Science.gov

Sample records for 1996-2004 amtslig karkirurgisk

  1. [Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela.

  2. Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area, 1996-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Julian, Bruce R.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Richards-Dinger, Keith; Monastero, Francis

    2006-03-31

    Local-earthquake tomographic images were calculated for each of the years 1996 - 2004 using arrival times from the U.S. Navy’s permanent seismometer network at the Coso geothermal area, California. The results show irregular strengthening with time of the wave-speed ratio VP/VS at shallow depths. These changes result predominately from progressive relative increase in VS with respect to VP, and could result from processes associated with geothermal operations such as decrease in fluid pressure and the drying of argillaceous minerals such as illite.

  3. Titan's 2 micron Surface Albedo and Haze Optical Depth in 1996-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S; de Pater, I; Macintosh, B; Roe, H; Max, C; Young, E; McKay, C

    2004-05-04

    We observed Titan in 1996-2004 with high-resolution 2 {micro}m speckle and adaptive optics imaging at the W.M. Keck Observatory. By observing in a 2 {micro}m broadband filter we obtain images that have contributions from both Titan's surface and atmosphere. We have modeled Titan's atmosphere using a plane-parallel radiative transfer code that has been corrected to agree with 3-D Monte Carlo predictions. We find that Titan's surface albedo ranges from {le} 0:02 in the darkest equatorial region of the trailing hemisphere to {approx_equal} 0:1 in the brightest areas of the leading hemisphere. Over the past quarter of a Saturnian year haze optical depth in Titan's Southern hemisphere has decreased substantially from a value of 0.48 in 1996 down to 0.18 in 2004, while the northern haze has been increasing over the past few years. As a result of these changes, in 2004 the North/South haze asymmetry at K' band has disappeared.

  4. Titan's 2 μm surface albedo and haze optical depth in 1996-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, S. G.; de Pater, I.; Macintosh, B. A.; Roe, H. G.; Max, C. E.; Young, E. F.; McKay, C. P.

    2004-07-01

    We observed Titan in 1996-2004 with high-resolution 2 μm speckle and adaptive optics imaging at the W. M. Keck Observatory. By observing in a 2 μm broadband filter we obtain images that have contributions from both Titan's surface and atmosphere. We have modeled Titan's atmosphere using a plane-parallel radiative transfer code that has been corrected to agree with 3-D Monte Carlo predictions. We find that Titan's surface albedo ranges from <=0.02 in the darkest equatorial region of the trailing hemisphere to $\\simeq$0.1 in the brightest areas of the leading hemisphere. Over the past quarter of a Saturnian year haze optical depth in Titan's Southern hemisphere has decreased substantially from a value of 0.48 in 1996 down to 0.18 in 2004, while the northern haze has been increasing over the past few years. As a result of these changes, in 2004 the North/South haze asymmetry at K' band has disappeared.

  5. The Impact of Increased Tax Subsidies on the Insurance Coverage of Self-Employed Families: Evidence from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The share of health insurance premiums that self-employed workers can deduct when computing federal income taxes rose from 30 percent in 1996 to 100 percent in 2003. Data from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey are used to show that the increased tax subsidy was associated with substantial increases in private coverage among…

  6. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  7. Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area, 1996-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    The permanent 18-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the seismically active Coso geothermal area, California, provides high-quality microearthquake (MEQ) data that are well suited to investigating temporal variations in structure related to processes within the geothermal reservoir. A preliminary study [Julian, et al., 2003; Julian, et al., 2004] comparing data from 1996 and 2003 found significant variations in the ratio of the seismic wave-speeds, Vp/Vs, at shallow depths over this time interval. This report describes results of a more detailed study of each year from 1996 through 2004.

  8. Volcano-tectonic deformation at Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, northern California, from GPS: 1996-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, M.; Poland, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Owen, S.

