Science.gov

Sample records for 1996-2004 amtslig karkirurgisk

  1. [Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela.

  2. Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area, 1996-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Julian, Bruce R.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Richards-Dinger, Keith; Monastero, Francis

    2006-03-31

    Local-earthquake tomographic images were calculated for each of the years 1996 - 2004 using arrival times from the U.S. Navy’s permanent seismometer network at the Coso geothermal area, California. The results show irregular strengthening with time of the wave-speed ratio VP/VS at shallow depths. These changes result predominately from progressive relative increase in VS with respect to VP, and could result from processes associated with geothermal operations such as decrease in fluid pressure and the drying of argillaceous minerals such as illite.

  3. Titan's 2 micron Surface Albedo and Haze Optical Depth in 1996-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S; de Pater, I; Macintosh, B; Roe, H; Max, C; Young, E; McKay, C

    2004-05-04

    We observed Titan in 1996-2004 with high-resolution 2 {micro}m speckle and adaptive optics imaging at the W.M. Keck Observatory. By observing in a 2 {micro}m broadband filter we obtain images that have contributions from both Titan's surface and atmosphere. We have modeled Titan's atmosphere using a plane-parallel radiative transfer code that has been corrected to agree with 3-D Monte Carlo predictions. We find that Titan's surface albedo ranges from {le} 0:02 in the darkest equatorial region of the trailing hemisphere to {approx_equal} 0:1 in the brightest areas of the leading hemisphere. Over the past quarter of a Saturnian year haze optical depth in Titan's Southern hemisphere has decreased substantially from a value of 0.48 in 1996 down to 0.18 in 2004, while the northern haze has been increasing over the past few years. As a result of these changes, in 2004 the North/South haze asymmetry at K' band has disappeared.

  4. Titan's 2 μm surface albedo and haze optical depth in 1996-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, S. G.; de Pater, I.; Macintosh, B. A.; Roe, H. G.; Max, C. E.; Young, E. F.; McKay, C. P.

    2004-07-01

    We observed Titan in 1996-2004 with high-resolution 2 μm speckle and adaptive optics imaging at the W. M. Keck Observatory. By observing in a 2 μm broadband filter we obtain images that have contributions from both Titan's surface and atmosphere. We have modeled Titan's atmosphere using a plane-parallel radiative transfer code that has been corrected to agree with 3-D Monte Carlo predictions. We find that Titan's surface albedo ranges from <=0.02 in the darkest equatorial region of the trailing hemisphere to $\\simeq$0.1 in the brightest areas of the leading hemisphere. Over the past quarter of a Saturnian year haze optical depth in Titan's Southern hemisphere has decreased substantially from a value of 0.48 in 1996 down to 0.18 in 2004, while the northern haze has been increasing over the past few years. As a result of these changes, in 2004 the North/South haze asymmetry at K' band has disappeared.

  5. Medicaid payment rates, case-mix reimbursement, and nursing home staffing--1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhanlian; Grabowski, David C; Intrator, Orna; Zinn, Jacqueline; Mor, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    We examined the impact of state Medicaid payment rates and case-mix reimbursement on direct care staffing levels in US nursing homes. We used a recent time series of national nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting system for 1996-2004, merged with annual state Medicaid payment rates and case-mix reimbursement information. A 5-category response measure of total staffing levels was defined according to expert recommended thresholds, and examined in a multinomial logistic regression model. Facility fixed-effects models were estimated separately for Registered Nurse (RN), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), and Certified Nurse Aide (CNA) staffing levels measured as average hours per resident day. Higher Medicaid payment rates were associated with increases in total staffing levels to meet a higher recommended threshold. However, these gains in overall staffing were accompanied by a reduction of RN staffing and an increase in both LPN and CNA staffing levels. Under case-mix reimbursement, the likelihood of nursing homes achieving higher recommended staffing thresholds decreased, as did levels of professional staffing. Independent of the effects of state, market, and facility characteristics, there was a significant downward trend in RN staffing and an upward trend in both LPN and CNA staffing. Although overall staffing may increase in response to more generous Medicaid reimbursement, it may not translate into improvements in the skill mix of staff. Adjusting for reimbursement levels and resident acuity, total staffing has not increased after the implementation of case-mix reimbursement.

  6. [Bibliometric map of Spain 1996-2004: biomedicine and health sciences].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Vásquez, Raúl Isaac; Suñén-Pinyol, Eduard; Cervelló, Rosa; Camí, Jordi

    2008-03-01

    The study presents the bibliometric analysis of the Spanish scientific output in biomedicine during 1996-2004. This is the last edition of a series of bibliometric studies aimed to characterize the Spanish scientific performance in biomedicine. The analysis was restricted to citable documents for which simple and composite bibliometric indicators were obtained at different aggregation levels: fields, autonomous regions, institutional sectors and research centres. The documents were selected according to the Journal Citation Reports, and were assigned to affiliation centres following an integer counting scheme after an exhaustive normalization of the affiliation addresses. Compared to the period 1994-2002, research activity in biomedicine grew as much as Spain: 8.9% in the number of documents; 22.5% citations; 12.5% citation per document average and 27.2% international cooperation. Besides, biomedicine showed the highest citation per document average compared to other major fields. International cooperation in biomedicine (27.2%) reached the European average. The documents published in international cooperation account for the half of citations to documents in biomedicine. The number of documents and citations belonging to the clinic medicine subfield and to the health sector showed the highest growth. In general, these results reproduce the tendencies described in prior studies. The documents in biomedicine showed a highly asymmetric distribution among institutional sectors, autonomous regions, scientific fields and research centres. The remarkably increase in the output of clinical medicine field and in the health sector could be the consequence of important science policy actions undertaken in these areas in the last years.

  7. The Impact of Increased Tax Subsidies on the Insurance Coverage of Self-Employed Families: Evidence from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The share of health insurance premiums that self-employed workers can deduct when computing federal income taxes rose from 30 percent in 1996 to 100 percent in 2003. Data from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey are used to show that the increased tax subsidy was associated with substantial increases in private coverage among…

  8. [Epidemiology of occupationally-caused carpal tunnel syndrome in the province of Alicante, Spain 1996-2004].

    PubMed

    Roel-Valdés, José; Arizo-Luque, Vanessa; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the major health problems of workers who perform tasks entailing intense manual stress and repetitive movements of the upper limbs. The implementation of regulations and social changes, as well as the incorporation of women into the working world bring to bear the need of ascertaining whether any changes have taken place in the pattern of occurrence of this syndrome and in the factors conditioning the same. The objectives of this study are to know the frequency with which this syndrome occurs in the province of Alicante, to discover the work-related characteristics of those individuals affected thereby, to analyze the procedure followed for treatment and rehabilitation and to delve into the situation of those affected upon their return to work. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population studies was comprised of all those workers for whom an occupational disease report was remitted to the Safety and Health Commission within the 1996-2004 period. A total of 266 reports of occupational disease due to carpal tunnel syndrome were filed. The incidence rate was 4.2 cases per 100,000 workers. A total of 62.8% of the cases were females, 25% of whom were under 30 years of age. The average length of employment at the company was 132.3 months. The risk factors most often mentioned are performing repetitive movements and activities requiring manual strength.

  9. Discourse analysis: theoretical and historical overview and review of papers in the Journal of Advanced Nursing 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the paper is (1) to offer an overview of different theoretical approaches to discourse analysis and (2) to review papers published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing from 1996-2004 in which discourse analysis is identified as a method of data analysis. Discourse analysis offers rigorous approaches to analysing naturally occurring talk and texts. Forms of discourse analysis have developed across broad theoretical bases. Such development has created challenges for researchers wishing to adopt this methodology and readers wishing to evaluate the quality of discourse analytic work. First, key documents which describe the theoretical range of discourse analysis are used to provide (i) a comprehensive overview of the approach, (ii) the identification of categories of discourse analysis and (iii) minimum criteria for determining if an individual paper can realistically claim to be adopting discourse analysis. Secondly, an electronic search followed by hand search of the Journal of Advanced Nursing full-contents between 1996 and 2004 was undertaken. The papers were grouped into the types of approach identified in i, and evaluated to see whether they met the 'minimum criteria' also identified in i. The search of Journal of Advanced Nursing revealed 24 papers where the authors stated that discourse analysis was among the methods or was the sole method of data analysis. The majority of the papers cluster around critical approaches to discourse analysis. Only a few approach discourse analysis primarily as analysis of conversation. Some papers are excellent, while others offer analysis that bears little resemblance to any form of discourse analysis. A strategy for improvement could include more rigorous attention on the part of those practising discourse analysis to methodology and the key features that differentiate the different approaches to discourse analysis from other qualitative methods. Authors should include sufficient detail of their approach.

  10. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  11. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacterial infections associated with the use of animal wastes in Louisiana for the period 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2006-03-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential non-point source of water degradation. Human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. Health concerns could exist from exposure to pathogens and excess nitrogen associated with this form of pollution. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze health data related to Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacterial infections associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana for the years 1996-2004. An analysis of adverse health effects associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana was conducted based on the incidence/prevalence rate for the studied years. The number of reported cases increased during the summer months. Analysis of health data of the studied years showed that the number of reported disease cases of E. coli O157:H7 were highest among Caucasian infants in the 0-4 year old age category and in Caucasian children in the 5-9 year old age category. Although the number of cases declined with age, a slight increase in rates was seen among the elderly population. While the rate of reported cases per 100,000 people remained the same for the years of 1999 and 2000, the rate decreased by 60% from the year 2000 to 2001. A slight decline of the number of cases that was also reported for the years 2002 and 2003. The high rate of identification in the younger population may result from the prompt seeking of medical care when symptoms become evident among infants and young children as well as the frequent ordering of stool examination when symptoms become evident in this population group. It was also noted that areas that had a higher number of reported cases also had a greater number of

  12. Prevalence of smoking among major movie characters: 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Worth, Keilah A; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D

    2006-12-01

    Reports of a relationship between watching smoking in movies and smoking among adolescents have prompted greater scrutiny of smoking in movies by the public health community. To assess the smoking prevalence among adult and adolescent movie characters, examine trends in smoking in movies over time, and compare the data with actual smoking prevalence among US adults and adolescents. Smoking status of all major human adolescent and adult movie characters in the top 100 box office hits from 1996 to 2004 (900 movies) was assessed, and smoking prevalence was examined by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and year of release. The movies contained 5944 major characters, of whom 4911 were adults and 466 were adolescents. Among adult movie characters, the overall smoking prevalence was 20.6%; smoking was more common in men than in women (22.6% v 16.1%, respectively, p<0.001), and was related to MPAA rating category (26.9% for movies rated R (restricted, people aged <17 years require accompanying adult), 17.9% for PG-13 (parents strongly cautioned that some material might be inappropriate for children) and 10.4% for G/PG (general audiences, all ages; parental guidance suggested for children), p<0.001). In 1996, the smoking prevalence for major adult movie characters (25.7%) was similar to that in the actual US population (24.7%). Smoking prevalence among adult movie characters declined to 18.4% in 2004 (p for trend <0.001), slightly below that for the US population for that year (20.9%). Examination of trends by MPAA rating showed that the downward trend in smoking among adult movie characters was statistically significant in movies rated G/PG and R, but not in those rated PG-13. A downward trend over time was also found for smoking among adolescent movie characters. There was no smoking among adult characters in 43.3% of the movies; however, in 39% of the movies, smoking prevalence among adult characters was higher than that in the US adult population in the year of release. Smoking prevalence among major adolescent and adult movie characters is declining, with the downward trend among adult characters weakest for PG-13-rated movies. Although many movies depict no adult smoking, more than one third depict smoking as more prevalent than that among US adults at the time of release.

  13. The association between changes in height and obesity in Chilean preschool children: 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Sanja; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-04-01

    To establish the association between changes in height and prevalence of obesity between 1996 and 2004 in Chilean preschool children. Children registered in the Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI) preschool program were routinely measured three times a year and in consecutive years. Two indices [weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) and BMI centiles] were used to define obesity. Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) were used to define stature. Generalized estimating equations were used to describe the relationship between stature and obesity while controlling for repeated measurements in children. The prevalence of obesity in Chilean preschool children has remained relatively constant over the past 9 years when either index is used. The prevalence of stunted (HAZ2) has increased. Using WHZ to define obesity, stunted children do not seem to be at increased risk of obesity when compared with children of normal height. Tall children were strongly protected from obesity when either criterion was used to define obesity. The lack of association between stunting and obesity using WHZ>or=2 likely reflects the fact that Chile is in the post-transitional phase of the nutrition transition, and stunting is no longer a risk factor for obesity; however, the associations observed between stunting and BMI suggest that either WHZ or BMI, or both, are inaccurate criteria to define overweight. There is a unique relationship between stature and obesity in preschool children that is different from that observed in older children in the same population.

  14. Secular and seasonal trends in obesity in Chilean preschool children, 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Sanja; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2008-09-01

    Chile is a unique example of the nutrition transition, with improvements in undernutrition and subsequent rapid increases in obesity occurring at a rate much faster than in other countries. This study aims to describe the cross-sectional obesity trends in Chilean preschool children from 1996 to 2004. Anthropometric measurements from preschool children (ages 2-5) registered in the Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles program from 1996 to 2004 were analysed. The weight-for-height z score using the World Health Organization 1977/1985 reference curves for age, sex, height, and weight were defined to estimate overweight and obesity. The overall trends in obesity were described for each study year and generalized estimating equation models were used to describe trends in obesity after adjusting for the correlated nature of repeated measurements in individual children in consecutive years. The prevalence of obese and overweight children has remained constant in both boys and girls during the past 9 years; however, after adjustment for repeated measurements in individual children, the odds of obesity increased by 30% each year (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.31, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the odds of obesity were significantly greater in both August and November compared with March. The prevalence of obesity in Chilean preschool children continues to be a major public health concern, and cross-sectional trends may underestimate the magnitude of the problem.

  15. Seafloor habitat mapping and classification in Glacier Bay, Alaska: Phase 1 & 2 1996-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, Philip N.; Carlson, Paul R.; Mondragon, Jennifer; Etherington, Lisa L.; Cochran, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Glacier Bay is a diverse fjord ecosystem with multiple sills, numerous tidewater glaciers and a highly complex oceanographic system. The Bay was completely glaciated prior to the 1700’s and subsequently experienced the fastest glacial retreat recorded in historical times. Currently, some of the highest sedimentation rates ever observed occur in the Bay, along with rapid uplift (up to 2.5 cm/year) due to a combination of plate tectonics and isostatic rebound. Glacier Bay is the second deepest fjord in Alaska, with depths over 500 meters. This variety of physical processes and bathymetry creates many diverse habitats within a relatively small area (1,255 km2 ). Habitat can be defined as the locality, including resources and environmental conditions, occupied by a species or population of organisms (Morrison et al 1992). Mapping and characterization of benthic habitat is crucial to an understanding of marine species and can serve a variety of purposes including: understanding species distributions and improving stock assessments, designing special management areas and marine protected areas, monitoring and protecting important habitats, and assessing habitat change due to natural or human impacts. In 1996, Congress recognized the importance of understanding benthic habitat for fisheries management by reauthorizing the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and amending it with the Sustainable Fisheries Act (SFA). This amendment emphasizes the importance of habitat protection to healthy fisheries and requires identification of essential fish habitat in management decisions. Recently, the National Park Service’s Ocean Stewardship Strategy identified the creation of benthic habitat maps and sediment maps as crucial components to complete basic ocean park resource inventories (Davis 2003). Glacier Bay National Park managers currently have very limited knowledge about the bathymetry, sediment types, and various marine habitats of ecological importance in the Park. Ocean floor bathymetry and sediment type are the building blocks of marine communities. Bottom type and shape affects the kinds of benthic communities that develop in a particular environment as well as the oceanographic conditions that communities are subject to. Accurate mapping of the ocean floor is essential for park manager’s understanding of existing marine communities and will be important in assessing human induced changes (e.g., vessel traffic and commercial fishing), biological change (e.g., rapid sea otter recolonization), and geological processes of change (e.g., deglaciation). Information on animal-habitat relationships, particularly within a marine reserve framework, will be valuable to agencies making decisions about critical habitats, marine reserve design, as well as fishery management. Identification and mapping of benthic habitat provides National Park Service mangers with tools to increase the effectiveness of resource management. The primary objective of this project is to investigate the geological characteristics of the biological habitats of halibut, Dungeness crab, king crab, and Tanner crab within Glacier Bay National Park. Additionally, habitat classification of shallow water regions of Glacier Bay will provide crucial information on the relationship between benthic habitat features and the abundance of benthic prey items for a variety of marine predators, including sea ducks, the rapidly increasing population of sea otters, and other marine mammals. 

