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2005. We focus on the final state where a W boson from one of the top quarks decays into a {tau} lepton and its associated neutrino, while the other decays into a quark-antiquark pair. We aim to select those events in which the {tau} lepton subsequently decays to one or three charged hadrons, zero or more neutral hadrons and a tau neutrino (the charge conjugate processes are implied in all of the above). The observable signature thus consists of a narrow calorimeter shower with associated track(s) characteristic of a hadronic tau decay, four or more jets, of which two are initiated by b quarks accompanying the W's in the top quark decays, and a large net missing momentum in the transverse plane due to the energetic neutrino-antineutrino pair that leave no trace in the detector media. The preliminary result for the measured cross section is: {sigma}(t{bar t}) = 5.1{sub -3.5}{sup +4.3}(stat){sub -0.7}{sup +0.7}(syst) {+-} 0.3 (lumi.) pb.

  8. SLAC Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1985-12-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The status of the machine and the detectors are discussed and an overview is given of the physics which can be done at this new facility. Some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built are given.

  9. The Ssart of Run II at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Rescigno

    2002-10-29

    After a hiatus of almost 6 years and an extensive upgrade, Tevatron, the world largest proton-antiproton collider, has resumed the operation for the so called RUN II. In this paper we give a brief overview of the many new features of the Tevatron complex and of the upgraded CDF experiment, and show the presently achieved detector performances as well as highlights of the RUN II physics program in the beauty and electroweak sector.

  10. RHIC Polarized proton performance in run-8

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Bai, M.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.A.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Lin, F.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; D. Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2008-10-06

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Physics data were taken with vertical orientation of the beam polarization, which in the 'Yellow' RHIC ring was significantly lower than in previous years. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8, and we discuss possible causes of the not as high as previously achieved polarization performance of the 'Yellow' ring.

  11. SLAC linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described.

  12. Muon collider progress

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  13. Linear collider: a preview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  14. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a proposed research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study the collision of beams of heavy ions, up to gold in mass and at beam energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon. The physics to be explored by this collider is an overlap between the traditional disciplines of nuclear physics and high energy physics and is a continuation of the planned program of light and heavy ion physics at BNL. The machine is to be constructed in the now-empty tunnel built for the former CBA project. Various other facilities to support the collider are either in place or under construction at BNL. The collider itself, including the magnets, is in an advanced state of design, and a construction start is anticipated in the next several years.

  15. PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS IN HIGH-ENERGY ION COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER, W.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with ions other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams limits are set by space charge, charge exchange, and intrabeam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for intense heavy ions beams. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. Later this decade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  16. Photon collider at TESLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Valery

    2001-10-01

    High energy photon colliders ( γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e +e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3) Le +e -. Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e +e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e +e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is "an optical storage ring (optical trap)" with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.

  17. Tracking at CDF: algorithms and experience from Run I and Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe the tracking algorithms used during Run I and Run II by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, covering the time from about 1992 through the present, and discuss the performance of the algorithms at high luminosity. By tracing the evolution of the detectors and algorithms, they reveal some of the successful strategies used by CDF to address the problems of tracking at high luminosities.

  18. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Lammel, S.

    1997-05-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunch spacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II.

  19. From the LHC to Future Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J.; Grojean, C.; Heinemeyer, S.; Jakobs, K.; Weiglein, G.; Azuelos, G.; Dawson, S.; Gripaios, B.; Han, T.; Hewett, J.; Lancaster, M.; Mariotti, C.; Moortgat, F.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Polesello, G.; Riemann, S.; Assamagan, K.; Bechtle, P.; Carena, M.; Chachamis, G.; /more authors..

    2010-06-11

    Discoveries at the LHC will soon set the physics agenda for future colliders. This report of a CERN Theory Institute includes the summaries of Working Groups that reviewed the physics goals and prospects of LHC running with 10 to 300 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, of the proposed sLHC luminosity upgrade, of the ILC, of CLIC, of the LHeC and of a muon collider. The four Working Groups considered possible scenarios for the first 10 fb{sup -1} of data at the LHC in which (i) a state with properties that are compatible with a Higgs boson is discovered, (ii) no such state is discovered either because the Higgs properties are such that it is difficult to detect or because no Higgs boson exists, (iii) a missing-energy signal beyond the Standard Model is discovered as in some supersymmetric models, and (iv) some other exotic signature of new physics is discovered. In the contexts of these scenarios, theWorking Groups reviewed the capabilities of the future colliders to study in more detail whatever new physics may be discovered by the LHC. Their reports provide the particle physics community with some tools for reviewing the scientific priorities for future colliders after the LHC produces its first harvest of new physics from multi-TeV collisions.

  20. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-05

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  1. Muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-03-01

    The possibility of muon colliders was introduced by Skrinsky et al., Neuffer, and others. More recently, several workshops and collaboration meetings have greatly increased the level of discussion. In this paper we present scenarios for 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV colliders based on an optimally designed proton source, and for a lower luminosity 0.5 TeV demonstration based on an upgraded version of the AGS. It is assumed that a demonstration version based on upgrades of the FERMILAB machines would also be possible. 53 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Hadron collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pondrom, L.

    1991-10-03

    An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs.

  3. Collider signature of T-quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Hubisz, Jay; Perelstein, Maxim; Verdier, Patrice; /Lyon, IPN

    2006-10-01

    Little Higgs models with T Parity contain new vector-like fermions, the T-odd quarks or ''T-quarks'', which can be produced at hadron colliders with a QCD-strength cross section. Events with two acoplanar jets and large missing transverse energy provide a simple signature of T-quark production. We show that searches for this signature with the Tevatron Run II data can probe a significant part of the Little Higgs model parameter space not accessible to previous experiments, exploring T-quark masses up to about 400 GeV. This reach covers parts of the parameter space where the lightest T-odd particle can account for the observed dark matter relic abundance. We also comment on the prospects for this search at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  4. Introductory Lectures on Collider Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Tim M. P.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2013-12-01

    These are elementary lectures about collider physics. They are aimed at graduate students who have some background in computing Feynman diagrams and the Standard Model, but assume no particular sophistication with the physics of high energy colliders.

  5. The Photon Collider at Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelek, B.; Blöchinger, C.; Blümlein, J.; Boos, E.; Brinkmann, R.; Burkhardt, H.; Bussey, P.; Carimalo, C.; Chyla, J.; Çiftçi, A. K.; Decking, W.; de Roeck, A.; Fadin, V.; Ferrario, M.; Finch, A.; Fraas, H.; Franke, F.; Galynskii, M.; Gamp, A.; Ginzburg, I.; Godbole, R.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Gounaris, G.; Hagiwara, K.; Han, L.; Heuer, R.-D.; Heusch, C.; Illana, J.; Ilyin, V.; Jankowski, P.; Jiang, Y.; Jikia, G.; Jönsson, L.; Kalachnikow, M.; Kapusta, F.; Klanner, R.; Klassen, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Kon, T.; Kotkin, G.; Krämer, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Kuang, Y. P.; Kuraev, E.; Kwiecinski, J.; Leenen, M.; Levchuk, M.; Ma, W. F.; Martyn, H.; Mayer, T.; Melles, M.; Miller, D. J.; Mtingwa, S.; Mühlleitner, M.; Muryn, B.; Nickles, P. V.; Orava, R.; Pancheri, G.; Penin, A.; Potylitsyn, A.; Poulose, P.; Quast, T.; Raimondi, P.; Redlin, H.; Richard, F.; Rindani, S. D.; Rizzo, T.; Saldin, E.; Sandner, W.; Schönnagel, H.; Schneidmiller, E.; Schreiber, H. J.; Schreiber, S.; Schüler, K. P.; Serbo, V.; Seryi, A.; Shanidze, R.; da Silva, W.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Spira, M.; Stasto, A. M.; Sultansoy, S.; Takahashi, T.; Telnov, V.; Tkabladze, A.; Trines, D.; Undrus, A.; Wagner, A.; Walker, N.; Watanabe, I.; Wengler, T.; Will, I.; Wipf, S.; Yavaş, Ö.; Yokoya, K.; Yurkov, M.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zerwas, P.; Zomer, F.

    High energy photon colliders (γγ,γe) are based on e-e- linear colliders where high energy photons are produced using Compton scattering of laser light on high energy electrons just before the interaction point. This paper is a part of the Technical Design Report of the linear collider TESLA.1 Physics program, possible parameters and some technical aspects of the photon collider at TESLA are discussed.

  6. High luminosity muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.; Gallardo, J.

    1996-10-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV high luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders.

  7. The Physics Case for Extended Tevatron Running

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Darien R.

    2010-11-01

    Run II of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is currently scheduled to end late in 2011. Given the current performance of the collider and of the CDF and D0 detectors, it is estimated that the current data set could be approximately doubled with a run extended into 2014. A few examples are presented of the physics potential of these additional statistics. These are discussed in the context of the expected reach of the LHC 7 TeV data and the existing Tevatron data. In particular, an extraordinary opportunity is described which could probe the existence of a standard model Higgs boson with mass in the currently preferred region between 115 GeV and 150 GeV.

  8. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, Keith B.; Fielder, Paul C.

    1995-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1 - August 31, 1954. This was the tenth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish caught by species, (2) number of adipose clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) daily average riverflow, (4) daily average powerhouse No. 1 and No. 2 flows and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center, which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the {open_quotes}water budget{close_quotes}, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows to enhance survival of downstream migrating juvenile salmonids. The Rock Island Dam trapping facility collected 37,795 downstream migrating salmonids in 1994. Collected fish included 4 yearling and 4 sub-yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) that had been previously PIT tagged to help determine migration rates. Additionally, 1,132 sub-yearling chinook, 4,185 yearling chinook, 6,627 steelhead, (O. mykiss) and 422 sockeye (O. nerka) with clipped adipose fins were collected. The middle 80% of the 1994 spring migration (excluding sub-yearling chinooks) passed Rock Island Dam during a 34 day period, April 25 - May 28. Passage rates of chinook and steelhead smolts released from hatcheries and the downstream migration timing of all salmonids are presented. The spring migration timing of juvenile salmonids is strongly influenced by hatchery releases above Rock Island Dam.

  9. Teaching in a Migrant Camp: 1994-1995 Journal Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Kathy

    Since 1971 the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center (New York) has been serving migrant farmworkers through an in-camp learning program. Teams of instructors provide survival-based instruction in English as a second language (ESL) and adult basic education to interested migrant adults and out-of-school youth. The instruction is provided in the migrant…

  10. Working Papers in Art Education, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunder-McGuire, Steve, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This publication presents manuscripts and research reports by graduate students. Accompanying papers from their mentors establish a context for the student papers. In this volume the works are organized by the sponsoring university. Student papers presented are: (1) "Looking at Feminist Pedagogies: What is Seen in the Literature and What is Seen…

  11. S825 and S826 Airfoils: 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A family of airfoils, the S825 and S826, for 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moments and the airfoil thicknesses have been satisfied. The airfoils should exhibit docile stalls.

  12. Annual Program: Library Services and Construction Act. 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    This report provides information on South Carolina's Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) projects for fiscal year 1994. It includes: copies of applications for federal assistance and grant award notifications; a list of LSCA staff and responsibilities; a fiscal breakdown for Titles I and III that itemizes spending on activities within…

  13. S829 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 16%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S829, for the tip region of 20- to 40-meter-diameter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. The airfoil should exhibit a docile stall.

  14. Community College Exemplary Instructional Programs, Volume VI, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazer, Gerry, Ed.

    Describing entries in the National Council of Instructional Administrators' (NCIA's) Annual Exemplary Instructional Program Awards for 1994-95, this volume presents descriptions of community college programs in the five categories in which they were submitted. The first section focuses on programs in the category of best use of technology for…

  15. Computer Assisted Job Skill Evaluation (CAJSE). 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    The Computer-Assisted Job Skill Evaluation (CAJSE) project was conducted to develop an evaluation software instrument that could be used in career and technical education programs throughout Texas to provide immediate performance evaluations in vocational-technical and career education. Ten instructors selected from vocational-technical education…

  16. Energy Division progress report, fiscal years 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, C.I.

    1996-06-01

    At ORNL, the Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this progress report for FY 1994 and FY 1995. The Division`s expenditures in FY 1995 totaled 44.9 million. Sixty percent of the divisions work was supported by the US DOE. Other significant sponsors include the US DOT, the US DOD, other federal agencies, and some private organizations. The Division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) transportation systems, and (3) energy use and delivery technologies. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, and impact statements, research on emergency preparedness, analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries, and transportation analysis. Transportation systems research seeks to improve the quality of both civilian and military transportation efforts. Energy use and delivery technologies focus on building equipment, building envelopes, (walls, roofs, attics, and materials), improvement of energy efficiency in buildings, and electric power systems.

  17. Human Resources Management: Program Evaluation, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Thomas E.

    This evaluation of the Des Moines Public Schools' Department of Human Resources Management (Iowa) focuses on five main areas: context, input, process, product, and future needs. Context evaluation examines the personnel functions of the district which include recruitment, employment, discipline, discharge, development, training, assignment, and…

  18. NASA Rat Acoustic Tolerance Test 1994-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Mele, Gary D.; Naidu, Sujata

    1996-01-01

    The major objective of this Cooperative Agreement was to develop a noise level specification for laboratory rats in the Centrifuge Facility Specimen Chambers (Space Station Biological Research Project), and to validate the specification for 3 noise octave bands: center frequencies 8 kHz, 16, kHz, and 32 kHz. This has been accomplished. Objective measures were used to verify that the chronic noise exposure was not harmful to the animals from physiological and behavioral perspectives. These measures were defined in the Stress Assessment Battery Validation for the Rat Acoustic Tolerance Test. In addition, the effects of the chronic noise exposure on rat hearing was assessed by the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential Method (BAER).

  19. Theory, Modeling and Simulation: Research progress report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, B.C.; Dixon, D.A.; Dunning, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). In April 1994, construction began on the new EMSL, a collaborative research facility devoted to advancing the understanding of environmental molecular science. Research in the Theory, Modeling, and Simulation (TM and S) program will play a critical role in understanding molecular processes important in restoring DOE`s research, development, and production sites, including understanding the migration and reactions of contaminants in soils and ground water, developing processes for isolation and processing of pollutants, developing improved materials for waste storage, understanding the enzymatic reactions involved in the biodegradation of contaminants, and understanding the interaction of hazardous chemicals with living organisms. The research objectives of the TM and S program are fivefold: to apply available electronic structure and dynamics techniques to study fundamental molecular processes involved in the chemistry of natural and contaminated systems; to extend current electronic structure and dynamics techniques to treat molecular systems of future importance and to develop new techniques for addressing problems that are computationally intractable at present; to apply available molecular modeling techniques to simulate molecular processes occurring in the multi-species, multi-phase systems characteristic of natural and polluted environments; to extend current molecular modeling techniques to treat ever more complex molecular systems and to improve the reliability and accuracy of such simulations; and to develop technologies for advanced parallel architectural computer systems. Research highlights of 82 projects are given.

  20. CDF - Run II Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Paulini

    2003-03-17

    After a five year upgrade period, the CDF detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is back in operation taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report on the status of the CDF experiment in Run II and discuss the start-up of the Tevatron accelerator. First physics results from CDF are presented. We also discuss the prospects for B physics in RunII, in particular the measurements of B{sub S}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and CP violation in B decays.

  1. Tevatron Run II performance and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D Church

    2002-07-12

    The Fermilab accelerator complex has been operating Run II for approximately one year. In this mode 36 proton bunches collide with 36 antiproton bunches at 2 interaction regions in the Tevatron at 980 GeV beam energy. The long range goal in Run II is to obtain a total integrated luminosity of 15 pb{sup -1}. The current status and performance of the accelerator complex is described, including the Tevatron, Main Injector, Antiproton Source, and Recycler Ring. Future upgrade plans and prospects for reaching the admittedly ambitious long range goal are presented.

  2. Simulations of high disruption colliding beams

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, J.R.; Heifets, S.; Krafft, G.A.

    1990-09-01

    Recent B-factory proposals that use a linac beam colliding with the beam from a storage ring to achieve high luminosities (L > 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}) result in very high disruption of the linac beam. The effects of such high disruption have been studied using the relativistic, 3-D code SWARM. We discuss the assumptions, parameters, and results of a series of runs that model such collisions. Regimes of high beam loss and methods to avoid them are also discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  3. The International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2014-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  4. Bouncing and Colliding Branes

    SciTech Connect

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2007-11-20

    In a braneworld description of our universe, we must allow for the possibility of having dynamical branes around the time of the big bang. Some properties of such domain walls in motion are discussed here, for example the ability of negative-tension domain walls to bounce off spacetime singularities and the consequences for cosmological perturbations. In this context, we will also review a colliding branes solution of heterotic M-theory that has been proposed as a model for early universe cosmology.

  5. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  6. COLLIDING CRYSTALLINE BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    1998-06-26

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. We study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. We initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then overlapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, we find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong cooling, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice.

  7. Colliding Crystalline Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie; Sessler, A.M.

    1998-06-01

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. We study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. We initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then over-lapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, we find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong coding, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice.

  8. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  9. Hadron-hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M.; Weng, W.T.

    1983-06-21

    The objective is to investigate whether existing technology might be extrapolated to provide the conceptual framework for a major hadron-hadron collider facility for high energy physics experimentation for the remainder of this century. One contribution to this large effort is to formalize the methods and mathematical tools necessary. In this report, the main purpose is to introduce the student to basic design procedures. From these follow the fundamental characteristics of the facility: its performance capability, its size, and the nature and operating requirements on the accelerator components, and with this knowledge, we can determine the technology and resources needed to build the new facility.

  10. The super collider revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P. )

    1992-05-20

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC.

  11. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  12. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  13. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  14. High Energy Colliders as Tools to Understand the Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, Tim

    2008-08-16

    Cosmological observations have reached a new era of precision, and reveal many interesting and puzzling features of the Universe. I will briefly review two of the most exciting mysteries: the nature of the dark components of the Universe, and the origin of the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter. I will argue that our best hope of unraveling these questions will need to combine information from the heavens with measurements in the lab at high energy particle accelerators. The end of run II of the Tevatron, the up-coming Large Hadron Collider and proposed International Linear Collider all have great potential to help us answer these questions in the near future.

  15. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from B Hadrons Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Bottom group studies the production and decay of B hadrons. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  16. Linear collider development at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.

    1993-08-01

    Linear collider R&D at SLAC comprises work on the present Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and work toward the next linear collider (NLC). Recent SLC developments are summarized. NLC studies are divided into hardware-based and theoretical. We report on the status of the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) and the final focus test beam (FFTB), describe plans for ASSET, an installation to measure accelerator structure wakefields, and mention IR design developments. Finally we review recent NLC theoretical studies, ending with the author`s view of next linear collider parameter sets.

  17. Results from hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pondrom, L.G. )

    1990-12-14

    The present status of hadron collider physics is reviewed. The total cross section for {bar p} + p has been measured at 1.8 TeV: {sigma}{sub tot} = 72.1 {plus minus} 3.3 mb. New data confirm the UA2 observation of W/Z {yields} {bar q}q. Precision measurements of M{sub W} by UA2 and CDF give an average value M{sub W} = 80.13 {plus minus} 0.30 GeV/c{sup 2}. When combined with measurements of M{sub Z} from LEP and SLC this number gives sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} = 0.227 {plus minus} 0.006, or m{sub top} = 130{sub {minus}60}{sup +40} GeV/c{sup 2} from the EWK radiative correction term {Delta}r. Evidence for hadron colliders as practical sources of b quarks has been strengthened, while searches for t quarks have pushed the mass above M{sub W}: m{sub top} > 89 GeV/c{sup 2} 95% cl (CDF Preliminary). Searches beyond the standard model based on the missing E{sub T} signature have not yet produced any positive results. Future prospects for the discovery of the top quark in the range m{sub top} < 200 GeV/c{sup 2} look promising. 80 refs., 35 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Vector meson production in coherent hadronic interactions: Update on predictions for energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2011-07-15

    In this Rapid Communication we update our predictions for the photoproduction of vector mesons in coherent pp and AA collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies using the color dipole approach and the Color Glass Condensate formalism. In particular, we present our predictions for the first run of the LHC at half energy and for the rapidity dependence of the ratio between the J/{Psi} and {rho} cross sections at RHIC energies.

  19. Composite leptoquarks in hadronic colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Olinto, A.V.

    1988-12-01

    We study the production of composite scalar leptoquarks in hadronic colliders (CERN p-barp, Fermilab Tevatron p-barp, and the Superconducting Super Collider pp). We examine its direct single production via qg..-->..l+leptoquark, and its effect on the production of lepton pairs (p/sup (-)/p..-->..l/sup +/l/sup -/).

  20. ALPs at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimasu, Ken; Sanz, Verónica

    2015-06-01

    New pseudo-scalars, often called axion-like particles (ALPs), abound in model-building and are often associated with the breaking of a new symmetry. Traditional searches and indirect bounds are limited to light axions, typically in or below the KeV range for ALPs coupled to photons. We present collider bounds on ALPs from mono-γ, tri-γ and mono-jet searches in a model independent fashion, as well as the prospects for the LHC and future machines. We find that they are complementary to existing searches, as they are sensitive to heavier ALPs and have the capability to cover an otherwise inaccessible region of parameter space. We also show that, assuming certain model dependent correlations between the ALP coupling to photons and gluons as well as considering the validity of the effective description of ALP interactions, mono-jet searches are in fact more suitable and effective in indirectly constraining ALP scenarios.

  1. Collider Signal I :. Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Tim M. P.

    2010-08-01

    These TASI lectures were part of the summer school in 2008 and cover the collider signal associated with resonances in models of physics beyond the Standard Model. I begin with a review of the Z boson, one of the best-studied resonances in particle physics, and review how the Breit-Wigner form of the propagator emerges in perturbation theory and discuss the narrow width approximation. I review how the LEP and SLAC experiments could use the kinematics of Z events to learn about fermion couplings to the Z. I then make a brief survey of models of physics beyond the Standard Model which predict resonances, and discuss some of the LHC observables which we can use to discover and identify the nature of the BSM physics. I finish up with a discussion of the linear moose that one can use for an effective theory description of a massive color octet vector particle.

  2. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostoker, Norman; Qerushi, Artan; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-06-01

    The recirculating power for virtually all types of fusion reactors has previously been calculated [1] with the Fokker-Planck equation. The reactors involve non-Maxwellian plasmas. The calculations are generic in that they do not relate to specific confinement devices. In all cases except for a Tokamak with D-T fuel the recirculating power was found to exceed the fusion power by a large factor. In this paper we criticize the generality claimed for this calculation. The ratio of circulating power to fusion power is calculated for the Colliding Beam Reactor with fuels D-T, D-He3 and p-B11. The results are respectively, 0.070, 0.141 and 0.493.

  3. When Worlds Collide

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Spencer; Kleban, Matthew; Levi, Thomas S E-mail: mk161@nyu.edu

    2008-04-15

    We analyze the cosmological signatures visible to an observer in a Coleman-de Luccia bubble when another such bubble collides with it. We use a gluing procedure to generalize the results of Freivogel, Horowitz and Shenker to the case of a general cosmological constant in each bubble and study the resulting spacetimes. The collision breaks the isotropy and homogeneity of the bubble universe and provides a cosmological 'axis of evil' which can affect the cosmic microwave background in several unique and potentially detectable ways. Unlike more conventional perturbations to the inflationary initial state, these signatures can survive even relatively long periods of inflation. In addition, we find that for a given collision the observers in the bubble with smaller cosmological constant are safest from collisions with domain walls, possibly providing another anthropic selection principle for small positive vacuum energy.

  4. Reading, Writing, and Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detherage, Jim

    1980-01-01

    Describes an English course that capitalizes on the popularity of running, integrating running with reading and writing activities. Notes the positive results of this interdisciplinary approach. Provides samples of student writings. (RL)

  5. On Running and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Denzel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)

  6. Fun Fitness Runs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantling, Ed; Strand, Brad

    1997-01-01

    Fitness runs are planned activities that make running more interesting. The paper outlines five types of fitness runs, all of which can be modified to conform to different facilities, age groups, or available time. The activities have students playing detective, playing cards, deciphering words, learning about calories, and playing wolf. (SM)

  7. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  8. Activities at Fermilab related to collider present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderre, G. P.; Holt, J.

    1992-11-01

    The long-range Fermilab program requires fully capitalizing on the world's highest energy accelerator, the Tevatron, throughout the decade of the 90's. The program calls for increasing the collider luminosity with each successive run until peak luminosities of ≳5×1031 cm-2 s-1 and integrated luminosities of ≳100 pb-1 per run are achieved, effectively doubling the mass range accessible for discovery. If the quark lies at the upper range of the mass of the Tevatron, then increasing the energy of the collider operation could prove to be a crucial factor in the future program as well. In order to achieve these goals, we present a highly challenging upgrade of the present accelerator complex, called Fermilab III. In order to increase this performance level by a factor of 50, many changes are needed. Such a plan, of necessity, has modifications in almost all areas of the accelerator as the present system is reasonably optimized. (AIP)

  9. Collide and conquer: constraints on simplified dark matter models using mono- X collider searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, A. J.; McDonald, M. F.; Gramling, J.; Jacques, T. D.

    2016-05-01

    The use of simplified models as a tool for interpreting dark matter collider searches has become increasingly prevalent, and while early Run II results are beginning to appear, we look to see what further information can be extracted from the Run I dataset. We consider three `standard' simplified models that couple quarks to fermionic singlet dark matter: an s-channel vector mediator with vector or axial-vector couplings, and a t-channel scalar mediator. Upper limits on the couplings are calculated and compared across three alternate channels, namely mono-jet, mono- Z (leptonic) and mono- W/Z (hadronic). The strongest limits are observed in the mono-jet channel, however the computational simplicity and absence of significant t-channel model width effects in the mono-boson channels make these a straightforward and competitive alternative. We also include a comparison with relic density and direct detection constraints.

  10. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e+e-, pp, and μ+μ- collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e+e- colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e+e- collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p source, exploits high cross sections for pp production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  11. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  12. The standard model and colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1987-03-01

    Some topics in the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions are discussed, as well as how these topics are relevant for the high energy colliders which will become operational in the next few years. The radiative corrections in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model are discussed, stressing how these corrections may be measured at LEP and the SLC. CP violation is discussed briefly, followed by a discussion of the Higgs boson and the searches which are relevant to hadron colliders are then discussed. Some of the problems which the standard model does not solve are discussed, and the energy ranges accessible to the new colliders are indicated. (LEW)

  13. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.

  14. Vanilla technicolor at linear colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Järvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    We analyze the reach of linear colliders for models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that linear colliders can efficiently test the compositeness scale, identified with the mass of the new spin-one resonances, until the maximum energy in the center of mass of the colliding leptons. In particular we analyze the Drell-Yan processes involving spin-one intermediate heavy bosons decaying either leptonically or into two standard model gauge bosons. We also analyze the light Higgs production in association with a standard model gauge boson stemming also from an intermediate spin-one heavy vector.

  15. When Black Holes Collide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  16. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  17. Beam Collimation at Hadron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, N. V.

    2003-12-01

    Operational and accidental beam losses in hadron colliders can have a serious impact on machine and detector performance, resulting in effects ranging from minor to catastrophic. Principles and realization are described for a reliable beam collimation system required to sustain favorable background conditions in the collider detectors, provide quench stability of superconducting magnets, minimize irradiation of accelerator equipment, maintain operational reliability over the life of the machine, and reduce the impact of radiation on personnel and the environment. Based on detailed Monte-Carlo simulations, such a system has been designed and incorporated in the Tevatron collider. Its performance, comparison to measurements and possible ways to further improve the collimation efficiency are described in detail. Specifics of the collimation systems designed for the SSC, LHC, VLHC, and HERA colliders are discussed.

  18. Stable massive particles at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, M.; Kraan, A.C.; Milstead, D.A.; Sjostrand, T.; Skands, P.; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  19. Beam Rounders for Circular Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; Ya. Derbenev

    2001-07-01

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  20. [New technology for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1992-08-12

    This report discusses the following topics on research of microwave amplifiers for linear colliders: Context in current microwave technology development; gated field emission for microwave cathodes; cathode fabrication and tests; microwave cathode design using field emitters; and microwave localization.