    2004-12-01

    Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes are two of the three Cascade volcanoes targeted for dense GPS and strainmeter deployments by the magmatic systems component of Earthscope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). Leveling surveys indicate an average subsidence rate of ˜9 mm/yr at Medicine Lake volcano since at least 1954, which could result from draining of a magma reservoir, cooling/crystallization of a subsurface body of magma or hot rock, loading by the volcano and dense intrusions, crustal thinning due to regional extension, or some combination of these mechanisms. Displacements from GPS surveys in 1996 and 1999 revealed regional block rotation and contraction across the summit of the volcano, but the time interval was too short to distinguish between possible mechanisms. On Mount Shasta, a 21-line, 12-km aperture EDM network was measured in 1981, 1982, and 1984 with no significant deformation detected, nor was there significant length change in three EDM lines recovered with GPS in 2000. We present results from GPS surveys completed in June and July 2004 of the region surrounding both Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes. We find regional deformation to be dominated by a block rotation about a pole in southeast Oregon, similar to but generally south of poles determined by other workers using GPS in western Oregon and Washington. No significant residual deformation remains in the four GPS stations located on Mount Shasta, which were previously measured in 2000. In contrast, GPS results from six stations on the upper flanks of Medicine Lake volcano confirm the known subsidence and are consistent with elastic half-space models of volume loss that fit the leveling data. No significant residual regional strain was detected. As a result, we believe that subsidence at Medicine Lake does not likely result from crustal thinning due to regional extension. A more detailed examination of Medicine Lake subsidence sources, Mount Shasta edifice deformation, and possible local and regional temporal deformation changes will be available after installation of continuous GPS stations and strainmeters by the Plate Boundary Observatory. In addition, we have begun annual microgravity measurements that in the future should help to distinguish between possible deformation mechanisms for Medicine Lake volcano.

  9. Estimates of Continental Plate Motions Derived From Continuous GPS Measurements of Station Coordinates and Velocities, 1996-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, D. A.

    2004-05-01

    Analysis Centres of the International GPS Service (IGS) currently compute daily Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) and weekly precise coordinates for over 200 globally distributed tracking stations. These estimates are made available to the scientific community in the Solution Independent Exchange (SINEX) format, developed for exchange and analysis of position estimates from techniques such as SLR, LLR, VLBI, DORIS and GPS. On behalf of the IGS, National Resources Canada (NRCan) has been combining, officially since 1999, all weekly SINEX files from the ACs to form weekly and cumulative solutions. The weekly solution (named igsyyPwwww, yy = 2-digit year, wwww = 4-digit GPS week) contains estimates of station coordinates, ERPs and geocentre pertaining to the GPS week, and the cumulative solution (named IGSyyPWW, WW = 2-digit week number, 01 to 52, within the year) comprises station coordinates and velocities in a common reference epoch, Jan. 1, 1998. For example, two solutions produced for week 1253 (2nd week of year 2004) were igs04P1253 (weekly) and IGS04P02 (cumulative). Since week 1253, all IGS solutions have been aligned to IGb00, a realization of IGS's most recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame, ITRF2000. IGb00 was obtained from coordinates and velocities of 99 globally distributed reference stations by alignment to ITRF2000 at GPS week 1231 of cumulative solution IGS03P33. Before week 1143, a realization of IGS's previous reference frame, ITRF97, was used instead. Using the cumulative solution from any given week, the rotation components of any continental plate with at least two stations are estimated and compared with published results. These include three known plate models: NNR NUVEL 1, NNR NUVEL 1A and the most recent REVEL 2000 aligned to ITRF97. The findings can be summarized as follows: Continental rotations derived from IGS04P02 are shown to be significantly different at 99% confidence level from NNR NUVEL 1A's estimates for North American, Eurasian, Australian, Pacific, Antarctic, Indian, Nazca and Nubian (the latter compared to NNR NUVEL 1A African) plates. In addition, certain plates previously regarded as belonging to an adjacent, larger continent in NNR NUVEL 1 or 1A are now seen to move significantly differently; e.g., Amurian distinct from Eurasian, Adriatic and Sinai distinct from NNR NUVEL 1A African. North American, Eurasian, Australian and Pacific plates show significantly different rotations in IGS04P02 than predicted by REVEL 2000, yet not from the alignment of REVEL 2000 to IGb00. Certain pairs of adjacent plates show relative Euler poles near their plate boundaries; e.g., Eurasian and North American, Amurian and Eurasian, Amurian and South-China, Adriatic and Eurasian, Arabian and Nubian, Sinai and Nubian, Sinai and Arabian, Nubian and Somali. This phenomenon can be expected when bordering plates show no subduction or obduction. RMS difference between velocities of stations used in Euler pole calculation in IGS04P02 and those expected from NNR NUVEL 1A rise to 4.3 mm/yr in the horizontal component and 8.7 mm/yr in the vertical. The horizontal RMS velocity difference decreases significantly to 2.4 mm/yr when IGS04P02 is compared with REVEL 2000.