  16. Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area, 1996-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    The permanent 18-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the seismically active Coso geothermal area, California, provides high-quality microearthquake (MEQ) data that are well suited to investigating temporal variations in structure related to processes within the geothermal reservoir. A preliminary study [Julian, et al., 2003; Julian, et al., 2004] comparing data from 1996 and 2003 found significant variations in the ratio of the seismic wave-speeds, Vp/Vs, at shallow depths over this time interval. This report describes results of a more detailed study of each year from 1996 through 2004.

  17. Volcano-tectonic deformation at Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, northern California, from GPS: 1996-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, M.; Poland, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Owen, S.

    2004-12-01

    Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes are two of the three Cascade volcanoes targeted for dense GPS and strainmeter deployments by the magmatic systems component of Earthscope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). Leveling surveys indicate an average subsidence rate of ˜9 mm/yr at Medicine Lake volcano since at least 1954, which could result from draining of a magma reservoir, cooling/crystallization of a subsurface body of magma or hot rock, loading by the volcano and dense intrusions, crustal thinning due to regional extension, or some combination of these mechanisms. Displacements from GPS surveys in 1996 and 1999 revealed regional block rotation and contraction across the summit of the volcano, but the time interval was too short to distinguish between possible mechanisms. On Mount Shasta, a 21-line, 12-km aperture EDM network was measured in 1981, 1982, and 1984 with no significant deformation detected, nor was there significant length change in three EDM lines recovered with GPS in 2000. We present results from GPS surveys completed in June and July 2004 of the region surrounding both Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes. We find regional deformation to be dominated by a block rotation about a pole in southeast Oregon, similar to but generally south of poles determined by other workers using GPS in western Oregon and Washington. No significant residual deformation remains in the four GPS stations located on Mount Shasta, which were previously measured in 2000. In contrast, GPS results from six stations on the upper flanks of Medicine Lake volcano confirm the known subsidence and are consistent with elastic half-space models of volume loss that fit the leveling data. No significant residual regional strain was detected. As a result, we believe that subsidence at Medicine Lake does not likely result from crustal thinning due to regional extension. A more detailed examination of Medicine Lake subsidence sources, Mount Shasta edifice deformation, and possible local and regional temporal deformation changes will be available after installation of continuous GPS stations and strainmeters by the Plate Boundary Observatory. In addition, we have begun annual microgravity measurements that in the future should help to distinguish between possible deformation mechanisms for Medicine Lake volcano.

  18. Estimates of Continental Plate Motions Derived From Continuous GPS Measurements of Station Coordinates and Velocities, 1996-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, D. A.

    2004-05-01

    Analysis Centres of the International GPS Service (IGS) currently compute daily Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) and weekly precise coordinates for over 200 globally distributed tracking stations. These estimates are made available to the scientific community in the Solution Independent Exchange (SINEX) format, developed for exchange and analysis of position estimates from techniques such as SLR, LLR, VLBI, DORIS and GPS. On behalf of the IGS, National Resources Canada (NRCan) has been combining, officially since 1999, all weekly SINEX files from the ACs to form weekly and cumulative solutions. The weekly solution (named igsyyPwwww, yy = 2-digit year, wwww = 4-digit GPS week) contains estimates of station coordinates, ERPs and geocentre pertaining to the GPS week, and the cumulative solution (named IGSyyPWW, WW = 2-digit week number, 01 to 52, within the year) comprises station coordinates and velocities in a common reference epoch, Jan. 1, 1998. For example, two solutions produced for week 1253 (2nd week of year 2004) were igs04P1253 (weekly) and IGS04P02 (cumulative). Since week 1253, all IGS solutions have been aligned to IGb00, a realization of IGS's most recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame, ITRF2000. IGb00 was obtained from coordinates and velocities of 99 globally distributed reference stations by alignment to ITRF2000 at GPS week 1231 of cumulative solution IGS03P33. Before week 1143, a realization of IGS's previous reference frame, ITRF97, was used instead. Using the cumulative solution from any given week, the rotation components of any continental plate with at least two stations are estimated and compared with published results. These include three known plate models: NNR NUVEL 1, NNR NUVEL 1A and the most recent REVEL 2000 aligned to ITRF97. The findings can be summarized as follows: Continental rotations derived from IGS04P02 are shown to be significantly different at 99% confidence level from NNR NUVEL 1A's estimates for North American, Eurasian, Australian, Pacific, Antarctic, Indian, Nazca and Nubian (the latter compared to NNR NUVEL 1A African) plates. In addition, certain plates previously regarded as belonging to an adjacent, larger continent in NNR NUVEL 1 or 1A are now seen to move significantly differently; e.g., Amurian distinct from Eurasian, Adriatic and Sinai distinct from NNR NUVEL 1A African. North American, Eurasian, Australian and Pacific plates show significantly different rotations in IGS04P02 than predicted by REVEL 2000, yet not from the alignment of REVEL 2000 to IGb00. Certain pairs of adjacent plates show relative Euler poles near their plate boundaries; e.g., Eurasian and North American, Amurian and Eurasian, Amurian and South-China, Adriatic and Eurasian, Arabian and Nubian, Sinai and Nubian, Sinai and Arabian, Nubian and Somali. This phenomenon can be expected when bordering plates show no subduction or obduction. RMS difference between velocities of stations used in Euler pole calculation in IGS04P02 and those expected from NNR NUVEL 1A rise to 4.3 mm/yr in the horizontal component and 8.7 mm/yr in the vertical. The horizontal RMS velocity difference decreases significantly to 2.4 mm/yr when IGS04P02 is compared with REVEL 2000.

  19. Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kärrman, Anna; Ericson, Ingrid; van Bavel, Bert; Darnerud, Per Ola; Aune, Marie; Glynn, Anders; Lignell, Sanna; Lindström, Gunilla

    2007-02-01

    Only limited data exist on lactation as an exposure source of persistent perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) for children. We studied occurrence and levels of PFCs in human milk in relation to maternal serum together with the temporal trend in milk levels between 1996 and 2004 in Sweden. Matched, individual human milk and serum samples from 12 primiparous women in Sweden were analyzed together with composite milk samples (25-90 women/year) from 1996 to 2004. Eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples, and five of them were also above the detection limits in the milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all milk samples at mean concentrations of 0.201 ng/mL and 0.085 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected less frequently. The total PFC concentration in maternal serum was 32 ng/mL, and the corresponding milk concentration was 0.34 ng/mL. The PFOS milk level was on average 1% of the corresponding serum level. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS (r(2) = 0.7) and PFHxS (r(2) = 0.8). PFOS and PFHxS levels in composite milk samples were relatively unchanged between 1996 and 2004, with a total variation of 20 and 32% coefficient of variation, respectively. The calculated total amount of PFCs transferred by lactation to a breast-fed infant in this study was approximately 200 ng/day. Lactation is a considerable source of exposure for infants, and reference concentrations for hazard assessments are needed.

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups were pooled across the entire Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam for this report. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.92% with an estimated standard error (dSE) of 0.25% for wild spring and summer Chinook salmon for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2004, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. Only for the 1999 and 2000 release years did the wild Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for wild steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.63% (dSE = 0.15%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2004. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2004), it was estimated that on average approximately 83% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged wild spring and summer Chinook, and 78% for steelhead (omitting the 2001 release year), occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Lower Granite Dam were available for the 2003 and 2004 release years for both wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead. The estimated T/I for Lower Granite was significantly > 1.0 for Chinook in 2004 (P < 0.0001) and for steelhead in both 2003 (P < 0.0001) and 2004 (P < 0.0001), indicating that for these release years, wild fish transported at Lower Granite returned there in higher proportions than fish that were returned to the river at Lower Granite, or that passed Lower Granite without detection as juveniles. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Little Goose Dam were available for wild Chinook salmon for both 2003 and 2004. The estimated T/I for Little Goose was significantly > 1.0 for wild Chinook in 2004 (P = 0.0024), but not in 2003 (P = 0.1554). Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of post-Bonneville survival to Lower Granite Dam of transported fish to that of nontransported ('inriver') fish. Estimates of D were available for transportation from Lower Granite and Little Goose dams in 2003 and 2004 for wild Chinook, and from Lower Granite Dam in 2003 and 2004 for wild steelhead. Point estimates ranged from 0.74 (dSE = 0.29) for transportation of wild Chinook salmon from Lower Granite Dam in 2003 to 1.91 (dSE = 0.61) for transportation of wild steelhead from Lower Granite Dam in 2003. Small transport groups resulted in high uncertainty on the point estimates, and only for 2003 steelhead transported from Lower Granite Dam did transported fish have significantly greater post-Bonneville survival than nontransported fish (P = 0.0213).

  1. Trends in pesticide concentrations in urban streams in the United States, 1992-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide concentration trends in streams dominated by urban land use were assessed using data from 27 urban streams sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The sites were divided into four regions, Northeast, South, Midwest, and West, to examine possible regional patterns. Three partially overlapping 9-year periods (1992-2000, 1996-2004, and 2000-2008) were examined for eight herbicides and one degradation product (simazine, prometon, atrazine, deethylatrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, pendimethalin, tebuthiuron, and Dacthal), and five insecticides and two degradation products (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, fipronil, fipronil sulfide, desulfinylfipronil, and carbaryl). The data were analyzed for trends in concentration using a parametric regression model with seasonality, flow-related variability, and trend, called SEAWAVE-Q. The SEAWAVE-Q model also was used to generate estimated daily concentration percentiles for each analysis period to provide a summary of concentration magnitudes. For herbicides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for simazine were in the South, prometon at some sites in all of the regions, atrazine and deethylatrazine in the South and Midwest, metolachlor in the Midwest and a few sites in the South, pendimethalin at scattered sites in all of the regions, and tebuthiuron in the South and a few sites in the Midwest and West. For insecticides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for diazinon and carbaryl were distributed among various sites in all regions (especially during 1996-2004), and fipronil at isolated sites in all of the regions during 2000-2008. Trend analysis results for the herbicides indicated many significant trends, both upward and downward, with varying patterns depending on period, region, and herbicide. Overall, deethylatrazine showed the most consistent pattern of upward trends, especially in the Northeast (2000-2008), South

  2. Role of Macrophage-induced Inflammation in Mesothelioma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Normal State. UptoDate in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (CDROM), S.E. Weinberger, Editor, American Thoracic Society, 1996-2004. 8. BROADDUS...VC. Mechanisms of Pleural Liquid Accumulation in Disease. UptoDate in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (CDROM), S.E. Weinberger, Editor

  3. Role of Macrophage-Induced Inflammation in Mesothelioma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co., 1994, 2145-2163. 7. BROADDUS VC. Mechanisms of Pleural Liquid Turnover in the Normal State. UptoDate in Pulmonary and...Accumulation in Disease. UptoDate in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (CDROM), S.E. Weinberger, Editor, American Thoracic Society, 1996- 2004. 9

  4. Role of Macrophage-Induced Inflammation in Mesothelioma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co., 1994, 2145-2163. 7. BROADDUS VC. Mechanisms of Pleural Liquid Turnover in the Normal State. UptoDate in Pulmonary...Accumulation in Disease. UptoDate in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (CDROM), S.E. Weinberger, Editor, American Thoracic Society, 1996- 2004

  5. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  6. Death of Reference or Birth of a New Marketing Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Reference transactions in academic libraries have been on the decline since mid-1990. The Academic Library Survey from the National Center for Education Statistics shows an average drop of 25% in reference use from 1996-2004 with higher numbers at some institutions such as the University of Maryland which plummeted 47% (Martell, 2008). The…

  7. Equality in Higher Education in Spain and the UK: Mismatch between Rhetoric and Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Manuel Souto; Whitworth, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Making use of Grisay's typology of educational equality, the paper analyses rhetoric and policy on equality in higher education (HE) in Spain and the UK in the period 1996-2004, using electoral manifestos, policy papers, legislation and academic literature. We find that in both countries, and in spite of similar pressures and levels of access to…

  8. Editorial: Looking to the Future of Hydrologic Engineering

    EPA Science Inventory

    Being one of the more recent journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (JHE) has made significant strides under the forward-thinking leadership of previous editors (M. Levent Kavvas 1996-2004, and V. P. Singh, 2004-2012) si...

  9. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  10. Editorial: Looking to the Future of Hydrologic Engineering

    EPA Science Inventory

    Being one of the more recent journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (JHE) has made significant strides under the forward-thinking leadership of previous editors (M. Levent Kavvas 1996-2004, and V. P. Singh, 2004-2012) si...

  11. Inside out: Focusing as a Therapeutic Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Katje

    2006-01-01

    The author explores Focusing (E. Gendlin, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1967, 1968, 1981, 1989, 1996, 2004) as a psychotherapeutic modality and presents background that led to the development of Focusing, its rationale and theoretical orientation, and supporting research. The author also provides a detailed and experiential illustration of the…

  12. Martin County, FL, Case Study: Physical and Economic Performance of Martin County Federal Shore Protection Project During 2004 Tropical Season. Flood and Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    2004, 9.2 million dollars in emergency protective actions including seawalls , revetments and construction of emergency dune features are estimated to...season was notable as one of the deadliest and most costly Atlantic hurricane seasons on record, with at least 3,132 deaths (over 3,000 lives lost in...condition. In hindcasting the without project condition from 1996-2004, 9.2 million dollars in emergency protective actions including seawalls

  13. Occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and development of a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine ephemeral fever virus gene.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tsuyoshi; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Ikemiyagi, Kazufumi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Moemi; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    In September 2012, several cows and a calf showed decreased activity, anorexia and fever on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF). We isolated BEF virus (BEFV) from one of the affected cows and then determined the complete genome sequence of the G gene, which encodes a class I transmembrane glycoprotein of BEFV. The BEFV isolate in this case, ON-3/E/12, was sorted into the same cluster as other BEFV isolates in Japan, Taiwan and China obtained in 1996-2004 and was most closely related to a 2002 Chinese isolate, JT02L, according to the phylogenetic analysis of the complete G gene. Since inactivated vaccines for BEF available in Japan are considered effective against the ON-3/E/12 isolate as well as other isolates in East Asia from 1996-2004, annual vaccination should be conducted to prevent BEF in Okinawa. Additionally, in this study, we developed an RT-PCR assay to detect the BEFV gene in Japan and neighboring countries. Our assay was able to amplify target sequences in all of the tested BEFV isolates, including 18 isolates in Japan and another isolate in Australia. The assay was found to be useful also for testing RNA samples extracted from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per tube. We believe that our assay would be an important tool for the screening of BEFV infection and the diagnosis of BEF.

  14. Adverse event assessment methods in published trials of psychotropic drugs: Poor reporting and neglect of emerging safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David; Johnson, Rebekah

    2016-08-22

    Actual assessment methods for identifying adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials have received less scrutiny than underreporting of AEs. To investigate whether AE assessment has changed over time for three psychotropic drugs with turbulent histories of safety concerns since their U.S. approval. From industry-funded published trials of atomoxetine, duloxetine, and olanzapine retrieved from PubMed for 1996-2004 (n = 33) and 2009-2014 (n = 40), verbatim AE assessment and numbers of words describing efficacy and safety assessment were extracted. Closest to drug approval (1996-2004), 77.8% of atomoxetine trials used open-ended questioning only, 50% of duloxetine trials used spontaneous self-report or clinician observation only, and 66.7% of olanzapine trials used a scale (primarily for extrapyramidal symptoms) and one former method. Recent studies (2009-2014) showed less rigor and transparency: 35.3% of atomoxetine and 64.7% of duloxetine studies reported no AE assessment method and 50% of olanzapine studies no longer used scales. Overall, the mean number of words describing efficacy assessment increased from 202 to 309 but decreased from 83 to 63 for safety. Trial methodology for assessing psychotropic drug safety remains an underdeveloped area with major public health implications.

  15. The Impact of Race and Ethnicity, Immigration, and Political Context on Participation in American Electoral Politics

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants. PMID:24339453

  16. Cohabitation, gender, and alcohol consumption in 19 countries: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wilsnack, Richard; Wilsnack, Sharon; Kristjanson, Arlinda

    2010-12-01

    We used an ecological paradigm and multilevel analytic techniques to analyze gender-specific relationships of cohabitation (versus marriage) to drinking in 19 countries (n = 32,922) and to "heavy episodic drinking" (HED) in 17 countries (n = 24,525) in surveys (1996-2004) from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study. Cohabitation was associated with elevated risk of HED among drinkers of both genders, controlling for age, education, and societal characteristics. The association between cohabitation and HED tended to be stronger for female drinkers than for male drinkers. HED was more prevalent among younger drinkers, especially among younger women in countries with higher per capita gross domestic product. Cross-culturally, cohabiters deserve special attention in prevention efforts for hazardous drinking, considering both individual-level and societal factors.