  1. Physicists dream of supersized collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Particle physicists in China are hopeful that the Chinese government will allocate 1 billion yuan (about £104m) to design what would be the world's largest particle accelerator - the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC).

  2. Neutrino physics at muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-03-01

    An overview is given of the neutrino physics potential of future muon storage rings that use muon collider technology to produce, accelerate and store large currents of muons. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring.

  3. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  4. Physics at Future Circular Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh

    2016-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has been a grand success with the discovery of the Higgs boson, with bright prospects for additional discoveries since the recent increase in collider energy and the anticipated large datasets. Big open questions such as the nature of dark matter, the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, and the theoretical puzzle of the finely-tuned parameters in the Higgs sector, demand new physics principles that extend the established Standard Model paradigm. Future circular colliders in a substantially larger tunnel can house both a high luminosity electron-positron collider for precision measurements of Higgs and electroweak parameters, as well as a very high energy proton-proton collider which can directly manifest particles associated with these new physics principles. We discuss the physics goals of these future circular colliders, and the prospects for elucidating fundamental new laws of nature that will significantly extend our understanding of the Universe. Detailed studies of the discovery potential in specific benchmark models will be presented, with implications for detector design.

  5. String resonances at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lüst, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2014-09-01

    We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale Ms is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (integrated luminosity =3000 fb-1) with a center-of-mass energy of √s =14 TeV and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at √s =33 and 100 TeV, respectively (with the same integrated luminosity). In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and γ +jet are completely independent of the details of compactification and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV) lowest massive Regge excitations are open to discovery at the ≥5σ in dijet (γ +jet) HL-LHC data. We also show that for n=1 the dijet discovery potential at HE-LHC and VLHC exceedingly improves: up to 15 TeV and 41 TeV, respectively. To compute the signal-to-noise ratio for n=2 resonances, we first carry out a complete calculation of all relevant decay widths of the second massive level string states (including decays into massless particles and a massive n=1 and a massless particle), where we rely on factorization and conformal field theory techniques. Helicity wave functions of arbitrary higher spin massive bosons are also constructed. We demonstrate that for string scales Ms≲10.5 TeV (Ms≲28 TeV) detection of n =2 Regge recurrences at HE-LHC (VLHC) would become the smoking gun for D

  6. Tevatron End-of-Run Beam Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.; Gu, X.; Miyamoto, R.; White, S.; Schmidt, F.; Qiang, J.; /LBNL

    2012-05-01

    Before the Tevatron Collider Run II ended in September of 2011, a number of specialized beam study periods were dedicated to the experiments on various accelerator physics concepts and effects during the last year of the machine operation. The study topics included collimation with bent crystals and hollow electron beams, diffusion measurements and various aspects of beam-beam interactions. In this report we concentrate on the subject of beam-beam interactions, summarizing the results of beam experiments. The covered topics include offset collisions, coherent beam stability, effect of the bunch-length-to-beta-function ratio, and operation of AC dipole with colliding beams.

  7. The MICE Run Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, or a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The new MICE Run Control has been developed to ensure proper sequencing of equipment and use of system resources to protect data quality. A description of this system, its implementation, and performance during recent muon beam data collection will be discussed.

  8. A Photon Collider Experiment based on SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J

    2003-11-01

    Technology for a photon collider experiment at a future TeV-scale linear collider has been under development for many years. The laser and optics technology has reached the point where a GeV-scale photon collider experiment is now feasible. We report on the photon-photon luminosities that would be achievable at a photon collider experiment based on a refurbished Stanford Linear Collider.

  9. Who Runs Our Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inside the academy there is a cultural perspective that it should run itself, in the sense that "business as usual" should be done with no one's hands obviously on the levers. This theory reaches its high point in the "self-government" of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. In this article, the author explores the question, "who runs our…

  10. Particle Physics after the Higgs-Boson Discovery: Opportunities for the Large Hadron Collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Quigg, Chris

    2015-08-24

    The first run of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN brought the discovery of the Higgs boson, an apparently elementary scalar particle with a mass of 125 GeV, the avatar of the mechanism that hides the electroweak symmetry. Then, a new round of experimentation is beginning, with the energy of the proton–proton colliding beams raised to 6.5 TeV per beam, from 4 TeV at the end of the first run. I summarize what we have learned about the Higgs boson, and calls attention to some issues that will be among our central concerns in the near future.

  11. Particle physics after the Higgs boson discovery: opportunities for the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The first run of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN brought the discovery of the Higgs boson, an apparently elementary scalar particle with a mass of 125 GeV, the avatar of the mechanism that hides the electroweak symmetry. A new round of experimentation is beginning, with the energy of the proton--proton colliding beams raised to 6.5 TeV per beam, from 4 TeV at the end of the first run. This article summarizes what we have learned about the Higgs boson, and calls attention to some issues that will be among our central concerns in the near future.

  12. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Hubbard and Stephan Lammel

    2001-11-02

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiproton interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year. The duration of the run is expected to be over two years. One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for Run II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space. A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk, to coordinate user access to the data, and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process, a user and administrator command line interfaces, and a library with the routines of the client API. Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files. The system keeps track of user access to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk. Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed. For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard.

  13. Run Anyone?... Everyone!

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fitness and health have become bywords in the past decade, signifying increased emphasis on these factors as necessary for good psychological and physical health. Reasons are given why we should run and how to do it. There is a discussion of the technique of running, and equipment. Brief mention is made of complications. An attempt is made to interest the individual in the benefits of running as a sport as well as the best method for the average person to achieve fitness and health. PMID:20469054

  14. Muon collider interaction region design

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.I.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Alexakhin, V.Y.; /Dubna, JINR

    2010-05-01

    Design of a muon collider interaction region (IR) presents a number of challenges arising from low {beta}* < 1 cm, correspondingly large beta-function values and beam sizes at IR magnets, as well as the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. As a consequence, the designs of the IR optics, magnets and machine-detector interface are strongly interlaced and iterative. A consistent solution for the 1.5 TeV c.o.m. muon collider IR is presented. It can provide an average luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with an adequate protection of magnet and detector components.

  15. Luminosity determination at proton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafström, P.; Kozanecki, W.

    2015-03-01

    Luminosity is a key parameter in any particle collider, and its precise determination has proven particularly challenging at hadron colliders. After introducing the concept of luminosity in its multiple incarnations and offering a brief survey of the pp and p p bar colliders built to date, this article outlines the various methods that have been developed for relative-luminosity monitoring, as well as the complementary approaches considered for establishing an absolute luminosity scale. This is followed by a survey, from both a historical and a technical perspective, of luminosity determination at the ISR, the S p p ¯ S, the Tevatron, RHIC and the LHC. For each of these, we first delineate the interplay between the experimental context, the specificities of the accelerator, and the precision targets suggested by the physics program. We then detail how the different methods were applied to specific experimental environments and how successfully they meet the precision goals.

  16. Dynamic aperture evaluation of the proposed lattices for the RHIC 2009 polarized proton run

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,Y.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Fischer, W.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-01-02

    In the article we evaluate the dynamic apertures of the proposed lattices for the coming Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2009 polarized proton (pp) 100 GeV and 250 GeV runs. One goal of this study is to find out the appropriate {beta}* for the coming 2009 pp runs. Another goal is to study the effect of second order chromaticity correction in the RHIC pp runs.

  17. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  18. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  19. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  20. B physics at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the physics opportunity and challenges for doing high precision B physics experiments at hadron colliders. It describes how these challenges have been addressed by the two currently operating experiments, CDF and D0, and how they are addressed by three experiments, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, at the LHC.

  1. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    ScienceCinema

    Tourun, Yagmur [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2010-01-08

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  2. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be 'at least 20 years away' for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  3. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  4. The very large hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This paper reviews the purposes to be served by a very large hadron collider and the organization and coordination of efforts to bring it about. There is some discussion of magnet requirements and R&D and the suitability of the Fermilab site.

  5. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-03-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B.

  6. The technical challenges of the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Collier, Paul

    2015-01-13

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a 27km circumference hadron collider, built at CERN to explore the energy frontier of particle physics. Approved in 1994, it was commissioned and began operation for data taking in 2009. The design and construction of the LHC presented many design, engineering and logistical challenges which involved pushing a number of technologies well beyond their level at the time. Since the start-up of the machine, there has been a very successful 3-year run with an impressive amount of data delivered to the LHC experiments. With an increasingly large stored energy in the beam, the operation of the machine itself presented many challenges and some of these will be discussed. Finally, the planning for the next 20 years has been outlined with progressive upgrades of the machine, first to nominal energy, then to progressively higher collision rates. At each stage the technical challenges are illustrated with a few examples. PMID:26949802

  7. Supersymmetric Higgs boson pair production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A.; Drees, M.; Eboli, O.J.; Novaes, S.F.; Belyaev, A.; Mizukoshi, J.K.

    1999-10-01

    We study the pair production of neutral Higgs bosons through gluon fusion at hadron colliders in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We present analytical expressions for the relevant amplitudes, including both quark and squark loop contributions, and allowing for mixing between the superpartners of left- and right-handed quarks. Squark loop contributions can increase the cross section for the production of two CP-even Higgs bosons by more than two orders of magnitude, if the relevant trilinear soft breaking parameter is large and the mass of the lighter squark eigenstate is not too far above its current lower bound. In the region of large tan&hthinsp;{beta}, neutral Higgs boson pair production might even be observable in the 4b final state during the next run of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Japanese lab spells out collider needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Japan's High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) last month issued a plan for the International Linear Collider (ILC) that calls on Japan to ramp up its expertise as it prepares to host the world's next-generation particle collider.

  9. Physics at hadron colliders: Experimental view

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    The physics of the hadron-hadron collider experiment is considered from an experimental point of view. The problems encountered in determination of how well the standard model describes collider results are discussed. 53 refs., 58 figs.

  10. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  11. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá Alberich, L.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010-2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  12. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Yu.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.; Sen, T.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /FERMILAB

    2005-05-01

    Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams are significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron Collider Run II (2001-present). We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in high energy physics (HEP) operation, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades and discuss ways to improve it.

  13. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  14. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  15. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  16. Fast Bunch Integrators at Fermilab During Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas; Briegel, Charles; Fellenz, Brian; Vogel, Greg; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The Fast Bunch Integrator is a bunch intensity monitor designed around the measurements made from Resistive Wall Current Monitors. During the Run II period these were used in both Tevatron and Main Injector for single and multiple bunch intensity measurements. This paper presents an overview of the design and use of these systems during this period. During the Run II era the Fast Bunch integrators have found a multitude of uses. From antiproton transfers to muti-bunch beam coalescing, Main Injector transfers to halo scraping and lifetime measurements, the Fast Bunch Integrators have proved invaluable in the creation and maintenance of Colliding Beams stores at Fermilab.

  17. The muon system of the Run II DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Acharya, B. S.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V. A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J. F.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J. M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fortner, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Yu. A.; Green, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hazen, E.; Hedin, D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Ito, A. S.; Jayanti, R.; Johns, K.; Jouravlev, N.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirsch, N.; Komissarov, E. V.; Korablev, V. M.; Kostritsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kravchuk, N. P.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kuchinsky, N. A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kupco, A.; Larwill, M.; Leitner, R.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lubatti, H. J.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Marcus, M.; Marshall, T.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCroskey, R.; Merekov, Y. P.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nozdrin, A. A.; Oshinowo, B.; Parashar, N.; Parua, N.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Porokhovoi, S. Y.; Prokhorov, I. K.; Rao, M. V. S.; Raskowski, J.; Reddy, L. V.; Regan, T.; Rotolo, C.; Russakovich, N. A.; Sabirov, B. M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Scheglov, Y.; Schukin, A. A.; Shankar, H. C.; Shishkin, A. A.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, G.; Smolek, K.; Soustruznik, K.; Stefanik, A.; Steinberg, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Stutte, L.; Temple, J.; Terentyev, N.; Teterin, V. V.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tompkins, D.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Vorobyov, A.; Vysotsky, V. B.; Willutzki, H.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yoffe, F.; Zanabria, M.; Zhao, T.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zvyagintsev, S. A.

    2005-11-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the upgraded DØ muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the DØ muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  18. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  19. Time evolution of the luminosity of colliding heavy-ion beams in BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2010-09-01

    We have studied the time evolution of the heavy-ion luminosity and bunch intensities in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. First, we present measurements from a large number of RHIC stores (from run-7), colliding 100GeV/nucleon Au79+197 beams without stochastic cooling. These are compared with two different calculation methods. The first is a simulation based on multiparticle tracking taking into account collisions, intrabeam scattering, radiation damping, and synchrotron and betatron motion. In the second, faster, method, a system of ordinary differential equations with terms describing the corresponding effects on emittances and bunch populations is solved numerically. Results of the tracking method agree very well with the RHIC data. With the faster method, significant discrepancies are found since the losses of particles diffusing out of the rf bucket due to intrabeam scattering are not modeled accurately enough. Finally, we use both methods to make predictions of the time evolution of the future Pb82+208 beams in the LHC at injection and collision energy. For this machine, the two methods agree well.

  20. Time evolution of the luminosity of colliding heavy-ion beams in BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, R.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Jowett, J.M.; Fischer, W.

    2010-09-07

    We have studied the time evolution of the heavy ion luminosity and bunch intensities in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), at BNL, and in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN. First, we present measurements from a large number of RHIC stores (from Run 7), colliding 100 GeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au{sup 79}+ beams without stochastic cooling. These are compared with two different calculation methods. The first is a simulation based on multi-particle tracking taking into account collisions, intrabeam scattering, radiation damping, and synchrotron and betatron motion. In the second, faster, method, a system of ordinary differential equations with terms describing the corresponding effects on emittances and bunch populations is solved numerically. Results of the tracking method agree very well with the RHIC data. With the faster method, significant discrepancies are found since the losses of particles diffusing out of the RF bucket due to intrabeam scattering are not modeled accurately enough. Finally, we use both methods to make predictions of the time evolution of the future {sup 208}Pb+{sup 82+} beams in the LHC at injection and collision energy. For this machine, the two methods agree well.

  1. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  2. Proposal for Research and Development: Vertexing, Tracking, and Data Acquisition for the Bottom Collider Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, H.; Gomez, B.; Rivera, F.; Sanabria, J.-C.; Yager, P.; Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Childress, S.; Lebrun, P.; Morfin, J.; Roberts, L.A.; /Fermilab /Florida U. /Houston U. /IIT /Iowa U. /Northeastern U. /Northern Illinois U. /Ohio State U. /Oklahoma U. /Pennsylvania U.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a program of research and development into the detector systems needed for a B-physics experiment at the Fermilab p-{bar p} Collider. The initial emphasis is on the critical issues of vertexting, tracking, and data acquisition in the high-multiplicity, high-rate collider environment. R and D for the particle-identification systems (RICH counters, TRD's, and EM calorimeter) will be covered in a subsequent proposal. To help focus their efforts in a timely manner, they propose the first phase of the R and D should culminate in a system test at the C0 collider intersect during the 1990-1991 run: a small fraction of the eventual vertex detector would be used to demonstrate that secondary-decay vertices can be found at a hadron collider. The proposed budget for the r and D program is $800k in 1989, $1.5M in 1990, and $1.6M in 1991.

  3. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  4. Future Electron-Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.

    2010-05-23

    Outstanding research potential of electron-hadron colliders (EHC) was clearly demonstrated by first - and the only - electron-proton collider HERA (DESY, Germany). Physics data from HERA revealed new previously unknown facets of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). EHC is an ultimate microscope probing QCD in its natural environment, i.e. inside the hadrons. In contrast with hadrons, electrons are elementary particles with known initial state. Hence, scattering electrons from hadrons provides a clearest pass to their secrets. It turns EHC into an ultimate machine for high precision QCD studies and opens access to rich physics with a great discovery potential: solving proton spin puzzle, observing gluon saturation or physics beyond standard model. Access to this physics requires high-energy high-luminosity EHCs and a wide reach in the center-of-mass (CM) energies. This paper gives a brief overview of four proposed electron-hadron colliders: ENC at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), ELIC/MEIC at TJNAF (Newport News, VA, USA), eRHIC at BNL (Upton, NY, USA) and LHeC at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). Future electron-hadron colliders promise to deliver very rich physics not only in the quantity but also in the precision. They are aiming at very high luminosity two-to-four orders of magnitude beyond the luminosity demonstrated by the very successful HERA. While ENC and LHeC are on opposite side of the energy spectrum, eRHIC and ELIC are competing for becoming an electron-ion collider (EIC) in the U.S. Administrations of BNL and Jlab, in concert with US DoE office of Nuclear Physics, work on the strategy for down-selecting between eRHIC and ELIC. The ENC, EIC and LHeC QCD physics programs to a large degree are complimentary to each other and to the LHC physics. In last decade, an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) collaboration held about 25 collaboration meetings to develop physics program for EIC with CM energy {approx}100 GeV. One of these meetings was held at GSI, where ENC topic was in the

  5. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  6. The Art of Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  7. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  8. Runnings in the curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the scale-dependence, or the runnings, of linear and second order density perturbations generated in various curvaton scenarios. We argue that the second order perturbations, i.e. non-Gaussianity, can strongly depend on the scale, even when the linear perturbations are nearly scale-invariant. We present analytic formulae for the runnings from curvatons with general energy potentials, and clarify the conditions under which f{sub NL} becomes strongly scale-dependent. From the point of view of the f{sub NL} running, curvaton potentials can be classified into roughly two categories by whether the potential flattens or steepens compared to a quadratic one. As such examples, we study pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone curvatons, and self-interacting curvatons, respectively. The dynamics of non-quadratic curvatons and the behaviors of the resulting density perturbations are clarified by analytical methods. Then we also study models where multiple source can be responsible for density perturbations such as the multi-curvaton, and mixed curvaton and inflaton models where the running of f{sub NL} can also be large due to their multi-source nature. We make quantitative analysis for each curvaton scenario and discuss in what cases the scale-dependence, in particular, of f{sub NL} can be large enough to be probed with future CMB experiments.

  9. Scaling behavior of circular colliders dominated by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The scaling formulas in this paper — many of which involve approximation — apply primarily to electron colliders like CEPC or FCC-ee. The more abstract “radiation dominated” phrase in the title is intended to encourage use of the formulas — though admittedly less precisely — to proton colliders like SPPC, for which synchrotron radiation begins to dominate the design in spite of the large proton mass. Optimizing a facility having an electron-positron Higgs factory, followed decades later by a p, p collider in the same tunnel, is a formidable task. The CEPC design study constitutes an initial “constrained parameter” collider design. Here the constrained parameters include tunnel circumference, cell lengths, phase advance per cell, etc. This approach is valuable, if the constrained parameters are self-consistent and close to optimal. Jumping directly to detailed design makes it possible to develop reliable, objective cost estimates on a rapid time scale. A scaling law formulation is intended to contribute to a “ground-up” stage in the design of future circular colliders. In this more abstract approach, scaling formulas can be used to investigate ways in which the design can be better optimized. Equally important, by solving the lattice matching equations in closed form, as contrasted with running computer programs such as MAD, one can obtain better intuition concerning the fundamental parametric dependencies. The ground-up approach is made especially appropriate by the seemingly impossible task of simultaneous optimization of tunnel circumference for both electrons and protons. The fact that both colliders will be radiation dominated actually simplifies the simultaneous optimization task. All GeV scale electron accelerators are “synchrotron radiation dominated”, meaning that all beam distributions evolve within a fraction of a second to an equilibrium state in which “heating” due to radiation fluctuations is canceled by the “cooling” in

  10. COLLIDE: Collisions into Dust Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.

    1999-01-01

    The Collisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE) was completed and flew on STS-90 in April and May of 1998. After the experiment was returned to Earth, the data and experiment were analyzed. Some anomalies occurred during the flight which prevented a complete set of data from being obtained. However, the experiment did meet its criteria for scientific success and returned surprising results on the outcomes of very low energy collisions into powder. The attached publication, "Low Velocity Microgravity Impact Experiments into Simulated Regolith," describes in detail the scientific background, engineering, and scientific results of COLLIDE. Our scientific conclusions, along with a summary of the anomalies which occurred during flight, are contained in that publication. We offer it as our final report on this grant.

  11. Overview of linear collider designs

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1993-04-01

    Linear collider design and development have become focused on a center-of-mass energy E{sub CM} = 0.5 TeV and a luminosity L {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. There are diverse approaches to meeting these general objectives. The diversity arises from different judgements about the ease of developing new and improving existing technology, costs, extension to higher energies, experimental backgrounds and center-of-mass energy spectrum, and tolerances and beam power. The parameters of possible colliders are given in this paper. This report will focus on some of the common themes of these designs and the different between them.

  12. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  13. A large hadron electron collider at CERN

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.

    2015-04-06

    This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously withmore » the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb–1. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.« less

  14. A large hadron electron collider at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.

    2015-04-06

    This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously with the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb–1. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.

  15. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  16. Running Training, Instruction on Running Technique, and Running Economy in 10-year-old Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)

  17. Governance of the International Linear Collider Project

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.; Barish, B.; Delahaye, J.P.; Dosselli, U.; Elsen, E.; Harrison, M.; Mnich, J.; Paterson, J.M.; Richard, F.; Stapnes, S.; Suzuki, A.; Wormser, G.; Yamada, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-05-31

    Governance models for the International Linear Collider Project are examined in the light of experience from similar international projects around the world. Recommendations for one path which could be followed to realize the ILC successfully are outlined. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a unique endeavour in particle physics; fully international from the outset, it has no 'host laboratory' to provide infrastructure and support. The realization of this project therefore presents unique challenges, in scientific, technical and political arenas. This document outlines the main questions that need to be answered if the ILC is to become a reality. It describes the methodology used to harness the wisdom displayed and lessons learned from current and previous large international projects. From this basis, it suggests both general principles and outlines a specific model to realize the ILC. It recognizes that there is no unique model for such a laboratory and that there are often several solutions to a particular problem. Nevertheless it proposes concrete solutions that the authors believe are currently the best choices in order to stimulate discussion and catalyze proposals as to how to bring the ILC project to fruition. The ILC Laboratory would be set up by international treaty and be governed by a strong Council to whom a Director General and an associated Directorate would report. Council would empower the Director General to give strong management to the project. It would take its decisions in a timely manner, giving appropriate weight to the financial contributions of the member states. The ILC Laboratory would be set up for a fixed term, capable of extension by agreement of all the partners. The construction of the machine would be based on a Work Breakdown Structure and value engineering and would have a common cash fund sufficiently large to allow the management flexibility to optimize the project's construction. Appropriate contingency, clearly

  18. LHC: The Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-04

    The Large Hadron Collider (or LHC) is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. In 2012, scientists used data taken by it to discover the Higgs boson, before pausing operations for upgrades and improvements. In the spring of 2015, the LHC will return to operations with 163% the energy it had before and with three times as many collisions per second. It’s essentially a new and improved version of itself. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains both some of the absolutely amazing scientific and engineering properties of this modern scientific wonder.

  19. Colliding-beam-accelerator lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Courant, E.D.; Parzen, G.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the lattice of the Colliding Beam Accelerator, a 400 x 400 GeV pp facility proposed for construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The structure adopted is very versatile, in part in consequence of its desirable behavior as function of momentum deviation and as function of the betatron tunes. Each of the six insertions can be arranged to meet specific requirements at the crossing points as illustrated by a discussion of the tuneable low-beta insertions. The luminosity in these low-beta insertions (2 x 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) would be an order of magnitude larger than the standard insertions.

  20. Physics at the linear collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; Baer, H.; Battaglia, M.; Belanger, G.; Fujii, K.; Kalinowski, J.; Heinemeyer, S.; Kiyo, Y.; Olive, K.; Simon, F.; Uwer, P.; Wackeroth, D.; Zerwas, P. M.; Arbey, A.; Asano, M.; Bagger, J.; Bechtle, P.; Bharucha, A.; Brau, J.; Brümmer, F.; Choi, S. Y.; Denner, A.; Desch, K.; Dittmaier, S.; Ellwanger, U.; Englert, C.; Freitas, A.; Ginzburg, I.; Godfrey, S.; Greiner, N.; Grojean, C.; Grünewald, M.; Heisig, J.; Höcker, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawagoe, K.; Kogler, R.; Krawczyk, M.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Kroseberg, J.; Liebler, S.; List, J.; Mahmoudi, F.; Mambrini, Y.; Matsumoto, S.; Mnich, J.; Mönig, K.; Mühlleitner, M. M.; Pöschl, R.; Porod, W.; Porto, S.; Rolbiecki, K.; Schmitt, M.; Serpico, P.; Stanitzki, M.; Stål, O.; Stefaniak, T.; Stöckinger, D.; Weiglein, G.; Wilson, G. W.; Zeune, L.; Moortgat, F.; Xella, S.; Bagger, J.; Brau, J.; Ellis, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Komamiya, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Mnich, J.; Peskin, M.; Schlatter, D.; Wagner, A.; Yamamoto, H.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive review of physics at an linear collider in the energy range of GeV-3 TeV is presented in view of recent and expected LHC results, experiments from low-energy as well as astroparticle physics. The report focusses in particular on Higgs-boson, top-quark and electroweak precision physics, but also discusses several models of beyond the standard model physics such as supersymmetry, little Higgs models and extra gauge bosons. The connection to cosmology has been analysed as well.

  1. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  2. Colliding with a crunching bubble

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen

    2007-03-26

    In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

  3. Tevatron collider operations and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Garbincius

    2004-06-17

    Fermilab's Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider with center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The antiprotons are produced by 125 GeV protons from the Main Injector striking a stainless steel target. The 8 GeV antiprotons are collected and cooled in the Debuncher and Accumulator rings of the Antiproton Source and, just recently, in the Recycler ring before acceleration by the Main Injector and the Tevatron. In addition to energy, a vital parameter for generating physics data is the Luminosity delivered to the experiments given by a formula that is listed in detail in the paper.

  4. Dynamic collimation for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Merminga, N.; Ruth, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    Experience with the SLC has indicated that backgrounds caused by the tails of the transverse beam distribution will be a serious problem for a next generation linear collider. Mechanical scrapers may not provide the best solution, because they may be damaged by the tiny, intense beams, and also because they may induce wakefield kicks large enough to cause emittance dilution. In this paper, we present a possible solution, which uses several nonlinear lenses to drive the tails of the beam to large amplitudes where they can by more easily scraped mechanically. Simulations of several different schemes are presented and evaluated with respect to effectiveness, tolerances and wakefield effects. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  6. Progress in Antiproton Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; Drendel, Brian; Gollwitzer, Keith; Johnson, Stan; Lebedev, Valeri; Leveling, Anthony; Morgan, James; Nagaslaev, Vladimir; Peterson, Dave; Sondgeroth, Alan; Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Fermilab Collider Run II has been ongoing since 2001. During this time peak luminosities in the Tevatron have increased from approximately 10 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1} to 300 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup 02}sec{sup -1}. A major contributing factor in this remarkable performance is a greatly improved antiproton production capability. Since the beginning of Run II, the average antiproton accumulation rate has increased from 2 x 10{sup 10}{anti p}/hr to about 24 x 10{sup 10}{anti p}/hr. Peak antiproton stacking rates presently exceed 28 x 10{sup 10}{anti p}/hr. The antiproton stacking rate has nearly doubled since 2005. It is this recent progress that is the focus of this paper. The process of transferring antiprotons to the Recycler Ring for subsequent transfer to the collider has been significantly restructured and streamlined, yielding additional cycle time for antiproton production. Improvements to the target station have greatly increased the antiproton yield from the production target. The performance of the Antiproton Source stochastic cooling systems has been enhanced by upgrades to the cooling electronics, accelerator lattice optimization, and improved operating procedures. In this paper, we will briefly report on each of these modifications.

  7. Estimates of Fermilab Tevatron collider performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, G.

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes a model which has been used to estimate the average luminosity performance of the Tevatron collider. In the model, the average luminosity is related quantitatively to various performance parameters of the Fermilab Tevatron collider complex. The model is useful in allowing estimates to be developed for the improvements in average collider luminosity to be expected from changes in the fundamental performance parameters as a result of upgrades to various parts of the accelerator complex.