  10. An instrumental variables evaluation of the effect of antidepressant use on employment among HIV-infected women using antiretroviral therapy in the United States: 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Galárraga, Omar; Salkever, David S; Cook, Judith A; Gange, Stephen J

    2010-02-01

    Depression is a common condition among patients with HIV. This paper uses panel data for 1234 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study to estimate the effect of antidepressant use on the likelihood of being employed among women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the United States from 1996 to 2004. We show that naive regressions of antidepressant use on employment generally result in negative or non-significant coefficients, whereas the instrumental variables (IVs) approach shows a positive and significant effect of antidepressant use on the employment probability of women living with HIV. We use IVs to predict antidepressant use independently of outcomes, thus addressing potential biases (e.g. more depressed women are more likely to receive antidepressant treatment, but they are also more likely to be unemployed). The results are consistent for linear (random and fixed effects) as well as non-linear (bivariate probit) specifications. Among women receiving HAART, and controlling for individual and local area labor market characteristics, the use of antidepressants is associated with a 29-percentage-point higher probability of being employed. Improved efforts to test, diagnose and treat depression among HIV-positive patients may improve not only clinical indicators but also labor market outcomes.

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups were pooled across the entire Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam for this report. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.92% with an estimated standard error (dSE) of 0.25% for wild spring and summer Chinook salmon for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2004, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. Only for the 1999 and 2000 release years did the wild Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for wild steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.63% (dSE = 0.15%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2004. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2004), it was estimated that on average approximately 83% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged wild spring and summer Chinook, and 78% for steelhead (omitting the 2001 release year), occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Lower Granite Dam were available for the 2003 and 2004 release years for both wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead. The estimated T/I for Lower Granite was significantly > 1.0 for Chinook in 2004 (P < 0.0001) and for steelhead in both 2003 (P < 0.0001) and 2004 (P < 0.0001), indicating that for these release years, wild fish transported at Lower Granite returned there in higher proportions than fish that were returned to the river at Lower Granite, or that passed Lower Granite without detection as juveniles. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Little Goose Dam were available for wild Chinook salmon for both 2003 and 2004. The estimated T/I for Little Goose was significantly > 1.0 for wild Chinook in 2004 (P = 0.0024), but not in 2003 (P = 0.1554). Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of post-Bonneville survival to Lower Granite Dam of transported fish to that of nontransported ('inriver') fish. Estimates of D were available for transportation from Lower Granite and Little Goose dams in 2003 and 2004 for wild Chinook, and from Lower Granite Dam in 2003 and 2004 for wild steelhead. Point estimates ranged from 0.74 (dSE = 0.29) for transportation of wild Chinook salmon from Lower Granite Dam in 2003 to 1.91 (dSE = 0.61) for transportation of wild steelhead from Lower Granite Dam in 2003. Small transport groups resulted in high uncertainty on the point estimates, and only for 2003 steelhead transported from Lower Granite Dam did transported fish have significantly greater post-Bonneville survival than nontransported fish (P = 0.0213).

  12. Trends in pesticide concentrations in urban streams in the United States, 1992-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide concentration trends in streams dominated by urban land use were assessed using data from 27 urban streams sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The sites were divided into four regions, Northeast, South, Midwest, and West, to examine possible regional patterns. Three partially overlapping 9-year periods (1992-2000, 1996-2004, and 2000-2008) were examined for eight herbicides and one degradation product (simazine, prometon, atrazine, deethylatrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, pendimethalin, tebuthiuron, and Dacthal), and five insecticides and two degradation products (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, fipronil, fipronil sulfide, desulfinylfipronil, and carbaryl). The data were analyzed for trends in concentration using a parametric regression model with seasonality, flow-related variability, and trend, called SEAWAVE-Q. The SEAWAVE-Q model also was used to generate estimated daily concentration percentiles for each analysis period to provide a summary of concentration magnitudes. For herbicides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for simazine were in the South, prometon at some sites in all of the regions, atrazine and deethylatrazine in the South and Midwest, metolachlor in the Midwest and a few sites in the South, pendimethalin at scattered sites in all of the regions, and tebuthiuron in the South and a few sites in the Midwest and West. For insecticides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for diazinon and carbaryl were distributed among various sites in all regions (especially during 1996-2004), and fipronil at isolated sites in all of the regions during 2000-2008. Trend analysis results for the herbicides indicated many significant trends, both upward and downward, with varying patterns depending on period, region, and herbicide. Overall, deethylatrazine showed the most consistent pattern of upward trends, especially in the Northeast (2000-2008), South

  13. Editorial: Looking to the Future of Hydrologic Engineering

    EPA Science Inventory

    Being one of the more recent journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (JHE) has made significant strides under the forward-thinking leadership of previous editors (M. Levent Kavvas 1996-2004, and V. P. Singh, 2004-2012) si...