  17. Pricing behaviour of nonprofit insurers in a weakly competitive social health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Daniel Landis: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost half a century. Landis has shaped the field of intercultural research through scholarship of the highest order, reflected in his publications on cross-cultural training and research, the measurement of equal opportunity climate, individual-differences research and methodology, evaluation of social programs, development of theory in social psychology, and cross-cultural aspects of human sexuality. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Intercultural Relations and has edited three editions of the Handbook of Intercultural Training (1983, 1996, 2004). Landis' Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Race and Ethnicity, Immigration, and Political Context on Participation in American Electoral Politics.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants.

  20. Response of sulfate concentration and isotope composition in Icelandic rivers to the decline in global atmospheric SO{sub 2} emissions into the North Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdur Reynir Gislason; Peter Torssander

    2006-02-01

    This study presents the changes in dissolved sulfate concentration and isotope composition of Icelandic river waters between the peak of SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States and Europe and the present. Chloride concentration in Icelandic rivers has not changed much since 1972. The overall average change from 1972-1973 to 1996-2004 was -3%, indicating insignificant sea-salt contribution changes. More than 99% of the river-dissolved sulfur was in the form of sulfate. There are three main sources for dissolved sulfate in the rivers: rocks, sea-salts, and anthropogenic. Total dissolved sulfate, {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and non-sea-salt sulfate, {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, decreased in all of the rivers from the early 1970s to 1996-2004. The percentage decrease varies from 13% to 65%. The decrease is smallest in rivers were there is considerable rock-derived dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The overall average decrease was 39% for {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and 46% for {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The anthropogenic sulfate fraction has declined making most of the river waters {delta}{sup 34}S values of sulfate higher through time. The overall decline in river sulfate and increase in {delta}{sup 34}S, while SO{sub 2} emissions from Iceland has been increasing, demonstrates the response of river chemistry in the remote North Atlantic to the decline in man-made emissions of SO{sub 2} in North America and Europe. 43 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Mercury in the atmosphere and in rainwater at Cape Point, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Walters, Chavon; Mkololo, Thumeka; Martin, Lynwill; Labuschagne, Casper; Silwana, Bongiwe; Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-01-01

    Mercury measurements were concurrently made in air (Gaseous Elemental Mercury, i.e. GEM) as well as in precipitation samples (Total mercury, i.e. TotHg) over a seven year period (2007-2013) at Cape Point, South Africa, during the rainy seasons (May-October). Eighty-five rain events, almost exclusively associated with cold fronts, have been identified of which 75% reached the Cape Point observatory directly across the Atlantic Ocean from the south, while 19% moved in to the measuring site via the Cape Town metropolitan region. In statistic terms the GEM, TotHg, CO and 222Rn levels within the urban-marine events do not differ from those seen in the marine rain episodes. Over the 2007-2013 period, the May till Oct averages for GEM ranged from 0.913 ng m-3 to 1.108 ng m-3, while TotHg concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 52.5 ng L-1 (overall average: 9.91 ng L-1). A positive correlation (R2 = 0.49, n = 7) has been found between the average annual (May till October) GEM concentrations in air and TotHg concentration in rainwater suggesting a close relationship between the two species. The wetter years are normally associated with higher GEM and TotHg levels. Both GEM and TotHg annual means correlate positively with total annual (May till October) rain depths. If one or two outlier years are removed from the data set, the R2 values increase from 0.23 to 0.10 for GEM and TotHg to 0.97 (n = 5) and 0.89 (n = 5), respectively. The relationship between annual mean GEM and annual precipitation depth also holds for the period 1996-2004 (R2 = 0.6, n = 8) when GEM was measured manually (low resolution data). A positive correlation was also seen between annual average GEM concentrations and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Index (SOI), for the 1996-2004 period (R2 = 0.7, n = 8). For the 2007-2013 periods this relationship was also positive but less pronounced. The relationship between annual precipitation depth and annual SOI suggests that the inter-annual variations of GEM

  2. Incidence of type 1 diabetes in Norway among children aged 0-14 years between 1989 and 2012: has the incidence stopped rising? Results from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry.

    PubMed

    Skrivarhaug, Torild; Stene, Lars C; Drivvoll, Ann Kristin; Strøm, Hanne; Joner, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children below 15 years of age in Norway during the period 1989-2012 and to assess the regional variation during 2004-2012. We further set out to estimate the completeness of ascertainment in the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (NCDR). Incident cases of type 1 diabetes were registered in the NCDR and incidence rates were modelled using Poisson regression. Ascertainment for 2005-2008 was estimated using capture-recapture methodology by using data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD), a nationwide register established in 2004, which included insulin prescribed and dispensed at pharmacies to individual patients. Population data were obtained from Statistics Norway. Observed incidence rates for 1989-2012 suggested three distinct time segments: in 1989-1996, the average incidence rate was 22.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.4, 23.7); in 1996-2004, the average incidence rate was 28.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 27.3, 29.6); and from 2004 to 2012, the average incidence rate per 100,000 person-years was 32.7 (95% CI 31.5, 34.0). After adjustment for age and sex, the estimated change per year was 1.8% for 1989-1996 (95% CI -0.07, 3.6; p = 0.059), 3.4% for 1996-2004 (95% CI 2.2, 4.7; p < 0.0001) and 0.3% for 2004-2012 (95% CI -0.9, 1.6; p = 0.64). The highest incidence was in the age group 10-14 years for both sexes. A significant regional variation in incidence was observed (p < 0.001). Completeness of ascertainment in the NCDR was estimated to be 91%. The previously observed increase in incidence of type 1 diabetes has levelled off and remained essentially constant at 32.7 per 100,000 person-years during 2004-2012. There is a significant variation in type 1 diabetes incidence within Norway.

  3. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Butler, J. H.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  4. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  5. Dynamic scaling in chemical ecology.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Richard K; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann

    2008-07-01

    Natural rates of chemical production, release, and transport of fluid-borne molecules drive fundamental biological responses to these stimuli. The scaling of the field signaling environment to laboratory conditions recreates essential features of the dynamics and establishes ecological relevance. If appropriately scaled, laboratory simulations of physical regimes, coupled with natural rates of chemical cue/signal emission, facilitate interpretation of field results. From a meta-analysis of papers published in 11 journals over the last 22 years (1984-1986, 1994-1996, 2004-2006), complete dynamic scaling was rare in both field and laboratory studies. Studies in terrestrial systems often involved chemical determinations, but rarely simulated natural aerodynamics in laboratory wind tunnels. Research in aquatic (marine and freshwater) systems seldom scaled either the chemical or physical environments. Moreover, nearly all research, in all environments, focused on organism-level processes without incorporating the effects of individual-based behavior on populations, communities, and ecosystems. As a result, relationships between chemosensory-mediated behavior and ecological function largely remain unexplored. Outstanding exceptions serve as useful examples for guiding future research. Advanced conceptual frameworks and refined techniques offer exciting opportunities for identifying the ecological significance of chemical cues/signals in behavioral interactions and for incorporating individual effects at higher levels of biological organization.

  6. The association between green space and mental health varies across the lifecourse. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Mitchell, Richard; Hartig, Terry

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on green space and health have relied almost exclusively on cross-sectional designs, restricting understanding on how this relationship could vary across the lifecourse. We used multilevel linear regression to analyse variation in minor psychiatric morbidity over nine annual waves of the British Household Panel Survey (1996-2004). The sample was restricted to residents of urban areas who remained within their neighbourhoods for at least 12 months. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire and confounders were reported for 29 626 male and 35 781 female observations (person-years). This individual-level dataset was linked to a measure of green space availability within each ward of residence. Regression models included age, gender, employment status, household tenure, marital status, education, smoking status and household income. When not considering age, green space was associated with better mental health among men, but not women. Interaction terms fitted between age and green space revealed variation in the association between green space and mental health across the lifecourse and by gender. For men, the benefit of more green space emerged in early to mid-adulthood. Among older women, a curvilinear association materialised wherein those with a moderate availability of green space had better mental health. These findings illustrate how the relationship between urban green space and health can vary across the lifecourse, and they highlight the need for longitudinal studies to answer why green space may be better for health at some points in the lifecourse than others.

  7. Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China observed from space.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P; Nüss, Hendrik; Granier, Claire; Niemeier, Ulrike

    2005-09-01

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning reduce local air quality and affect global tropospheric chemistry. Nitrogen oxides are emitted by all combustion processes and play a key part in the photochemically induced catalytic production of ozone, which results in summer smog and has increased levels of tropospheric ozone globally. Release of nitrogen oxide also results in nitric acid deposition, and--at least locally--increases radiative forcing effects due to the absorption of downward propagating visible light. Nitrogen oxide concentrations in many industrialized countries are expected to decrease, but rapid economic development has the potential to increase significantly the emissions of nitrogen oxides in parts of Asia. Here we present the tropospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide retrieved from two satellite instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY over the years 1996-2004. We find substantial reductions in nitrogen dioxide concentrations over some areas of Europe and the USA, but a highly significant increase of about 50 per cent-with an accelerating trend in annual growth rate-over the industrial areas of China, more than recent bottom-up inventories suggest.

  8. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, reproductive freedom, and deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper I argue that the account of deliberative democracy advanced by Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson (1996, 2004) is a useful normative theory that can help enhance our deliberations about public policy in morally pluralistic societies. More specifically, I illustrate how the prescriptions of deliberative democracy can be applied to the issue of regulating non-medical uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), such as gender selection. Deliberative democracy does not aim to win a philosophical debate among rival first-order theories, such as libertarianism, egalitarianism or feminism. Rather, it advances a second-order analysis that strives to help us determine what would constitute a reasonable balance between the conflicting fundamental values that arise in the context of regulating PGD. I outline a theoretical model (called the Reasonable Genetic Intervention Model) that brings these issues to the fore. Such a model incorporates the concern for both procedural and substantive principles; and it does so in way that takes provisionality seriously.

  9. Public perceptions of key performance indicators of healthcare in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Herbert C; Harvey, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    To examine the relationship between public perceptions of key performance indicators assessing various aspects of the health-care system. Cross-sequential survey research. Annual telephone surveys of random samples of adult Albertans selected by random digit dialing and stratified according to age, sex and region (n = 4000 for each survey year). The survey questionnaires included single-item measures of key performance indicators to assess public perceptions of availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Cronbach's α and factor analysis were used to assess the relationship between key performance indicators focusing on the health-care system overall and on a recent interaction with the health-care system. The province of Alberta, Canada during the years 1996-2004. Four thousand adults randomly selected each survey year. Survey questions measuring public perceptions of healthcare availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Factor analysis identified two principal components with key performance indicators focusing on the health system overall loading most strongly on the first component and key performance indicators focusing on the most recent health-care encounter loading most strongly on the second component. Assessments of the quality of care most recently received, accessibility of that care and perceived outcome of care tended to be higher than the more general assessments of overall health system quality and accessibility. Assessments of specific health-care encounters and more general assessments of the overall health-care system, while related, nevertheless comprise separate dimensions for health-care evaluation.

  10. The fertilization potential of donor semen between 1982 and 2004 in the industrial area of Upper Silesia (Poland).

    PubMed

    Horak, Stanislaw; Kaminska, Jolanta; Olejek, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The industrial area of Upper Silesia is the most polluted region in Poland. To assess if these conditions could influence male fertility, a retrospective analysis of the fertilization potential of donor semen was performed, taking as an outcome measure the pregnancy rate after donor inseminations in 1982-2004. Data on contamination of air and soil in the region were collected and compared with those of the rest of the country. In total 2,100 inseminations using fresh semen from 44 healthy donors with proven fertility in 1,617 cycles in 290 infertile couples were performed in 1982-1995 and 2,010 inseminations using frozen semen from 20 healthy donors with proven fertility in 1,994 cycles in 414 infertile couples were performed in 1996-2004. Significantly higher values of air and soil pollution compared to the rest of the country were stated. Pregnancies occurred in 125 patients inseminated by fresh semen and in 85 patients inseminated by frozen banked semen. The insemination efficiency was lower than expected and a distinct declining trend was observed in both groups. Significant rise in the number of cycles necessary for achieving pregnancy was noted. The fertilization potential of fresh and frozen donor semen in Upper Silesia is low and seems still to be diminishing. It might be speculated that this phenomenon could be caused by the high degree of industrial pollution.

  11. Glacier retreat monitoring from SAR coherence images: application to Gangotri glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varugu, Bhuvan K.; Rao, Yalamanchili S.

    2016-05-01

    Retreat of glaciers is an important phenomenon to be monitored as they have a direct bearing on flow of water in rivers and rise of water level in sea. Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in glacier dynamics studies has been gaining interest in the recent years. The present study discusses the use of SAR coherence images for demarking the snout position on a glacier and thus measure the retreat. Being sensitive for even the slightest changes over the terrain, SAR coherence images seems to be very useful in glacier retreat measurement. Gangotri is one of the major Himalayan glaciers which has been subjected to dominant retreat since 1850 AD.16 The retreat of Gangotri glacier has a huge impact on the flow of Ganges, the largest perennial river in India. Coherence images were generated over Gangotri glacier from SAR images with different repeat periods from 1996 (ERS-1 & 2), 2004 (Envisat) & 2012 (TerraSAR-X) and are resampled to 50x50 m grid using SRTM DEM. Profiles near the snout position were precisely marked in a GIS environment and the distance between the profiles (1996, 2004, 2012) is reported as retreat. It has been observed that the Gangotri glacier has been retreating at the rate of 24+/- 1 m per year which is in good agreement with several other studies.

  12. Absence of Non-Bridging Oxygen on the Metaluminous Join in Potassium Aluminosilicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    In aluminosilicate melts and glasses, non-bridging oxygen (NBO) have a significant influence on thermodynamic and transport properties such as configurational entropy and viscosity. However, both its role and the extent of its influence are not yet fully understood, particularly in metaluminous and peraluminous compositions. Viscosity measurements from sodium, calcium, and magnesium aluminosilicate melts first suggested the presence of NBO on the metaluminous join (e.g. CaAl2O4-SiO2) (Toplis et al., 1996, 2004); direct observation with 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has so far been limited to calcium aluminosilicate glasses, where it has been observed in both metalumious and peraluminous compositions (Stebbins et al., 2008). Potassium aluminosilicate glasses are another candidate for exploring the possibility of NBO on the metaluminous join, as the NBO peak is partially resolved from the bridging oxygen peak even in the one dimensional magic angle spinning (MAS) spectrum. However, preliminary analysis of 17O NMR spectra of slightly peraluminous potassium aluminosilicate glasses shows no detectable signal (<1% of total oxygen) in the area expected for NBO. Calcium aluminosilicate glasses of similar compositions have an NBO content of approximately 4.5%. This comparison shows an influence by the field strength of the network modifying cation on the presence of NBO and fraction of five-coordinated aluminum at the glass transition. However, understanding the extent of this impact in melts requires additional work exploring the temperature effects on speciation in the potassium aluminosilicate glasses.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A Catalogue of Galactic Supernova Remnants (Green 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    This catalogue of known Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated version of the catalogues of Galactic SNRs presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988), in summary form in Green (1991, 1996, 2004, 2009, 2014), and on the Web (versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998 September, 2000 August, 2001 December, 2004 January and 2006 April). (Note that version published in Green (1996) was produced in 1993.) This the 2017 June version of the catalogue contains 295 SNRs, and is based on results published in the literature up to the end of 2016. The basic summary data included in this catalogue for each SNR are its Galactic coordinates, RA and Dec (J2000.0), angular size, type, flux density at 1 GHz, spectral index, and any other names. Notes on these parameters, on possible remnants not included, and questionable SNRs listed in the catalogue are given in the full version of the catalogue on the Web. It should be noted that there are selection effects which apply to the identification of Galactic SNRs (e.g., Green 1991, 2004, 2005, 2009), so that care should be taken if these data are used in any statistical studies. (1 data file).