  8. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat  IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN

  9. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the Top Group's Top Quark Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Top group studies the properties of the top quark, the heaviest known fundamental particle. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  10. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from Supersymmetry, New Phenomena Research of the CDF Exotics Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Exotics group searches for Supersymmetry and other New Phenomena. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  11. 198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE FROM POTOMAC RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  12. PDU Run 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    PDU Run 10, a 46-day H-Coal syncrude mode operation using Wyodak coal, successfully met all targeted objectives, and was the longest PDU operation to date in this program. Targeted coal conversion of 90 W % was exceeded with a C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F distillate yield of 43 to 48 W %. Amocat 1A catalyst was qualified for Pilot Plant operation based on improved operation and superior performance. PDU 10 achieved improved yields and lower hydrogen consumption compared to PDU 6, a similar operation. High hydroclone efficiency and high solids content in the vacuum still were maintained throughout the run. Steady operations at lower oil/solids ratios were demonstrated. Microautoclave testing was introduced as an operational aid. Four additional studies were successfully completed during PDU 10. These included a catalyst tracer study in conjunction with Sandia Laboratories; tests on letdown valve trims for Battelle; a fluid dynamics study with Amoco; and special high-pressure liquid sampling.

  13. FUTURE LEPTON COLLIDERS AND LASER ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    Future high energy colliders along with their physics potential, and relationship to new laser technology are discussed. Experimental approaches and requirements for New Physics exploration are also described.

  14. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The accurate determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to new physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. This document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  15. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; et al

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided somore » far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.« less

  16. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  17. New technology for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and evaluate new technology for future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linac colliders. TeV linac colliders will require major improvements in the performance of microwave power tubes: >100 mW/m peak power, {approximately}20 GHz frequency, and high frequency. For the past three years we have been developing gigatron, a new design concept for microwave power tubes. It incorporates three key innovations: a gated field-emitter cathode which produces a fully modulated electron beam directly into the vacuum; a ribbon beam geometry which eliminates space charge and phase dispersion, and a traveling wave coupler which provides optimum output coupling even over a wide ribbon beam. During the past year we have built prototypes of two cathode designs: a stripline edge-emitter array and a porous silicon dioxide cathode. A highlight of our results is the development and testing of the porous SiO{sub 2} cathode. It delivers exceptional performance as a modulated electron source in general and for gigatron in particular. Its high emitter density and low work function accommodate higher tube gain, simpler cathode coupling, and higher peak power than any other technology. The protection of the active emitting surface by {approximately}2 {mu}m of porous SiO{sub 2} should provide for rugged operation in a tube environment.

  18. Hadron colliders (SSC/LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.; Palmer, R.B.; Evans, L.; Gareyte, J.; Siemann, R.H.

    1992-12-31

    The nominal SSC and LHC designs should operate conservatively at luminosities up to 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. This luminosity is dictated by the event rates that can be handled by the detectors. However, this limit is event dependent (e.g. it does not take much of a detector to detect the event pp {yields} elephant; all one needs is extremely high luminosity). As such, it is useful to explore the possibility of going beyond the 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} level. Such exploration will also improve the accelerator physics understanding of pp collider designs. If the detector limitations are removed, the first accelerator limits occur when the luminosity is at the level of 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. These accelerator limits will first be reviewed. The authors will then continue on to explore even higher luminosity as the ultimate limit of pp colliders. Accelerator technologies needed to achieve this ultimate luminosity as well as the R and D needed to reach it are discussed.

  19. Very large hadron collider (VLHC)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A VLHC informal study group started to come together at Fermilab in the fall of 1995 and at the 1996 Snowmass Study the parameters of this machine took form. The VLHC as now conceived would be a 100 TeV hadron collider. It would use the Fermilab Main Injector (now nearing completion) to inject protons at 150 GeV into a new 3 TeV Booster and then into a superconducting pp collider ring producing 100 TeV c.m. interactions. A luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned. Our plans were presented to the Subpanel on the Planning for the Future of US High- Energy Physics (the successor to the Drell committee) and in February 1998 their report stated ``The Subpanel recommends an expanded program of R&D on cost reduction strategies, enabling technologies, and accelerator physics issues for a VLHC. These efforts should be coordinated across laboratory and university groups with the aim of identifying design concepts for an economically and technically viable facility`` The coordination has been started with the inclusion of physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Cornell University. Clearly, this collaboration must expanded internationally as well as nationally. The phrase ``economically and technically viable facility`` presents the real challenge.

  20. The muon collider (Sandro's snake)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a feasibility study for the design of a muon collider. Recognized the fact that the particle lifetime increases linearly with the energy, we have adopted a scheme where steps of cooling and acceleration are entwined. We have indeed found convenient to accelerate the beam as fast as possible to increase its chances of survival, and necessary to dilute the action of cooling throughout the entire accelerating process to make it more effective and affordable. All acceleration and cooling steps are executed in a single pass essentially along a curvilinear and open path. We do not believe it is possible to handle the beam otherwise in circular and closed rings, as it has been proposed in the past. The example shown in this paper describes a muon collider at the energy of 250 GeV per beam and a luminosity of 4 [times] 10[sup 28] cm[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1]. We have adopted an extrapolation of the stochastic cooling method for the reduction of the beam emittance.

  1. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  2. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  3. SETUP AND PERFORMANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS FOR THE 2005 RUN WITH COPPER IONS.

    SciTech Connect

    AHRENS, L.; ALESSI, J.; GARDNER, C.J.

    2005-05-16

    Copper ions for the 2005 run [1] of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are accelerated in the Tandem, Booster and AGS prior to injection into RHIC. The setup and performance of these accelerators with copper are reviewed in this paper.

  4. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  5. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A Text ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  6. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  7. ACCELERATION FOR A HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,J.S

    2000-04-07

    The authors describe a method for designing the acceleration systems for a muon collider, with particular application and examples for a high energy muon collider. This paper primarily concentrates on design considerations coming from longitudinal motion, but some transverse issues are briefly discussed.

  8. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-11-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC).

  9. Commission d'evaluation de l'enseignement collegial Rapport annuel, 1994-1995 (Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching Annual Report, 1994-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quebec Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching (Quebec).

    The Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching (CETC) was established in July 1993 by the Quebec government to assess methods in place at province community colleges for evaluating instruction and make recommendations for improvements. This report reviews the Commission's activities, organization, and financial resources for the 1994-95…

  10. XXth Hadron Collider Physics Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In 2009, the Hadron Collider Physics Symposium took place in Evian (France), on the shore of the Geneva Lake, from 16-20 November. It was jointly organised by CERN and the French HEP community (CNRS-IN2P3 and CEA-IRFU). This year's symposium come at an important time for both the Tevatron and LHC communities. It stimulated the completion of analyses for a significant Tevatron data sample, and it allowed an in-depth review of the readiness of the LHC and its detectors just before first collisions. The programme includes sessions on top-quark and electro-weak physics, QCD, B physics, new phenomena, electro-weak symmetry breaking, heavy ions, and the status and commissioning of the LHC machine and its experiments. Conference website : http://hcp2009.in2p3.fr/

  11. Collider searches for extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.

    2004-12-01

    Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.

  12. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-01

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB11) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  13. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-15

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB{sup 11}) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  14. Critical transitions in colliding cascades

    PubMed

    Gabrielov; Keilis-Borok; Zaliapin; Newman

    2000-07-01

    We consider here the interaction of direct and inverse cascades in a hierarchical nonlinear system that is continuously loaded by external forces. The load is applied to the largest element and is transferred down the hierarchy to consecutively smaller elements, thereby forming a direct cascade. The elements of the system fail (i. e., break down) under the load. The smallest elements fail first. The failures gradually expand up the hierarchy to the larger elements, thus forming an inverse cascade. Eventually the failures heal, ensuring that the system will function indefinitely. The direct and inverse cascades collide and interact. Loading triggers the failures, while failures release and redistribute the load. Notwithstanding its relative simplicity, this model reproduces the major dynamical features observed in seismicity, including the seismic cycle, intermittence of seismic regime, power-law energy distribution, clustering in space and time, long-range correlations, and a set of seismicity patterns premonitory to a strong earthquake. In this context, the hierarchical structure of the model crudely imitates a system of tectonic blocks spread by a network of faults (note that the behavior of such a network is different from that of a single fault). Loading mimics the impact of tectonic forces, and failures simulate earthquakes. The model exhibits three basic types of premonitory pattern reflecting seismic activity, clustering of earthquakes in space and time, and the range of correlation between the earthquakes. The colliding-cascade model seemingly exhibits regularities that are common in a wide class of complex hierarchical systems, not necessarily Earth specific. PMID:11088457

  15. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-10-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  16. Colliding nuclei to colliding galaxies: Illustrations using a simple colliding liquid-drop apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Mack, S. L.; Robinson, W. R.; Ojaruega, M.

    2015-10-01

    A simple apparatus suitable for observing the collisions between drops of fluids of various properties is described. Typical results are shown for experiments performed by undergraduate students using various types of fluids. The collisions take place under free-fall (zero-g) conditions, with analysis employing digital video. Two specific types of collisions are examined in detail, head-on collisions and peripheral, grazing collisions. The collisions for certain fluids illustrate many types of nuclear collisions and provide useful insight into these processes, including both fusion and non-fusion outcomes, often with the formation of exotic shapes or emission of secondary fragments. Collisions of other liquids show a more chaotic behavior, often resembling galactic collisions. As expected, the Weber number associated with a specific collision impact parameter is found to be the important quantity in determining the initial outcome of these colliding systems. The features observed resemble those reported by others using more elaborate experimental techniques.

  17. Report of Snowmass 2001 working group E2: Electron - positron colliders from the phi to the Z

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen-guo Zhao et al.

    2002-12-23

    We report on the status and plans of experiments now running or proposed for electron-positron colliders at energies between the {phi} and the Z. The e{sup +}e{sup -}B and charm factories we considered were PEP-II/BABAR, KEKB/Belle, superKEK, SuperBABAR, and CESR-c/CLEO-c. We reviewed the programs at the {phi} factory at Frascati and the proposed PEP-N facility at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We studied the prospects for B physics with a dedicated linear collider Z factory, associated with the TESLA high energy linear collider. In all cases, we compared the physics reach of these facilities with that of alternative experiments at hadron colliders or fixed target facilities.

  18. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  19. Recent beauty results from CDF and the Run-II upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, B.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports on the most recent results from the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) from 110 pb{sup -1} of data taken at the Fermilab Tevatron from 1992 to 1995. Improved measurements of B meson spectroscopy, lifetimes, and searches for new particle states are presented. Evidence for the effectiveness of same side tagging techniques in the context of mixing measurements is shown with applicability for CP violation studies in Run-II explained. The planned upgrades of importance to {ital b} physics for Run-II are briefly detailed with an emphasis on the expected physics reach in Run-II by CDF.

  20. Optimizing integrated luminosity of future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-10-01

    The integrated luminosity, a key figure of merit for any particle-physics collider, is closely linked to the peak luminosity and to the beam lifetime. The instantaneous peak luminosity of a collider is constrained by a number of boundary conditions, such as the available beam current, the maximum beam-beam tune shift with acceptable beam stability and reasonable luminosity lifetime (i.e., the empirical "beam-beam limit"), or the event pileup in the physics detectors. The beam lifetime at high-luminosity hadron colliders is largely determined by particle burn off in the collisions. In future highest-energy circular colliders synchrotron radiation provides a natural damping mechanism, which can be exploited for maximizing the integrated luminosity. In this article, we derive analytical expressions describing the optimized integrated luminosity, the corresponding optimum store length, and the time evolution of relevant beam parameters, without or with radiation damping, while respecting a fixed maximum value for the total beam-beam tune shift or for the event pileup in the detector. Our results are illustrated by examples for the proton-proton luminosity of the existing Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at its design parameters, of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), and of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).

  1. B physics with CDF: Recent results and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.A.; CDF Collaboration

    1994-08-01

    Using data collected during the 1992--1993 collider run, we report on measurements of the B{sup o}, B{sup +}, and B{sub s} lifetimes. We also present our revised measurement of the B{sub s} mass. Production studies involving inclusive modes decaying into J/{psi} or {psi}(2S), semileptonic decays involving D{sup o} or D*{sup +} mesons, and fully reconstructed B mesons are also presented. We present the prospects for future work with this data, as well as that being collected in the 1994--1995 collider run. Upgrades to the detector and estimates of physics capabilities for future collider runs are also presented.

  2. Status and prospects of VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogovsky, Yu. A.; Berkaev, D. E.; Zemlyansky, I. M.; Zharinov, Yu. M.; Kasaev, A. S.; Koop, I. A.; Kyrpotin, A. N.; Lysenko, A. P.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Prosvetov, V. P.; Romanov, A. L.; Senchenko, A. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shwartz, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    High energy physics experiments were started at VEPP-2000 at the end of 2010; the third experimental run was finished in July 2013. The last run was devoted to the energy range 160-510 MeV in a beam. Compton backscattering energy measurements were used for the regular energy calibration of the VEPP-2000, together with resonance depolarization and NMR methods. The conception of the round colliding beam lattice along with precise orbit and lattice correction yielded a record high peak luminosity of 1.2 × 1031 cm-2 s-1 at 510 MeV and an average luminosity of 0.9 × 1031 cm-2 s-1 per run. A total betatron tune shift of 0.174 was achieved at 392.5 MeV. This corresponds to the beam-beam parameter ξ = 0.125 in terms of the collision point. The injection system is currently modernized to allow injection of particles at the VEPP-2000 energy maximum and the elimination of the existing lack of positrons.

  3. SPICE: Simulation Package for Including Flavor in Collider Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhard, Guy; Feng, Jonathan L.; Galon, Iftah; Sanford, David; Yu, Felix

    2010-01-01

    supersymmetric particles in theories with lepton flavor violation. The inputs are the parameters of any of several standard flavor-conserving supersymmetric models, supplemented by flavor-violating parameters determined, for example, by horizontal flavor symmetries. The output are files that may be used for detailed simulation of supersymmetric events at particle colliders. Solution method: Simpson's rule integrator, basic algebraic computation. Additional comments: SPICE interfaces with SOFTSUSY and SUSYHIT to produce the low energy sparticle spectrum. Flavor mixing for sleptons and sneutrinos is fully implemented; flavor mixing for squarks is not included. Running time: <1 minute. Running time is dominated by calculating the possible and relevant three-body flavor-violating decays of sleptons, which is usually 10-15 seconds per slepton. References:B.C. Allanach, Comput. Phys. Commun. 143 (2002) 305, arXiv:hep-ph/0104145. B.C. Allanach, M.A. Bernhardt, arXiv:0903.1805 [hep-ph]. A. Djouadi, M.M. Muhlleitner, M. Spira, Acta Phys. Pol. B 38 (2007) 635, arXiv:hep-ph/0609292.

  4. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  5. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. ); Kozanecki, W. )

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  6. SLAC linear collider conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The linear collider system is described in detail, including the transport system, the collider lattice, final focusing system, positron production, beam damping and compression, high current electron source, instrumentation and control, and the beam luminosity. The experimental facilities and the experimental uses are discussed along with the construction schedule and estimated costs. Appendices include a discussion of space charge effects in the linear accelerator, emittance growth in the collider, the final focus system, beam-beam instabilities and pinch effects, and detector backgrounds. (GHT)

  7. The principles and construction of linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, J.

    1986-09-01

    The problems posed to the designers and builders of high-energy linear colliders are discussed. Scaling laws of linear colliders are considered. The problem of attainment of small interaction areas is addressed. The physics of damping rings, which are designed to condense beam bunches in phase space, is discussed. The effect of wake fields on a particle bunch in a linac, particularly the conventional disk-loaded microwave linac structures, are discussed, as well as ways of dealing with those effects. Finally, the SLAC Linear Collider is described. 18 refs., 17 figs. (LEW)

  8. Electron-ion collider eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N.

    In this article, we describe our planned future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference [1]. We plan to add a polarized electron beam with energy tunable within the 5-30-GeV range to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a maximum energy of 250 GeV, to heavy, fully striped ions with energies up to 100 GeV/u.

  9. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  10. QCD Results from the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, Andreas; CDF, for the; Collaborations, D0

    2010-01-01

    Selected recent quantum chromodynamics (QCD) measurements are reviewed for Fermilab Run II Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions studied by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D0 Collaborations at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Tantamount to Rutherford scattering studies at the TeV scale, inclusive jet and dijet production cross-section measurements are used to seek and constrain new particle physics phenomena, test perturbative QCD calculations, inform parton distribution function (PDF) determinations, and extract a precise value of the strong coupling constant, a{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1161{sub -0.0048}{sup +0.0041}. Inclusive photon production cross-section measurements reveal an inability of next-to-leading-order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations to describe low-energy photons arising directly in the hard scatter. Events with {gamma} + 3-jet configurations are used to measure the increasingly important double parton scattering (DPS) phenomenon, with an obtained effective interaction cross section of {sigma}{sub eff} = 16.4 {+-} 2.3 mb. Observations of central exclusive particle production demonstrate the viability of observing the Standard Model Higgs boson using similar techniques at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Three areas of inquiry into lower energy QCD, crucial to understanding high-energy collider phenomena, are discussed: the examination of intra-jet track kinematics to infer that jet formation is dominated by pQCD, and not hadronization, effects; detailed studies of the underlying event and its universality; and inclusive minimum-bias charged-particle momentum and multiplicity measurements, which are shown to challenge the Monte Carlo generators.

  11. Biodiversity conservation in running waters

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.D. ); Flecker, A.S. )

    1993-01-01

    In the concerns about biodiversity conservation, fresh waters have received less attention than tropical forests and oceans. However, running waters harbor a diverse panoply of species, habitats, and ecosystems, including some of the most threatened and many having great value to human society. An overview of the biological diversity of running waters and the state of imperilment is presented. Six major factors that threaten destruction of running water species and ecosystems are discussed: habitat loss and degradation; species invasions; overharvesting; secondary extinctions; chemical and organic pollution; global climate change. General measures for recovery and restoration of running waters conclude the article.

  12. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  13. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  14. Nonglobal correlations in collider physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moult, Ian; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2016-01-13

    Despite their importance for precision QCD calculations, correlations between in- and out-of-jet regions of phase space have never directly been observed. These so-called non-global effects are present generically whenever a collider physics measurement is not explicitly dependent on radiation throughout the entire phase space. In this paper, we introduce a novel procedure based on mutual information, which allows us to isolate these non-global correlations between measurements made in different regions of phase space. We study this procedure both analytically and in Monte Carlo simulations in the context of observables measured on hadronic final states produced in e+e- collisions, though itmore » is more widely applicable.The procedure exploits the sensitivity of soft radiation at large angles to non-global correlations, and we calculate these correlations through next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The bulk of these non-global correlations are found to be described in Monte Carlo simulation. They increase by the inclusion of non-perturbative effects, which we show can be incorporated in our calculation through the use of a model shape function. As a result, this procedure illuminates the source of non-global correlations and has connections more broadly to fundamental quantities in quantum field theory.« less

  15. Nonglobal correlations in collider physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Despite their importance for precision QCD calculations, correlations between in- and out-of-jet regions of phase space have never directly been observed. These so-called nonglobal effects are present generically whenever a collider physics measurement is not explicitly dependent on radiation throughout the entire phase space. In this paper, we introduce a novel procedure based on mutual information, which allows us to isolate these nonglobal correlations between measurements made in different regions of phase space. We study this procedure both analytically and in Monte Carlo simulations in the context of observables measured on hadronic final states produced in e+e- collisions, though it is more widely applicable. The procedure exploits the sensitivity of soft radiation at large angles to nonglobal correlations, and we calculate these correlations through next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The bulk of these nonglobal correlations are found to be described in Monte Carlo simulation. They increase by the inclusion of nonperturbative effects, which we show can be incorporated in our calculation through the use of a model shape function. This procedure illuminates the source of nonglobal correlations and has connections more broadly to fundamental quantities in quantum field theory.

  16. Proton-antiproton collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shochet, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    The 9th {anti p}p Workshop was held in Tsukuba, Japan in October, 1993. A number of important issues remained after that meeting: Does QCD adequately describe the large cross section observed by CDF for {gamma} production below 30 GeV? Do the CDF and D0 b-production cross sections agree? Will the Tevatron live up to its billing as a world-class b-physics facility? How small will the uncertainty in the W mass be? Is there anything beyond the Minimal Standard Model? And finally, where is the top quark? Presentations at this workshop addressed all of these issues. Most of them are now resolved, but new questions have arisen. This summary focuses on the experimental results presented at the meeting by CDF and D0 physicists. Reviews of LEP and HERA results, future plans for hadron colliders and their experiments, as well as important theoretical presentations are summarized elsewhere in this volume. Section 1 reviews physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model. Issues in b and c physics are addressed in section 3. Section 4 focuses on the top quark. Electroweak physics is reviewed in section 5, followed by QCD studies in section 6. Conclusions are drawn in section 7.

  17. Testing QCD at high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders: 0.5 {le} Q {le} 2 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities for making precise tests of Quantum Chromodynamics at high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders operating at center-of-mass energies in the range 0.5 {le} Q {le} 2 TeV. Throughout, the acronym HLC, representing High energy Linear e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} Collider, will be used to denote the set of colliders comprising NLC, JLC, CLIC, TESLA and VLEPP that have been proposed by the respective geo-political consortia to confront the supra-national physics. It is assumed that the collider will be designed to deliver an integrated luminosity of 50 fb{sup {minus}1} per year of running at 500 GeV, and 100 fb{sup {minus}1} per year of running at 1 TeV.

  18. Invisible Higgs decay at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yi-Lei; Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Shou-hua

    2016-07-01

    The possibility that the 125 GeV Higgs boson may decay into invisible non-standard-model (non-SM) particles is theoretically and phenomenologically intriguing. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) to an invisibly decaying Higgs, in its proposed high-luminosity running mode. We focus on the neutral current Higgs production channel which offers more kinematical handles than its charged current counterpart. The signal contains one electron, one jet, and large missing energy. With a cut-based parton-level analysis, we estimate that if the h Z Z coupling is at its standard model (SM) value, then assuming an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 , the LHeC with the proposed 60 GeV electron beam (with -0.9 polarization) and 7 TeV proton beam is capable of probing Br (h →TE)=6 % at 2 σ level. Good lepton veto performance (especially hadronic τ veto) in the forward region is crucial to the suppression of the dominant W j e background. We also explicitly point out the important role that may be played by the LHeC in probing a wide class of exotic Higgs decay processes and emphasize the general function of lepton-hadron colliders in the precision study of new resonances after their discovery in hadron-hadron collisions.

  19. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; White, S.

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  20. Direct measurement of the top quark charge at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, U.; Buice, M.; Orr, Lynne H.

    2001-11-01

    We consider photon radiation in t¯t events at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a tool to measure the electric charge of the top quark. We analyze the contributions of t¯tγ production and radiative top quark decays to pp(-)-->γl+/-νb¯bjj, assuming that both b quarks are tagged. With 20 fb-1 at the Tevatron, the possibility that the ``top quark'' discovered in run I is actually an exotic charge -4/3 quark can be ruled out at the ~95% confidence level. At the CERN LHC, it will be possible to determine the charge of the top quark with an accuracy of about 10%.

  1. Proton Polarimetry at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Morozov, B.; Rescia, S.; Sivertz, M.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Lee, S.K.; Li, X.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-09-07

    The RHIC polarized proton collider employs polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow rings that utilize the analyzing power in p-Carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference region to measure the absolute beam polarization. These are calibrated by the polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that measures the absolute beam polarization in pp elastic scattering in the CNI region. This paper describes the status and performance of these polarimeters in the FY09 run which included both a 250 GeV/c and 100 GeV/c physics data taking periods. We will describe some of the difficulties encountered and the efforts underway to improve the performance in better energy resolution, rate handling capability, and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  2. Collider signatures of Higgs-portal scalar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Huayong; Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Sibo

    2016-05-01

    In the simplest Higgs-portal scalar dark matter model, the dark matter mass has been restricted to be either near the resonant mass (mh / 2) or in a large-mass region by the direct detection at LHC Run 1 and LUX. While the large-mass region below roughly 3 TeV can be probed by the future Xenon1T experiment, most of the resonant mass region is beyond the scope of Xenon1T. In this paper, we study the direct detection of such scalar dark matter in the narrow resonant mass region at the 14 TeV LHC and the future 100 TeV hadron collider. We show the luminosities required for the 2σ exclusion and 5σ discovery.

  3. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-05-01

    This paper summarizes four tutorial lectures on linear electron accelerators: Electron Linacs for TeV Colliders, Emittance and Damping Rings, Wake Fields: Basic Concepts, and Wake Field Effects in Linacs.

  4. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-11-03

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.

  5. The Status of the International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The International Linear Collider is under consideration in Japan as the next major global high energy physics facility. In this talk we shall describe the site and accelerator footprint together with the latest technical information on the superconducting RF technology.

  6. Topcolor and the First Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.T.

    1998-04-01

    We describe a class of models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve strong dynamics and top quark condensation. A new scheme based upon a seesaw mechanism appears particularly promising. Various implications for the first-stage muon collider are discussed.

  7. Heavy flavor physics at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.

    1991-12-01

    The search for the top quark has dominated heavy flavor physics at hadron colliders. For Standard model decay of top the present mass limit in m{sub t} > 89 GeV (95% C.L.). Bottom production cross sections are quite large at hadron colliders, thus providing enough statistics for extensive studies. Results on cross sections, B{sup 0} {minus} {bar B}{sup 0} mixing, exclusive channels and rare B decays will be summarized.

  8. RF pulse compression for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1995-05-01

    Future (nonsuperconducting) linear colliders will require very high values of peak rf power per meter of accelerating structure. The role of rf pulse compression in producing this power is examined within the context of overall rf system design for three future colliders at energies of 1.0--1.5 TeV, 5 TeV and 25 TeV. In order keep the average AC input power and the length of the accelerator within reasonable limits, a collider in the 1.0--1.5 TeV energy range will probably be built at an x-band rf frequency, and will require a peak power on the order of 150--200 MW per meter of accelerating structure. A 5 TeV collider at 34 GHz with a reasonable length (35 km) and AC input power (225 MW) would require about 550 MW per meter of structure. Two-beam accelerators can achieve peak powers of this order by applying dc pulse compression techniques (induction linac modules) to produce the drive beam. Klystron-driven colliders achieve high peak power by a combination of dc pulse compression (modulators) and rf pulse compression, with about the same overall rf system efficiency (30--40%) as a two-beam collider. A high gain (6.8) three-stage binary pulse compression system with high efficiency (80%) is described, which (compared to a SLED-11 system) can be used to reduce the klystron peak power by about a factor of two, or alternately, to cut the number of klystrons in half for a 1.0--1.5 TeV x-band collider. For a 5 TeV klystron-driven collider, a high gain, high efficiency rf pulse compression system is essential.

  9. Accelerator considerations of large circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2016-07-01

    As we consider the tremendous physics reaches of the big future circular electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, it might be advisable to keep a close track of what accelerator challenges they face. Good progresses are being made, and yet it is reported here that substantial investments in funding, manpower, as well as a long sustained time to the R&D efforts will be required in preparation to realize these dream colliders.

  10. Photon Linear Collider Gamma-Gamma Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J

    2012-02-27

    High energy photon - photon collisions can be achieved by adding high average power short-pulse lasers to the Linear Collider, enabling an expanded physics program for the facility. The technology required to realize a photon linear collider continues to mature. Compton back-scattering technology is being developed around the world for low energy light source applications and high average power lasers are being developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion.

  11. World lays groundwork for future linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, Toni

    2010-07-15

    With the Large Hadron Collider at CERN finally working, the particle-physics community can now afford to divide its attention between achieving LHC results and preparing for the next machine on its wish list, an electron-positron linear collider. The preparations involve developing and deciding on the technology for such a machine, the mode of its governance, and how to balance regional and global particle- and accelerator-physics programs.

  12. Physics goals of the next linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, S.; Marciano, W.J.; Gunion, J. F.; NLC ZDR Design Group; NLC Physics Working Group

    1996-05-01

    We present the prospects for the next generation of high-energy physics experiments with electron-positron colliding beams. This report summarizes the current status of the design and technological basis of a linear collider of center of mass energy 500 GeV-1.5 TeV, and the opportunities for high-energy physics experiments that this machine is expected to open. 132 refs., 54 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. The Longest Run of Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mark F.