  14. Assessing the relationship between global warming and mortality: lag effects of temperature fluctuations by age and mortality categories.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu

    2011-07-01

    Although interests in assessing the relationship between temperature and mortality have arisen due to climate change, relatively few data are available on lag structure of temperature-mortality relationship, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. This study identified the lag effects of mean temperature on mortality among age groups and death categories using polynomial distributed lag models in Brisbane, Australia, a subtropical city, 1996-2004. For a 1 °C increase above the threshold, the highest percent increase in mortality on the current day occurred among people over 85 years (7.2% (95% CI: 4.3%, 10.2%)). The effect estimates among cardiovascular deaths were higher than those among all-cause mortality. For a 1 °C decrease below the threshold, the percent increases in mortality at 21 lag days were 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.0%) and 3.4% (95% CI: 0.9%, 6.0%) for people aged over 85 years and with cardiovascular diseases, respectively. These findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce and prevent temperature-related mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  16. Empirical research on decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong province based on extended Kaya identity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxiu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 10⁴ tC in 1995 to 14396 × 10⁴ tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996-2004 to expansive coupling in 2005-2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink.

  17. Broad-scale suppression of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), associated with Bt cotton crops in Northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2017-04-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years. This response can be attributed, at least in part, to (1) a precautionary cap (30% of total cotton grown, by area) being applied to Ingard® to restrict the development of Bt resistance in the pest, and (2) during the Ingard® era, cotton production greatly increased (as did that of another host plant, sorghum) and H. armigera (in particular the 3rd and older generations) responded in concert with this increase in host plant availability. However, with the replacement of Ingard® with Bollgard II® cotton (containing two different Bt toxins) in 2005, and recovery of the cotton industry from prevailing drought, H. armigera failed to track increased host-plant supply and moth numbers decreased. Greater toxicity of the two gene product, introduction of no cap on Bt cotton proportion, and an increase in natural enemy abundance are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for the suppression observed.

  18. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: Five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  19. Geomorphic response of sandbars to the March 2008 high-flow experiment on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Schmidt, John C.; Kaplinski, Matt; Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    The completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 drastically altered the downstream flow regime and resulted in more than a 90 percent reduction of sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Sandbars that were maintained by annual floods and a large sediment supply are now fewer in number and smaller in area and volume. Efforts to maintain sandbars in the current era of dam management utilize controlled floods timed to occur during brief periods of sediment enrichment that result from tributary floods. Repeat surveys of 22 sandbars made before and after controlled floods conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008 document changes in sandbar volume; and repeat surveys at more than 100 sites document changes in sandbar elevation and morphology for the 2008 event. Each of the controlled floods resulted in sandbar deposition that was followed by erosion in the 6-month post-flood period. Erosion rates are positively correlated with post-flood dam release volumes and negatively correlated with post-flood tributary sediment supply volume. October 2008 sandbar volume was similar or larger than sandbar volume in February 1996, before the first of the three controlled floods. Deposition during the 2008 controlled flood was also associated with increases in the quantity of backwater habitat, which is used by native and non-native fish.

  20. Multiple introductions of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis into households, Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ted; Murray, Megan; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Zhang, Zibiao; Sloutsky, Alexander; Arteaga, Fernando; Chalco, Katiuska; Franke, Molly F; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2011-06-01

    Two cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in a household are assumed to reflect within-household transmission. However, in high-incidence areas of MDR TB, secondary cases may arise through exposure to MDR TB in the community. To estimate the frequency of multiple introductions of MDR TB into households, we used spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit- variable number tandem repeats to classify isolates from 101 households in Lima, Peru, in which >1 MDR TB patient received treatment during 1996-2004. We found different MDR TB strains in >10% of households. Alternate approaches for classifying matching strains produced estimates of multiple introductions in <38% of households. At least 4% of MDR TB patients were reinfected by a second strain of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that community exposure to MDR TB in Lima occurs frequently. Rapid drug sensitivity testing of strains from household contacts of known MDR TB patients is needed to identify optimal treatment regimens.

  1. Predicting chronic post-operative pain following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K J; Thomas, M; Fawole, A S; Lyndon, P J; White, C M

    2008-12-01

    Chronic post-operative pain (CPP) following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) may cause significant morbidity and be more problematic than recurrence. Determining pre-operative risk may reduce morbidity. Our aim was to determine prevalence of CPP following LIHR and identify risk factors for its development. Data from patients undergoing LIHR (1996-2004) at one District General Hospital were collected, including demographics, body mass index, pre-operative pain, LIHR type (TEP or TAPP, primary/recurrent, unilateral/bilateral) and post-operative complications including CPP (pain lasting > or = 1 year). A total of 881 patients underwent LIHR (1,029 hernias). Of these, 523 (60%) patients completed the questionnaire, and 72/523 (13.8%) patients experienced CPP. Presence of pre-operative pain (P < 0.001), recurrent LIHR (P = 0.021) and age < 50 years (P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with CPP. Chronic post-operative pain following LIHR is more prevalent than recurrence. Pre-operative pain, surgery for recurrent inguinal hernias (following anterior repair) and younger age at surgery predict development of CPP. Identification of 'high-risk' patients may improve management, reducing morbidity and cost.

  2. Evidence for an Evolving Cyclotron Line Energy in 4U 1538-522

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton Hemphill, Paul; Rothschild, Richard E.; Fuerst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Klochkov, Dmitry; Kretschmar, Peter; Pottschmidt, Katja; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    In this talk, I present results from a comprehensive analysis of the existing RXTE, INTEGRAL, and Suzaku data for the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538-522. This persistent X-ray pulsar has a clearly-detected cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF), which appears to have increased in energy over the past decade, from approximately 20-21 keV as measured by RXTE in 1996-2004 to ~22-23 keV as found in the 2012 Suzaku observation. This spectral feature is the only direct measurement of the neutron star's magnetic field strength, and its behavior can be used to track the conditions in the accretion mound near the neutron star surface. Our analysis finds that the increased CRSF energy is especially prominent in spectra from the peak of the main pulse, which suggests that the physical origin of this shift in energy may be restricted to a single magnetic pole, possibly indicating some reconfiguration of the structure of the accretion mound not reflected in the other spectral parameters. I will discuss the analysis and some implications of this result, especially in the context of work by Staubert et al. (2015, A&A 572, 119), which unveiled a secular trend in the CRSF energy of the prototypical CRSF source, Hercules X-1.

  3. Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Angot, H.; Dommergue, A.; Magand, O.; Barret, M.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brunke, E.-G.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Edwards, G.; Howard, D.; Powell, J.; Keywood, M.; Wang, F.

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge of the distribution of mercury concentrations in air of the Southern Hemisphere was until recently based mostly on intermittent measurements made during ship cruises. In the last few years continuous mercury monitoring has commenced at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere, providing new and more refined information. In this paper we compare mercury measurements at several remote sites in the Southern Hemisphere made over a period of at least 1 year at each location. Averages of monthly medians show similar although small seasonal variations at both Cape Point and Amsterdam Island. A pronounced seasonal variation at Troll research station in Antarctica is due to frequent mercury depletion events in the austral spring. Due to large scatter and large standard deviations of monthly average median mercury concentrations at Cape Grim, no systematic seasonal variation could be found there. Nevertheless, the annual average mercury concentrations at all sites during the 2007-2013 period varied only between 0.85 and 1.05 ng m-3. Part of this variability is likely due to systematic measurement uncertainties which we propose can be further reduced by improved calibration procedures. We conclude that mercury is much more uniformly distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere than the distributions suggested by measurements made onboard ships. This finding implies that smaller trends can be detected in shorter time periods. We also report a change in the trend sign at Cape Point from decreasing mercury concentrations in 1996-2004 to increasing concentrations since 2007.

  4. Medicaid managed care and cost containment in the adult disabled population.

    PubMed

    Burns, Marguerite E

    2009-10-01

    Despite the increasing enrollment of adult disabled beneficiaries into Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs), there is little evidence of its (hoped for) effectiveness at reducing Medicaid expenditures. : To evaluate the impact of Medicaid MCOs on health care expenditures for adults with disabilities. I employ a repeated observations design comparing individual monthly Medicaid expenditures across beneficiaries who reside in counties with mandatory, voluntary, and no MCOs. County-level Medicaid MCO program status for adults with disabilities was merged with the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the Area Resource File for 1996-2004. Two-part regression models are used to estimate the probability and level of Medicaid expenditure. Working age Medicaid beneficiaries who receive Supplement Security Income for disability comprise the sample of 1613 individuals. Outcome measures include total and service-specific Medicaid expenditures. On average, total monthly Medicaid expenditures per beneficiary do not differ between FFS and MCO counties although some service-specific spending differs. Relative to FFS counties, average monthly Medicaid spending per beneficiary is higher for prescription medications in voluntary ($24) and mandatory ($25) MCO counties. Average Medicaid monthly spending for other medical care and dental care is $4 to $11 higher per beneficiary in MCO relative to FFS counties. Medicaid MCO programs as implemented are not associated with lower Medicaid spending; thus, state Medicaid programs should consider additional policy tools to contain health care expenditures in this population.

  5. Work-related road traffic collisions in the UK.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

    2009-03-01

    Road traffic collisions while at work are the single largest cause of occupational fatality in the United Kingdom. Work-related road collisions do not comprise a homogenous group, but take many forms, encompassing the use of varying types of vehicle used for diverse purposes. A sample of over 2000 collision cases was considered, over 1000 in detail, from UK police forces, involving drivers/workers of all ages, and covering the years 1996-2004 inclusive. There were three key findings. (1) There were six main classes of collision-involved vehicles. These were company cars, vans/pickups, large goods vehicles (LGVs), buses (PCVs or 'passenger carrying vehicles'), taxis/minicabs, and emergency vehicles (police, fire/rescue and ambulance). (2) The drivers of company cars, vans/pickups, and large goods vehicles (LGVs) all appeared to have a high 'blameworthiness ratio' in their collision involvement. Company car drivers showed excess speed as a causal factor, whereas van drivers showed more observational failures, and LGV drivers showed more fatigue and vehicle defects as factors. (3) The drivers of buses (PCVs), taxis/minicabs, and emergency vehicles showed a low 'blameworthiness ratio' in their collision involvement. Their problems seemed to be primarily with the other drivers/parties with whom they share the road. While they made a variety of mistakes or errors, they were more likely to become the victim of another party's mistake or error.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Meat consumption, animal products, and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguayan men.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro Luis; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; De Stefani, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, all incident cases of bladder cancer were included in a case-control study in order to study the role of meat consumption and product animals in the etiology of urothelial cancer. The study included 225 cases and 1,510 hospitalized controls with non-neoplastic conditions, not related to smoking and alcohol drinking. Relative risks, approximated by the odds ratios, were calculated in order to clarify the effect of meat consumption in the etiology of urothelial cancer. Total meat consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11), total processed meat (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27), frankfurters (hot dogs) (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21), ham (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.67) and salted meat (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78-4.18) were positively associated with risk of bladder cancer. Animal products, like cheese, whole milk, and total eggs were also associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for eggs 4.05, 95% CI 2.68-6.12). In conclusion, total meat, processed meat, and eggs could play an important role in the etiology of bladder cancer in Uruguay.

  8. Meat, milk and risk of lymphoid malignancies: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Barrios, Enrique; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2013-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, 697 cases with lymphoid neoplasms and 3606 controls with nonneoplastic conditions were included in a case-control study conducted in the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. They were administered a routine questionnaire that included 8 sections and a food frequency questionnaire focused on intakes of total meat, red meat, salted meat, barbecued meat, processed meat, milk, total vegetables and total fruits, and alcoholic beverages. Lymphoid cancers were analyzed by multiple polytomous regression. Red meat, salted meat, and milk were positively associated with risk of lymphoid cancers [odds ratios (OR) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest one of red meat = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.08, OR for whole milk = 2.92, 95% CI 2.63-3.63). On the other hand, plant foods, particularly total fruits, and alcoholic beverages (mainly red wine) were protective. We could conclude that these foods could play a significant role in the etiology of lymphoid malignancies.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Periodic Oscillations in LASCO Coronal Mass Ejection Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalek, G.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.

    2016-12-01

    A large set of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, 3463) has been selected to study their periodic oscillations in speed in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) field of view. These events, reported in the SOHO/LASCO catalog in the period of time 1996 - 2004, were selected based on having at least 11 height-time measurements. This selection criterion allows us to construct at least ten-point speed-distance profiles and evaluate kinematic properties of CMEs with a reasonable accuracy. To identify quasi-periodic oscillations in the speed of the CMEs a sinusoidal function was fitted to speed-distance profiles and the speed-time profiles. Of the considered events 22 % revealed periodic velocity fluctuations. These speed oscillations have on average amplitude equal to 87 km s^{-1} and period 7.8 R _{⊙}/241 min (in distance/time). The study shows that speed oscillations are a common phenomenon associated with CME propagation implying that all the CMEs have a similar magnetic flux-rope structure. The nature of oscillations can be explained in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves excited during the eruption process. More accurate detection of these modes could, in the future, enable us to characterize magnetic structures in space (space seismology).

  10. A population-based study of juvenile perpetrators of homicide in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales was examined. The majority of perpetrators were male, used a sharp instrument, and most victims were acquaintances or strangers. Over half had previously offended. A history of alcohol and/or drug misuse was common, as was the prevalence of family dysfunction, abuse, educational difficulties or discipline problems. Previous contact with mental health services was rare. Earlier intervention targeting social and psychological adversity and substance misuse could help to reduce the level of risk for future violence, and may reduce homicide rates among juveniles. Strengthening engagement with young offenders and increasing resources to prevent recidivism may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  11. Volume of procedures and risk of recurrence after repair of groin hernia: national register study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the association between volume and outcome found in major surgery also holds true for a minor operation. Design Review of outcomes after hernia surgery in Sweden. Setting Surgical units registered with the Swedish hernia register, which in 2004 covered about 95% of all hernia operations in Sweden. Participants 86 409 patients over 15 years, who underwent 96 601 unilateral or bilateral groin hernia repairs (94 077 inguinal and 2524 femoral) in 1996-2004 at the participating surgical units. Main outcome measure Re-operation for recurrence. Results There was a significantly higher rate of re-operation in surgeons who carried out 1-5 repairs a year than in surgeons who carried out more repairs. There was no association between outcome and further increases in volume. Although about half of surgeons in Sweden who repair hernias are low volume operators, they performed only 8.4% of all repairs. Conclusions Sweden’s numerous low volume hernia surgeons perform such a small proportion of all operations that the impact of their inferior results on the nationwide re-operation rate is minimal. Volume indicates an approximate minimum value for the number of hernia repairs a surgeon should do each year but the outcome in surgeons who carry out more than that number disqualifies volume as an indicator of proficiency. PMID:18426843

  12. Analysis of UV Satellite and Ground Observed data for Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, Guido; Manca, Germana; Johnson, Kathleen

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 280 to 400 nanometers range has been found to be one of the primary cause for skin cancer. The correlation between UV radiation and skin cancer prevention is of global concern. Satellite observations from Nimbus7 (1978-1993), EarthProbe (1996-2004) and OMI/AURA (2004-present) provide long term UV time-series that can be used to study and compute the risk associated with exposure to harmful radiation. Additionally, several ground installations exist to acquire UV radiation data that can be paired with satellite observations. The current work presents the data mining analysis of UV time series from 1978 to present for the Italian region of Sardinia. Satellite observations are paired with ground measurements to provide historical averages of UV radiation, and daily maps of current exposure. A Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to fuse UV data with ground characteristics. The use of GIS is fundamental to calculate the real value of UV on the ground. It is known that the incidence of solar radiation, and consequently of UV, is modified by topography and surface features. Topography plays a important rule, because it is a major factor that determines the spatial variability of insulation and UV being a part of direct insulation. variation in elevation orientation (slope and aspect), and shadow cast by topographical features, determine the UV insulation in a given area or point.

  13. Do Medicaid wage pass-through payments increase nursing home staffing?

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhanlian; Lee, Yong Suk; Kuo, Sylvia; Intrator, Orna; Foster, Andrew; Mor, Vincent

    2010-06-01

    To assess the impact of state Medicaid wage pass-through policy on direct-care staffing levels in U.S. nursing homes. Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data, and state Medicaid nursing home reimbursement policies over the period 1996-2004. A fixed-effects panel model with two-step feasible-generalized least squares estimates is used to examine the effect of pass-through adoption on direct-care staff hours per resident day (HPRD) in nursing homes. A panel data file tracking annual OSCAR surveys per facility over the study period is linked with annual information on state Medicaid wage pass-through and related policies. Among the states introducing wage pass-through over the study period, the policy is associated with between 3.0 and 4.0 percent net increases in certified nurse aide (CNA) HPRD in the years following adoption. No discernable pass-through effect is observed on either registered nurse or licensed practical nurse HPRD. State Medicaid wage pass-through programs offer a potentially effective policy tool to boost direct-care CNA staffing in nursing homes, at least in the short term.

  14. Identification of bacterial strains by laboratories participating in the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    Boot, R; Reubsaet, F A G

    2007-10-01

    The quality assurance programme (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) is a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. QAP comprises the quarterly distribution of two bacterial strains originating from various species of animals for identification to the species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing. We compared identification results reported by QAP participants over the years 1996-2004 with those obtained by the Dutch Bacterial Diagnostics reference laboratory on 68 samples comprising 71 bacterial strains and a fungus. Significant differences were found in the frequency of reported and correct identifications when bacteria were assigned to different groups based on morphology by Gram stain and on origin (animal versus environmental, rodent and rabbit versus other animal species, pathogen versus non-pathogens). Rodent and rabbit pathogens yielded 73% correct identifications, and with all bacterial strains only 60% of the identifications were correct. We assume that most QAP participants were from laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories. If this is true, the capabilities of laboratories in the laboratory animal discipline to correctly identify bacterial species are well below what are considered acceptable limits for human diagnostic laboratories. The distribution of cultured bacteria circumvents the most difficult step in the microbiological monitoring of animals, namely primary culture from clinical samples. We propose to set up a QAP that comprises the distribution of specimens mimicking clinical samples normally submitted to laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories.

  15. Comparison of changes in etiologic microorganisms causing early-onset neonatal sepsis between preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heejeong; Han, Su-jin; Yoo, Ha-Na; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kim, Yae-Jean; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-11-01

    To investigate changes in the etiologic microorganisms causing early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in preterm labor (PTL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) cases over the past 16 years and to analyze the associated factors. We included consecutive singleton pregnancies delivered before 34 weeks due to PTL or pPROM. The etiologic microorganisms causing EONS in PTL and pPROM cases were compared between period 1 (1996-2004) and period 2 (2005-2012). There was no difference in the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria causing EONS between period 1 and 2, either in PTL (2.0% versus 2.1%, p = 1.0) or in pPROM (1.5% versus 1.6%, p = 1.0). However, the incidence of EONS caused by Gram-negative bacteria was significantly increased in pPROM (0.6% versus 2.7%, p = 0.040) during period 2, compared to period 1; but not in PTL (0.3% versus 1.2%, p = 0.211). Multivariable analysis revealed that a prolonged ROM-to-delivery interval (>7 d) was significantly associated with EONS caused by Gram-negative bacteria in pPROM (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-31.8, p = 0.018). The etiologic microorganisms causing EONS have changed over the past 16 years in pPROM cases but not in PTL cases.

  16. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Row Crops and their Relationship to Nitrate in Eastern Iowa Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Mark B.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996-2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows stream flow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (~5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/l normalized over five years). PMID:16749677

  17. [Principles and criteria used by the National Evaluation Committee of Research Activity (CNEAI-Spain) for the assessment of scientific publications: 1989-2009].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2010-11-01

    Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books.

  18. County mortality and cancer incidence in relation to living near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania--an update.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Tarone, Robert E; Blot, William J

    2009-02-01

    A previous county mortality study of populations living near two nuclear materials processing and fabrication facilities in Westmoreland and Armstrong counties in Pennsylvania (1950-1995) was extended through 2004. Noncancer mortality (1996-2004) and cancer incidence (1990-2004) were also evaluated. Among the Westmoreland and Armstrong populations, 10,547 cancer deaths occurred during the period 1996 through 2004 and the relative risk (RR) based on comparisons with six demographically similar counties in western Pennsylvania was 0.97, that is, almost exactly as expected, and no different from our previously published analyses covering the years 1950-1995. The results based on cancer incidence data were very similar to those based on cancer mortality data. Over the years 1990 though 2004, 39,350 incident cancers were reported among residents of Armstrong and Westmoreland counties and the RR based on the six demographically similar counties was 0.99, that is, almost exactly as expected. The number of deaths from nonmalignant conditions was 36,565 and very close to the number expected (RR 1.01). Overall, no increases in cancer or nonmalignant diseases could be attributed to living in counties with nuclear materials processing and fabrication facilities.

  19. Geomagnetic response to solar activity: summary for the last ten years and analysis of selected cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejda, Pavel; Bochníček, Josef; Valach, Fridrich; Revallo, Miloš

    2014-05-01

    The main sources of geomagnetic disturbances are either coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are usually connected with eruptive flares, or high-speed streams of solar wind from coronal holes. Development of an eruptive flare and ejection of coronal mass is accompanied by magnetic reconnection. The evidence of reconnection can be found in a broad spectrum of observations. The observations of X-rays and radio bursts were used in our study. The geoeffectiveness of solar X-ray flares was initially analysed on data from the period 1996 - 2004 [1]. It was shown that the probability of geomagnetic response depends on the solar flare class and its position on the solar disc. The flares in the central region were found to be more geoeffective. The probability further increased if the flare was accompanied by Type II and/or Type IV of solar radio bursts. In the next step a neural network model was developed to determine the probability, with which flares will be followed by the geomagnetic response of a particular intensity. Enhancement of solar energetic particle flux was added to the set of input parameters. The results indicated that X-ray flares accompanied by solar radio bursts represent a good proxy of CMEs [2, 3]. This conclusion was now confirmed by the data from the period 2005 - 2012. Coronal holes are stable formations that can survive over several solar rotations. Corotating interaction regions (CIRs) between fast and slow solar wind can thus periodically pass over the Earth and cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. This periodicity makes the forecasts of the geomagnetic disturbances much easier [4] than in the case of eruptive phenomena. Our analysis confirmed that the strongest magnetic storms are caused by CMEs. Nevertheless, many geomagnetic disturbances in the active part of solar cycle are influenced by sequences of CMEs and CIRs, which increase their strength. [1] Bochníček, J., P. Hejda and F. Valach, Solar energetic events in the years 1996-2004. The

  20. ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY 4U 1608-522 IN THE UPPER-BANANA STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Sakurai, Soki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the physics of mass accretion onto weakly magnetized neutron stars (NSs), 95 archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data sets of an atoll source 4U 1608-522, acquired over 1996-2004 in the so-called upper-banana state, were analyzed. The object meantime exhibited 3-30 keV luminosity in the range of {approx}< 10{sup 35}-4 x 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}, assuming a distance of 3.6 kpc. The 3-30 keV Proportional Counter Array spectra, produced one from each data set, were represented successfully with a combination of a soft and a hard component, the presence of which was revealed in a model-independent manner by studying spectral variations among the observations. The soft component is expressed by the so-called multi-color disk model with a temperature of {approx}1.8 keV, and is attributed to the emission from an optically thick standard accretion disk. The hard component is a blackbody (BB) emission with a temperature of {approx}2.7 keV, thought to be emitted from the NS surface. As the total luminosity increases, a continuous decrease is observed in the ratio of the BB luminosity to that of the disk component. This property suggests that it gradually becomes difficult for the matter flowing through the accretion disk to reach the NS surface, presumably forming outflows driven by the increased radiation pressure. On timescales of hours to days, the overall source variability was found to be controlled by two independent variables: the mass accretion rate and the innermost disk radius, which changes both physically and artificially.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in erosion and accumulation of the subaqueous Yellow River delta (1976-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, N.; Xing, G.; Wang, H.; Yang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Yellow River Delta (YRD), one of the most heavily human-influenced delta systems, had dramatic changes since 1976. The erosion and accretion pattern of the subaqueous YRD was delineated by 1) the northern abandoned delta lobe, consisted of the heavily eroded Diaokou and Shenxiangou lobes; 2) the active delta lobe, comprised of Qingshuigou (QSG) and Q8 lobes and featured with fast progradation; 3) the Laizhou Bay (LZB) with slight accumulation. Three stages were summarized based on the evolution of the northern abandoned delta lobe. During 1976-1980, the northern abandoned delta was severely eroded due to the cutoff of sediment supply. As the subaqueous slope became gentler during 1980-1996, the deeper part of the subaqueous delta turned into slight accretion state while the shallow part continued to be eroded. However, the erosion rate of the northern delta slowed down during 1996-2004. Meanwhile, the development of the active delta lobe was a product of riverine sediment supply, channel geometry and estuarine hydrodynamics. Multi-depocenter was formed along the coastal area of the active subaqueous delta during 1976-1980, when multiple channels were active for sediment transportation. As the main river channel developed, the depocenter progradated eastward with an exceptional high accumulation rate during 1980-1985. The progradation direction turned southeastward with a lower accumulation rate during 1985-1996. Then, the depocenter shifted to the newly formed Q8 river mouth after a channel diversion in 1996, leaving the QSG river mouth in severe erosion. The channel diversion also caused erosion at the offshore area in LZB, where slight accumulation dominated before 1996. The erosion and accumulation pattern of the subaqueous YRD showed significant spatial and temporal variability during 1976-2004. A comprehensive understanding of their driven mechanisms would be critical for the prediction of the evolution of the YRD in the context of global change.

  2. Impact of jail sanctions during drug court participation upon substance abuse treatment completion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall T; Allison, Paul A; Nieto, F Javier

    2011-01-01

    This study of participants in a US drug treatment court describes the relationship between the imposition of short-term jail sanctions and substance abuse treatment dropout, and examines offender characteristics moderating or modifying the impact of jail sanctions on treatment dropout. Data were derived from administrative information collected by the Dane County Wisconsin Drug Treatment Court from 1996-2004 on all 573 participants achieving a final disposition of treatment completion or failure during those program years. Iterative Cox proportional hazards models of time to treatment failure were created; jail sanctions during drug court participation were framed as time-dependent covariates. A theoretical framework and specific statistical criteria guided construction of a final parsimonious model of time to treatment drop-out. Treatment failure was associated with unemployment [hazard ratio (HR) in unemployed versus employed = 1.41, P-value 0.0079], lower educational attainment (HR in high school non-graduate versus graduate = 1.41, P = 0.02) and application of the first jail sanction (HR 2.71, P < 0.001). The association between treatment failure and a first sanction was considerably stronger for sanctions administered earlier in participation (HR for sanction 1 at <30 days 11.34, P-value 0.0002). Conclusions  An initial jail sanction for non-adherence may be more likely to foster treatment compliance in less refractory individuals (i.e. those not already acclimated or socialized to incarceration or other corrections interventions). More stringent supervisory conditions and individualized services may be required to reintegrate such offenders and promote longer-term public safety. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infections associated with eating ground beef--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-02-24

    Salmonella infections cause an estimated 1.4 million human illnesses and 400 deaths annually in the United States. Although the incidence of several other foodborne bacterial infections decreased substantially during 1996-2004, the incidence of Salmonella infections declined modestly. In September 2004, the New Mexico Department of Health received reports from the New Mexico Scientific Laboratory Division of eight Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates that had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns using XbaI and BlnI restriction enzymes. The patients were from three New Mexico counties and had onsets of illness during August 18-29. A review of PFGE patterns submitted to the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance (PulseNet) database for Salmonella revealed 31 indistinguishable patient isolates of S. Typhimurium from nine states (Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin) and the District of Columbia, with illness onset occurring during August 11-October 2, 2004. The S. Typhimurium isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. An investigation conducted by state health departments, CDC, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) identified ground beef purchased at a national chain of supermarkets as the source of S. Typhimurium infections. Traceback results indicated product originating from a common supplier; however, evaluators determined that plant practices conformed to FSIS production guidelines, and no product recalls were made. This report describes the investigation and underscores the risk for salmonellosis from contact with contaminated ground beef, despite regulatory directives to reduce Salmonella contamination in beef production. Reduced contamination and consumption of raw or undercooked meat and further education of the food service industry and consumers are critical to

  4. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  5. Trends in Imaging after Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mousumi; Muenz, Daniel G.; Worden, Francis P.; Haymart, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The largest growth in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) diagnosis is in low-risk cancers. Trends in imaging after DTC diagnosis are understudied. Hypothesizing a reduction in imaging utilization due to rising low-risk disease, we evaluated post-diagnosis imaging patterns over time and patient characteristics that are associated with likelihood of imaging. Methods Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we identified patients diagnosed with localized, regional or distant DTC between 1991 and 2009. We reviewed Medicare claims for neck ultrasound, I-131 scan, or PET scan within 3 years post-diagnosis. Using regression analyses we evaluated trends of imaging utilization. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of imaging based on patient characteristics. Results 23,669 patients were included. Patients diagnosed during 2001-2009, compared to 1991-2000, were more likely to have localized disease (p<0.001) and tumors less than 1cm (p<0.001). Use of neck ultrasound and I-131 scan increased in patients with localized disease (p=<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively), regional disease (p<0.001 and p<0.001), and distant metastasis (p=0.001 and p=0.015). Patients diagnosed after 2000 were more likely to undergo neck ultrasound (OR 2.15, 95% CI 2.02-2.28) and I-131 scan (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.54). PET scan use from 2005-2009, compared to 1996-2004, increased 32.4-fold (p=<0.001) in localized patients, 13.1-fold (p<0.001) in regional disease patients, and 33.4-fold (p<0.001) in patients with distant DTC. Conclusion Despite a rise in low-risk disease, the use of post-diagnosis imaging increased in all stages of disease. The largest growth was in use of PET scan after 2004. PMID:25565063

  6. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  7. Arrest and detention in international travellers.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Douglas W; Gushulak, Brian D; Sandhu, James

    2007-07-01

    Systematic published reviews of national arrests of travellers abroad are rare. The pattern of arrest during international travel has implications for travellers and those involved in providing traveller services. There are also consequences for travellers who are arrested and detained abroad. The Consular Affairs Bureau, Foreign Affairs Canada assists Canadian civilians who are abroad. Beginning in 1995 the Consular Management and Operations System was used to track notifications of Canadian arrests abroad. This database was designed for the demographics, destinations, and reported causes of Canadians arrested abroad for 1996-2004. In this period, there were 6514 notifications of arrested Canadians abroad; 1024 (16%) females and 5490 (84%) males with an average age of 33.3 and 36.4 years, respectively. Recorded reasons for arrest were for females: drugs: 420 (41% of females arrested), violence: 75 (7%), other criminal acts: 198 (19%), immigration: 169 (17%), other minor causes: 20 (2%); and for males: drugs: 1554 (28% of males arrested), violence: 581 (11%), other criminal acts: 1468 (27%), immigration: 1056 (20%), other minor causes: 105 (1.9%); or the cause was not recorded for 142 women and 747 men. The USA was the most common host country for arrested Canadians. Alleged drug offences, other criminal activities, and immigration reasons were the most common cited reasons for arrest. Country of arrest reflected the pattern of Canadian international travel for recreation, business, and ancestral linkages. There are a wide-range of potential physical and mental health outcomes to arrest and imprisonment abroad that may be different in foreign jurisdictions due to language, culture, judicial processes and penalties imposed. The prison environment may also pose significant health risks.

  8. Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) 2004: 1. Summertime upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone over northeastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Stone, Jesse B.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Miller, Sonya K.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Chatfield, Robert B.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Cooper, Owen R.; Loucks, Amber L.; Taubman, Brett F.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Joseph, Everette; Kucsera, Tom L.; Merrill, John T.; Morris, Gary A.; Hersey, Scott; Forbes, Gerry; Newchurch, Michael J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Tarasick, David W.; Thouret, ValéRie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre

    2007-06-01

    Coordinated ozonesonde launches from the Intercontinental Transport Experiment (INTEX) Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/intex/ions.html) in July-August 2004 provided nearly 300 O3 profiles from eleven North American sites and the R/V Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Maine. With the IONS period dominated by low-pressure conditions over northeastern North America (NENA), the free troposphere in that region was frequently enriched by stratospheric O3. Stratospheric O3 contributions to the NENA tropospheric O3 budget are computed through analyses of O3 laminae (Pierce and Grant, 1998; Teitelbaum et al., 1996), tracers (potential vorticity, water vapor), and trajectories. The lasting influence of stratospheric incursions into the troposphere is demonstrated, and the computed stratospheric contribution to tropospheric column O3 over the R/V Ronald H. Brown and six sites in Michigan, Virginia, Maryland, Rhode Island, and Nova Scotia, 23% ± 3%, is similar to summertime budgets derived from European O3 profiles (Collette and Ancellet, 2005). Analysis of potential vorticity, Wallops ozonesondes (37.9°N, 75.5°W), and Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) O3 profiles for NENA airports in June-July-August 1996-2004 shows that the stratospheric fraction in 2004 may be typical. Boundary layer O3 at Wallops and northeast U.S. sites during IONS also resembled O3 climatology (June-July-August 1996-2003). However, statistical classification of Wallops O3 profiles shows the frequency of profiles with background, nonpolluted boundary layer O3 was greater than normal during IONS.