    1990-01-01

    Developed are simple recursion formulas for generating the exact distribution of the longest run of heads, both for a fair coin and for a biased coin. Discusses the applications of runs-related phenomena such as molecular biology, Markov chains, geometric variables, and random variables. (YP)

  14. Stiffness adaptations in shod running.

    PubMed

    Divert, Carolyn; Baur, Heiner; Mornieux, Guillaume; Mayer, Frank; Belli, Alain

    2005-11-01

    When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m.s-1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe. PMID:16498177

  15. The collider phenomenology of supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, David J.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenology of various supersymmetric models. First, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is investigated. This model contains an extended Higgs sector that includes a charged boson. The effect that this charged Higgs boson has on the signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron is investigated. The rest of the work is devoted to the phenomenology of models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB). In GMSB models, the lighter stau can be the next to lightest supersymmetric particle. The signals at hadronic colliders for GMSB models with minimal visible sector content are explored for this case. A GMSB model with non-minimal visible sector content is also explored. This is the left-right symmetric GMSB model which contains doubly charged bosons and fermions that could be light enough in mass to be produced at Run II of the Tevatron. Findings and conclusions. The presence of a charged Higgs boson that is lighter than the top quark is found to have a significant impact on the expected signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron. This is marked by an overall decrease in high pT electrons and muons in the final states. In addition, for tan beta less than about one, the three-body decay H+→bbW leads to final states that are not present in the Standard Model. For GMSB models with the lighter stau as the next to lightest supersymmetric particle, the signature at the Tevatron typically involves two or three tau-jets plus large missing transverse energy. This tau-jet signature can be even more pronounced in left-right symmetric GMSB models due to the production of light doubly charged fermions that may couple preferentially to the third generation of leptons. The left-right models can be distinguished from GMSB models with minimal visible sector content by the distribution in angle between the highest ET tau-jets when they come from same sign tau

  16. Overview of the CDF Run II data handling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley-Geer, L.; Lammel, S.; Leininger, M.; Watts, T.

    2001-10-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) collaboration records and analyses proton-anti-proton interactions with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV at the Tevatron. During the next collider run the experiment expects to record about 1 PetaByte of data, an increase by more than an order of magnitude in data volume compared to the existing data of the experiment. This paper gives an overview of the new data handling system. The design builds upon successful strategies used in the past but eliminates shortcomings encountered with the old system. The core of the central analysis system will be a pool of over 20 TBytes of data disks. Logically behind this disk pool will be an automated tape library with a storage capacity to hold the full 1 PByte of Run II data. Multi-processor compute systems will be located around this storage pool to provide the required analysis power of over 3000 SPECint95. Desktop systems will be integrated into the analysis system via a shared login area and user authentication. The data handling software falls into four categories: software to manage computing resources, software for the data disks and for the mass storage subsystem, software to organize and manage the meta-data information, and the I/O modules in the analysis framework for accessing data.

  17. LHCb Vertex Locator: Performance and radiation damage in LHC Run 1 and preparation for Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumlak, T.; Obła˛kowska-Mucha, A.

    2016-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Heavy hadrons are identified through their flight distance in the Vertex Locator (VELO). The VELO comprises 42 modules made of two n+-on-n 300 μm thick half-disc silicon sensors with R- and Φ-measuring micro-strips. In order to allow retracting the detector, the VELO is installed as two movable halves containing 21 modules each. The detectors are operated in a secondary vacuum and are cooled by a bi-phase CO2 cooling system. During data taking in LHC Run 1 the LHCb VELO has operated with an extremely high efficiency and excellent performance. The track finding efficiency is typically greater than 98%. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 μm is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c. An overview of all important performance parameters will be given. The VELO sensors have received a large and non-uniform radiation dose of up to 1.2 ×1014 1 MeV neutron equivalent cm-2 during the first LHC run. Silicon type-inversion has been observed in regions close to the interaction point. The preparations for LHC Run 2 are well under way and the VELO has already recorded tracks from injection line tests. The current status and plans for new operational procedures addressing the non-uniform radiation damage are shortly discussed.

  18. Beyond standard model physics at current and future colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a multinational experiment which began running in 2009, is highly expected to discover new physics that will help us understand the nature of the universe and begin to find solutions to many of the unsolved puzzles of particle physics. For over 40 years the Standard Model has been the accepted theory of elementary particle physics, except for one unconfirmed component, the Higgs boson. The experiments at the LHC have recently discovered this Standard-Model-like Higgs boson. This discovery is one of the most exciting achievements in elementary particle physics. Yet, a profound question remains: Is this rather light, weakly-coupled boson nothing but a Standard Model Higgs or a first manifestation of a deeper theory? Also, the recent discoveries of neutrino mass and mixing, experimental evidences of dark matter and dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry, indicate that our understanding of fundamental physics is currently incomplete. For the next decade and more, the LHC and future colliders will be at the cutting-edge of particle physics discoveries and will shed light on many of these unanswered questions. There are many promising beyond-Standard-Model theories that may help solve the central puzzles of particle physics. To fill the gaps in our knowledge, we need to know how these theories will manifest themselves in controlled experiments, such as high energy colliders. I discuss how we can probe fundamental physics at current and future colliders directly through searches for new phenomena such as resonances, rare Higgs decays, exotic displaced signatures, and indirectly through precision measurements on Higgs in this work. I explore beyond standard model physics effects from different perspectives, including explicit models such as supersymmetry, generic models in terms of resonances, as well as effective field theory approach in terms of higher dimensional operators. This work provides a generic and broad overview of the physics

  19. The azimuthal decorrelation of jets widely separated in rapidity

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-11-01

    We study the azimuthal decorrelation between jets with pseudorapidity separation up to six units. The data were accumulated using the D0 detector during the 1994-1995 collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. The data are compared to two parton shower Monte Carlos (HERWIG and PYTHIA) and an analytical prediction using the leading logarithmic BFKL resummation. The final state jets as predicted by the parton showering Monte Carlos describe the data over the entire pseudorapidity range studied. The prediction based on the leading logarithmic BFKL resummation shows more decorrelation than the data as the rapidity interval increases.

  20. Jet angular decorrelation and color coherence in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, J.; D0 Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present three QCD studies based on data collected by the d{O} detector during the 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 runs at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at center of mass energy {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. The first study is an analysis of jet-jet azimuthal decorrelation as a function of jet rapidity separation. The second and third studies are probes of color coherence effects in hadronic collisions - one using multi-jet events and the other using W+jet events.

  1. BFKL studies at DOe

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung

    1997-04-20

    We review BFKL studies at DOe. These include a status report for the inclusive dijet cross section ratio measurement at two different center of mass energies ({radical}(s)=1800 GeV and 630 GeV) and preliminary results on the azimuthal decorrelation of dijets as a function of their separation in pseudorapidity using the data collected during the 1994-1995 collider run. Results from the azimuthal decorrelation are compared to two parton shower Monte Carlos (HERWIG and PYTHIA), and an analytical calculation using BFKL resummation.

  2. Optimisation of the ATLAS Track Reconstruction Software for Run-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzburger, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of particle trajectories in the tracking detectors of experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the most complex parts in analysing the data from beam-beam collisions. To maximise the integrated luminosity during Run-1 of the LHC data taking period, the number of simultaneous proton-proton interactions per beam crossing (pile- up) was steadily increased. The track reconstruction is the most time consuming reconstruction component and scales non-linearly in high luminosity environments. Flat budget projections (at best) for computing resources during the upcoming Run-2 of the LHC together with the demands of reconstructing higher pile-up collision data at rates more than double compared to Run-1 have put pressure on the track reconstruction software to meet the available computing resources. The ATLAS experiment has thus performed a two year long software campaign which led to a reduction of the reconstruction time for Run-2 conditions by a factor of four: a major part of the changes were improvements to the track reconstruction, which was reduced by more than a factor of five without any loss of output information for subsequent physics analysis. We present the methods used for analysing the software, the planning and deployment of updates and new methods implemented to optimise both algorithmic performance and event data.

  3. Run II of the LHC: The Accelerator Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redaelli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In 2015 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) starts its Run II operation. After the successful Run I at 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV in the 2010-2013 period, a first long shutdown (LS1) was mainly dedicated to the consolidation of the LHC magnet interconnections, to allow the LHC to operate at its design beam energy of 7 TeV. Other key accelerator systems have also been improved to optimize the performance reach at higher beam energies. After a review of the LS1 activities, the status of the LHC start-up progress is reported, addressing in particular the status of the LHC hardware commissioning and of the training campaign of superconducting magnets that will determine the operation beam energy in 2015. Then, the plans for the Run II operation are reviewed in detail, covering choice of initial machine parameters and strategy to improve the Run II performance. Future prospects of the LHC and its upgrade plans are also presented.

  4. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  5. Study of the Polarization Deterioration During Physics Stores in RHIC Polarized Proton Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Z.; Qin, Q.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.

    2016-02-01

    As the only high energy polarized proton collider in the world, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has achieved a great success in colliding polarized proton beams up to 255GeV per beam energy with over 50% average store polarizations for spin physics studies. With the help of Siberian snakes as well as outstanding beam control during the acceleration, polarization loss during acceleration up to 100 GeV is negligible. However, about 10% polarization loss was observed between acceleration from 100 GeV to 255 GeV. In addition, a mild polarization deterioration during long store for physics data taking was also observed. In this paper, studies in understanding the store depolarizing mechanism is reported, including the analysis of polarization deterioration data based on the past couple of RHIC polarized proton runs.

  6. PROSPECTS FOR COLLIDERS AND COLLIDER PHYSICS TO THE 1 PEV ENERGY SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    KING,B.J.

    2000-05-05

    A review is given of the prospects for future colliders and collider physics at the energy frontier. A proof-of-plausibility scenario is presented for maximizing the authors progress in elementary particle physics by extending the energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders as quickly and economically as might be technically and financially feasible. The scenario comprises 5 colliders beyond the LHC--one each of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and hadron colliders and three {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders--and is able to hold to the historical rate of progress in the log-energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders, reaching the 1 PeV constituent mass scale by the early 2040's. The technical and fiscal requirements for the feasibility of the scenario are assessed and relevant long-term R and D projects are identified. Considerations of both cost and logistics seem to strongly favor housing most or all of the colliders in the scenario in a new world high energy physics laboratory.

  7. Construction and testing of arc dipoles and quadrupoles for the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer, P.; Muratore, J.; Anerella, M.

    1995-05-01

    The production run of superconducting magnets for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is well underway. Of the 288 arc dipoles needed for the collider, more than 120 have been delivered. More than 150 arc quadrupoles have been delivered. All of these magnets have been accepted for RHIC. This paper reports the construction and performance of these magnets. Novel features of design and test, introduced to enhance technical performance and control costs, are also discussed. Other papers submitted to this Conference summarize work on the sextupoles and tuning quads, arc correctors, and combined corrector-quadrupole-sextupole assemblies (CQS).

  8. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from Standard Model and Supersymmetric Higgs Bosons Research of the Higgs Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Higgs group searches for Standard Model and Supersymmetric Higgs bosons. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  9. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the QCD Group's Research into Properties of the Strong Interaction

    DOE Data Explorer

    ,

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The QCD group studies the properties of the strong interaction. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  10. Potential performance for Pb-Pb, p -Pb, and p -p collisions in a future circular collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Michaela

    2015-09-01

    The hadron collider studied in the future circular collider (FCC) project could operate with protons and lead ions in similar operation modes as the LHC. In this paper the potential performances in lead-lead, proton-lead, and proton-proton collisions are investigated. Based on average lattice parameters, the strengths of intrabeam scattering and radiation damping are evaluated and their effect on the beam and luminosity evolution is presented. Estimates for the integrated luminosity per fill and per run are given, depending on the turnaround time. Moreover, the beam-beam tune shift and bound free pair production losses in heavy-ion operation are addressed.

  11. Status of the SLAC Linear Collider Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stiening, R.

    1983-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider Project has two principal goals. The first is to serve as a prototype for a future very high energy linear electron-positron collider. The second is to quickly, at low cost, achieve sufficient luminosity at 100 GeV center-of-mass energy to explore the physics of the Z/sup 0/. The first goal is important to the future of electron-positron physics because the rapid increase of synchrotron radiation with energy causes the cost of circular storage ring colliders to whereas the cost of linear colliders increases only in proportion to the center-of-mass energy. The second is important because the existance at SLAC of a linear accelerator which can be converted at low cost to collider operation makes possible a unique opportunity to quickly achieve 100 GeV center-of-mass collisions. At the design luminosity of 6.0 x 10/sup 30/ many thousands of Z/sup 0/ decays should be observed in each day of operation.

  12. Running of the running and entropy perturbations during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris

    2016-07-01

    In single field slow-roll inflation, one expects that the spectral index ns-1 is first order in slow-roll parameters. Similarly, its running αs=d ns/d log k and the running of the running βs=d αs/d log k are second and third order and therefore expected to be progressively smaller, and usually negative. Hence, such models of inflation are in considerable tension with a recent analysis hinting that βs may actually be positive, and larger than αs. Motivated by this, in this work we ask the question of what kinds of inflationary models may be useful in achieving such a hierarchy of runnings, particularly focusing on two-field models of inflation in which the late-time transfer of power from isocurvature to curvature modes allows for a much more diverse range of phenomenology. We calculate the runnings due to this effect and briefly apply our results to assess the feasibility of finding |βs|≳|αs| in some specific models.

  13. Dark Matter Benchmark Models for Early LHC Run-2 Searches. Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Daniel

    2015-07-06

    One of the guiding principles of this report is to channel the efforts of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations towards a minimal basis of dark matter models that should influence the design of the early Run-2 searches. At the same time, a thorough survey of realistic collider signals of Dark Matter is a crucial input to the overall design of the search program.

  14. The Large Hadron Collider: Redefining High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, Sarah

    2007-06-19

    Particle physicists have a description of the forces of nature known as the Standard Model that has successfully withstood decades of testing at laboratories around the world. Though the Standard Model is powerful, it is not complete. Important details like the masses of particles are not explained well, and realities as fundamental as gravity, dark matter, and dark energy are left out altogether. I will discuss gaps in the model and why there is hope that some puzzles will be solved by probing high energies with the Large Hadron Collider. Beginning next year, this machine will accelerate protons to record energies, hurling them around a 27 kilometer ring before colliding them 40 million times per second. Detectors the size of five-story buildings will record the debris of these collisions. The new energy frontier made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider will allow thousands of physicists to explore nature's fundamental forces and particles from a fantastic vantage point.

  15. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 /times/ 10/sup 26/ cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Lattice of the NICA Collider Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly; Kozlov, Oleg; Meshkov, Igor; Mikhaylov, Vladimir; Trubnikov, Grigoriy; Lebedev, Valeri Nagaitsev, Sergei; Senichev, Yurij; /Julich, Forschungszentrum

    2010-05-01

    The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) is a new accelerator complex being constructed at JINR. It is designed for collider experiments with ions and protons and has to provide ion-ion (Au{sup 79+}) and ion-proton collisions in the energy range 1 {divided_by} 4.5 GeV/n and collisions of polarized proton-proton and deuteron-deuteron beams. Collider conceptions with constant {gamma}{sub tr} and with possibility of its variation are considered. The ring has the racetrack shape with two arcs and two long straight sections. Its circumference is about 450m. The straight sections are optimized to have {beta}* {approx} 35cm in two IPs and a possibility of final betatron tune adjustment.

  17. Seismic studies for Fermilab future collider projects

    SciTech Connect

    Lauh, J.; Shiltsev, V.

    1997-11-01

    Ground motion can cause significant beam emittance growth and orbit oscillations in large hadron colliders due to a vibration of numerous focusing magnets. Larger accelerator ring circumference leads to smaller revolution frequency and, e.g. for the Fermilab Very Large Hadron Collider(VLHC) 50-150 Hz vibrations are of particular interest as they are resonant with the beam betatron frequency. Seismic measurements at an existing large accelerator under operation can help to estimate the vibrations generated by the technical systems in future machines. Comparison of noisy and quiet microseismic conditions might be useful for proper choice of technical solutions for future colliders. This article presents results of wide-band seismic measurements at the Fermilab site, namely, in the tunnel of the Tevatron and on the surface nearby, and in two deep tunnels in the Illinois dolomite which is though to be a possible geological environment of the future accelerators.

  18. Dynamics of laser ablated colliding plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shyam L.; Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-01-15

    We report the dynamics of single and two collinearly colliding laser ablated plumes of ZnO studied using fast imaging and the spectroscopic measurements. Two dimensional imaging of expanding plume and temporal evolution of various species in interacting zones of plumes are used to calculate plume front velocity, electron temperature, and density of plasma. The two expanding plumes interact with each other at early stage of expansion ({approx}20 ns) resulting in an interaction zone that propagates further leading to the formation of stagnation layer at later times (>150 ns) at the lateral collision front of two plumes. Colliding plumes have larger concentration of higher ionic species, higher temperature, and increased electron density in the stagnation region. A one-to-one correlation between the imaging and optical emission spectroscopic observations in interaction zone of the colliding plumes is reported.

  19. Quirky collider signals of folded supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdman, Gustavo; Chacko, Z.; Goh, Hock-Seng; Harnik, Roni; Krenke, Christopher A.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the collider signals associated with scalar quirks (squirks) in folded supersymmetric models. As opposed to regular superpartners in supersymmetric models these particles are uncolored, but are instead charged under a new confining group, leading to radically different collider signals. Because of the new strong dynamics, squirks that are pair produced do not hadronize separately, but rather form a highly excited bound state. The excited squirkonium loses energy to radiation before annihilating back into standard model particles. We calculate the branching fractions into various channels for this process, which is prompt on collider time scales. The most promising annihilation channel for discovery is W+photon which dominates for squirkonium near its ground state. We demonstrate the feasibility of the LHC search, showing that the mass peak is visible above the SM continuum background and estimate the discovery reach.

  20. 2009 Linear Collider Workshop of the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, Sally

    2009-09-29

    The 2009 Linear Collider Workshop of the Americas was held on the campus of the University of New Mexico from 29 September to 3 October, 2009. This was a joint meeting of the American Linear Collider Physics Group and the ILC Global Design Effort. Two hundred fifty people attended. The number of scientific contributions was 333. The complete agenda, with links to all of the presentations, is available at physics.unm.edu/LCWA09/. The meeting brought together international experts as well as junior scientists, to discuss the physics potential of the linear collider and advances in detector technology. The validation of detector designs was announced, and the detector design groups planned the next phase of the effort. Detector R&D teams reported on progress on many topics including calorimetry and tracking. Recent accelerator design considerations were discussed in a special session for experimentalists and theorists.

  1. Antiproton - Ion Collider for FAIR Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, P.; Franzke, B.; Kienle, P.; Kruecken, R.; Koop, I.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Shatunov, Y.; Skrinsky, A.; Vostrikov, V.; Widmann, E.

    2006-03-20

    An antiproton-ion collider (AIC), with extensive using of electron cooling, is proposed to determine rms radii for protons and neutrons in unstable and short lived nuclei by means of antiproton absorption at medium energies. The experiment makes use of the electron-ion collider complex with appropriate modifications of the electron ring to store, cool and collide antiprotons of 30 MeV energy with 740 MeV/unit ions in the NESR. Antiprotons are collected, cooled, decelerated up to 30 MeV and transferred to the electron storage ring. The radioactive nuclei beams are transferred to the CR and cooled at 740A MeV and transported via the RESR to NESR, in which especially short lived nuclei are accumulated continuously to increase the luminosity. Luminosities of about 1023 cm-2s-1 may be reached with 106 ions accumulated in the NESR in coasting mode of operation, used for Schottky spectroscopy of the fragments.

  2. The Tevatron Hadron Collider: A short history

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.

    1994-11-01

    The subject of this presentation was intended to cover the history of hadron colliders. However this broad topic is probably better left to historians. I will cover a much smaller portion of this subject and specialize my subject to the history of the Tevatron. As we will see, the Tevatron project is tightly entwined with the progress in collider technology. It occupies a unique place among accelerators in that it was the first to make use of superconducting magnets and indeed the basic design now forms a template for all machines using this technology. It was spawned in an incredibly productive era when new ideas were being generated almost monthly and it has matured into our highest energy collider complete with two large detectors that provide the major facility in the US for probing high Pt physics for the coming decade.

  3. Calorimetry At Very High Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Mickey

    2011-06-01

    The capability of hadron colliders has increased to where it will soon be possible to collide protons at center of mass energies of 14 TeV with the advent of the LHC. With increasing collision energy, calorimeters become ever more essential components of a detector, and collaborations often choose very different technologies to meet their goals. From the perspective of a high energy particle and nuclear physicist, a survey is presented of the differences in design considerations and actual performance of the wide variety of calorimeters used in modern hadron colliders such as the Tevatron, RHIC, and LHC. The lessons learned and some ideas for future development of calorimetry will also be discussed.

  4. Future collider signatures of the possible 750 GeV state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, Abdelhak; Ellis, John; Godbole, Rohini; Quevillon, Jérémie

    2016-03-01

    If the recent indications of a possible state Φ with mass 750 GeV decaying into two photons reported by ATLAS and CMS in LHC collisions at 13 TeV were to become confirmed, the prospects for future collider physics at the LHC and beyond would be affected radically, as we explore in this paper. Even minimal scenarios for the Φ resonance and its γγ decays require additional particles with masses ≳1/2{m}_{Φ} . We consider here two benchmark scenarios that exemplify the range of possibilities: one in which Φ is a singlet scalar or pseudoscalar boson whose production and γγ decays are due to loops of coloured and charged fermions, and another benchmark scenario in which Φ is a superposition of (nearly) degenerate CP-even and CP-odd Higgs bosons in a (possibly supersymmetric) two-Higgs doublet model also with additional fermions to account for the γγ decay rate. We explore the implications of these benchmark scenarios for the production of Φ and its new partners at colliders in future runs of the LHC and beyond, at higher-energy pp colliders and at e + e - and γγ colliders, with emphasis on the bosonic partners expected in the doublet scenario and the fermionic partners expected in both scenarios.

  5. The Next Linear Collider: NLC2001

    SciTech Connect

    D. Burke et al.

    2002-01-14

    Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider. A first Zeroth-Order Design Report (ZDR) [2] for a second-generation electron-positron linear collider, the Next Linear Collider (NLC), was published five years ago. The NLC design is based on a high-frequency room-temperature rf accelerator. Its goal is exploration of elementary particle physics at the TeV center-of-mass energy, while learning how to design and build colliders at still higher energies. Many advances in accelerator technologies and improvements in the design of the NLC have been made since 1996. This Report is a brief update of the ZDR.

  6. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  7. Women in Technology Project Opportunity. End-of-Year Report, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Benedetto, Victoria; Ortiz, Rachel

    Project Opportunity of the Women in Technology (WIT) program at Texas' El Paso Community College is designed to provide a bridge curriculum for women who choose to enter nontraditional vocational fields that furnishes marketable skills to low-income individuals, single parents, displaced homemakers, young pregnant women, and near-homeless women.…

  8. Oversize Color Images Project, 1994-1995. A Report to the Commission on Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Janet

    This report provides results of the first phase of a project to identify acceptable preservation and digital access techniques for dealing with oversize, color images associated with text. The goal of Phase I was to provide a preservation-quality photographic archival copy, a digital version for online access, and paper printouts. Five maps from…

  9. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. No. 2 heating oil/propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McBrien, J.

    1995-05-01

    During the 1994--95 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1994 through March 1995. This program augmented the existing Massachusetts data collection system and served several important functions. The information helped the federal and state governments respond to consumer, congressional and media inquiries regarding No. 2 oil and propane. The information also provided policy decision-makers with timely, accurate and consistent data to monitor current heating oil and propane markets and develop appropriate state responses when necessary. In addition, the communication network between states and the DOE was strengthened through this program. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events that had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1994--95 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  11. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  12. Yucca Mountain site characteriztion project bibliography. Progress Report, 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project which was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 1995. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology database which were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  13. Placement Survey Report: North Hennepin Community College 1994-1995 Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Cheryl; And Others

    Comprised primarily of data tables, this report presents findings from a survey conducted by Minnesota's North Hennepin Community College (NHCC) to determine outcomes for the 779 graduates from 1994-95. Following an introduction describing the study methodology and indicating that 672 graduates returned completed surveys, the first section…

  14. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Michael C.; Waln, Karen; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of the Umatilla Hatchery in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan type of rearing using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus nzykiss). The hatchery was completed in the fall of 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to develop considerable knowledge and understanding of new production and supplementation techniques. The use of the Michigan raceways in rearing at Umatilla Hatchery was selected because it could increase smolt production given the limited hatchery well water supply and allow comparison of Michigan raceways with the standard Oregon raceways. Results of testing the Michigan raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia Basin. The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan . The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. This report covers the first four years of the monitoring of the hatchery.

  15. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 1994-1995, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakai, Kunio, Ed.; Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.

    This annual report discusses several topics related to the work of the Research and Clinical Center for Child Development. Seven topics are covered in the report. The articles are: (1) "Fathers' Participation in the Lives of Their 4-Month-Old Infants: The United States and Japan" (Marguerite Stevenson Barratt, Koichi Negayama and Tetsuhiro…

  16. Peace Issues: A Humanities Curriculum for High School, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Unit School District #9, Granite City, IL.

    This curriculum focuses on peace and justice issues while emphasizing the positive of the building of relationships. Units are developmental in approach and work from "Relating to Self" to "Relating to Others" to "Relating to Community and World." A Code of Ethics is presented to guide the unit and a section on sports' ethics is aimed specifically…

  17. Equity Education and Safer Schools, Colleges and Universities: An ASCD Resource Directory, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Lea E., Comp.

    Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Issues in Education (LGBIE) is a network of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. The network has prepared a resource directory dealing with lesbian, gay, and bisexual issues in education for educators and students. The network lists publications in accord with its goals of working toward dismantling…

  18. University of Florida--US Department of Energy 1994-1995 reactor sharing program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1996-06-01

    The grant support of $24,250 (1994-95?) was well used by the University of Florida as host institution to support various educational institutions in the use of UFTR Reactor. All users and uses were screened to assure the usage was for educational institutions eligible for participation in the Reactor Sharing Program; where research activities were involved, care was taken to assure the research was not funded by grants for contract funding from outside sources. Over 12 years, the program has been a key catalyst for renewing utilization of UFTR both by external users around the State of Florida and the Southeast and by various faculty members within the University of Florida. Tables provide basic information about the 1994-95 program and utilization of UFTR.

  19. Surveillance for arthropod-borne viral activity in Nebraska, 1994-1995.

    PubMed

    Janousek, T E; Kramer, W L

    1998-09-01

    A 2-yr arbovirus surveillance program was established in Nebraska following the midwest flood of 1993. CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes at 11 localities throughout Nebraska. In 1994, we collected 685,582 mosquitoes, and we tested 1,359 pools of Culex mosquitoes for arbovirus infection, with St. Louis encephalitis virus isolated from 2 pools collected in Scotts Bluff County in western Nebraska. In 1995, 1,163,741 mosquitoes were collected and 2,788 pools tested, with 36 positive for western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus. Thirty of the WEE-positive pools were collected in Scotts Bluff County, 4 pools from the city of Norfolk and 2 from the city of Grand Island. All viruses were isolated from Culex tarsalis Coquillett. The highest minimum infection rate of 3.81 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed in Scotts Bluff County on 13 September 1995. The seasonal minimum infection rate for WEE was 0.52 in Scotts Bluff County. No human or horse disease attributed to arboviral infection was reported in Nebraska during 1994 and 1995. PMID:9775605

  20. Bioremediation of oil spills by whale microbes. Final report, 1994-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, A.M.; Wachenheim, D.

    1995-06-01

    Baleen whale forestomach anaerobic microbes were studied for their ability to detoxify recalcitrant environmental pollutants; these include components of crude oil and some chlorinated aromatic compounds which are constituents of oil spills not biodegraded by aerobic microbes. In this study, forestomach rumen samples were collected on two occasions on the North Slope. When incubated with anthracene and naphthalene (PAH), these pollutants were degraded in the majority of sample sets. All simple aromatic hydrocarbons (benzine, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene) were degraded. PCBs were biodegraded by microbes from only two of the whales. Variable results were found with picric acid, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and atrazine, and were likely due to analytical difficulties. Whale forestomach bacteria have adapted to an ecological niche where flow rates, mixing, and catabolism occur at rapid rates. These rates and the ability to metabolize complex molecules far exceed those of aerobic sediment and soil bacteria in biodegradation of environmental pollutants.