  9. Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Observations of the Low-mass X-ray Binary 4U 1608-522 in the Upper-banana State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Sakurai, Soki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the physics of mass accretion onto weakly magnetized neutron stars (NSs), 95 archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data sets of an atoll source 4U 1608-522, acquired over 1996-2004 in the so-called upper-banana state, were analyzed. The object meantime exhibited 3-30 keV luminosity in the range of <~ 1035-4 × 1037 erg s-1, assuming a distance of 3.6 kpc. The 3-30 keV Proportional Counter Array spectra, produced one from each data set, were represented successfully with a combination of a soft and a hard component, the presence of which was revealed in a model-independent manner by studying spectral variations among the observations. The soft component is expressed by the so-called multi-color disk model with a temperature of ~1.8 keV, and is attributed to the emission from an optically thick standard accretion disk. The hard component is a blackbody (BB) emission with a temperature of ~2.7 keV, thought to be emitted from the NS surface. As the total luminosity increases, a continuous decrease is observed in the ratio of the BB luminosity to that of the disk component. This property suggests that it gradually becomes difficult for the matter flowing through the accretion disk to reach the NS surface, presumably forming outflows driven by the increased radiation pressure. On timescales of hours to days, the overall source variability was found to be controlled by two independent variables: the mass accretion rate and the innermost disk radius, which changes both physically and artificially.

  10. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Stochastic approaches for time series forecasting of boron: a case study of Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Durdu, Omer Faruk

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a seasonal and non-seasonal prediction of boron concentrations time series data for the period of 1996-2004 from Büyük Menderes river in western Turkey are addressed by means of linear stochastic models. The methodology presented here is to develop adequate linear stochastic models known as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) to predict boron content in the Büyük Menderes catchment. Initially, the Box-Whisker plots and Kendall's tau test are used to identify the trends during the study period. The measurements locations do not show significant overall trend in boron concentrations, though marginal increasing and decreasing trends are observed for certain periods at some locations. ARIMA modeling approach involves the following three steps: model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking. In the model identification step, considering the autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) results of boron data series, different ARIMA models are identified. The model gives the minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) is selected as the best-fit model. The parameter estimation step indicates that the estimated model parameters are significantly different from zero. The diagnostic check step is applied to the residuals of the selected ARIMA models and the results indicate that the residuals are independent, normally distributed, and homoscadastic. For the model validation purposes, the predicted results using the best ARIMA models are compared to the observed data. The predicted data show reasonably good agreement with the actual data. The comparison of the mean and variance of 3-year (2002-2004) observed data vs predicted data from the selected best models show that the boron model from ARIMA modeling approaches could be used in a safe manner since the predicted values from these models preserve the basic

  12. Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Angot, H.; Dommergue, A.; Magand, O.; Barret, M.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brunke, E.-G.; Pfaffhuber, K.; Edwards, G.; Howard, D.; Powell, J.; Keywood, M.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge of the distribution of mercury concentrations in air of the Southern Hemisphere was until recently based mostly on intermittent measurements made during ship cruises. In the last few years continuous mercury monitoring has commenced at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere providing new and more refined information. In this paper we compare mercury measurements at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere made over a period of at least one year at each location. Averages of monthly medians show similar although small seasonal variations at both Cape Point and Amsterdam Island. A pronounced seasonal variation at Troll Research Station in Antarctica is due to frequent mercury depletion events in the austral spring. Due to large scatter and large standard deviations of monthly average median mercury concentrations at Cape Grim no systematic seasonal variation could be found there. Nevertheless, the annual average mercury concentrations at all sites during the 2007-2013 period varied only between 0.85 and 1.05 ng m-3. Part of this variability is likely due to systematic measurement uncertainties which we propose can be further reduced by improved calibration procedures. We conclude that mercury is much more uniformly distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere than the distributions suggested by measurements made onboard ships. This finding implies (a) that trends observed at one or a few sites in the Southern Hemisphere are likely to be representative for the whole hemisphere, and (b) that smaller trends can be detected in shorter time periods. We also report a change of the trend sign at Cape Point from decreasing mercury concentrations in 1996-2004 to increasing concentrations since 2007.

  13. 7-year temporal trend of anthropogenic SO2 emissions over China identified from GOME observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhar, M. F.; Beirle, S.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    Fossil fuels such as coal and oil contain significant amounts of sulfur When burned this sulfur is generally converted to SO2 The GOME observations showed enhancements of SO2 column amounts due to anthropogenic emission sources These enhancements are identified from the regions with extensive burning of coal smelting of metal ores and heavy industrial activities such as from China Eastern USA the Arabian Peninsula Eastern Europe South Africa and particularly Norilsk Russia Also a comparison with GOME observations of anthropogenic NO2 column amounts is presented In this paper we present time series of SO2 SCDs over China We analyzed GOME data for the time period 1996-2002 Time series over the highly industrialized regions Beijing and Shanghai showed a slight increase in the SO2 SCD attributable to the increased use of coal for power generation in China Zhou 2001 Especially during the GOME-period 1996-2001 coal consumption and SO2 time series reflect similar behaviour However Richter et al 2005 calculated a significant increase in the NO2 concentrations over the industrial areas of China for the time period of 1996-2004 Additionally preliminary results of atmospheric SO2 from SCIAMACHY on board EnviSAT-1 since March 2002 instrument with broader spectral and better spatial resolution is presented The better spatial resolution will help to study and localize the impacts of SO2 emissions on a finer spatial scale References Richter A J P Burrows H Nuess C Granier and U Niemeier Increase in tropospheric nitrogen

  14. Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Xue; Zhao, Yan Lin; Jiang, Guang Lu; Liu, Yu Hong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Sheng Fen; Wang, Li Xia; Borgdorff, Martien W; van der Werf, Marieke J; van den Hof, Susan

    2008-12-11

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996-2004 to assess levels of drug resistance. Provincial drug resistance surveys included all isolates from newly diagnosed, smear-positive TB patients. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was carried out in the provincial laboratories. For purposes of quality assurance, a random sample (11.6%) was re-tested by the national reference laboratory (NRL). Of 14,059 patients tested 11,052 (79%) were new TB cases. The weighted mean prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among all cases was 9.3% (range 2.2%-10.4%); 5.4% (range 2.1% - 10.4%) among new cases and 25.6% (range 11.7%-36.9%) among previously treated cases. Adjusting the drug resistance proportions using the re-testing results did not change the estimated national mean prevalence significantly. However, in some individual provinces the estimated resistance proportions were greatly influenced, especially among re-treatment patients. MDR-TB levels varied greatly between provinces in China, but on average were high compared to the global estimated average of 4.8%. This study shows the importance of quality-assured laboratory performance. Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB, including high quality DST for patients at high risk of resistance and treatment with second-line drugs, should become the standard, especially in high MDR-TB settings.

  15. Rabies in the arctic fox population, Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Mørk, Torill; Bohlin, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Tryland, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Arctic foxes, 620 that were trapped and 22 found dead on Svalbard, Norway (1996-2004), as well as 10 foxes trapped in Nenets, North-West Russia (1999), were tested for rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by standard direct fluorescent antibody test. Rabies antigen was found in two foxes from Svalbard and in three from Russia. Blood samples from 515 of the fox carcasses were screened for rabies antibodies with negative result. Our results, together with a previous screening (1980-1989, n=817) indicate that the prevalence of rabies in Svalbard has remained low or that the virus has not been enzootic in the arctic fox population since the first reported outbreak in 1980. Brain tissues from four arctic foxes (one from Svalbard, three from Russia) in which rabies virus antigen was detected were further analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Sequences were compared to corresponding sequences from rabies virus isolates from other arctic regions. The Svalbard isolate and two of the Russian isolates were identical (310 nucleotides), whereas the third Russian isolate differed in six nucleotide positions. However, when translated into amino acid sequences, none of these substitutions produced changes in the amino acid sequence. These findings suggest that the spread of rabies virus to Svalbard was likely due to migration of arctic foxes over sea ice from Russia to Svalbard. Furthermore, when compared to other Arctic rabies virus isolates, a high degree of homology was found, suggesting a high contact rate between arctic fox populations from different arctic regions. The high degree of homology also indicates that other, and more variable, regions of the genome than this part of the nucleoprotein gene should be used to distinguish Arctic rabies virus isolates for epidemiologic purposes.

  16. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  17. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2005-10-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2004; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2004 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  18. A Bayesian back-calculation method to estimate the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Canada during the period 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Oraby, Tamer; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen typical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) were detected in Canada the period of 2003-2011. The clinical incidence of BSE was censored by early slaughter, death, or exportation of infected cattle due to the long incubation period of BSE disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the infection incidence of BSE in birth cohorts during 1996-2004 and project infection frequency through to 2007. An estimate of the number of asymptomatic infected cattle slaughtered for human consumption is also provided. The number of incident, asymptomatic cases was assumed to follow a Poisson process. A Bayesian back-calculation approach was used to project the risk of contracting BSE in those birth cohorts. Model parameters and inputs were taken from scientific literature and governmental data sources. The projected number of infected cattle in birth cohorts spanning the period 1996-2007 was 492, with median 95% credible interval 258-830. If the requirement to remove specified risk material (SRM) from cattle prior to entering the food chain was not in place, the predicted number of slaughtered infected in the human food chain from 1996-2010 was 298, with a 95% credible interval 156-500. The magnitude of the BSE epidemic in Canada for 1996-2007 birth cohorts was estimated to be approximately 28-fold higher than the number of clinical cases detected through to October 2011. Although some of those cattle were slaughtered for human consumption, the requirement of SRM removal may have prevented most of the infectious material from entering the food chain.

  19. Effects of the El Niño-southern oscillation on dengue epidemics in Thailand, 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Fang, Chi-Tai; Klinchan, Suratsawadee; Liu, Chung-Ming; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2009-11-20

    Despite intensive vector control efforts, dengue epidemics continue to occur throughout Southeast Asia in multi-annual cycles. Weather is considered an important factor in these cycles, but the extent to which the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a driving force behind dengue epidemics remains unclear. We examined the temporal relationship between El Niño and the occurrence of dengue epidemics, and constructed Poisson autoregressive models for incidences of dengue cases. Global ENSO records, dengue surveillance data, and local meteorological data in two geographically diverse regions in Thailand (the tropical southern coastal region and the northern inland mountainous region) were analyzed. The strength of El Niño was consistently a predictor for the occurrence of dengue epidemics throughout time lags from 1 to 11 months in the two selected regions of Thailand. Up to 22% (in 8 northern inland mountainous provinces) and 15% (in 5 southern tropical coastal provinces) of the variation in the monthly incidence of dengue cases were attributable to global ENSO cycles. Province-level predictive models were fitted using 1996-2004 data and validated with out-of-fit data from 2005. The multivariate ENSO index was an independent predictor in 10 of the 13 studied provinces. El Niño is one of the important driving forces for dengue epidemics across the geographically diverse regions of Thailand; however, spatial heterogeneity in the effect exists. The effects of El Niño should be taken into account in future epidemic forecasting for public health preparedness.

  20. Male self-disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to sex partners: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen M

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive men face multiple challenges when deciding whether to disclose their serostatus to sex partners. The purpose of this literature review (1996-2004) is to identify valid and reliable research results that identify factors influencing serostatus disclosure to sex partners by men who are HIV-positive. Articles included in the review were identified through an electronic search using pertinent terms related to disclosure to sex partners, followed by a search of references for additional articles. A compilation of research results for 17 articles is presented under the headings of background, contextual, and psychosocial factors influencing disclosure. An analysis of the data suggests that differences in disclosure rates vary based on sex partner factors including serostatus, relationship status, and number of sex partners. Rates of disclosure to primary sex partners ranged from 67% to 88%, suggesting that nearly one third of main sex partners were not disclosed to and were at risk of contracting HIV, whereas a pattern of lower disclosure among casual partners was evident. As the number of sex partners increased, the likelihood of disclosure to all sex partners decreased, ranging from one quarter (25%) to slightly over half (58%). In addition, perceived efficaciousness and positive outcome expectations were the most frequent theoretical constructs embedded in the research associated with disclosure, suggesting that these factors play an important role in the process of disclosure to sex partners. Interpersonal factors that positively influenced self-disclosure included spousal support, emotional investment, and communication about safe sex, including asking about a partner's serostatus. Self-disclosure was not consistently associated with safer sex. Recommendations for future research are presented, based on the results included in this review.

  1. A large change in temperature between neighbouring days increases the risk of mortality.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G; Yu, Weiwei; Pan, Xiaochuan; Ye, Xiaofang; Huang, Cunrui; Tong, Shilu

    2011-02-02

    Previous studies have found high temperatures increase the risk of mortality in summer. However, little is known about whether a sharp decrease or increase in temperature between neighbouring days has any effect on mortality. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between temperature change and mortality in summer in Brisbane, Australia during 1996-2004 and Los Angeles, United States during 1987-2000. The temperature change was calculated as the current day's mean temperature minus the previous day's mean. In Brisbane, a drop of more than 3 °C in temperature between days was associated with relative risks (RRs) of 1.157 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.024, 1.307) for total non-external mortality (NEM), 1.186 (95%CI: 1.002, 1.405) for NEM in females, and 1.442 (95%CI: 1.099, 1.892) for people aged 65-74 years. An increase of more than 3 °C was associated with RRs of 1.353 (95%CI: 1.033, 1.772) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.667 (95%CI: 1.146, 2.425) for people aged <65 years. In Los Angeles, only a drop of more than 3 °C was significantly associated with RRs of 1.133 (95%CI: 1.053, 1.219) for total NEM, 1.252 (95%CI: 1.131, 1.386) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.254 (95%CI: 1.135, 1.385) for people aged ≥ 75 years. In both cities, there were joint effects of temperature change and mean temperature on NEM. A significant change in temperature of more than 3 °C, whether positive or negative, has an adverse impact on mortality even after controlling for the current temperature.

  2. Meaning-centered dream work with hospice patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott T; Grant, Pei C; Depner, Rachel M; Donnelly, James P; Kerr, Christopher W

    2015-10-01

    Hospice patients often struggle with loss of meaning, while many experience meaningful dreams. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary exploration into the process and therapeutic outcomes of meaning-centered dream work with hospice patients. A meaning-centered variation of the cognitive-experiential model of dream work (Hill, 1996; 2004) was tested with participants. This variation was influenced by the tenets of meaning-centered psychotherapy (Breitbart et al., 2012). A total of 12 dream-work sessions were conducted with 7 hospice patients (5 women), and session transcripts were analyzed using the consensual qualitative research (CQR) method (Hill, 2012). Participants also completed measures of gains from dream interpretation in terms of existential well-being and quality of life. Participants' dreams generally featured familiar settings and living family and friends. Reported images from dreams were usually connected to feelings, relationships, and the concerns of waking life. Participants typically interpreted their dreams as meaning that they needed to change their way of thinking, address legacy concerns, or complete unfinished business. Generally, participants developed and implemented action plans based on these interpretations, despite their physical limitations. Participants described dream-work sessions as meaningful, comforting, and helpful. High scores on a measure of gains from dream interpretation were reported, consistent with qualitative findings. No adverse effects were reported or indicated by assessments. Our results provided initial support for the feasibility and helpfulness of dream work in this population. Implications for counseling with the dying and directions for future research were also explored.

  3. Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections Observed During the Rising Phase of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed Ibrahim, M.; Manoharan, P. K.; Shanmugaraju, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the interplanetary consequences and travel time details of 58 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the Sun-Earth distance. The CMEs considered are halo and partial halo events of width {>} 120°. These CMEs occurred during 2009 - 2013, in the ascending phase of the Solar Cycle 24. Moreover, they are Earth-directed events that originated close to the centre of the solar disk (within about ±30° from the Sun's centre) and propagated approximately along the Sun-Earth line. For each CME, the onset time and the initial speed have been estimated from the white-light images observed by the LASCO coronagraphs onboard the SOHO space mission. These CMEs cover an initial speed range of {˜} 260 - 2700 km s^{-1}. For these CMEs, the associated interplanetary shocks (IP shocks) and interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) at the near-Earth environment have been identified from in-situ solar wind measurements available at the OMNI data base. Most of these events have been associated with moderate to intense IP shocks. However, these events have caused only weak to moderate geomagnetic storms in the Earth's magnetosphere. The relationship of the travel time with the initial speed of the CME has been compared with the observations made in the previous Cycle 23, during 1996 - 2004. In the present study, for a given initial speed of the CME, the travel time and the speed at 1 AU suggest that the CME was most likely not much affected by the drag caused by the slow-speed dominated heliosphere. Additionally, the weak geomagnetic storms and moderate IP shocks associated with the current set of Earth-directed CMEs indicate magnetically weak CME events of Cycle 24. The magnetic energy that is available to propagate CME and cause geomagnetic storm could be significantly low.