  1. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  2. A coupled atmosphere-river flow simulation in California during the 1994-1995 winter

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Miller, N.L.

    1995-09-28

    Calculation of river flow is important for managing reservoirs and flood forecasting. In the western United States, a complex terrain which is characterized by steep slopes and narrow valleys often cause a substantial rise of river levels in a short period during heavy precipitation events. Since flood control is one of the major tasks of reservoir operation, inaccurate predictions of precipitation and river flow may cause flooding or waste of water resources. Accurate calculations of river flow need accurate liquid water input to the river system at scales of individual watersheds. Precipitation and snowmelt are the most important natural source of water for a river. Reservoir operations significantly affect river flow in the western United States. Factors such as instantaneous soil water content, vegetation cover, terrain slope and ground water table structure are also crucial for river flow calculation. There are two types of precipitation: rain and snowfall. River flow quickly responds to rainfall while snowfall does not directly affect river flow until it melts afterwards. Therefore, these two types of precipitation must be separately provided to the river flow model for correct calculation of river flows. A large portion of snowfall is accumulated at high terrain during winter months in the western United States. Accumulation of snow causes the river flow to respond to instantaneous precipitation with a certain amount of time lag. During warm springs, large amounts of snowmelt can even cause local flooding. Hence, accurate estimation of snowmelt is another important step for calculating river flows. River flows are affected many different atmospheric and land surface processes. Therefore, a well-designed numerical modeling system which includes atmospheric-surface-hydrologic processes and is coupled to large-scale atmospheric data is an important tool for predicting and diagnosing local river flows and water resources.

  3. S827 and S828 Airfoils; Period of Performance: 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A family of thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S827 and S828, for 40- to 50-meter, stall -regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moments and the airfoil thicknesses have been satisfied. The airfoils should exhibit docile stalls.

  4. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  5. Imagine...Opportunities and Resources for Academically Talented Youth, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerman, Susan B., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the five consecutive issues of the journal "Imagine..." published during volume year 2. Typical journal articles cover teaching academically talented secondary students in the following focus areas: (1) mathematical problem solving; (2) the humanities; (3) academic summer programs; (4) science and technology; and (5)…

  6. Simulation of hydrodynamics, temperature, and dissolved oxygen in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, 1994-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, Brian; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The tailwaters of Beaver Lake and other White River reservoirs support a cold-water trout fishery of significant economic yield in northwestern Arkansas. The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission has requested an increase in existing minimum flows through the Beaver Lake dam to increase the amount of fishable waters downstream. Information is needed to assess the impact of additional minimum flows on temperature and dissolved-oxygen qualities of reservoir water above the dam and the release water. A two-dimensional, laterally averaged hydrodynamic, thermal and dissolved-oxygen model was developed and calibrated for Beaver Lake, Arkansas. The model simulates surface-water elevation, currents, heat transport and dissolved-oxygen dynamics. The model was developed to assess the impacts of proposed increases in minimum flows from 1.76 cubic meters per second (the existing minimum flow) to 3.85 cubic meters per second (the additional minimum flow). Simulations included assessing (1) the impact of additional minimum flows on tailwater temperature and dissolved-oxygen quality and (2) increasing initial water-surface elevation 0.5 meter and assessing the impact of additional minimum flow on tailwater temperatures and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. The additional minimum flow simulation (without increasing initial pool elevation) appeared to increase the water temperature (<0.9 degrees Celsius) and decrease dissolved oxygen concentration (<2.2 milligrams per liter) in the outflow discharge. Conversely, the additional minimum flow plus initial increase in pool elevation (0.5 meter) simulation appeared to decrease outflow water temperature (0.5 degrees Celsius) and increase dissolved oxygen concentration (<1.2 milligrams per liter) through time. However, results from both minimum flow scenarios for both water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration were within the boundaries or similar to the error between measured and simulated water column profile values.

  7. Literacy, Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Literacy, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Adria F., Ed.; Swartz, Stanley L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the special inaugural issue on Reading Recovery are: "Reading Recovery: An Overview" (Stanley L. Swartz and Adria F.…

  8. Simulation of hydrodynamics, temperature, and dissolved oxygen in Bull Shoals Lake, Arkansas, 1994-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2003-01-01

    and dissolved-oxygen concentration through time. However, results from both scenarios for water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentration were within the boundaries of the error between measured and simulated water column profile values.

  9. Simulation of hydrodynamics, temperature, and dissolved oxygen in Norfork Lake, Arkansas, 1994-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    Outflow from Norfork Lake and other White River reservoirs support a cold-water trout fishery of significant economic yield in north-central Arkansas and south-central Missouri. The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission has requested an increase in existing minimum flows through the Norfork Lake dam to increase the amount of fishable waters downstream. Information is needed to assess the impact of increased minimum flows on temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of reservoir water and the outflow. A two-dimensional, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic, temperature, and dissolved-oxygen model was developed and calibrated for Norfork Lake, located on the Arkansas-Missouri State line. The model simulates water-surface elevation, heat transport, and dissolved-oxygen dynamics. The model was developed to assess the impacts of proposed increases in minimum flow from 1.6 cubic meter per second (the existing minimum flow) to 8.5 cubic meters per second (the increased minimum flow). Simulations included assessing the impact of (1) increased minimum flows and (2) increased minimum flows with increased water-surface elevation of 1.1 meter in Norfork Lake on outflow temperatures and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. The increased minimum flow simulation (without increasing initial water-surface elevation) appeared to increase the water temperature and decrease dissolved-oxygen concentration in the outflow. Conversely, the increased minimum flow and initial increase in water-surface elevation (1.1 meter) simulation appeared to decrease outflow water temperature and increase dissolved-oxygen concentration through time. However, results from both scenarios for water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentration were within the boundaries or similar to the error between measured and simulated water column profile values.

  10. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  11. International Business Courses and Programs at Daytona Beach Community College. 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Evelyn

    The Center for International Business Education at Florida's Daytona Beach Community College (DBCC) was established to help internationalize business programs at the college. This report provides an overview of progress made at DBCC in 1994-95, discussing international business courses and programs developed and resources that have been committed…

  12. Biennial Transfer Student Report, 1994/1995 and 1995/1996 Academic Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbach, Paul; Harrell, Sally

    This report presents information on the academic achievement of students who transferred from Tidewater Community College (TCC) (Virginia) to four-year institutions. Based on student data from 1994-1996, and the results of a transfer survey of students entering four-year institutions in 1995-1996, statistics are provided that include: (1) between…

  13. NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program: Fiscal year 1994 - 1995 testing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Harry T.; Hirsch, David

    1995-01-01

    The results of the testing of wire insulation materials for space applications is presented in this report. The wire insulations tested were partially fluorinated polyimide, extruded ETFE, extruded PTFE, PTFE tape, and PTFE/Kapton. The tests performed were flammability tests, odor tests, compatibility tests with aerospace fluids, offgassing tests, and thermal vacuum stability tests.

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Vancouver Lowlands Shillapoo Wildlife Area, 1994-1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian; Anderson, Eric; Ashley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This project was conducted as part of a comprehensive planning effort for the Vancouver Lowlands project area. The study was funded by The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and carried out by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The Vancouver Lowlands is considered an area of high priority by WDFW and is being considered as a potential site for wildlife mitigation activities by BPA. The objectives of this study were to collect baseline information and determine current habitat values for the study area. A brief discussion of potential future management and a proposed listing of priorities for habitat protection are found near the end of this report. This report is a companion to a programmatic management plan being drafted for the area which will outline specific, management programs to improve habitat conditions based, in part, on this study. The following narratives, describing limiting habitat variables, carry recurring themes for each indicator species and habitat type. These recurring variables that limited habitat value include: Waterbodies that lack emergent and submerged vegetation; forest areas that lack natural shrub layers; a predominance of non-hydrophytic and less desirable non-native plants where shrubs are present; a general lack of cover for ground nesting and secure waterfowl nest sites (island type). Human disturbance was the variable that varied more than any other from site to site in the study area. One issue that the models we used do not truly deal with is the quantity and connectivity of habitat. The mallard and heron models deal with spatial relationships but for other species this may be as critical. Observation of habitat maps easily show that forested habitats are in short supply. Their continuity along Lake river and the Columbia has been broken by past development. Wetland distribution has also been affected by past development.

  15. SSI: Statewide Systemic Initiatives in Science, Mathematics, & Engineering. 1994-1995. State Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSI) Program is a major effort by NSF to encourage improvements in science, mathematics, and engineering education through comprehensive systemic changes in the educational systems of the states. The SSI Program represents a strategy to strengthen the infrastructure for…

  16. Parallel traffic flow simulation of freeway networks: Phase 2. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chronopoulos, A.

    1997-07-01

    Explicit and implicit numerical methods for solving simple macroscopic traffic flow continuum models have been studied and efficiently implemented in traffic simulation codes in the past. The authors have already studied and implemented explicit methods for solving the high-order flow conservation traffic model. Implicit methods allow much larger time step size than explicit methods, for the same accuracy. However, at each time step a nonlinear system must be solved. They use the Newton method coupled with a linear iterative (Orthomin). They accelerate the convergence of Orthomin with parallel incomplete LU factorization preconditionings. The authors implemented this implicit method on a 16 processor nCUBE2 parallel computer and obtained significant execution time speedup.

  17. Collider physics for the late 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1987-02-27

    Topics in the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions and how these topics are relevant for the high energy colliders are discussed. Radiative corrections in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model are discussed, stressing how these corrections may be measured at LEP and the SLC. CP violation is discussed, followed by a discussion of the Higgs boson and the searches which can be carried out for it. Some features of quantum chromodynamics are discussed which are relevant to hadron colliders. Some of the problems which the Standard Model does not solve are discussed. 115 refs., 53 figs. (LEW)

  18. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag {ital b} quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and D{null} collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  19. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  20. Suppressing Electron Cloud in Future Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M; Kirby, R.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen

    2005-05-27

    Any accelerator circulating positively charged beams can suffer from a build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the beam pipe. The cloud develops through ionization of residual gases, synchrotron radiation and secondary electron emission and, when severe, can cause instability, emittance blow-up or loss of the circulating beam. The electron cloud is potentially a luminosity limiting effect for both the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). For the ILC positron damping ring, the development of the electron cloud must be suppressed. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of the ongoing SLAC and international R&D program to study potential remedies.

  1. Physics Beyond the Standard Model at Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchev, Konstantin

    These lectures introduce the modern machinery used in searches and studies of new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) at colliders. The first lecture provides an overview of the main simulation tools used in high energy physics, including automated parton-level calculators, general purpose event generators, detector simulators, etc. The second lecture is a brief introduction to low energy supersymmetry (SUSY) as a representative BSM paradigm. The third lecture discusses the main collider signatures of SUSY and methods for measuring the masses of new particles in events with missing energy.

  2. FFAG Designs for Muon Collider Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. Scott

    2014-01-13

    I estimate FFAG parameters for a muon collider with a 70mm longitudinal emittance. I do not discuss the lower emittance beam for a Higgs factory. I produce some example designs, giving only parameters relevant to estimating cost and performance. The designs would not track well, but the parameters of a good design will be close to those described. I compare these cost estimates to those for a fast-ramping synchrotron and a recirculating linear accelerator. I conclude that FFAGs do not appear to be cost-effective for the large longitudinal emittance in a high-energy muon collider.

  3. RHIC Au beam in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    Au beam at the RHIC ramp in run 2014 is reviewed together with the run 2011 and run 2012. Observed bunch length and longitudinal emittance are compared with the IBS simulations. The IBS growth rate of the longitudinal emittance in run 2014 is similar to run 2011, and both are larger than run 2012. This is explained by the large transverse emittance at high intensity observed in run 2012, but not in run 2014. The big improvement of the AGS ramping in run 2014 might be related to this change. The importance of the injector intensity improvement in run 2014 is emphasized, which gives rise to the initial luminosity improvement of 50% in run 2014, compared with the previous Au-Au run 2011. In addition, a modified IBS model, which is calibrated using the RHIC Au runs from 9.8 GeV/n to 100 GeV/n, is presented and used in the study.

  4. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  5. How Fast Can a Human Run? - Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion. PMID:27446911

  6. ATLAS Metadata Infrastructure Evolution for Run 2 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemmeren, P.; Cranshaw, J.; Malon, D.; Vaniachine, A.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS developed and employed for Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider a sophisticated infrastructure for metadata handling in event processing jobs. This infrastructure profits from a rich feature set provided by the ATLAS execution control framework, including standardized interfaces and invocation mechanisms for tools and services, segregation of transient data stores with concomitant object lifetime management, and mechanisms for handling occurrences asynchronous to the control framework's state machine transitions. This metadata infrastructure is evolving and being extended for Run 2 to allow its use and reuse in downstream physics analyses, analyses that may or may not utilize the ATLAS control framework. At the same time, multiprocessing versions of the control framework and the requirements of future multithreaded frameworks are leading to redesign of components that use an incident-handling approach to asynchrony. The increased use of scatter-gather architectures, both local and distributed, requires further enhancement of metadata infrastructure in order to ensure semantic coherence and robust bookkeeping. This paper describes the evolution of ATLAS metadata infrastructure for Run 2 and beyond, including the transition to dual-use tools—tools that can operate inside or outside the ATLAS control framework—and the implications thereof. It further examines how the design of this infrastructure is changing to accommodate the requirements of future frameworks and emerging event processing architectures.

  7. CDF Run IIb Silicon Vertex Detector DAQ Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    S. Behari et al.

    2003-12-18

    The CDF particle detector operates in the beamline of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab, Batavia, IL. The Tevatron is expected to undergo luminosity upgrades (Run IIb) in the future, resulting in a higher number of interactions per beam crossing. To operate in this dense radiation environment, an upgrade of CDF's silicon vertex detector (SVX) subsystem and a corresponding upgrade of its VME-based DAQ system has been explored. Prototypes of all the Run IIb SVX DAQ components have been constructed, assembled into a test stand and operated successfully using an adapted version of CDF's network-capable DAQ software. In addition, a PCI-based DAQ system has been developed as a fast and inexpensive tool for silicon detector and DAQ component testing in the production phase. In this paper they present an overview of the Run IIb silicon DAQ upgrade, emphasizing the new features and improvements incorporated into the constituent VME boards, and discuss a PCI-based DAQ system developed to facilitate production tests.

  8. Beam dynamics issues for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this paper we discuss various beam dynamics issues for linear colliders. The emphasis is to explore beam dynamics effects which lead to an effective dilution of the emittance of the beam and thus to a loss of luminosity. These considerations lead to various tolerances which are evaluated for a particular parameter set.

  9. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  10. Precision electroweak physics at future collider experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, U.; Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    We present an overview of the present status and prospects for progress in electroweak measurements at future collider experiments leading to precision tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. Special attention is paid to the measurement of the {ital W} mass, the effective weak mixing angle, and the determination of the top quark mass. Their constraints on the Higgs boson mass are discussed.

  11. Search for new physics at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarelli, Giorgio; /INFN, Pisa

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I present the most recent results of the ongoing searches, mainly from Tevatron Collider experiments, for new physics beyond the Standard Model. While no signal has been seen so far, many analyses are reaching the point in which either a discovery will take place or strong limit on currently popular theories will be set.

  12. Difficult Decisions: The Superconducting Super Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, David E.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the superconducting super collider are presented. Arguments for the construction of this apparatus and policy issues surrounding its construction are discussed. Charts of the fundamental atomic particles and forces and the history of particle accelerators are provided. An activity for discussing this controversial…

  13. Cost optimization of a hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Peter J. Limon

    2001-11-30

    This paper discusses cost scaling laws and optimization of hadron colliders based on high field magnets. Using a few simplifying assumptions that should give a reasonable approximation, cost of the magnet is divided among several major components. Scaling law for every component is determined along with the weight factors that allow cost comparison between different magnet designs. Cost of hadron collider as a function of field, aperture size and critical current density in superconductor is described analytically that allows cost optimization by changing magnet parameters. The optimum magnetic field is determined for machines based on NbTi superconductor, operating at 4.2 K or 1.9 K and NB{sub 3}Sn superconductor operating at 4.2 K. Analyzed influence of main magnet design parameters on a machine cost provided information on ways leading to the magnet cost reduction. Economical justification of a NB{sub 3}Sn collider is performed, which lets to determine the maximum price ratio between NB{sub 3}Sn and NbTi superconductors that makes NB{sub 3}Sn collider economically effective.

  14. Physics Case for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Keisuke; Grojean, Christophe; Peskin, Michael E.; Barklow, Tim; Gao, Yuanning; Kanemura, Shinya; Kim, Hyungdo; List, Jenny; Nojiri, Mihoko; Perelstein, Maxim; Poeschl, Roman; Reuter, Juergen; Simon, Frank; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Yu, Jaehoon; Wells, James D.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; /Tohoku U.

    2015-06-23

    We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the key motivations for the ILC presented in the literature, updating the projected measurement uncertainties for the ILC experiments in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of the most recent simulation studies.

  15. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  16. Collider Tests of the Little Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Burdman, Gustavo; Perelstein, Maxim; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-12-16

    The little Higgs model provides an alternative to traditional candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. The new heavy gauge bosons predicted by this model should be observable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We discuss how the LHC experiments could test the little Higgs model by studying the production and decay of these particles.

  17. Future Accelerators, Muon Colliders, and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A Carrigan, Jr.

    2001-12-19

    Particle physics is driven by five great topics. Neutrino oscillations and masses are now at the fore. The standard model with extensions to supersymmetry and a Higgs to generate mass explains much of the field. The origins of CP violation are not understood. The possibility of extra dimensions has raised tantalizing new questions. A fifth topic lurking in the background is the possibility of something totally different. Many of the questions raised by these topics require powerful new accelerators. It is not an overstatement to say that for some of the issues, the accelerator is almost the experiment. Indeed some of the questions require machines beyond our present capability. As this volume attests, there are parts of the particle physics program that have been significantly advanced without the use of accelerators such as the subject of neutrino oscillations and many aspects of the particle-cosmology interface. At this stage in the development of physics, both approaches are needed and important. This chapter first reviews the status of the great accelerator facilities now in operation or coming on within the decade. Next, midrange possibilities are discussed including linear colliders with the adjunct possibility of gamma-gamma colliders, muon colliders, with precursor neutrino factories, and very large hadron colliders. Finally visionary possibilities are considered including plasma and laser accelerators.

  18. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  19. Tau physics at p[bar p] colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Konigsberg, J. . High Energy Physics Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    Tau detection techniques in hadron colliders are discussed together with the measurements and searches performed so far. We also underline the importance tau physics has in present and future collider experiments.

  20. Tau physics at p{bar p} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Konigsberg, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tau detection techniques in hadron colliders are discussed together with the measurements and searches performed so far. We also underline the importance tau physics has in present and future collider experiments.

  1. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  2. Linear Collider Physics Resource Book Snowmass 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan , M.T.

    2001-06-01

    The American particle physics community can look forward to a well-conceived and vital program of experimentation for the next ten years, using both colliders and fixed target beams to study a wide variety of pressing questions. Beyond 2010, these programs will be reaching the end of their expected lives. The CERN LHC will provide an experimental program of the first importance. But beyond the LHC, the American community needs a coherent plan. The Snowmass 2001 Workshop and the deliberations of the HEPAP subpanel offer a rare opportunity to engage the full community in planning our future for the next decade or more. A major accelerator project requires a decade from the beginning of an engineering design to the receipt of the first data. So it is now time to decide whether to begin a new accelerator project that will operate in the years soon after 2010. We believe that the world high-energy physics community needs such a project. With the great promise of discovery in physics at the next energy scale, and with the opportunity for the uncovering of profound insights, we cannot allow our field to contract to a single experimental program at a single laboratory in the world. We believe that an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider is an excellent choice for the next major project in high-energy physics. Applying experimental techniques very different from those used at hadron colliders, an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider will allow us to build on the discoveries made at the Tevatron and the LHC, and to add a level of precision and clarity that will be necessary to understand the physics of the next energy scale. It is not necessary to anticipate specific results from the hadron collider programs to argue for constructing an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider; in any scenario that is now discussed, physics will benefit from the new information that e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments can provide. This last point merits further emphasis. If a new accelerator could be designed and

  3. MADANALYSIS 5, a user-friendly framework for collider phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin; Serret, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We present MADANALYSIS 5, a new framework for phenomenological investigations at particle colliders. Based on a C++ kernel, this program allows us to efficiently perform, in a straightforward and user-friendly fashion, sophisticated physics analyses of event files such as those generated by a large class of Monte Carlo event generators. MADANALYSIS 5 comes with two modes of running. The first one, easier to handle, uses the strengths of a powerful PYTHON interface in order to implement physics analyses by means of a set of intuitive commands. The second one requires one to implement the analyses in the C++ programming language, directly within the core of the analysis framework. This opens unlimited possibilities concerning the level of complexity which can be reached, being only limited by the programming skills and the originality of the user. Program summaryProgram title: MadAnalysis 5 Catalogue identifier: AENO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this program is granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31087 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 399105 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: PYTHON, C++. Computer: All platforms on which Python version 2.7, Root version 5.27 and the g++ compiler are available. Compatibility with newer versions of these programs is also ensured. However, the Python version must be below version 3.0. Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS operating systems on which the above-mentioned versions of Python and Root, as well as g++, are available. Classification: 11.1. External routines: ROOT (http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: Implementing sophisticated phenomenological analyses in high-energy physics through a

  4. Towards a Future Linear Collider and The Linear Collider Studies at CERN

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    During the week 18-22 October, more than 400 physicists will meet at CERN and in the CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva) to review the global progress towards a future linear collider. The 2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both the CLIC and ILC options. Among the topics presented and discussed will be the progress towards the CLIC Conceptual Design Report in 2011, the ILC Technical Design Report in 2012, physics and detector studies linked to these reports, and an increasing numbers of common working group activities. The seminar will give an overview of these topics and also CERN?s linear collider studies, focusing on current activities and initial plans for the period 2011-16. n.b: The Council Chamber is also reserved for this colloquium with a live transmission from the Main Auditorium.

  5. High-brightness injectors for hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The counterrotating beams in collider rings consist of trains of beam bunches with N{sub B} particles per bunch, spaced a distance S{sub B} apart. When the bunches collide, the interaction rate is determined by the luminosity, which is defined as the interaction rate per unit cross section. For head-on collisions between cylindrical Gaussian beams moving at speed {beta}c, the luminosity is given by L = N{sub B}{sup 2}{beta}c/4{pi}{sigma}{sup 2}S{sub B}, where {sigma} is the rms beam size projected onto a transverse plane (the two transverse planes are assumed identical) at the interaction point. This beam size depends on the rms emittance of the beam and the focusing strength, which is a measure of the 2-D phase-space area in each transverse plane, and is defined in terms of the second moments of the beam distribution. Our convention is to use the rms normalized emittance, without factors of 4 or 6 that are sometimes used. The quantity {tilde {beta}} is the Courant-Synder betatron amplitude function at the interaction point, a characteristic of the focusing lattice and {gamma} is the relativistic Lorentz factor. Achieving high luminosity at a given energy, and at practical values of {tilde {beta}} and S{sub B}, requires a large value for the ratio N{sub B}{sup 2}/{var epsilon}{sub n}, which implies high intensity and small emittance. Thus, specification of the luminosity sets the requirements for beam intensity and emittance, and establishes the requirements on the performance of the injector to the collider ring. In general, for fixed N{sub B}, the luminosity can be increased if {var epsilon}{sub n} can be reduced. The minimum emittance of the collider is limited by the performance of the injector; consequently the design of the injector is of great importance for the ultimate performance of the collider.

  6. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  7. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  8. Running, or Stumbling Through, Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the difference between an educational simulation and other interactive learning events highlights the effects terminology can have on both facilitators and participants. Five common mistakes made in running simulations are identified, and gaming terminology used in Britain and in the United States is discussed. (three references)…

  9. An Afterburner at the ILC: The Collider Viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, Tor O.

    2004-12-07

    The concept of a high-gradient plasma wakefield accelerator is considered as an upgrade path for the International Linear Collider, a future linear collider. Basic parameters are presented based on those developed for the SLC 'Afterburner'. Basic layout considerations are described and the primary concerns related to the collider operation are discussed.

  10. An Afterburner at the ILC: The Collider Viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T

    2004-09-01

    The concept of a high-gradient plasma wakefield accelerator is considered as an upgrade path for the International Linear Collider, a future linear collider. Basic parameters are presented based on those developed for the SLC ''Afterburner.'' Basic layout considerations are described and the primary concerns related to the collider operation are discussed.

  11. First Results from the Phobos Experiment at the RHIC Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzy, Judith; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Holyński, R.; Hofman, D.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Kulinich, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Lin, W. T.; McLeod, D.; Manly, S.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Muelmenstaedt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Steinberg, P.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    PHOBOS is one of the four experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that started colliding gold nuclei at a center of mass energy of √sNN = 56 and 130 GeV per pair of colliding nucleons in June 2000. The pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles in central collisions has been measured near mid-rapidity.

  12. Higgs boson and Z physics at the first muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.; Han, T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential for the Higgs boson and Z-pole physics at the first muon collider is summarized, based on the discussions at the ``Workshop on the Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Collider``.

  13. LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-05-04

    Design considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed, and a laser-plasma-accelerator-based gamma-gamma collider is considered. An example of the parameters for a 0.5 TeV laser-plasma-accelerator gamma gamma collider is presented.

  14. Strategies to improve running economy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  15. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  16. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  17. ATLAS LAr calorimeter performance and LHC Run-2 commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spettel, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of 8 ×1033cm-2s-1. During the next run, peak luminosities of 1.5 ×1034cm-2s-1 and even higher are expected at a 25 ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminosity as high as 3 ×1034cm-2s-1 are foreseen imposing an upgrade of the LAr trigger system to maintain its performance. A demonstrator containing prototypes of the upgraded trigger electronic architecture has been installed on one of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter readout front end crates to test it during the Run-2 campaign. The new architecture and its benefits for data taking will be discussed below as well as the results from first beam splash events.

  18. Treating jet correlations in high pile-up at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Van Haevermaet, H.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments in the high-luminosity runs at the Large Hadron Collider face the challenges of very large pile-up. Primary techniques to deal with this are based on precise vertex and track reconstruction. Outside tracker acceptances, however, lie regions of interest for many aspects of the LHC physics program. We explore complementary approaches to pile-up treatment and propose a data-driven jet-mixing method which can be used outside tracker acceptances without depending on Monte Carlo generators. The method can be applied to treat correlation observables and take into account, besides the jet transverse momentum pedestal, effects of hard jets from pile-up.

  19. Gaugino physics of split supersymmetry spectra at the LHC and future proton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D.

    2014-04-01

    Discovery of the Higgs boson and lack of discovery of superpartners in the first run at the LHC are both predictions of split supersymmetry with thermal dark matter. We discuss what it would take to find gluinos at hadron supercolliders, including the LHC at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy, and future pp colliders at 100 TeV and 200 TeV. We generalize the discussion by reexpressing the search capacity in terms of the gluino to lightest superpartner mass ratio and apply results to other scenarios, such as gauge mediation and mirage mediation.

  20. Operating Procedure Changes to Improve Antiproton Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Drendel, B.; Morgan, J.P.; Vander Meulen, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Since the start of Fermilab Collider Run II in 2001, the maximum weekly antiproton accumulation rate has increased from 400 x 10{sup 10} Pbars/week to approximately 3,700 x 10{sup 10} Pbars/week. There are many factors contributing to this increase, one of which involves changes to operational procedures that have streamlined and automated Antiproton Source production. Automation has been added to the beam line orbit control, stochastic cooling power level management, and RF settings. In addition, daily tuning efforts have been streamlined by implementing sequencer driven tuning software.

  1. Commitment and Dependence Upon Regular Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.; Pargman, David

    The linear relationship between intellectual commitment to running and psychobiological dependence upon running is examined. A sample of 540 regular runners (running frequency greater than three days per week for the past year for the majority) was surveyed with a questionnaire. Measures of commitment and dependence on running, as well as…

  2. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  3. What Keeps Us on the Run?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn

    Running is a popular form of exercise which people do for different reasons. Competitive runners (N=99) and noncompetitive runners (N=28) responded to a survey of 10 reasons for running by choosing their most important reasons for running. Subjects also indicated their age, sex, how long they had been running, their average weekly mileage, how…

  4. Physiologic Responses to Treadmill and Water Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Phillip A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the physiological responses of uninjured runners to running on a treadmill and in water. Water running may lessen an injured athlete's rate of deconditioning, but indications are that the metabolic cost of water running is not significantly greater than that of treadmill running. (SM)

  5. TARGETRY FOR A MU+MU- COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    KIRK,H.G.

    1999-03-29

    The requirement for high luminosity in a {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider leads one to conclude that a prodigious source of pions is needed followed by an efficient capture/decay channel. Significant targetry issues are raised by these demands. Among these are (1) the best target configuration to tolerate a high-rep rate, high-power proton beam ({approx} 10{sup 14} ppp at 15 Hz), (2) the pion spectra of the produced pions and (3) the best configuration for maximizing the quantity of captured pions. In this paper, the current thinking of the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider collaboration for solutions to these issues is discussed. In addition, we give a description of the R&D program designed to provide a proof-of-principle for a muon capture system capable of meeting the demands of a future high-luminosity machine.

  6. Introduction to colliding beams at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1994-10-01

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is currently the site of the world`s highest center-of-mass energy proton-antiproton colliding beam accelerator, the Tevatron. The CDF and D{O} detectors each envelop one of two luminous regions in the collider, and are thus wholly dependent on the accelerator for their success. The Tevatron`s high operating energy, reliability, and record setting integrated luminosity have allowed both experiments to make world-class measurements and defined the region of physics that each can explore. The following sections are an overview of the highlights of the accelerator operation and are compiled from many sources. The major sources for each section are listed at the beginning of that section.

  7. Global QCD Analysis and Hadron Collider Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, W.-K.

    2005-03-22

    The role of global QCD analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in collider physics at the Tevatron and LHC is surveyed. Current status of PDF analyses are reviewed, emphasizing the uncertainties and the open issues. The stability of NLO QCD global analysis and its prediction on 'standard candle' W/Z cross sections at hadron colliders are discussed. The importance of the precise measurement of various W/Z cross sections at the Tevatron in advancing our knowledge of PDFs, hence in enhancing the capabilities of making significant progress in W mass and top quark parameter measurements, as well as the discovery potentials of Higgs and New Physics at the Tevatron and LHC, is emphasized.

  8. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z. |

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.

  9. Initial operation of the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The Tevatron is now the highest energy proton synchrotron and the only accelerator made with superconducting magnets. Operating since 1983 as a fixed-target machine at energies up to 800 GeV, it has now been modified to operate as a 900 GeV antiproton-proton collider. This paper describes the initial operation of the machine in this mode. The new features of the Fermilab complex, including the antiproton source and the Main Ring injector with its two overpasses and new rf requirements, are discussed. Beam characteristics in the Tevatron (including lifetimes, emittances, luminosity, beam-beam tune shifts, backgrounds, and low beta complications), the coordination of the steps in the accelerator chain, and the commissioning history are also discussed. Finally, some plans for the improvement of the collider are presented.

  10. The CERN SPS proton-antiproton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Rudiger

    One of CERN's most ambitious and successful projects was the search for the intermediate bosons, W and Z [1]. The accelerator part of the project relied on a number of innovations in accelerator physics and technology. The invention of the method of stochastic cooling and the extension by many orders of magnitude beyond the initial proof of principle demonstration allowed the construction of the Antiproton Accumulator. Major modifications to the 26 GeV PS complex and the conversion of the 300 GeV SPS, which had just started up as an accelerator, to a pbar p collider were required. The SPS collider had to master the beam-beam effect far beyond limits reached before and had to function in a tight symbiosis with the UA1 and UA2 experiments.

  11. Reverse Emittance Exchange for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ivanov, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, G.M. Wang, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev

    2009-05-01

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is currently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. Six-dimensional cooling schemes will reduce the longitudinal emittance of a muon beam so that smaller high frequency RF cavities can be used for later stages of cooling and for acceleration. However, the bunch length at collision energy is then shorter than needed to match the interaction region beta function. New ideas to shrink transverse beam dimensions by lengthening each bunch will help achieve high luminosity in muon colliders. Analytic expressions for the reverse emittance exchange mechanism were derived, including a new resonant method of beam focusing.

  12. New DIS and collider results on PDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Rizvi, E.

    2015-05-15

    The HERA ep collider experiments have measured the proton structure functions over a wide kinematic range. New data from the H1 experiment now extend the range to higher 4-momentum transfer (√(Q{sup 2})) over which a precision of ∼ 2% is achieved in the neutral current channel. A factor of two reduction in the systematic uncertainties over previous measurement is attained. The charged current structure function measurements are also significantly improved in precision. These data, when used in QCD analyses of the parton density functions (PDFs) reduce the PDF uncertainties particularly at high momentum fractions x which is relevant to low energy neutrino scattering cross sections. New data from the LHC pp collider experiments may also offer significant high x PDF improvements as the experimental uncertainties improve.

  13. Collider Detector (CDF) at FERMILAB: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Theriot, D.

    1984-07-01

    CDF, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, is a collaboration of almost 150 physicists from ten US universities (University of Chicago, Brandeis University, Harvard University, University of Illinois, University of Pennsylvania, Purdue University, Rockefeller University, Rutgers University, Texas A and M University, and University of Wisconsin), three US DOE supported national laboratories (Fermilab, Argonne National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), Italy (Frascati Laboratory and University of Pisa), and Japan (KEK National Laboratory and Unversity of Tsukuba). The primary physics goal for CDF is to study the general features of proton-antiproton collisions at 2 TeV center-of-mass energy. On general grounds, we expect that parton subenergies in the range 50 to 500 GeV will provide the most interesting physics at this energy. Work at the present CERN Collider has already demonstrated the richness of the 100 GeV scale in parton subenergies.

  14. Scintillating Fibre Tracking at High Luminosity Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joram, C.; Haefeli, G.; Leverington, B.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of small diameter scintillating plastic fibres with arrays of SiPM photodetectors has led to a new class of SciFi trackers usable at high luminosity collider experiments. After a short review of the main principles and history of the scintillating fibre technology, we describe the challenges and developments of the large area Scintillating Fibre Tracker currently under development for the upgraded LHCb experiment.

  15. Longitudinal damping in the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.A.; Jackson, G.; Kerns, C.R.; Miller, H.; Reid, J.; Siemann, R.; Wildman, D.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes the damper design for 6 proton on 6 pbar bunches in the Tevatron collider. Signal pickup, transient phase detection, derivative networks, and phase correction via the high-level rf are covered. Each rf station is controlled by a slow feedback loop. In addition, global feedback loops control each set of four cavities, one set for protons and one set for antiprotons. Operational experience with these systems is discussed. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Top physics at the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Margaroli, Fabrizio; /Purdue U.

    2007-10-01

    The top quark has been discovered in 1995 at the CDF and DO experiments located in the Tevatron ring at the Fermilab laboratory. After more than a decade the Tevatron collider, with its center-of-mass energy collisions of 1.96 TeV, is still the only machine capable of producing such exceptionally heavy particle. Here I present a selection of the most recent CDF and DO measurements performed analyzing {approx} 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity.

  17. Polarized muon beams for muon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinsky, A. N.

    1996-11-01

    An option for the production of intense and highly polarized muon beams, suitable for a high-luminosity muon collider, is described briefly. It is based on a multi-channel pion-collection system, narrow-band pion-to-muon decay channels, proper muon spin gymnastics, and ionization cooling to combine all of the muon beams into a single bunch of ultimately low emittance.

  18. Aerogel Cherenkov detectors in colliding beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyuk, A. F.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the application of aerogel Cherenkov detectors in colliding beam experiments. Such detectors are used for charged particle identification at velocities at which other methods are ineffective. The paper examines aerogel production technology and how the aerogel optical parameters are measured. Data on threshold Cherenkov counters with direct light collection and on those using wavelength shifters are evaluated. Also presented are data on Ring Image Cherenkov detectors with single and multilayer focusing aerogel radiators.

  19. ψψ production at collider energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpert, B.; Méry, P.

    1983-03-01

    We estimate ψψ production at collider energies in the framework of perturbative QCD. The O(α{/s 2})-(α{/s 4}) parton cross-sections, with the non-relativistic approximation for the heavy quark bound states, are used. This first insight into the characteristics of the kinematical distributions allows predictions on the predominance of the quark, gluon or B meson production mechanisms in particular kinematical regions.

  20. Progress report on the SLAC Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, J.

    1986-06-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider project (SLC) is reported as being near completion. The performance specifications are tabulated both for the initial form and for eventual goals. Various parts of the SLC are described and the status of their construction is reported, including the front end electron gun and booster, the linac, damping ring, positron source, SLC arcs, and conventional facilities. 5 refs., 12 figs. (LEW)

  1. 2009: A Colliding-Wind Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahed, R.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Zorec, J.; Eversberg, T.; Chené, A. N.; Alves, F.; Arnold, W.; Bergmann, T.; Corcoran, M. F.; Correia Viegas, N. G.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fernando, A.; Frémat, Y.; Gouveia Carreira, L. F.; Hunger, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Leadbeater, R.; Marques Dias, F.; Martayan, C.; Morel, T.; Pittard, J. M.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Rauw, G.; Reinecke, N.; Ribeiro, J.; Romeo, N.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; dos Santos, E. M.; Schanne, L.; Stahl, O.; Stober, Ba.; Stober, Be.; Vollmann, K.; Williams, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results from two optical spectroscopic campaigns on colliding-wind binaries (CWB) which both occurred in 2009. The first one was on WR 140 (WC7pd + O5.5fc), the archetype of CWB, which experienced periastron passage of its highly elliptical 8-year orbit in January. The WR 140 campaign consisted of a unique and constructive collaboration between amateur and professional astronomers and took place at half a dozen locations, including Teide Observatory, Observatoire de Haute Provence, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic and at several small private observatories. The second campaign was on a selection of 5 short-period WR + O binaries not yet studied for colliding-wind effects: WR 12 (WN8h), WR 21 (WN5o + O7 V), WR 30 (WC6 + O7.5 V), WR 31 (WN4o + O8), and WR 47 (WN6o + O5). The campaign took place at Leoncito Observatory, Argentina, during 1 month. We provide updated values of most of these systems for the orbital parameters, new estimates for the WR and O star masses and new constraints on the mass-loss rates and colliding wind geometry.

  2. Muon Collider Machine-Detector Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai V.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    In order to realize the high physics potential of a Muon Collider (MC) a high luminosity of {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}-collisions at the Interaction Point (IP) in the TeV range must be achieved ({approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). To reach this goal, a number of demanding requirements on the collider optics and the IR hardware - arising from the short muon lifetime and from relatively large values of the transverse emittance and momentum spread in muon beams that can realistically be obtained with ionization cooling should be satisfied. These requirements are aggravated by limitations on the quadrupole gradients as well as by the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. The overall detector performance in this domain is strongly dependent on the background particle rates in various sub-detectors. The deleterious effects of the background and radiation environment produced by the beam in the ring are very important issues in the Interaction Region (IR), detector and Machine-Detector Interface (MDI) designs. This report is based on studies presented very recently.

  3. Structure and Dynamics of Colliding Plasma Jets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, C.; Ryutov, D.; Hu, S.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Manuel, M.; et al

    2013-12-01

    Monoenergetic-proton radiographs of laser-generated, high-Mach-number plasma jets colliding at various angles shed light on the structures and dynamics of these collisions. The observations compare favorably with results from 2D hydrodynamic simulations of multistream plasma jets, and also with results from an analytic treatment of electron flow and magnetic field advection. In collisions of two noncollinear jets, the observed flow structure is similar to the analytic model’s prediction of a characteristic feature with a narrow structure pointing in one direction and a much thicker one pointing in the opposite direction. Spontaneous magnetic fields, largely azimuthal around the colliding jets and generatedmore » by the well-known ∇Te ×∇ne Biermann battery effect near the periphery of the laser spots, are demonstrated to be “frozen in” the plasma (due to high magnetic Reynolds number RM ~5×10⁴) and advected along the jet streamlines of the electron flow. These studies provide novel insight into the interactions and dynamics of colliding plasma jets.« less

  4. 2001 Report on the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gronnberg, J; Breidenbach; Burke, D; Corlett, J; Dombeck, T; Markiewicz, T

    2001-08-28

    Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider.

  5. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Linear collider IR and final focus introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.; Burke, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Linear Collider subgroup of the Accelerator Physics working group concerned itself with all aspects of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design from the end of the accelerating structure to and through the interaction region. Within this region are: (1) a collimation section, (2) muon protection (of the detector from the collimator), (3) final focus system, (4) interaction point physics, and (5) detector masking from synchrotron radiation and beam-beam pair production. These areas of study are indicated schematically in Fig. 1. The parameters for the Next Linear Collider are still in motion, but attention has settled on a handful of parameter sets. Energies under consideration vary from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV in the center of mass, and luminosities vary from 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. To be concrete we chose as a guide for our studies the parameter sets labeled F and G, Table 1 from Palmer. These cover large and small crossing angle cases and 0.4 m to 1.8 m of free length at the interaction point.

  7. COLLIDE-2: Collisions Into Dust Experiment-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.

    2002-01-01

    The Collisions Into Dust Experimental (COLLIDE-2) was the second flight of the COLLIDE payload. The payload performs six low-velocity impact experiments to study the collisions that are prevalent in planetary ring systems and in the early stages of planet formation. Each impact experiment is into a target of granular material, and the impacts occur at speeds between 1 and 100 cm/s in microgravity and in a vacuum. The experiments are recorded on digital videotape which is later analyzed. During the period of performance a plan was developed to address some of the technical issues that prevented the first flight of COLLIDE from being a complete success, and also to maximize the scientific return based on the science results from the first flight. The experiment was modified following a series of reviews of the design plan, and underwent extensive testing. The data from the experiment show that the primary goal of identifying transition regimes for low-velocity impacts based on cratering versus accretion was achieved. Following a brief period of storage, the experiment flew regimes for low-velocity impacts based on cratering versus accretion was achieved. as a Hitchhiker payload on the MACH-1 Hitchhiker bridge on STS-108 in December 2001. These data have been analyzed and submitted for publication. That manuscript is attached to this report. The experiment was retrieved in January 2002, and all six impact experiments functioned nominally. Preliminary results were reported at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

  8. Structure and Dynamics of Colliding Plasma Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Ryutov, D.; Hu, S.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Manuel, M.; Rinderknecht, H.; Petrasso, R.; Amendt, P.; Park, H.; Remington, B.; Wilks, S.; Betti, R.; Froula, D.; Knauer, J.; Meyerhofer, D.; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Young, R.; Koenig, M.

    2013-12-01

    Monoenergetic-proton radiographs of laser-generated, high-Mach-number plasma jets colliding at various angles shed light on the structures and dynamics of these collisions. The observations compare favorably with results from 2D hydrodynamic simulations of multistream plasma jets, and also with results from an analytic treatment of electron flow and magnetic field advection. In collisions of two noncollinear jets, the observed flow structure is similar to the analytic model’s prediction of a characteristic feature with a narrow structure pointing in one direction and a much thicker one pointing in the opposite direction. Spontaneous magnetic fields, largely azimuthal around the colliding jets and generated by the well-known ∇Te ×∇ne Biermann battery effect near the periphery of the laser spots, are demonstrated to be “frozen in” the plasma (due to high magnetic Reynolds number RM ~5×10⁴) and advected along the jet streamlines of the electron flow. These studies provide novel insight into the interactions and dynamics of colliding plasma jets.

  9. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.; Snopak, Pavel; Bao, Yu

    2015-03-20

    Muons are fundamental particles like electrons but much more massive. Muon accelerators can provide physics opportunities similar to those of electron accelerators, but because of the larger mass muons lose less energy to radiation, allowing more compact facilities with lower operating costs. The way muon beams are produced makes them too large to fit into the vacuum chamber of a cost-effective accelerator, and the short muon lifetime means that the beams must be reduced in size rather quickly, without losing too many of the muons. This reduction in size is called "cooling." Ionization cooling is a new technique that can accomplish such cooling. Intense muon beams can then be accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they can be used to produce neutrino beams through their decays or collided with muons of the opposite charge to produce a muon collider, similar to an electron-positron collider. We report on the research carried out at the University of California, Riverside, towards producing such muon accelerators, as part of the Muon Accelerator Program based at Fermilab. Since this research was carried out in a university environment, we were able to involve both undergraduate and graduate students.

  10. Neutrino physics at a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the neutrino physics possibilities at a future muon storage ring, which can be either a muon collider ring or a ring dedicated to neutrino physics that uses muon collider technology to store large muon currents. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring. The paper is organized as follows. The next section describes neutrino production from a muon storage rings and gives expressions for event rates in general purpose and long baseline detectors. This is followed by a section outlining a serious design constraint for muon storage rings: the need to limit the radiation levels produced by the neutrino beam. The following two sections describe a general purpose detector and the experimental reconstruction of interactions in the neutrino target then, finally, the physics capabilities of a MURINE are surveyed.

  11. Interpenetration and stagnation in colliding laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Harilal, S. S. Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.; Costello, J. T.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Hirooka, Y.

    2014-01-15

    We have investigated plasma stagnation and interaction effects in colliding laser-produced plasmas. For generating colliding plasmas, two split laser beams were line-focused onto a hemi-circular target and the seed plasmas so produced were allowed to expand in mutually orthogonal directions. This experimental setup forced the expanding seed plasmas to come to a focus at the center of the chamber. The interpenetration and stagnation of plasmas of candidate fusion wall materials, viz., carbon and tungsten, and other materials, viz., aluminum, and molybdenum were investigated in this study. Fast-gated imaging, Faraday cup ion analysis, and optical emission spectroscopy were used for diagnosing seed and colliding plasma plumes. Our results show that high-Z target (W, Mo) plasma ions interpenetrate each other, while low-Z (C, Al) plasmas stagnate at the collision plane. For carbon seed plasmas, an intense stagnation was observed resulting in longer plasma lifetime; in addition, the stagnation layer was found to be rich with C{sub 2} dimers.

  12. Improving identification of dijet resonances at hadron colliders.

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian; Yavin, Itay

    2015-01-30

    The experimental detection of resonances has played a vital role in the development of subatomic physics. The overwhelming multijet backgrounds at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) necessitate the invention of new techniques to identify resonances decaying into a pair of partons. In this Letter we introduce an observable that achieves a significant improvement in several key measurements at the LHC: the Higgs boson decay to a pair of b quarks; W±/Z0 vector-boson hadronic decay; and extensions of the standard model (SM) with a new hadronic resonance. Measuring the Higgs decay to b quarks is a central test of the fermion mass generation mechanism in the SM, whereas the W±/Z0 production rates are important observables of the electroweak sector. Our technique is effective in large parts of phase space where the resonance is mildly boosted and is particularly well suited for experimental searches dominated by systematic uncertainties, which is true of many analyses in the high-luminosity running of the LHC. PMID:25679886

  13. [Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders]. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

  14. B factory at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Lockyer, N.S.; Van Berg, R.; Newcomer, F.M.; Foley, K.; Morse, W.; Paige, F.; Polychronakos, V.; Protopopescu, S.; Rehak, P.; Sidwell, R.

    1988-01-01

    A dedicated B physics experiment located in the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven (RHIC) is considered. The machine may operate in a p-p mode with a luminosity in excess of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/ at 250 /times/ 250 GeV. The estimated B/bar B/ cross section at these energies is about 10 ..mu..barns and a run of 10/sup 7/ sec would produce roughly 10/sup 10/ B/bar B/ pairs. A comparison to similar ideas proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Upgrade and the SSC are discussed. The most ambitious physics objective of such an experiment would be the study of CP nonconservation. Particular emphasis at this workshop was given to the self tagging mode B ..-->.. K/sup +/..pi../sup /minus//. Experimental techniques developed during this experiment would be extremely useful for more ambitious projects anticipated at the SSC. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Improving Identification of Dijet Resonances at Hadron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian; Yavin, Itay

    2015-01-01

    The experimental detection of resonances has played a vital role in the development of subatomic physics. The overwhelming multijet backgrounds at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) necessitate the invention of new techniques to identify resonances decaying into a pair of partons. In this Letter we introduce an observable that achieves a significant improvement in several key measurements at the LHC: the Higgs boson decay to a pair of b quarks; W±/Z0 vector-boson hadronic decay; and extensions of the standard model (SM) with a new hadronic resonance. Measuring the Higgs decay to b quarks is a central test of the fermion mass generation mechanism in the SM, whereas the W±/Z0 production rates are important observables of the electroweak sector. Our technique is effective in large parts of phase space where the resonance is mildly boosted and is particularly well suited for experimental searches dominated by systematic uncertainties, which is true of many analyses in the high-luminosity running of the LHC.

  16. Physics performance and upgrade for Run II of the ATLAS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglioranzi, S.

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle trajectories in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. The operation and performance of the pixel detector during the first years of LHC running are described. More than 96% of the detector modules were operational during this period, with an average intrinsic hit efficiency larger than 99%. The alignment of the detector was found to be stable at the few-micron level over long periods of time. Detector material description, tracking performances in Run I and expectations for the upcoming Run II are presented.

  17. Production of doubly heavy-flavored hadrons at e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu-Chang; Chang, Chao-Hsi; Pan, Zan

    2016-02-01

    Production of the doubly heavy-flavored hadrons (Bc meson, doubly heavy baryons Ξc c , Ξb c , Ξb b , their excited states, and antiparticles of them as well) at e+e- colliders is investigated under two different approaches: LO (leading-order QCD complete calculation) and LL (leading-logarithm fragmentation calculation). The results for the production obtained by the LO and LL approaches, including the angle distributions of the produced hadrons with unpolarized and polarized incoming beams, the behaviors on the energy fraction of the produced doubly heavy-flavored hadron, and comparisons of results between the two approaches, are presented in tables and figures. Thus, characteristics of the production and uncertainties of the approaches are shown precisely, and it is concluded that only if the colliders run at the energies around the Z pole (which may be called the Z factories) and the luminosity of the colliders is as high as possible is the study of the doubly heavy-flavored hadrons completely accessible.

  18. Probing new physics of cubic Higgs boson interaction via Higgs pair production at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Jian; Ren, Jing; Yao, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Despite the discovery of a Higgs boson h (125 GeV) at the LHC run 1, its self-interaction has fully evaded direct experimental probe so far. Such self-interaction is vital for electroweak symmetry breaking, vacuum stability, and electroweak phase transition. It is a most likely place to encode new physics beyond the standard model. We parametrize such new physics by model-independent dimension-six effective operators and study their tests via Higgs pair production at hadron colliders. We analyze three major di-Higgs production channels at the parton level and compare the parameter dependence of total cross sections and kinematic distributions at the LHC (14 TeV) and p p (100 TeV) hadron collider. We further perform full simulations for the di-Higgs production channel g g →h h →b b ¯γ γ and its backgrounds at the p p (100 TeV) hadron collider. We construct four kinds of benchmark points and study the sensitivities to probing different regions of the parameter space of cubic Higgs interactions. We find that for a one-parameter analysis and with a 3 ab-1 (30 ab-1 ) integrated luminosity, the g g →h h →b b ¯γ γ channel can measure the SM cubic Higgs coupling and the derivative cubic Higgs coupling to an accuracy of about 13% (4.2%) and 5% (1.6%), respectively.

  19. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  20. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  1. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  2. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  3. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  4. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  5. The dark penguin shines light at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primulando, Reinard; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2015-07-01

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For several types of DM-Standard Model couplings, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory, considering simplified models with light mediators. This is especially important in the case of loop-mediated interactions. In this paper we perform the first simplified model study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, by including the one-loop momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling — given by the Dark Penguin — in collider processes. We compute bounds from the monojet, monophoton, and diphoton searches at the 8 and 14 TeV LHC, and compare the results to those of direct and indirect detection experiments. Future searches at the 100 TeV hadron collider and at the ILC are also addressed. We find that the optimal search strategy requires loose cuts on the missing transverse energy, to capture the enhancement of the form factors near the threshold for on-shell production of the mediators. We consider both minimal models and models where an additional state beyond the DM is accessible. In the latter case, under the assumption of anarchic flavor structure in the dark sector, the LHC monophoton and diphoton searches will be able to set much stronger bounds than in the minimal scenario. A determination of the mass of the heavier dark fermion might be feasible using the M T2 variable. In addition, if the Dark Penguin flavor structure is almost aligned with that of the DM mass, a displaced signal from the decay of the heavier dark fermion into the DM and photon can be observed. This allows us to set constraints on the mixings and couplings of the model from an existing search for non-pointing photons.

  6. Solid State Technology Meets Collider Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Probing the frontiers of particle physics and delving into the mysteries of the universe and its beginnings require machines that can accelerate beams of fundamental particles to very high energies and then collide those beams together, producing a multitude of exotic subatomic particles. The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC), being developed by Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories, and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), is such a machine. The NLC is expected to produce a variety of subatomic particles by smashing together electrons and their antimatter counterparts (positrons) at nearly the speed of light with energies in the teraelectronvolt (TeV) range. Plans are that the NLC will initially operate at 0.5 TeV and ultimately be scaled up to 1.5 TeV. (See S&TR, April 2000, pp. 12-16.) Work at the facility will complement the research to be conducted at another high-energy particle accelerator, the 14-TeV Large Hadron Collider at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (commonly known by the acronym CERN from its former name) in Geneva, which is scheduled for completion in 2007. Achieving beam energy levels in the TeV range requires modulator systems that can convert ac line power--the same type of power one gets from the wall plug--into dc pulses. Ultimately, these pulses are transformed into radiofrequency (rf) pulses that ''kick'' the particles up to the required energy levels. Livermore scientists and engineers have designed a solid-state modulator to replace oldstyle modulators based on vacuum-tube technology. These new modulators promise to be far more efficient, reliable, and serviceable than the previous components. Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program supported the basic research and development on the solid-state modulator technology, and SLAC supported the systems integration.

  7. Chromaticity correction for a muon collider optics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kapin, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Muon Collider (MC) is a promising candidate for the next energy frontier machine. However, in order to obtain peak luminosity in the 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} range the collider lattice designmust satisfy a number of stringent requirements. In particular the expected large momentum spread of the muon beam and the very small {beta}* call for a careful correction of the chromatic effects. Here we present a particular solution for the interaction region (IR) optics whose distinctive feature is a three-sextupole local chromatic correction scheme. The scheme may be applied to other future machines where chromatic effects are expected to be large. The expected large muon energy spread requires the optics to be stable over a wide range of momenta whereas the required luminosity calls for {beta}* in the mm range. To avoid luminosity degradation due to hour-glass effect, the bunch length must be comparatively small. To keep the needed RF voltage within feasible limits the momentum compaction factor must be small over the wide range of momenta. A low {beta}* means high sensitivity to alignment and field errors of the Interaction Region (IR) quadrupoles and large chromatic effects which limit the momentum range of optics stability and require strong correction sextupoles, which eventually limit the Dynamic Aperture (DA). Finally, the ring circumference should be as small as possible, luminosity being inversely proportional to the collider length. A promising solution for a 1.5 TeV center of mass energy MC with {beta}* = 1 m in both planes has been proposed. This {beta}* value has been chosen as a compromise between luminosity and feasibility based on the magnet design and energy deposition considerations. The proposed solution for the IR optics together with a new flexible momentum compaction arc cell design allows to satisfy all requirements and is relatively insensitive to the beam-beam effect.

  8. Electron Cloud Effect in the Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M

    2004-09-13

    Beam induced multipacting, driven by the electric field of successive positively charged bunches, may arise from a resonant motion of electrons, generated by secondary emission, bouncing back and forth between opposite walls of the vacuum chamber. The electron-cloud effect (ECE) has been observed or is expected at many storage rings [1]. In the beam pipe of the Damping Ring (DR) of a linear collider, an electron cloud is produced initially by ionization of the residual gas and photoelectrons from the synchrotron radiation. The cloud is then sustained by secondary electron emission. This electron cloud can reach equilibrium after the passage of only a few bunches. The electron-cloud effect may be responsible for collective effects as fast coupled-bunch and single-bunch instability, emittance blow-up or incoherent tune shift when the bunch current exceeds a certain threshold, accompanied by a large number of electrons in the vacuum chamber. The ECE was identified as one of the most important R&D topics in the International Linear Collider Report [2]. Systematic studies on the possible electron-cloud effect have been initiated at SLAC for the GLC/NLC and TESLA linear colliders, with particular attention to the effect in the positron main damping ring (MDR) and the positron Low Emittance Transport which includes the bunch compressor system (BCS), the main linac, and the beam delivery system (BDS). We present recent computer simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud generation in both machine designs. Thus, single and coupled-bunch instability thresholds are estimated for the GLC/NLC design.