  4. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Grams, Morgan; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear. We studied 367,932 adults (20-93 years old) in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996-2004 and follow-up until 2011) and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases), cancer (4,035 cases), and other (non-CVD/non-cancer) causes (3,152 cases) after adjusting for potential confounders. Although cancer was overall the most common cause of mortality, in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), non-CVD/non-cancer mortality accounted for approximately half of cause of death (47.0%for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 54.3% for proteinuria ≥1+). Lower eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was significantly associated with mortality due to CVD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49 [95% CI, 1.24-1.78]) and non-CVD/non-cancer causes (1.78 [1.54-2.05]). The risk of cancer mortality only reached significance at eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 when eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 was set as a reference (1.62 [1.10-2.39]). High proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+ vs. negative/trace) was consistently associated with mortality due to CVD (1.93 [1.66-2.25]), cancer (1.49 [1.32-1.68]), and other causes (2.19 [1.96-2.45]). Examining finer mortality causes, low eGFR and high proteinuria were commonly associated with mortality due to coronary heart disease, any infectious disease, diabetes, and renal failure. In addition, proteinuria was also related to death from stroke, cancers of stomach, liver, pancreas, and lung, myeloma, pneumonia, and viral hepatitis. Low eGFR was associated with CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality, whereas higher proteinuria was consistently related to mortality due to CVD, cancer, and other causes. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary prevention and management strategies in individuals with CKD

  5. Dietary exposure assessment for arsenic and mercury following submarine tailings placement in Ratatotok Sub-district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Keith; Soebandrio, Amin

    2017-08-01

    The Mesel gold mine in the Ratatotok Sub-district operated between 1996 and 2004 with tailings disposal via an engineered submarine tailings placement (STP) into Buyat Bay. This operation raised concerns of increased levels of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) associated disease in the local communities from consumption of seafood contaminated with anthropogenic As and Hg. This report uses the dietary exposure to As and Hg, from local fishermen and market-purchased Codex "as consumed" and environmental fish results from the pre-mining baseline (1990-1995), the mine operational (1996-2004) and post-closure monitoring (2007-2016) to examine the potential health effects. The Ratatotok Sub-district consumers total As average daily intake from fish was between 152 and 317 μg/day (adults) and 58 and 105 μg/day (infants). The average daily intake of inorganic arsenic (Asi) from the dietary staples fish and rice and drinking water consumption was 77 μg/day (adults) and 35 μg/day (infants) at Buyat Pantai and 39 μg/day (adults) and 19 μg/day (infants) at Ratatotok township. Fish consumption contributed 8.2% (adults) and 6.5% (infants) to total daily Asi intake. Average Hg intake from fish consumption, exceeded the FAO WHO PTWI for methylmercury (MeHg) for all age and gender groups at Buyat Pantai 4.6 μg/kg bw/wk (adults) and 7.3 μg/kg bw/wk (infants) and for the infants at Buyat village and Ratatotok township (2.5 and 2.8 μg/kg bw/wk respectively). The Manado City consumers had average intakes below the MeHg PTWI. The Hg exceedances resulted from the high fish consumption in coastal communities and not elevated levels of Hg in fish. Hg exposure levels from the pre-mining baseline, Mesel STP operation and post-closure monitoring, confirmed that exceedances were unrelated to the tailings deposited into Buyat Bay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-Time CME Forecasting Using HMI Active-Region Magnetograms and Flare History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We have recently developed a method of predicting an active region s probability of producing a CME, an X-class Flare, an M-class Flare, or a Solar Energetic Particle Event from a free-energy proxy measured from SOHO/MDI line-of-sight magnetograms. This year we have added three major improvements to our forecast tool: 1) Transition from MDI magnetogram to SDO/HMI magnetogram allowing us near-real-time forecasts, 2) Automation of acquisition and measurement of HMI magnetograms giving us near-real-time forecasts (no older than 2 hours), and 3) Determination of how to improve forecast by using the active region s previous flare history in combination with its free-energy proxy. HMI was turned on in May 2010 and MDI was turned off in April 2011. Using the overlap period, we have calibrated HMI to yield what MDI would measure. This is important since the value of the free-energy proxy used for our forecast is resolution dependent, and the forecasts are made from results of a 1996-2004 database of MDI observations. With near-real-time magnetograms from HMI, near-real-time forecasts are now possible. We have augmented the code so that it continually acquires and measures new magnetograms as they become available online, and updates the whole-sun forecast from the coming day. The next planned improvement is to use an active region s previous flare history, in conjunction with its free-energy proxy, to forecast the active region s event rate. It has long been known that active regions that have produced flares in the past are likely to produce flares in the future, and that active regions that are nonpotential (have large free-energy) are more likely to produce flares in the future. This year we have determined that persistence of flaring is not just a reflection of an active region s free energy. In other words, after controlling for free energy, we have found that active regions that have flared recently are more likely to flare in the future.

  7. [Trends in computed tomography characteristics, intracranial pressure monitoring and surgical management in severe traumatic brain injury: Analysis of a data base of the past 25 years in a neurosurgery department].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Pedro A; Castaño-León, Ana M; Lora, David; Cepeda, Santiago; Lagares, Alfonso

    To describe the radiological characteristics, surgical indications, procedures, and intracranial pressure monitoring of a representative cohort of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) cases collected over the past 25years, and to analyse the changes that have occurred by dividing the period into 3 equal time periods. An observational cohort study was conducted on consecutive adult patients (>14years of age) with severe closed TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score [GCS]≤8) who were admitted during the first 48hours after injury to the Hospital 12 de Octubre from 1987 to 2012. The most relevant radiological findings, surgical procedures, and intracranial monitoring indications reported in the literature were defined and compared in 3 equal time periods (1987-1995, 1996-2004, and 2005-2014). A significant increase was observed in subdural haematomas with lesions over 25cc, and midline shift in the last period of time. The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage increased significantly with time. There was a progression to a worse computed tomography (CT) classification from the initial CT scan in 33% of cases. Surgery was performed on 721 (39.4%) patients. Early surgery (<12hours) was performed on 585 (81.1%) patients, with the most frequent being for extra-cerebral mass lesions (subdural and epidural haematomas), whereas delayed surgery (>12hours) was most frequently performed due to an intracerebral haematoma. Surgical treatment, both early and late was significantly lower with respect to the first time period. Decompressive craniectomy with evacuation of the mass lesion was the preferred procedure in the last time period. Intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) was carried out on 1049 (57.3%) patients, with a significantly higher frequency in the second period of time. There was adherence to Guidelines in 64.4% of cases. Elevated/uncontrolled ICP was more significant in the first time period. As a result of the epidemiological changes seen in traumatic brain injury, a

  8. Non-bridging Oxygens in Calcium Aluminosilicate Glass From Per-calcic to Peraluminous Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L.; Stebbins, J.

    2008-12-01

    The role of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and its effects on the thermodynamic and transport properties of aluminosilicate melts are not fully understood, although this species clearly must have a major influence on configurational entropy, viscosity, etc. Its existence along metaluminous joins in alkali- and alkaline-earth aluminosilicates was first postulated from viscosity measurements (Toplis et al., 1996, 2004) and then directly observed in several metaluminous calcium aluminosilicates by 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Much of the recent work has concentrated on glasses with an M+n/(M+nAl) ratio greater than or equal to 0.5 (metaluminous to peralkaline or per-alkaline earth); however, the observed viscosity maxima in several ternary systems occur when this ratio is less than 0.5 (peraluminous). Using NMR spectroscopy, this study investigates the effects of the Ca/Al ratio on the amount of NBO present in calcium aluminosilicate (CAS) glasses. 17O MAS NMR spectra of glasses with 60 mol% SiO2 show a decrease in NBO as the ratio R=Ca+2/(Ca+2Al) decreases, from 6.9% at R=0.56 to 1.0% at R=0.44. Measurable amounts of NBO thus persist well into the peraluminous region of the CAS system, but the species becomes undetectable (<0.5%) when R reaches 0.38 and 0.33. 27Al MAS NMR spectra of these glasses show an increase in the amount of five-coordinated aluminum as compositions become more peraluminous, as is well-known from previous studies (Neuville et al. 2006). Comparison with published viscosity measurements measured at both higher and lower mol % SiO2 (Toplis et al. 2004) suggests that the viscosity maximum does not correspond exactly with the disappearance of NBO from the glasses, but effects of temperature on speciation will need to be taken into account to accurately link glass structure with melt properties: recent work has shown, for example, that NBO content increases with temperature in CaAl2Si2O8 melt (Stebbins et al. 2008).

  9. Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand

  10. Prenatal and post-natal exposure to antibiotics and risk of asthma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Metsälä, J; Lundqvist, A; Virta, L J; Kaila, M; Gissler, M; Virtanen, S M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the association between post-natal exposure to antibiotics and the development of asthma is extensive, but inconsistent and even less is known about prenatal exposure. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal and post-natal exposure to different antibiotics and the risk of childhood asthma in a population- and register-based nested case-control study. All children who were born in 1996-2004 in Finland and diagnosed with asthma by 2006 were identified from a national health register. For each case, one matched control was selected. Information on asthma diagnoses, purchased anti-asthmatic drugs and antibiotics as well as putative confounders was obtained from national health registries. The associations were analysed using conditional logistic regression for children diagnosed at the age of 3 years or later (n = 6 690 case-control pairs). Maternal use of any antibiotics during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of asthma in the offspring [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.42)]. Several maternal specific antibiotics were associated with the risk of asthma, and the strongest association was observed for cephalosporins [OR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.30-1.64)]. Child's use of antibiotics during the first year of life was associated with an increased risk of asthma [OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.48-1.73)]. Child's use of cephalosporins [OR = 1.79 (95% CI 1.59-2.01)], sulphonamides and trimethoprim [OR = 1.65 (95% CI 1.34-2.02)], macrolides [OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.46-1.78)] and amoxicillin [OR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.35-1.58)] was associated with an increased risk of asthma. Both prenatal and post-natal exposure to antibiotics was associated with an increased risk of asthma. The potential role of adverse effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota and the development of asthma should be further explored. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Major Geomagnetic Storms (Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) Generated by Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Webb, D. F.; Zhang, J.; Berdichevsky, B. D.; Biesecker, D. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kataoka, R.; Steinberg, J. T.; Thompson, B. J.; Wu, C.-C.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-nine major geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) observed in 1996 to 2004 were the focus of a Living with a Star Coordinated Data-Analysis Workshop (CDAW) in March, 2005. In 9 cases, the storm driver appears to have been purely a corotating interaction region (CIR) without any contribution from coronal mass ejection-related material (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs). These storms were generated by structures within CIRs located both before and/or after the stream interface that included persistently southward magnetic fields for intervals of several hours. We compare their geomagnetic effects with those of 159 CIRs observed during 1996 - 2005. The major storms form the extreme tail of a continuous distribution of CIR geoeffectiveness which peaks at Dst approx. -40 nT but is subject to a prominent seasonal variation of - 40 nT which is ordered by the spring and fall equinoxes and the solar wind magnetic field direction towards or away from the Sun. The O'Brien and McPherron [2000] equations, which estimate Dst by integrating the incident solar wind electric field and incorporating a ring current loss term, largely account for the variation in storm size. They tend to underestimate the size of the larger CIR-associated storms by Dst approx. 20 nT. This suggests that injection into the ring current may be more efficient than expected in such storms. Four of the nine major storms in 1996 - 2004 occurred during a period of less than three solar rotations in September - November, 2002, also the time of maximum mean IMF and solar magnetic field intensity during the current solar cycle. The maximum CIR-storm strength found in our sample of events, plus additional 23 probable CIR-associated Dst less than or equal to -100 nT storms in 1972 - 1995, is (Dst = -161 nT). This is consistent with the maximum storm strength (Dst approx. -180 nT) expected from the O'Brien and McPherron equations for the typical range of solar wind

  12. Postdam evolution of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Collins, B. D.; Fairley, H. C.; Rubin, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    floods” (1160 m3/s), which occurred in 1996, 2004, and 2008. Dune fields downwind and within 100 m of controlled-flood sandbars tend to have higher sand-transport rates, more open sand, and less biologic soil crust than relict dune fields. They also generally have less vegetation, although vegetation has increased in some dune fields of each type over the study interval (2003 to present). We anticipate that, if current dam operations (with occasional sediment-rich 1160 m3/s flows) continue, greater differences in sand mobility, open sand area, biologic soil crust, and vegetation will develop between modern- and relict-sediment-sourced aeolian landscapes.

  13. The fatal injuries of car drivers.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, A; Chambost, M; Chiron, M

    2009-01-30

    We often refer to road fatalities without knowing exactly what injuries are responsible for them. Based on the Rhône Road Trauma Registry this paper sets out to describe the topography, nature and frequency of the fatal injuries sustained by car drivers. Mean annual mortality at the wheel of a car, computed by dividing the total number of drivers killed (n=383) by the population of the Rhône Département (1.6 million) during the period 1996-2004 was 5.41 males per 100,000 and 1.41 females per 100,000, with 78% of the casualties residing in the Département. A reduction has been observed since 2003. Three-quarters of the casualties died at the scene of the crash. The results confirm the effectiveness of seat belts. The observed lethality was 0.43% for unbelted drivers and 2.7% for belted drivers (RR=0.16 [0.12; 0.21]). The injuries were analyzed for the 287 killed drivers whose deaths could be explained by the described injuries (at least one AIS 4+ injury). Of these, 41% had an ISS of 75 (at least one AIS 6 injury), 21% had an ISS of between 40 and 74, 33% an ISS of between 25 and 40, and 6% an ISS of between 16 and 24. In the case of all the AIS 4+ injuries, the three most frequent locations for injuries were the thorax only (30% of casualties), the head only (23%) and a combination of the two (18%). Abdominal injuries occurred in only 10% of casualties and spinal injuries in 9% of casualties. In the thorax, the most common injury was flail chest with haemothorax or pneumothorax. In the case of the head, the most frequent injuries were to the brain (haemorrhage, haematoma and axonal injuries). Complex fractures of the base of the skull were the second most common craniocephalic injuries. In spite of the use of restraint devices, the thorax and head are still the priority vital areas for protection in the case of car drivers. For one in four of the fatalities, death cannot be explained by any of the injuries we know about. As road traffic accidents are considered

  14. Symptoms and suffering at the end of life in children with cancer: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Heath, John A; Clarke, Naomi E; Donath, Susan M; McCarthy, Maria; Anderson, Vicki A; Wolfe, Joanne

    2010-01-18

    To examine the symptoms, level of suffering, and care of Australian children with cancer at the end of life. In a study conducted at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, parents of children who had died of cancer over the period 1996-2004 were interviewed between February 2004 and August 2006. Parents also completed and returned self-report questionnaires. Proportions of children suffering from and treated for various symptoms; proportion of children receiving cancer-directed therapy at the end of life; proportion of children whose treatment of symptoms was successful; location of death. Of 193 eligible families, 96 (50%) were interviewed. All interviews were conducted in person, and occurred a mean of 4.5 years (SD, 2.1 years) after the child's death. Eighty-four per cent of parents reported that their child had suffered "a lot" or "a great deal" from at least one symptom in their last month of life--most commonly pain (46%), fatigue (43%) and poor appetite (30%). Children who received cancer-directed therapy during the end-of-life period (47%) suffered from a greater number of symptoms than those who did not receive treatment (P = 0.03), but the severity of symptoms did not differ between these groups. Of the children treated for specific symptoms, treatment was successful in 47% of those with pain, 18% of those with fatigue and 17% of those with poor appetite. Of the 61 families who felt they had time to plan where their child would die, 89% preferred to have their child die at home. The majority of children (61%) died at home. Of those who died in hospital, less than a quarter died in the intensive care unit. Relatively high rates of death at home and low rates of unsuccessful medical interventions suggest a realistic approach at the end of life for Australian children dying of cancer. However, many suffer from unresolved symptoms, and greater attention should be paid to palliative care for these children.