  9. Accelerator R&D toward Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following LHC discoveries. Such a collider can offer superb energy resolution, smaller size, and potentially cost and power consumption compared to multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders. This article briefly reviews the motivation, design and status of accelerator R&D for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory.

  10. Accelerator R&D toward Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following LHC discoveries. Such a collider can offer superb energy resolution, smaller size, and potentially cost and power consumption compared to multi-TeV e + e - linear colliders. This article briefly reviews the motivation, design and status of accelerator R&D for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory.

  11. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-12-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film ``Angels and Demons.'' In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society1 website featured an article on BH formation at the LHC.2 This article examines some aspects of mini BHs and explores the possibility of their detection at the LHC.

  12. Current Correlations from a Mesoscopic Anyon Collider.

    PubMed

    Rosenow, Bernd; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Halperin, Bertrand I

    2016-04-15

    Fermions and bosons are fundamental realizations of exchange statistics, which governs the probability for two particles being close to each other spatially. Anyons in the fractional quantum Hall effect are an example for exchange statistics intermediate between bosons and fermions. We analyze a mesoscopic setup in which two dilute beams of anyons collide with each other, and relate the correlations of current fluctuations to the probability of particles excluding each other spatially. While current correlations for fermions vanish, negative correlations for anyons are a clear signature of a reduced spatial exclusion as compared to fermions. PMID:27127979

  13. Magnetic merging in colliding flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.; Rhoads, James E.

    1995-01-01

    We develop an analytical theory of reconnection between colliding, twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our analysis is restricted to direct collisions between parallel tubes and is based on the collision dynamics worked out by Bogdan (1984). We show that there is a range of collision velocities for which neutral point reconnection of the Parker-Sweet type can occur, and a smaller range for which reconnection leads to coalescence. Mean velocities within the solar convection zone are probably significantly greater than the upper limit for coalescence. This suggests that the majority of flux tube collisions do not result in merging, unless the frictional coupling of the tubes to the background flow is extremely strong.

  14. Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

  15. The next linear collider damping ring lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Corlett, John N.

    2001-06-20

    We report on the lattice design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) damping rings. The damping rings are required to provide low emittance electron and positron bunch trains to the NLC linacs, at a rate of 120 Hz. We present an optical design, based on a theoretical minimum emittance (TME) lattice, to produce the required normalized extracted beam emittances gex = 3 mm-mrad and gey = 0.02 mm mrad. An assessment of dynamic aperture and non-linear effects is given. The positron pre-damping ring, required to reduce the emittance of the positron beam such that it may be accepted by a main damping ring, is also described.

  16. Stochastic cooling requirements for a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    The most severe limitation to the muon production for a large-energy muon collider is the short time allowed for cooling the beam to dimensions small enough to provide reasonably high luminosity. The limitation is caused by the short lifetime of the particles. It appears to be desirable to accelerate the beam quickly in very short bunches. This paper describes the requirements of single-pass, fast stochastic cooling for very short bunches. Bandwidth, amplifier gain and Schottky power do not seem to be of major concern. Problems do arise with the ultimate low emittance that can be achieved, the value of which is seriously affected by the front-end noise.

  17. Broader Impacts of the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, M.; Ruchti, R.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale scientific endeavors such as the International Linear Collider Project can have a lasting impact on education and outreach to our society. The ILC will provide a discovery platform for frontier physical science and it will also provide a discovery platform for broader impacts and social science. The importance of Broader Impacts of Science in general and the ILC in particular are described. Additionally, a synopsis of education and outreach activities carried out as an integral part of the Snowmass ILC Workshop is provided.

  18. Black holes at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, S; Landsberg, G

    2001-10-15

    If the scale of quantum gravity is near TeV, the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be producing one black hole (BH) about every second. The decays of the BHs into the final states with prompt, hard photons, electrons, or muons provide a clean signature with low background. The correlation between the BH mass and its temperature, deduced from the energy spectrum of the decay products, can test Hawking's evaporation law and determine the number of large new dimensions and the scale of quantum gravity. PMID:11690198

  19. Precision Event Simulation for Hadron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeche, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Hadron colliders are workhorses of particle physics, enabling scientific breakthroughs such as the discovery of the Higgs boson. Hadron beams reach the highest energies, but they also produce very complex collisions. Studying the underlying dynamics requires involved multi-particle calculations. Over the past decades Monte-Carlo simulation programs were developed to tackle this task. They have by now evolved into precision tools for theorists and experimenters alike. This talk will give an introduction to event generators and discuss the current status of development.

  20. Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.

    1988-09-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Drell-Yan production at collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Neerven, W.L. Van

    1995-07-01

    We present some results of the Drell-Yan cross sections d{sigma}/dm and {sigma}{sub tot} which includes the O ({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) contribution to the coefficient function. In particular we study the total cross section {sigma}{sub tot} for vector boson production and d{sigma}/dm for low invariant masses m of the lepton pairs at large hadron collider energies. This study includes a detailed discussion of the dependence of the cross sections on the chosen scheme ({bar M}S versus DIS) and the factorization scale.

  2. Quantum production of black holes at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsene, Nicusor; Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian

    2016-07-01

    We investigate black hole production in p p collisions at the Large Hadron Collider by employing the horizon quantum mechanics for models of gravity with extra spatial dimensions. This approach can be applied to processes around the fundamental gravitational scale and naturally yields a suppression below the fundamental gravitational scale and for increasing number of extra dimensions. The results of numerical simulations performed with the black hole event generator BLACKMAX are here reported in order to illustrate the main differences in the numbers of expected black hole events and mass distributions.

  3. Rf power sources for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.M.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Nelson, E.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B. ); Boyd, J.K.; Houk, T.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S. (Lawrence Live

    1990-06-01

    The next generation of linear colliders requires peak power sources of over 200 MW per meter at frequencies above 10 GHz at pulse widths of less than 100 nsec. Several power sources are under active development, including a conventional klystron with rf pulse compression, a relativistic klystron (RK) and a crossed-field amplifier. Power from one of these has energized a 0.5 meter two- section High Gradient Accelerator (HGA) and accelerated a beam at over 80 MeV meter. Results of tests with these experimental devices are presented here.

  4. A COMPLETE SCHEME FOR A MUON COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.; ALEXAHIN, Y.; NEUFFER, D.; KAHN, S.A.; SUMMERS, D.

    2007-09-01

    A complete scheme for production, cooling, acceleration, and ring for a 1.5 TeV center of mass muon collider is presented, together with parameters for two higher energy machines. The schemes starts with the front end of a proposed neutrino factory that yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling in long-period helical lattices reduces the longitudinal emittance until it becomes possible to merge the trains into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in all dimensions is applied to the single bunches in further helical lattices. Final transverse cooling to the required parameters is achieved in 50 T solenoids.

  5. Two gauge boson physics at future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, R.N.

    1988-05-13

    Electroweak unification suggests that there should be WW and ZZ physics analogous to {gamma}{gamma} physics. Indeed, WW and ZZ collisions will provide an opportunity to search for the Higgs boson at future high energy colliders. Cross sections in the picobarn range are predicted for Higgs boson production at the proposed 40-TeV SSC. While other states may be produced by WW and ZZ collisions, it is the Higgs boson that looms as the most attractive objective. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  6. String resonances at the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco

    2009-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider promises to discover new physics beyond the standard model. An exciting possibility is the formation of string resonances at the TeV scale. In this article, we show how string resonances may be detected at the LHC in the pp{yields}{gamma}+jet channel. Our study is based on event-shape variables, missing energy and momentum, maximum transverse momentum of photons and dijet invariant mass. These observables provide interesting signatures which enable us to discriminate string events from the standard model background.

  7. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  8. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  9. Adding run history to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  10. Diphoton excess and running couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Endo, Motoi; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-06-01

    The recently observed diphoton excess at the LHC may suggest the existence of a singlet (pseudo-)scalar particle with a mass of 750 GeV which couples to gluons and photons. Assuming that the couplings to gluons and photons originate from loops of fermions and/or scalars charged under the Standard Model gauge groups, we show that there is a model-independent upper bound on the cross section σ (pp → S → γγ) as a function of the cutoff scale Λ and masses of the fermions and scalars in the loop. Such a bound comes from the fact that the contribution of each particle to the diphoton event amplitude is proportional to its contribution to the one-loop β functions of the gauge couplings. We also investigate the perturbativity of running Yukawa couplings in models with fermion loops, and show the upper bounds on σ (pp → S → γγ) for explicit models.

  11. From the SLAC linear collider to the next linear collider: A status report and road map

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1992-02-01

    In this presentation, I will review what we have learned about linear colliders, the problems that have been uncovered, and the technology-development program aimed at realizing the next high energy machine. I will then close with a few comments on how to get on with the job of building it.

  12. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from W, Z bosons and Drell Yan lepton pairs research of the CDF Electroweak Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Electroweak group studies production and properties of W, Z bosons and Drell Yan lepton pairs. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  13. Numerical calculation of ion polarization in the NICA collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    The NICA Collider with two solenoid Siberian snakes is “transparent” to the spin. The collider transparent to the spin provides a unique capability to control any polarization direction of protons and deuterons using additional weak solenoids without affecting orbital parameters of the beam. The spin tune induced by the control solenoids must significantly exceed the strength of the zero-integer spin resonance, which contains a coherent part associated with errors in the collider's magnetic structure and an incoherent part associated with the beam emittances. We present calculations of the coherent part of the resonance strength in the NICA collider for proton and deuteron beams.

  14. Far Future Colliders and Required R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2012-06-01

    Particle colliders for high energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the collider has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size and the cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but its pace of progress has greatly slowed down. In this paper we very briefly review the R&D toward near future colliders and make an attempt to look beyond the current horizon and outline the changes in the paradigm required for the next breakthroughs.

  15. Tau anomalous magnetic moment in γγ colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of setting model independent limits for a nonstandard anomalous magnetic moment aτNP of the tau lepton, in future γγ colliders based on Compton backscattering. For a hypothetical collider we find that, at various levels of confidence, the limits for aτNP could be improved, compared to previous studies based on LEP1, LEP2 and SLD data. We show the results for a realistic range of the center of mass energy of the e+e- collider. As a more direct application, we also present the results of the simulation for the photon collider at the TESLA project.

  16. Fast cooling, muon acceleration and the prospect of muon colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Mark

    Facilities based on stored muons offer unique potential for future high-energy physics capabilities. Three key characteristics of the muon make this possible: * The muon is a lepton; * The muon is roughly 200 times as massive as the electron; * The muon decays to an electron and two neutrinos. As the next heavier members of the lepton family with respect to the electron and positron, μ+ and μ-. beams can be collided to provide a precision lepton probe of the electroweak couplings. This makes a muon collider a suitable option for a lepton collider companion to a hadron collider discovery machine...

  17. The Very Large Hadron Collider: The farthest energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, William A.

    2001-06-21

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (or Eloisatron) represents what may well be the final step on the energy frontier of accelerator-based high energy physics. While an extremely high luminosity proton collider at 100-200 TeV center of mass energy can probably be built in one step with LHC technology, that machine would cost more than what is presently politically acceptable. This talk summarizes the strategies of collider design including staged deployment, comparison with electron-positron colliders, opportunities for major innovation, and the technical challenges of reducing costs to manageable proportions. It also presents the priorities for relevant R and D for the next few years.

  18. Klystron switching power supplies for the Internation Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fraioli, Andrea; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-12-01

    The International Linear Collider is a majestic High Energy Physics particle accelerator that will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, by producing electron-positron collisions at center of mass energy of about 500 GeV. In particular, the subject of this dissertation is the R&D for a solid state Marx Modulator and relative switching power supply for the International Linear Collider Main LINAC Radio Frequency stations.

  19. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  20. ICOOL: A TOOL FOR MUON COLLIDER SIMULATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.

    2001-09-28

    Current ideas for designing neutrino factories [ 1,2] and muon colliders [3] require unique configurations of fields and materials to prepare the muon beam for acceleration. This so-called front end system must accomplish the goals of phase rotation, bunching and cooling. We have continued the development of a 3-D tracking code, ICOOL [4], for examining possible muon collider front end configurations. A system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary codes can be used for pre-processing, post-processing and optimization.

  1. Dark Matter: Collider vs. direct searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, T.

    2016-07-01

    Effective Field Theories (EFTs) are a useful tool across a wide range of DM searches, including LHC searches and direct detection. Given the current lack of indications about the nature of the DM particle and its interactions, a model independent interpretation of the collider bounds appears mandatory, especially in complementarity with the reinterpretation of the exclusion limits within a choice of simplified models, which cannot exhaust the set of possible completions of an effective Lagrangian. However EFTs must be used with caution at LHC energies, where the energy scale of the interaction is at a scale where the EFT approximation can no longer be assumed to be valid. Here we introduce some tools that allow the validity of the EFT approximation to be quantified, and provide case studies for two operators. We also show a technique that allows EFT constraints from collider searches to be made substantially more robust, even at large center-of-mass energies. This allows EFT constraints from different classes of experiment to be compared in a much more robust manner.

  2. The Large Hadron Collider, a personal recollection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Lyndon

    2014-03-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavor spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing LEP tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8 m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of an idea first proposed by Bob Palmer at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1978, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact 2-in-1 structure was essential for the LHC due to both the limited space available in the existing Large Electron-Positron collider tunnel and the cost. The second innovation was the bold move to use superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor. In this article, no attempt is made to give a comprehensive review of the machine design. This can be found in the LHC Design Report [1], which gives a detailed description of the machine as it was built and comprehensive references. A more popular description of the LHC and its detectors can be found in [2]. Instead, this is a more personal account of the project from approval to commissioning, describing some of the main technologies and some of the trials and tribulations encountered in bringing this truly remarkable machine alive.

  3. Cooling of electronics in collider experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Stanek et al.

    2003-11-07

    Proper cooling of detector electronics is critical to the successful operation of high-energy physics experiments. Collider experiments offer unique challenges based on their physical layouts and hermetic design. Cooling systems can be categorized by the type of detector with which they are associated, their primary mode of heat transfer, the choice of active cooling fluid, their heat removal capacity and the minimum temperature required. One of the more critical detector subsystems to require cooling is the silicon vertex detector, either pixel or strip sensors. A general design philosophy is presented along with a review of the important steps to include in the design process. Factors affecting the detector and cooling system design are categorized. A brief review of some existing and proposed cooling systems for silicon detectors is presented to help set the scale for the range of system designs. Fermilab operates two collider experiments, CDF & D0, both of which have silicon systems embedded in their detectors. A review of the existing silicon cooling system designs and operating experience is presented along with a list of lessons learned.

  4. The muon collider (Sandro`s snake)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    This paper describes a feasibility study for the design of a muon collider. Recognized the fact that the particle lifetime increases linearly with the energy, we have adopted a scheme where steps of cooling and acceleration are entwined. We have indeed found convenient to accelerate the beam as fast as possible to increase its chances of survival, and necessary to dilute the action of cooling throughout the entire accelerating process to make it more effective and affordable. All acceleration and cooling steps are executed in a single pass essentially along a curvilinear and open path. We do not believe it is possible to handle the beam otherwise in circular and closed rings, as it has been proposed in the past. The example shown in this paper describes a muon collider at the energy of 250 GeV per beam and a luminosity of 4 {times} 10{sup 28} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. We have adopted an extrapolation of the stochastic cooling method for the reduction of the beam emittance.

  5. Protection of the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Assmann, R.; Carlier, E.; Dehning, B.; Denz, R.; Goddard, B.; Holzer, E. B.; Kain, V.; Puccio, B.; Todd, B.; Uythoven, J.; Wenninger, J.; Zerlauth, M.

    2006-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide two counter-rotating proton beams, each with an energy of 7 TeV. The energy stored in the superconducting magnet system will exceed 10 GJ, and each beam has a stored energy of 362 MJ which could cause major damage to accelerator equipment in the case of uncontrolled beam loss. Safe operation of the LHC will therefore rely on a complex system for equipment protection. The systems for protection of the superconducting magnets in case of quench must be fully operational before powering the magnets. For safe injection of the 450 GeV beam into the LHC, beam absorbers must be in their correct positions and specific procedures must be applied. Requirements for safe operation throughout the cycle necessitate early detection of failures within the equipment, and active monitoring of the beam with fast and reliable beam instrumentation, mainly beam loss monitors (BLM). When operating with circulating beams, the time constant for beam loss after a failure extends from apms to a few minutes—failures must be detected sufficiently early and transmitted to the beam interlock system that triggers a beam dump. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted on to the dump blocks at the end of a fill and in case of emergency, since the beam dump blocks are the only elements of the LHC that can withstand the impact of the full beam.

  6. Advances in Beam Cooling for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev

    2006-09-01

    A six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas is the basis for the latest plans for muon colliders. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole magnetic fields, where emittance exchange is achieved by using a continuous homogeneous absorber. Momentum-dependent path length differences in the dense hydrogen energy absorber provide the required correlation between momentum and ionization loss to accomplish longitudinal cooling. Recent studies of an 800 MHz RF cavity pressurized with hydrogen, as would be used in this application, show that the maximum gradient is not limited by a large external magnetic field, unlike vacuum cavities. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, will be employed to further reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that is being developed for an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment. The status of the designs, simulations, and tests of the cooling components for a high luminosity, low emittance muon collider will be reviewed.

  7. A Star on the Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Usually stars that are born together tend to move together but sometimes stars can go rogue and run away from their original birthplace. A pair of astronomers have now discovered the first runaway red supergiant (RSG) ever identified in another galaxy. With a radial velocity discrepancy of 300 km/s, its also the fastest runaway massive star known. Discrepant Speeds: When massive stars form in giant molecular clouds, they create what are known as OB associations: groups of hot, massive, short-lived stars that have similar velocities because theyre moving through space together. But sometimes stars that appear to be part of an OB association dont have the same velocity as the rest of the group. These stars are called runaways.What causes an OB star to run away is still debated, but we know that a fairly significant fraction of OB stars are runaways. In spite of this, surprisingly few runaways have been found that are evolved massive stars i.e., the post-main-sequence state of OB stars. This is presumably because these evolved stars have had more time to move away from their birthplace, and its more difficult to identify a runaway without the context of its original group. An Evolved Runaway: Difference between observed velocity and expected velocity, plotted as a function of expected velocity. The black points are foreground stars. The red points are expected RSGs, clustered around a velocity difference of zero. The green pentagon is the runaway RSG J004330.06+405258.4. [Evans Massey 2015]Despite this challenge, a recent survey of RSGs in the galaxy M31 has led to the detection of a massive star on the run! Kate Evans (Lowell Observatory and California Institute of Technology) and Philip Massey (Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University) discovered that RSG J004330.06+405258.4 is moving through the Andromeda Galaxy with a radial velocity thats off by about 300 km/s from the radial velocity expected for its location.Evans and Massey discovered this rogue star

  8. Muon colliders: New prospects for precision physics and the high energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    An overview is given of muon collider technology and of the current status of the muon collider research program. The exciting potential of muon colliders for both neutrino physics and collider physics studies is then described and illustrated using self-consistent collider parameter sets at 0.1 TeV to 100 TeV center-of-mass energies.

  9. Random Test Run Length and Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, James H.; Groce, Alex; Weston, Melissa; Xu, Ru-Gang

    2008-01-01

    A poorly understood but important factor in many applications of random testing is the selection of a maximum length for test runs. Given a limited time for testing, it is seldom clear whether executing a small number of long runs or a large number of short runs maximizes utility. It is generally expected that longer runs are more likely to expose failures -- which is certainly true with respect to runs shorter than the shortest failing trace. However, longer runs produce longer failing traces, requiring more effort from humans in debugging or more resources for automated minimization. In testing with feedback, increasing ranges for parameters may also cause the probability of failure to decrease in longer runs. We show that the choice of test length dramatically impacts the effectiveness of random testing, and that the patterns observed in simple models and predicted by analysis are useful in understanding effects observed.

  10. Running coupling corrections to inclusive gluon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, W. A.; Kovchegov, Y. V.

    2011-12-01

    We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. At leading order, there are three powers of fixed coupling; in our final answer, these three couplings are replaced by seven factors of running coupling: five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a 'septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the 'triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small-x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the 'septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. We use our lowest-order result to conjecture how running coupling corrections may enter the full fixed-coupling kT-factorization formula for gluon production which includes nonlinear small-x evolution.

  11. Take the monkey and run

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hambright, M. Karen; Hewes, Kelly; Schilder, Brian M.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, New World primate that is used extensively in biomedical and behavioral research. This short-lived primate, with its small body size, ease of handling, and docile temperament, has emerged as a valuable model for aging and neurodegenerative research. A growing body of research has indicated exercise, aerobic exercise especially, imparts beneficial effects to normal aging. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these positive effects of exercise, and the degree to which exercise has neurotherapeutic effects, is an important research focus. Thus, developing techniques to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise would have great advantages. New method Here we describe the marmoset exercise ball (MEB) paradigm: a safe (for both experimenter and subjects), novel and effective means to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. We trained young adult male marmosets to run on treadmills for 30 min a day, 3 days a week. Results Our training procedures allowed us to engage male marmosets in this aerobic exercise within 4 weeks, and subjects maintained this frequency of exercise for 3 months. Comparison with existing methods To our knowledge, this is the first described method to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. A major advantage of this exercise paradigm is that while it was technically forced exercise, it did not appear to induce stress in the marmosets. Conclusions These techniques should be useful to researchers wishing to address physiological responses of exercise in a marmoset model. PMID:25835199

  12. A Paradigm of Uphill Running

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Powell, Douglas; Milia, Raffaele; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical management of bioenergetics of runners when running uphill was investigated. Several metabolic and mechanical variables have been studied simultaneously to spread light on the locomotory strategy operated by humans for effective locomotion. The studied variables were: heart rate, heart rate variability, oxygen intake and blood lactate, metabolic cost, kinematics, ground reaction force and muscular activity. 18 high-level competitive male runners ran at 70% VO2max on different uphill slope conditions: 0%, 2% and 7%. Modifications were significant in almost all variables studied, and were more pronounced with increasing incline. Step frequency/length and ground reaction force are adjusted to cope with both the task of uphill progression and the available (limited) metabolic power. From 0% to 7% slope, step frequency and ground reaction force and metabolic cost increased concurrently by 4%, 12% and 53%, respectively (with a 4% step length decrease as well). It is hypothesised that this biomechanical management is allowed by an environment-body communication performed by means of specific muscular activity. PMID:23874850

  13. Lidar observations of run-up (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, K. M.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2010-12-01

    The time dependent position of the run-up (the intersection of the shoreward edge of the water and the beach face), the maximum run-up, and the run-up duration measured with a terrestrial lidar will be compared with predictions of a ballistic model including friction (Holland and Puleo, J. Geophys. Res., 106(C3), 2001). Cross-shore water surface profiles were obtained on July 12, 2010, at South Beach, Martha’s Vineyard, MA at about 5.07 Hz with a lidar mounted on a 2-m tall frame situated approximately 5 m landward of the maximum run-up. The beach profile was estimated from lidar measurements during run-down (when the beach was uncovered by water). Wave heights, periods, and directions in 11-m water depth were 1.3 m, 7 s, and less than 5° relative to shore normal. Initial run-up velocity was estimated from the shoreward movement of the 3 run-up locations (spanning approximately 3 m in the cross-shore) immediately following the wave collapse. The foreshore slope was estimated from the beach profile between the wave collapse and the maximum run-up. The run-up edge thickness was estimated as the average of the water depth 1 m landward of the location of the run-up edge after the wave has collapsed and the depth 1 m seaward of the run-up edge at the time of maximum run-up. The friction factor used in the ballistic model was estimated as 0.005 by fitting the model predictions to the motion of a single run-up. For the 6 run-up events examined, the model predicted the maximum run-up and the run-up duration within about 20% of the observations. Interactions between the onshore propagating wave and the run-down from a prior wave sometimes caused discrepancies between the observed run-up position and the model predictions. The observations suggest that lidar may be a useful method to obtain high-frequency measurements of run-up water surfaces and bed level changes. Funded by ONR, NSF, and NSSEFF.

  14. e-A PHYSICS AT A COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    G. T. GARVEY

    2001-01-09

    An electron-nucleus (e-A) collider with center-of-mass energy in excess of 50 GeV per electron-nucleon collision will allow the physics community to obtain unprecedented new knowledge of the partonic structure of nuclei. If reliable information is to be extracted on these partonic densities, it is essential to realize that with our current level of understanding of QCD, momentum transfers to the struck partons greater than 1 GeV/c are necessary. This requirement puts a priority on high center-of-mass energy if partonic densities are to be measured over a wide range. Comparing the partonic structure of the free nucleon to that of bound nucleons and measuring the systematic changes in that structure as a function of nucleon number (A) will provide deeper insight into the origins and dynamics of nuclear binding. In addition, e-A collisions will allow the exploration of partonic densities appreciably higher than is accessible in e-p collisions. An e-A collider will allow one to measure the gluonic structure functions of nuclei down to x {approx} 10{sup -3}, information valuable in its own right and essential to a quantitative understanding of highly relativistic A-A collisions. The time-space evolution of partons can only be investigated by studying the modifications of hard collisions that take place when nuclear targets are employed. In a hard collision the partonic fragments interact, hadronize, and reinteract on their way to the distant detectors without revealing their evolution into the hadrons finally detected. Nuclear targets of differing A place varying amounts of nuclear matter in proximity to the hard collision producing unique information about the quantum fluctuations of incident projectile prior to the collision and on the early evolution of the produced partons. Using charged leptons (e, {mu}) to investigate this physics has been the richest source of information to date and extending the reach of these investigations by the constructing an e -A collider

  15. Development work for a superconducting linear collider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheisen, Axel

    1995-01-01

    For future linear e(+)e(-) colliders in the TeV range several alternatives are under discussion. The TESLA approach is based on the advantages of superconductivity. High Q values of the accelerator structures give high efficiency for converting RF power into beam power. A low resonance frequency for the RF structures can be chosen to obtain a large number of electrons (positrons) per bunch. For a given luminosity the beam dimensions can be chosen conservatively which leads to relaxed beam emittance and tolerances at the final focus. Each individual superconducting accelerator component (resonator cavity) of this linear collider has to deliver an energy gain of 25 MeV/m to the beam. Today s.c. resonators are in use at CEBAF/USA, at DESY/Germany, Darmstadt/Germany KEK/Japan and CERN/Geneva. They show acceleration gradients between 5 MV/m and 10 MV/m. Encouraging experiments at CEA Saclay and Cornell University showed acceleration gradients of 20 MV/m and 25 MV/m in single and multicell structures. In an activity centered at DESY in Hamburg/Germany the TESLA collaboration is constructing a 500 MeV superconducting accelerator test facility (TTF) to demonstrate that a linear collider based on this technique can be built in a cost effective manner and that the necessary acceleration gradients of more than 15 MeV/m can be reached reproducibly. The test facility built at DESY covers an area of 3.000 m2 and is divided into 3 major activity areas: (1) The testlinac, where the performance ofthe modular components with an electron beam passing the 40 m long acceleration section can be demonstrated. (2) The test area, where all individual resonators are tested before installation into a module. (3) The preparation and assembly area, where assembly of cavities and modules take place. We report here on the design work to reach a reduction of costs compared to actual existing superconducting accelerator structures and on the facility set up to reach high acceleration gradients in

  16. Advances in the understanding and operations of superconducting colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Annala, G.; Bauer, P.; Bottura, L.; Martens, M.A.; Sammut, N.; Velev, G.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Chromaticity drift during injection is a well-known phenomenon in superconducting colliders, such as the Tevatron, HERA and RHIC. Imperfect compensation of the drift effects can contribute to beam loss and emittance growth. It is caused by the drift of the sextupole component in the dipole magnets due to current redistribution in its superconducting coils. Recently extensive studies of chromaticity drift were conducted at the Tevatron, aiming at the improvement of the luminosity performance in the ongoing run II. These studies included not only beam experiments, but also extensive off-line magnetic measurements on spare Tevatron dipoles. Less known, until recently, is that chromaticity drift is often accompanied by tune and coupling drift. This was recently discovered in the Tevatron. We believe that these effects are the product of systematic beam offset in conjunction with the sextupole drifts (and their compensation in the chromaticity correctors). These discoveries are most relevant to the upcoming LHC, where the drift effects will have even more dramatic consequences given the high beam current. It is therefore not a surprise that CERN has been the source of major advances in the understanding of dynamic effects during the LHC superconducting magnet development. The following will briefly review the CERN results as well as those of the recent Fermilab studies. A new result, which will be presented here also, is related to fast drifts occurring in the first few seconds of the injection plateau. Again, these fast drifts were observed first in the Tevatron and efforts are underway to explain them. Finally this paper will attempt to derive the implications of these drift effects on LHC commissioning and operation.