  15. Studying the effects of POs and MCs on the Salmonella ALOP with a quantitative risk assessment model for beef production.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Pirkko; Ranta, Jukka; Maijala, Riitta

    2007-08-15

    The Finnish Salmonella Control Programme and the special guarantees (SG) of import concerning Salmonella in the beef production chain were examined within the risk analysis framework. The appropriate level of protection (ALOP de facto since not referred to as ALOP in regulation), performance objectives (PO), and microbiological criteria (MC) were identified along the beef production chain. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model using the Bayesian probabilistic method was developed for the beef chain to evaluate the capability of different POs to contribute to the ALOP. The influence of SGs was studied as an intervention protecting Finnish consumers. The QMRA made it possible to translate an ALOP without a stated food safety objective (FSO) to POs when implemented for both ready-to-eat (RTE) and non-RTE products. According to the results, the Finnish ALOP de facto for beef, beef preparations and products (10 human Salmonella cases/100,000) was reached in all of the years 1996-2004. However, if the prevalence at the slaughter, domestic cut beef, and retail levels would increase to the level of POs set (maximum 1%), the ALOP de facto would be exceeded by a factor of roughly two. On the other hand, the zero tolerance applied to MCs would keep the true Salmonella prevalence at production steps with POs clearly below 1%, and the ALOP would then be achievable. The influence of SGs on the total exposure was so small (average 0.1% added to the total prevalence of beef-derived foods at retail) that their relevance may be doubted with the current amount and Salmonella prevalence in beef-derived imports. On the other hand, a change in import profile could increase the protective effect of the SGs. Although practical follow-up has to be carried out as apparent prevalences, the objectives and criteria should be estimated as true prevalences and incidences with quantified uncertainties in order to achieve a sound, transparent scientific-based understanding of

  16. Anidulafungin: a new echinocandin with a novel profile.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José A

    2005-06-01

    Until recently, available treatment for serious fungal infections comprised amphotericin B and azoles, which have limitations. Renal toxicity is a major concern with amphotericin B, while drug-drug interactions, hepatotoxicity, and skin rashes are the primary concerns with the azole medications. The development of the echinocandins, including caspofungin, has helped to fill the need for more efficacious antifungals that are useful across different patient populations and have a good safety profile. Anidulafungin is an echinocandin being developed to treat mucosal and invasive fungal infections. The aim of this report was to describe the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of anidulafungin. Data were identified using MEDLINE and National Library of Medicine Gateway searches for English-language literature (key words: anidulafungin, esophageal candidiasis, echinocandin, caspofungin, ravuconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, micafungin, and fluconazole; years: 1996-2004), and from meeting abstracts of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (Arlington Heights, Illinois), European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), International Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Washington, DC), and Infectious Diseases Society of America (Arlington, Virginia). Anidulafungin has potent in vitro activity against Aspergillus and Candida spp, including those resistant to either fluconazole or amphotericin B. Results of several clinical trials imply that anidulafungin is effective in treating esophageal candidiasis (EC), candidemia, and invasive candidiasis (IC). In a Phase III, randomized, blinded clinical trial evaluating anidulafungin (50 mg/d) versus fluconazole (100 mg/d) for the treatment of EC, 97.2% and 98.9% of patients who received anidulafungin and fluconazole, respectively, showed evidence of cure or improvement (treatment difference, -1.6%; 95% CI, -4.1 to 0.8). In a Phase II study

  17. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer for the potential therapy of adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Silver, Jared N; Elder, Melissa; Conlon, Thomas; Cruz, Pedro; Wright, Amy J; Srivastava, Arun; Flotte, Terence R

    2011-08-01

    ). Currently, rAAV vectors are being utilized in phase I/II clinical trials for cystic fibrosis, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Canavan's disease, Parkinson's disease, hemophilia, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, arthritis, Batten's disease, and Leber's congenital amaurosis (Flotte et al., 1996 , 2004 ; Kay et al., 2000 ; Aitken et al., 2001 ; Wagner et al., 2002 ; Manno et al., 2003 ; Snyder and Francis, 2005 ; Maguire et al., 2008 ; Cideciyan et al., 2009 ). In this study, we present preclinical data to support the viability of an rAAV-based gene transfer strategy for cure of ADA-SCID. We report efficient transduction of a variety of postmitotic target tissues in vivo, subsequent human ADA (hADA) expression, and enhanced hADA secretion in tissues and blood, with increasing peripheral lymphocyte populations over time.

  18. Potential Contribution of Particulate Organic Matter in the Mississippi River to Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.

    2005-05-01

    Episodic hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has drawn attention to high levels of nitrate in the Mississippi Basin that may be fueling algal productivity in the Gulf and resulting in low levels of dissolved oxygen. However, about half the N being transported in the Mississippi River is in the form of dissolved organic matter, and if much of it is bioavailable, it may be an important contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf. Since autochthonous organic matter is probably more bioavailable than terrestrial detritus, determination of (1) the relative contributions of different sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and (2) how controls on POM sources, characteristics, and lability vary both temporally and spatially, may provide critical information about other factors contributing to hypoxia. Therefore, riverine POM samples were collected bi-weekly to monthly from 30 USGS NASQAN sites in the Mississippi River Basin from 1996-2004, and analyzed for d13C, d15N, and C:N. These samples demonstrate that there is considerable temporal and spatial variation in the composition of fine-sized POM. A four-source mixing model (plankton, fresh terrestrial plant material, macrophytes, and soil organic material) is used to differentiate general sources of POM using d13C, d15N, and C:N ratios. Average values of d13C and C:N indicate that plankton and heterotrophic bacteria account for approximately half of the POM in the Basin, with higher percentages of plankton downstream of reservoirs and lower percentages in the mainstem of the river. Temporal patterns of d13C are complex but low d13C and C:N values in spring and summer suggest the occurrence of plankton blooms, whereas relatively elevated values in fall and winter are consistent with greater proportions of decaying macrophytes and/or terrestrial material. Many sites also show seasonal trends in d15N. Although soil and macrophyte detritus have overlapping d13C and C:N values, their relative contributions can be distinguished at many

  19. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch

  20. Design and Build of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway considering the Impacts of Warming Climate and Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W.; Jin, H.; Cheng, G.; Wu, Q.; Lai, Y.

    2005-12-01

    During the period from 1960 to 2000, an 1°C increase of air temperature has been observed along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) traversing 632 km of warm and ice-rich permafrost through the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Correspondingly, mean annual ground temperatures (MAGTs) of warm (>-1 °C) permafrost on average increased about 0.3 to 0.5°C during 1970s-1990, while that of colder permafrost had increased by 0.1 to 0.3°C. During 1996-2004, ground temperatures at the permafrost table were increasing at the rates of 0.01-0.08°C a-1, and the permafrost table was lowering at the rates of 2.6 to 6.6 cm a-1; and the ground temperatures at depths of 6 to 8 m were warming at the rates of 0.02 to 0.05°C a-1. Consequently, the strengths of permafrost as the foundation of the QTR would be weakened if proper engineering measures were not taken. Based on the experiences and lessons learned from the road construction in permafrost regions from Alaska, Canada and Russia, and northeastern China, and taking into consideration of possible climatic warming along the QTR during the next 100 years, the design and construction of the QTR adopted the principle of``cooling the roadbed'' because most of the permafrost along the route is too deep to be thawed, too thermally sensitive to climatic warming and too critical to have appreciable thaw settlements. About 550 km of QTR is in continuous permafrost zone, 82 km is in discontinuous permafrost zone; 275 km is in warm permafrost areas, and 110 km of permafrost is ice-rich. The QTR is designed for safe operations during the next 100 years during which a warming of 2.2 to 2.6°C by 2050 is projected. Without engineering measures to keep ground frozen or maintain the settlement within the acceptable limits, thaw settlement in the foundation soils, and induced environmental instability would threaten the integrity and safety of QTR operation. However, only increasing therma resistance, such as increasing fill thickness or

  1. Association of Changes in Air Quality With Bronchitic Symptoms in Children in California, 1993-2012.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Kiros; Chang, Chih-Chieh; McConnell, Rob; Gauderman, W James; Avol, Edward; Rapapport, Ed; Urman, Robert; Lurmann, Fred; Gilliland, Frank

    2016-04-12

    Childhood bronchitic symptoms are significant public and clinical health problems that produce a substantial burden of disease. Ambient air pollutants are important determinants of bronchitis occurrence. To determine whether improvements in ambient air quality in Southern California were associated with reductions in bronchitic symptoms in children. A longitudinal study involving 4602 children (age range, 5-18 years) from 3 cohorts was conducted during the 1993-2001, 1996-2004, and 2003-2012 years in 8 Southern California communities. A multilevel logistic model was used to estimate the association of changes in pollution levels with bronchitic symptoms. Average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). Annual age-specific prevalence of bronchitic symptoms during the previous 12 months based on the parent's or child's report of a daily cough for 3 months in a row, congestion or phlegm other than when accompanied by a cold, or bronchitis. The 3 cohorts included a total of 4602 children (mean age at baseline, 8.0 years; 2268 girls [49.3%]; 2081 Hispanic white [45.2%]) who had data from 2 or more annual questionnaires. Among these children, 892 (19.4%) had asthma at age 10 years. For nitrogen dioxide, the odds ratio (OR) for bronchitic symptoms among children with asthma at age 10 years was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67-0.94) for a median reduction of 4.9 ppb, with absolute decrease in prevalence of 10.1%. For ozone, the OR was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50-0.86) for a median reduction of 3.6 ppb, with an absolute decrease in prevalence of 16.3%. For PM10, the OR was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.48-0.78) for a median reduction of 5.8 µg/m3, with an absolute decrease in prevalence of 18.7%. For PM2.5, the OR was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.86) for a median reduction of 6.8 µg/m3, with absolute decrease in prevalence of 15.4%. Among children without asthma (n = 3710), the ORs were 0.84 (95% CI, 0

  2. Sustainable Irrigation Allocation Model for Dry and Wet Periods using Reservoir Storage and Inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surianarayanan, S.; Suribabu, C. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The dry period agriculture is inevitable both for the farmers for their earning, and for the soil for its fertility by crop-rotation. In tropical countries like INDIA, dry period agriculture becomes difficult because of less (or) no rain fall. Hence a simple water balancing model for irrigation scheduling, using the measure “Volumetric Reliability” is prepared in this paper, with the storage and inflow of a reservoir both for the dry and wet periods. The case-study is done for a reservoir in INDIA with thirty one years of hydrological data(from 1982 to 2012). The objective of this paper is to prepare a simple water balance model taking 10 days periods of demand and supply for ID crop(Irrigated Dry crop, ground nut) with usage of volumetric reliability concept for the periods of deficiency and adoption of less water requirement crops to reduce the water-stress during critical periods of crop growth, and finally arrive at a feasible allocation schedule for the success of agriculture and the yield throughout the year both for wet and dry crops with the available storage on the start of irrigation for a particular year. The reservoir is divided for storages such as full, deficient and critical storages. The starting storage for the dry period from January is used after adequate allocation for wet crops, the quantity for riparian rights and for drinking water, for the sustainability. By the water-balancing, the time-series for thirty one years, it is found that for twenty two years the demand for the ID crops is satisfied with the storage in the reservoir, and in the remaining years of deficient inflows, for three years (1986,1996,2004)the demand is managed by using the safe reliability factor for demand which can nullify the deficit in demand for the whole supply period. But it is genuine to assure that the reduction in the amount of water for each 10 days periods should not exceed the survival limit of the crop. Necessary soil-moisture must be ensured in the crop

  3. Effects of River Regulation on Aeolian Landscapes, Grand Canyon National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment deposits in the Colorado River corridor include fluvial sandbars and aeolian dune fields, and the fluvial deposits are the primary sediment source for sand in the aeolian dunes. This 7-year study examined the effects of river regulation at Glen Canyon Dam (alteration of flow regime, sediment-supply reduction, and consequent loss of fluvial sandbars) on aeolian landscapes downstream in Grand Canyon National Park. A comparative study was developed between aeolian landscapes in Grand Canyon, Arizona, and Cataract Canyon, Utah, upstream of Glen Canyon Dam and its reservoir (Lake Powell), where hydrology and sediment supply of the Colorado River are affected substantially less by artificial river regulation than occurs in Grand Canyon. Before closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, sediment-rich floods (mean annual peak 2400 m3/s) formed sandbars from which wind moved sand inland to form aeolian dunes. After dam operations reduced the amplitude and frequency of high flows, and eliminated the mainstream fluvial sediment supply, Grand Canyon’s fluvial sandbars lost open sand area owing to erosion by river flows and the spread of riparian vegetation. Two types of aeolian landscapes now occur in Grand Canyon: (1) modern fluvial sourced, those downwind of post-dam sandbars; and (2) relict fluvial sourced, whose primary sediment source was deposits from pre-dam floods that were larger than any post-dam flows have been. Sediment supply has been reduced to type (1) dune fields because post-dam sandbars are smaller than in the pre-dam era; new sediment supply to type (2) dune fields essentially has been eliminated. Type 1 aeolian landscapes can receive new windblown sand from sandbars formed by controlled floods (1160 m3/s), which occurred in 1996, 2004, and 2008. Type 1 dune fields, being downwind and within 100 m of controlled-flood sandbars, have significantly higher aeolian sand-transport rates, more open sand, and less biologic soil crust than relict type 2 dune

  4. Short-Term Effects of the 2008 High-Flow Experiment on Macroinvertebrates in Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Kincaid, Dustin W.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Kelly, Holly A.W.; Behn, Kathrine A.; White, Tyler; Hall, Robert O.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically altered the physical environment (especially discharge regime, water temperatures, and sediment inputs) of the Colorado River. High-flow experiments (HFE) that mimic one aspect of the natural hydrograph (floods) were implemented in 1996, 2004, and 2008. The primary goal of these experiments was to increase the size and total area of sandbar habitats that provide both camping sites for recreational users and create backwaters (areas of stagnant flow in the lee of return-current eddies) that may be important as rearing habitat for native fish. Experimental flows might also positively or negatively alter the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery in the clear tailwater reach below Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., and native fish populations in downstream reaches (for example, endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha) through changes in available food resources. We examined the short-term response of benthic macroinvertebrates to the March 2008 HFE at three sites [river mile 0 (RM 0, 15.7 miles downriver from the dam), RM 62, and RM 225] along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam by sampling immediately before and then 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after the HFE. We selected these sites because of their importance to management; RM 0 has a valuable trout fishery, and RM 62 is the location of the largest population of the endangered humpback chub in the Grand Canyon. In addition to the short-term collection of samples, as part of parallel investigations, we collected 3 years of monthly (quarterly for RM 62) benthic macroinvertebrate samples that included 15 months of post-HFE data for all three sites, but processing of the samples is only complete for one site (RM 0). At RM 0, the HFE caused an immediate 1.75 g AFDM/m2 (expressed as grams ash-free dry mass, or AFDM) reduction of macroinvertebrate biomass that was driven by significant reductions in the biomass of the two dominant taxa in this reach-Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New

  5. The same teacher, the same curriculum materials, different schools: What is the enacted curriculum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, Tammy

    This research examines how the same teacher implements the same curriculum material in two different schools. The aim of the study is to examine how the enacted algebra curriculum may change when the same teacher enacts the same written curriculum materials in different classes. This research comprises two case studies. Each case examines one teacher who taught the beginning of the mathematical topic "equivalent algebraic expressions", to two 7th grade classes from different schools. The same textbook was used in all four classes. The data collected includes: 1. Observations: 25930 lessons throughout the school year in each of the participating classes; Other mathematics classes in each of the schools; Other non9mathematics classes in the participating classes. A total of 130 lessons were observed. The observations included continuous observations of the teaching of "equivalent algebraic expressions" (15919 lessons) in each class. These observations are the main data source of this research; 2. Interviews with the teachers; 3. Informal conversations; and 4. Field notes. The data was analyzed both through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The research focuses on the following two aspects of the enacted curriculum: implementation of the recommendation that appeared in the curriculum materials and the types of algebraic activity that the students were exposed to during the teaching of the mathematical topic. Kieran's framework (Kieran, 1996, 2004), which distinguishes between three types of algebraic activities 9 generational, transformational and global/meta9level 9 was employed for the examination of the algebraic activities. Comparisons were made for two aspects of the research: between the enacted curriculum in each of the classes and the curriculum materials; and between each of the classes taught by same teacher. It was found that in case study 1, that examined teacher Sara and schools Carmel and Tavor -- most of the recommendations for instruction that