  17. THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS CONFIGURATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RHIC 2003 AU - D PHYSICS RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L; Benjamin, J; Blaskiewicz, M; Brennan, J M; Brown, K A; Carlson, K A; Delong, J; D' Ottavio, T; Frak, B; Gardner, C J; Glenn, J W; Harvey, M; Hayes, T; Hseuh, H- C; Ingrassia, P; Lowenstein, D; Mackay, W; Marr, G; Morris, J; Roser, T; Satogata, T; Smith, G; Smith, K S; Steski, D; Tsoupas, N; Thieberger, P; Zeno, K

    2003-05-12

    The RHIC 2003 Physics Run [1] required collisions between gold ions and deuterons. The injector necessarily had to deliver adequate quality (transverse and longitudinal emittance) and quantity of both species. For gold this was a continuing evolution from past work [2]. For deuterons it was new territory. For the filling of the RHIC the injector not only had to deliver quality beams but also had to switch between these species quickly. This paper details the collider requirements and our success in meeting these. Some details of the configurations employed are given.

  18. SETUP AND PERFORMANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS FOR THE 2007 RUN WITH GOLD IONS

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER,C.; AHRENS, L.; ALESSI, J.; BENJAMIN, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    Gold ions for the 2007 run of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are accelerated in the Tandem, Booster and AGS prior to injection into RHIC. The setup and performance of this chain of accelerators is reviewed with a focus on improvements in the quality of beam delivered to RHIC. In particular, more uniform stripping foils between Booster and AGS7 and a new bunch merging scheme in AGS have provided beam bunches with reduced longitudinal emittance for RHIC.

  19. Colliding superposed waves in the Einstein-Maxwell theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halilsoy, M.

    1989-04-15

    We reformulate the initial data on the characteristic surface for colliding waves in the Einstein-Maxwell theory. This approach takes into account the superposition principle for gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Finding exact solutions for colliding superposed waves happens to be a rather challenging problem.

  20. Design considerations for a laser-plasma linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Design considerations for a next-generation electron-positron linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed. Several of the advantages and challenges of laser-plasma-based accelerator technology are addressed. An example of the parameters for a 1 TeV laser-plasma-based collider is presented.

  1. Event simulation for colliders — A basic overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuschle, Christian

    2015-05-01

    In this article we will discuss the basic calculational concepts to simulate particle physics events at high energy colliders. We will mainly focus on the physics in hadron colliders and particularly on the simulation of the perturbative parts, where we will in turn focus on the next-to-leading order QCD corrections.

  2. The Threshold of Embedded M Collider Bias and Confounding Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelcey, Benjamin; Carlisle, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Of particular import to this study, is collider bias originating from stratification on retreatment variables forming an embedded M or bowtie structural design. That is, rather than assume an M structural design which suggests that "X" is a collider but not a confounder, the authors adopt what they consider to be a more reasonable position and…

  3. Implementation of Stochastic Cooling Hardware at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    The invention of Stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer made possible the increase in phase space density of charged particle beams. In particular, this feedback technique allowed the development of proton antiproton colliders at both CERN and Fermilab. This paper describes the development of hardware systems necessary to cool antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider complex.

  4. Implementation of stochastic cooling hardware at Fermilab's Tevatron collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.

    2011-08-01

    The invention of Stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer made possible the increase in phase space density of charged particle beams. In particular, this feedback technique allowed the development of proton antiproton colliders at both CERN and Fermilab. This paper describes the development of hardware systems necessary to cool antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider complex.

  5. Design considerations for a laser-plasma linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2008-08-01

    Design considerations for a next-generation electron-positron linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed. Several of the advantages and challenges of laser-plasma based accelerator technology are addressed. An example of the parameters for a 1 TeV laser-plasma based collider is presented.

  6. D-Zero results on W boson properties

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.

    1997-10-01

    The D0 experiment collected {approx} 15 pb{sup -1} in run 1A (1992- 1993) and {approx} 89 pb{sup -1} in run 1B (1994-1995) of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider using p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. Results from analyses of events with W and Z bosons are presented for the run 1B data samples. From W {yields} e{nu}, {mu}{nu} and Z {yields} ee, {mu}{mu} decays, the W and Z production cross sections and the W width are determined. Events with W {yields} {tau}{nu} decays are used to determine the ratio of the electroweak gauge coupling constants as a measure of lepton universality. Using W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} ee decays, the W boson mass is measured.

  7. D0 results on W boson properties

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, K.

    1997-06-01

    The D0 experiment collected {approx} 15 pb{sup -1} in run 1A (1992- 1993) and {approx}89 pb{sup -1} in run 1B (1994-1995) of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider using p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. Results from analyses of events with W and Z bosons are presented for the run 1B data samples. From W {yields} e{nu}, {mu}{nu} and Z {yields} ee, {mu}{mu} decays, the W and Z production cross sections and the W width are determined. Events with W {yields} {tau}{nu} decays are used to determine the ratio of the electroweak gauge coupling constants as a measure of lepton universality. Using W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} ee decays, the W boson mass is measured.

  8. QCD Physics at the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, Andrea

    2005-10-12

    In this contribution some of the prominent QCD physics results from CDF and D0 experiments in Run II are presented. The cross sections and the properties of jets are discussed for both the inclusive and the b-jet production. Results on the associate production of light and heavy flavour jets together with vector bosons are also reported.

  9. RF power generation for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Miller, R.H.; Pearson, C.; Spalek, G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper.

  10. Beam dynamics issues in linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1989-06-01

    The primary goal of present and future linear colliders is to maximize the integrated luminosity for the experimental program. Beam dynamics plays a central role in the maximization of integrated luminosity. It is the major issue in the production of small beam sizes and low experimental backgrounds and is also an important factor in the production of particle numbers, in the acceleration process, and in the number of bunches. The beam dynamics effects on bunches which are extracted from the damping rings, accelerated in the linac, collimated, momentum analyzed, and finally delivered to the final focus are reviewed. The effects of bunch compression, transverse and longitudinal wakefields, BNS damping, energy definition, dispersion, emittance, bunch aspect ratio, feedback, and stability are all important. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Small air showers and collider physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capdevielle, J. N.; Gawin, J.; Grochalska, B.

    1985-01-01

    At energies lower than 2.5 X 10 to the 5 GeV (in Lab. system), more accurate information on nucleon-nucleon collision (p-p collider and on primary composition now exist. The behavior of those both basic elements in cosmic ray phenomenology from ISR energy suggests some tendencies for reasonable extrapolation in the next decade 2.0x10 to the 5 to 2.0x10 to the 6 GeV. Small showers in altitude, recorded in the decade 2 X 10 to the 4 to 2 X 10 to the 5 GeV offers a good tool to testify the validity of all the Monte-Carlo simulation analysis and appreciate how nucleon-air collision are different from nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  12. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy.

    A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process.

    This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  13. QCD and jets at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapeta, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We review various aspects of jet physics in the context of hadron colliders. We start by discussing the definitions and properties of jets and recent development in this area. We then consider the question of factorization for processes with jets, in particular for cases in which jets are produced in special configurations, like for example in the region of forward rapidities. We review numerous perturbative methods for calculating predictions for jet processes, including the fixed-order calculations as well as various matching and merging techniques. We also discuss the questions related to non-perturbative effects and the role they play in precision jet studies. We describe the status of calculations for processes with jet vetoes and we also elaborate on production of jets in forward direction. Throughout the article, we present selected comparisons between state-of-the-art theoretical predictions and the data from the LHC.

  14. Illuminating new electroweak states at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel powerful strategy to perform searches for new electroweak states. Uncolored electroweak states appear in generic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) and yet are challenging to discover at hadron colliders. This problem is particularly acute when the lightest state in the electroweak multiplet is neutral and all multiplet components are approximately degenerate. In this scenario, production of the charged fields of the multiplet is followed by decay into nearly invisible states; if this decay occurs promptly, the only way to infer the presence of the reaction is through its missing energy signature. Our proposal relies on emission of photon radiation from the new charged states as a means of discriminating the signal from SM backgrounds. We demonstrate its broad applicability by studying two examples: a pure Higgsino doublet and an electroweak quintuplet field.

  15. The Structure of Jets at Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew James

    2012-08-01

    Particle physics seeks to understand the interactions and properties of the fundamental particles. To gain understanding, there is an interplay between theory and experiment. Models are proposed to explain how particles behave and interact. These models make precise predictions that can be tested. Experiments are built and executed to measure the properties of these particles, providing necessary tests for the theories that attempt to explain the realm of fundamental particles. However, there is also another level of interaction between theory and experiment; the development of new experiments demands the study of how particles will behave with respect to the measured observables toward the goal of understanding the details and idiosyncrasies of the measurements very well. Only once these are well-modeled and understood can one be con dent that the data that are measured is trustworthy. The modeling and interpretation of the physics of a proton collider, such as the LHC, is the main topic of this thesis.

  16. Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.

  17. A proof of the conformal collider bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Diego M.; Li, Daliang; Meltzer, David; Poland, David; Rejon-Barrera, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we prove that the "conformal collider bounds" originally proposed in [1] hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in dimensions d ≥ 3. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval 31/18ge a/cge 1/3 . For superconformal theories this is further reduced to 3/2ge a/cge 1/2 . The proof relies only on CFT first principles — in particular, bootstrap methods — and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.

  18. Ground motion data for International Collider models

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, J.T.; LeBrun, P.; Shiltsev, V.; Singatulin, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01

    The proposed location for the International Linear Collider (ILC) in the Americas region is Fermilab in Batavia Illinois. If built at this location the tunnels would be located in the Galena Platteville shale at a depth of 100 or more meters below the surface. Studies using hydro static water levels and seismometers have been conducted in the MINOS hall and the LaFrange Mine in North Aurora Illinois to determine the level of ground motion. Both these locations are in the Galena Platteville shale and indicate the typical ground motion to be expected for the ILC. The data contains both natural and cultural noise. Coefficients for the ALT law are determined. Seismic measurements at the surface and 100 meters below the surface are presented.

  19. Beam Dynamics Considerations in Electron Ion Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear physics community is converging on the idea that the next large project after FRIB should be an electron-ion collider. Both Brookhaven National Lab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have developed accelerator designs, both of which need novel solutions to accelerator physics problems. In this talk we discuss some of the problems that must be solved and their solutions. Examples in novel beam optics systems, beam cooling, and beam polarization control will be presented. Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  20. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, A.; Binderbauer, M.; Liu, F.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F. J.

    2004-02-01

    The Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System, CBFR-SPS, is an aneutronic, magnetic-field-reversed configuration, fueled by an energetic-ion mixture of hydrogen and boron11 (H-B11). Particle confinement and transport in the CBFR-SPS are classical, hence the system is scaleable. Fusion products are helium ions, α-particles, expelled axially out of the system. α-particles flowing in one direction are decelerated and their energy recovered to ``power'' the system; particles expelled in the opposite direction provide thrust. Since the fusion products are charged particles, the system does not require the use of a massive-radiation shield. This paper describes a 100 MW CBFR-SPS design, including estimates for the propulsion-system parameters and masses. Specific emphasis is placed on the design of a closed-cycle, Brayton-heat engine, consisting of heat-exchangers, turbo-alternator, compressor, and finned radiators.

  1. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. PMID:26837933

  2. Artist rendering of dust grains colliding at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Clues to the formation of planets and planetary rings -- like Saturn's dazzling ring system -- may be found by studying how dust grains interact as they collide at low speeds. To study the question of low-speed dust collisions, NASA sponsored the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE) at the University of Colorado. It was designed to spring-launch marble-size projectiles into trays of powder similar to space or lunar dust. COLLIDE-1 (1998) discovered that collisions below a certain energy threshold eject no material. COLLIDE-2 was designed to identify where the threshold is. In COLLIDE-2, scientists nudged small projectiles into dust beds and recorded how the dust splashed outward (video frame at top; artist's rendering at bottom). The slowest impactor ejected no material and stuck in the target. The faster impactors produced ejecta; some rebounded while others stuck in the target.

  3. Time resolved diagnostics of ions in colliding carbon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ravi Pratap; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2014-11-14

    We report a comparative study of the dynamic behaviour of ions at different pressures in laser ablated colliding and single plasma plumes using 2D imaging, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and a retarding field analyser (RFA). 2D imaging shows the splitting of plasma plumes due to different velocities of various plasma species. OES shows enhancement in abundance of ionic species with their presence for a longer time in colliding plume. C{sub 2} molecular formation is seen at later time in colliding plume compared to single plume and is attributed to dominating collisional processes in the colliding region of the plumes. The time of flight distribution of ions traced by the RFA shows the variation with change in fluence as well as ambient pressure for both colliding and single plume. Time of flight analysis of ions also shows the appearance of a fast peak in ion signal due to acceleration of ions at larger fluence.

  4. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  5. Linear Collider Flavour Identification status report: Sensors for the International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    The Linear Collider Flavour Identification (LCFI) collaboration is continuing the work to develop column-parallel CCDs (CPCCD) and CMOS readout chips to be used in the vertex detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The CPCCD achieves several orders of magnitude faster readout than conventional CCDs because every column is equipped with amplifier and ADC, enabling efficient data taking with low occupancy. Already two generations of CPCCDs and readout chips have been manufactured and the first chips have been fully tested. The second generation devices are now being evaluated. A new CCD-based device, the in-situ storage image sensor (ISIS) has also been developed. The ISIS offers numerous advantages in terms of relaxed readout, increased radiation hardness and great immunity to EMI. In this paper we present the results from the tests of the CPCCDs, readout chips and ISIS, as well as the plans for future developments.

  6. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Calorimetry at a Future Electron-Positron Collider (3/4)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-17

    Calorimetry will play a central role in determining the physics reach at a future e+e- collider. The requirements for calorimetry place the emphasis on achieving an excellent jet energy resolution. The currently favoured option for calorimetry at a future e+e- collider is the concept of high granularity particle flow calorimetry. Here granularity and a high pattern recognition capability is more important than the single particle calorimetric response. In this lecture I will describe the recent progress in understanding the reach of high granularity particle flow calorimetry and the related R&D; efforts which concentrate on test beam demonstrations of the technological options for highly granular calorimeters. I will also discuss alternatives to particle flow, for example the technique of dual readout calorimetry.

  7. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Calorimetry at a Future Electron-Positron Collider (3/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Calorimetry will play a central role in determining the physics reach at a future e+e- collider. The requirements for calorimetry place the emphasis on achieving an excellent jet energy resolution. The currently favoured option for calorimetry at a future e+e- collider is the concept of high granularity particle flow calorimetry. Here granularity and a high pattern recognition capability is more important than the single particle calorimetric response. In this lecture I will describe the recent progress in understanding the reach of high granularity particle flow calorimetry and the related R&D; efforts which concentrate on test beam demonstrations of the technological options for highly granular calorimeters. I will also discuss alternatives to particle flow, for example the technique of dual readout calorimetry.

  8. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  9. Supersymmetric QCD one-loop effects in (un)polarized top-pair production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, Stefan; Hollik, Wolfgang; Mosle, Wolf M.; Wackeroth, Doreen

    2007-08-01

    We study the effects of O({alpha}{sub s}) supersymmetric QCD (SQCD) corrections on the total production rate and kinematic distributions of polarized and unpolarized top-pair production in pp and pp collisions. At the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider, top-quark pairs are mainly produced via quark-antiquark annihilation, qq{yields}tt, while at the CERN LHC pp collider gluon-gluon scattering, gg{yields}tt, dominates. We compute the complete set of O({alpha}{sub s}) SQCD corrections to both production channels and study their dependence on the parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. In particular, we discuss the prospects for observing strong, loop-induced SUSY effects in top-pair production at the Tevatron run II and the LHC.

  10. Search for new physics in photon-lepton events in pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.8 TeV.

    PubMed

    Acosta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berge, J P; Berryhill, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bishai, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; van den Brink, S; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Bruner, N; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlsmith, D; Carlson, J; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M-T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, J Y; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Colijn, A P; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; DeJongh, F; Demers, S; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Done, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Dunietz, I; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Elias, J E; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Fang, H-C; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Frisch, H J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Gerstein, E; Giannetti, P; Giolo, K; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Grim, G; Gris, P; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Ivanov, A; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karagoz Unel, M; Karr, K; Kartal, S; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Kongisberg, J; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, K; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, J B; Liu, T; Liu, Y C; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N S; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; McIntyre, P; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Manca, G; Mangano, M; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, A; Martin, V; Matthews, J A J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, J S; Miller, R; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakano, I; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C-Y P; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paus, C; Paulini, M; Pellett, D; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pitts, K T; Pompos, A; Pope, G; Pratt, T; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Rakitine, A; Ratnikov, F; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Renton, P; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Roy, A; Ruiz, A; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Sedov, A; Segler, S; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Singh, P; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, C; Snider, F D; Solodsky, A

    2002-07-22

    We present the results of a search in pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.8 TeV for anomalous production of events containing a photon and a lepton (e or mu), both with large transverse energy, using 86 pb(-1) of data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab during the 1994-1995 collider run at the Fermilab Tevatron. The presence of large missing transverse energy (E(T)), additional photons, or additional leptons in these events is also analyzed. The results are consistent with standard model expectations, with the possible exception of photon-lepton events with large E(T), for which the observed total is 16 events and the expected mean total is 7.6+/-0.7 events. PMID:12144476

  11. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Dennis M; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2004-11-18

    Striding bipedalism is a key derived behaviour of hominids that possibly originated soon after the divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages. Although bipedal gaits include walking and running, running is generally considered to have played no major role in human evolution because humans, like apes, are poor sprinters compared to most quadrupeds. Here we assess how well humans perform at sustained long-distance running, and review the physiological and anatomical bases of endurance running capabilities in humans and other mammals. Judged by several criteria, humans perform remarkably well at endurance running, thanks to a diverse array of features, many of which leave traces in the skeleton. The fossil evidence of these features suggests that endurance running is a derived capability of the genus Homo, originating about 2 million years ago, and may have been instrumental in the evolution of the human body form. PMID:15549097

  12. Running spectral index from inflation with modulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: fuminobu.takahashi@ipmu.jp

    2011-01-01

    We argue that a large negative running spectral index, if confirmed, might suggest that there are abundant structures in the inflaton potential, which result in a fairly large (both positive and negative) running of the spectral index at all scales. It is shown that the center value of the running spectral index suggested by the recent CMB data can be easily explained by an inflaton potential with superimposed periodic oscillations. In contrast to cases with constant running, the perturbation spectrum is enhanced at small scales, due to the repeated modulations. We mention that such features at small scales may be seen by 21 cm observations in the future.

  13. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    PubMed

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway. PMID:1806725

  14. First measurement and correction of nonlinear errors in the experimental insertions of the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, E. H.; Tomás, R.; Giovannozzi, M.; Persson, T. H. B.

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear magnetic errors in low-β insertions can contribute significantly to detuning with amplitude, linear and nonlinear chromaticity, and lead to degradation of dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. As such, the correction of nonlinear errors in the experimental insertions of colliders can be of critical significance for successful operation. This is expected to be of particular relevance to the LHC's second run and its high luminosity upgrade, as well as to future colliders such as the Future Circular Collider. Current correction strategies envisioned for these colliders assume it will be possible to calculate optimized local corrections through the insertions, using a magnetic model of the errors. This paper shows however, that reliance purely upon magnetic measurements of the nonlinear errors of insertion elements is insufficient to guarantee a good correction quality in the relevant low-β* regime. It is possible to perform beam-based examination of nonlinear magnetic errors via the feed-down to readily observed beam properties upon application of closed orbit bumps, and methods based upon feed-down to tune have been utilized at RHIC, SIS18, and SPS. This paper demonstrates the extension of such methodology to include direct observation of feed-down to linear coupling in the LHC. It is further shown that such beam-based studies can be used to complement magnetic measurements performed during LHC construction, in order to validate and refine the magnetic model of the collider. Results from first attempts of the measurement and correction of nonlinear errors in the LHC experimental insertions are presented. Several discrepancies of beam-based studies with respect to the LHC magnetic model are reported.

  15. Using Drell-Yan to probe the underlying event in Run II at Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Deepak

    2008-12-01

    We study the behavior of charged particles produced in association with Drell-Yan lepton-pairs in the region of the Z-boson in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV. We use the direction of the Z-boson in each event to define 'toward', 'away', and 'transverse' regions. For Drell-Yan production (excluding the leptons) both the 'toward' and 'transverse' regions are very sensitive to the 'underlying event', which is defined as everything except the two hard scattered components. The data are corrected to the particle level and are then compared with several PYTHIA models (with multiple parton interactions) and HERWIG (without multiple parton interactions) at the particle level (i.e. generator level). The data are also compared with a previous analysis on the behavior of the 'underlying event' in high transverse momentum jet production. The goal is to produce data that can be used by the theorists to tune and improve the QCD Monte-Carlo models of the 'underlying event' that are used to simulate hadron-hadron collisions.

  16. First measurements of inclusive W and Z cross sections from run II of the fermilab tevatron collider.

    PubMed

    Acosta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Arguin, J-F; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barker, G J; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Booth, P S L; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canepa, A; Casarsa, M; Carlsmith, D; Carron, S; Carosi, R; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerri, C; Cerrito, L; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chu, M L; Chuang, S; Chung, J Y; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A G; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; Dagenhart, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Doksus, P; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Donini, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Drollinger, V; Ebina, K; Eddy, N; Ely, R; Erbacher, R; Erdmann, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H-C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flanagan, G; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Frisch, H; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallas, A; Galyardt, J; Gallinaro, M; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D W; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, D; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heider, E; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M A; Huffman, B T; Huang, Y; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Issever, C; Ivanov, A; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jarrell, J; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S; Junk, T; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kartal, S; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; King, B T; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Koehn, P; Kong, D J; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kotelnikov, K; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuznetsova, N; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lazzizzera, I; Le, Y; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Manca, G; Marginean, R; Martin, M; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P M; McNamara, P; Ncnulty, R; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, L; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Moulik, T; Movilla Fernandez, P A; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, T; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakamura, I; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Napora, R; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Niell, F; Nielsen, J; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Newman-Holmes, C; Nicollerat, A-S; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Oesterberg, K; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohsugi, T; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Plager, C; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Poukhov, O; Prakoshyn, F; Pratt, T; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reichold, A; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Russ, J; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schemitz, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Siket, M; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Somalwar, S V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spiegel, L; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Squillacioti, P; Stadie, H; Stefanini, A; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takach, S F; Takano, H; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tapprogge, S; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Trischuk, W; Tseng, J; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Turner, M; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Volobouev, I; von der Mey, M; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Yamashita, T; Yamamoto, K; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolter, M; Worcester, M; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyatt, A; Yagil, A; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yoon, P; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhou, J; Zsenei, A; Zucchelli, S

    2005-03-11

    We report the first measurements of inclusive W and Z cross sections times leptonic branching ratios for pp collisions at square root[s]=1.96 TeV, based on their decays to electrons and muons. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 72 pb(-1) recorded with the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We test e-mu universality in W decays, and we measure the ratio of leptonic W and Z rates from which the leptonic branching fraction B(W-->lnu) can be extracted as well as an indirect value for the total width of the W and the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element, |V(cs)|. PMID:15783955

  17. Running a typical ROOT HEP analysis on Hadoop MapReduce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, S. A.; Pinamonti, M.; Cobal, M.

    2014-06-01

    We evaluate how a typical ROOT High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis can be executed on Hadoop MapReduce. We take into account several aspects and we propose a method to perform the analysis in a completely transparent way to ROOT, the data and the user: the goal is to let ROOT run without any modifications and to store the data in its original format. The solutions which has been found to solve the encountered problems can be easily ported to any HEP code, and in general to any code working on binary data relying on independent sub-problems like HEP particle collision events. We tested the method by running an analysis code for the top quark pair production cross section measurement with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in the CERN laboratory.

  18. Status and prospects of the nMSSM after LHC Run-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barducci, D.; Bélanger, G.; Hugonie, C.; Pukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    The new minimal supersymmetric standard model (nMSSM), a variant of the general next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) without Z 3 symmetry, features a naturally light singlino with a mass below 75 GeV. In light of the new constraints from LHC Run-1 on the Higgs couplings, sparticles searches and flavour observables, we define the parameter space of the model which is compatible with both collider and dark matter (DM) properties. Among the regions compatible with these constraints, implemented through NMSSMTools, SModelS and MadAnalysis5, only one with a singlino lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) with a mass around 5 GeV can explain all the DM abundance of the universe, while heavier mixed singlinos can only form one of the DM components. Typical collider signatures for each region of the parameter space are investigated. In particular, the decay of the 125 GeV Higgs into light scalars and/or pseudoscalars and the decay of the heavy Higgs into charginos and neutralinos, provide distinctive signatures of the model. Moreover, the sfermion decays usually proceed through heavier neutralinos rather than directly into the LSP, as the couplings to the singlino are suppressed. We also show that direct detection searches are complementary to collider ones, and that a future ton-scale detector could completely probe the region of parameter space with a LSP mass around 65 GeV.

  19. Multi-waveband observations of colliding galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Robson, E. I.; Schombert, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Colliding galaxies represent a major challenge to both theorists and observers because of the large variety of phenomena which are expected to come into play during the interaction. Strong gravitational fluctuations may drive non-linear waves and instabilities throughout the stars and gas leading to enhanced star formation, nuclear activity and ultimately a mixing of the morphological components of the original galaxies. One relatively uncomplicated class of colliding galaxy where stellar waves play an important role in star formation are ring galaxies. Ring galaxies are probably formed when a companion galaxy passes through the center of a disk system driving circular waves through the disk (Lynds and Toomre 1976, Toomre 1978, Struck-Marcell 1990). Off-center collisions can generate non-circular waves and can be loosely described as banana-shaped although they may exhibit more complex forms as the waves expand into the disk. The propagation of such stellar and gaseous waves through the disk leads to enhanced star formation (e.g., Appleton and Struck-Marcell 1987a; Jeske 1986) and provides a unique probe of the response of the interstellar medium (ISM) to a propagating wave (see Appleton and Struck-Marcell 1987b). Here, the authors report results for 3 systems; the irregular ring Arp 143 (=VV 117); Wakamatsu's Seyfert ring (A0959-755; see Wakamatsu and Nishida 1987) and the brighter member of the pair of ring galaxies comprising of AM 1358-221. The most complete multi-wavelength data is for Arp 143. Optical charge coupled device (CCD) observations made with the 60 inch Palomar telescope at BV and r band, near-IR images at J (1.25 microns), H (1.65 microns) and k (2.2 microns) bands from the infrared camera (IRCAM) InSb array camera on the 3.8m United Kingdon Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) telescope and very large array (VLA) observations at 20cm in both the neutral hydrogen line and radio continuum are described. The observations of Wakamatsu's ring and AM 1358 were

  20. Overview of the Tevatron Collider Complex: Goals, Operations and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Stephen; Moore, Ronald S.; Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    For more than two decades the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for numerous physics discoveries and for many technological breakthroughs. In this article we outline the historical background that led to the construction of the Tevatron Collider, the strategy applied to evolution of performance goals over the Tevatron's operational history, and briefly describe operations of each accelerator in the chain and achieved performance.