  14. Equality in Higher Education in Spain and the UK: Mismatch between Rhetoric and Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Manuel Souto; Whitworth, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Making use of Grisay's typology of educational equality, the paper analyses rhetoric and policy on equality in higher education (HE) in Spain and the UK in the period 1996-2004, using electoral manifestos, policy papers, legislation and academic literature. We find that in both countries, and in spite of similar pressures and levels of access to…

  15. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  16. Martin County, FL, Case Study: Physical and Economic Performance of Martin County Federal Shore Protection Project During 2004 Tropical Season. Flood and Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    2004, 9.2 million dollars in emergency protective actions including seawalls , revetments and construction of emergency dune features are estimated to...season was notable as one of the deadliest and most costly Atlantic hurricane seasons on record, with at least 3,132 deaths (over 3,000 lives lost in...condition. In hindcasting the without project condition from 1996-2004, 9.2 million dollars in emergency protective actions including seawalls

  17. Occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and development of a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine ephemeral fever virus gene.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tsuyoshi; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Ikemiyagi, Kazufumi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Moemi; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    In September 2012, several cows and a calf showed decreased activity, anorexia and fever on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF). We isolated BEF virus (BEFV) from one of the affected cows and then determined the complete genome sequence of the G gene, which encodes a class I transmembrane glycoprotein of BEFV. The BEFV isolate in this case, ON-3/E/12, was sorted into the same cluster as other BEFV isolates in Japan, Taiwan and China obtained in 1996-2004 and was most closely related to a 2002 Chinese isolate, JT02L, according to the phylogenetic analysis of the complete G gene. Since inactivated vaccines for BEF available in Japan are considered effective against the ON-3/E/12 isolate as well as other isolates in East Asia from 1996-2004, annual vaccination should be conducted to prevent BEF in Okinawa. Additionally, in this study, we developed an RT-PCR assay to detect the BEFV gene in Japan and neighboring countries. Our assay was able to amplify target sequences in all of the tested BEFV isolates, including 18 isolates in Japan and another isolate in Australia. The assay was found to be useful also for testing RNA samples extracted from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per tube. We believe that our assay would be an important tool for the screening of BEFV infection and the diagnosis of BEF.

  18. The Impact of Race and Ethnicity, Immigration, and Political Context on Participation in American Electoral Politics.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants.

  19. Cohabitation, gender, and alcohol consumption in 19 countries: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wilsnack, Richard; Wilsnack, Sharon; Kristjanson, Arlinda

    2010-12-01

    We used an ecological paradigm and multilevel analytic techniques to analyze gender-specific relationships of cohabitation (versus marriage) to drinking in 19 countries (n = 32,922) and to "heavy episodic drinking" (HED) in 17 countries (n = 24,525) in surveys (1996-2004) from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study. Cohabitation was associated with elevated risk of HED among drinkers of both genders, controlling for age, education, and societal characteristics. The association between cohabitation and HED tended to be stronger for female drinkers than for male drinkers. HED was more prevalent among younger drinkers, especially among younger women in countries with higher per capita gross domestic product. Cross-culturally, cohabiters deserve special attention in prevention efforts for hazardous drinking, considering both individual-level and societal factors.

  20. The Impact of Race and Ethnicity, Immigration, and Political Context on Participation in American Electoral Politics

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants. PMID:24339453

  1. Response of sulfate concentration and isotope composition in Icelandic rivers to the decline in global atmospheric SO{sub 2} emissions into the North Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdur Reynir Gislason; Peter Torssander

    2006-02-01

    This study presents the changes in dissolved sulfate concentration and isotope composition of Icelandic river waters between the peak of SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States and Europe and the present. Chloride concentration in Icelandic rivers has not changed much since 1972. The overall average change from 1972-1973 to 1996-2004 was -3%, indicating insignificant sea-salt contribution changes. More than 99% of the river-dissolved sulfur was in the form of sulfate. There are three main sources for dissolved sulfate in the rivers: rocks, sea-salts, and anthropogenic. Total dissolved sulfate, {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and non-sea-salt sulfate, {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, decreased in all of the rivers from the early 1970s to 1996-2004. The percentage decrease varies from 13% to 65%. The decrease is smallest in rivers were there is considerable rock-derived dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The overall average decrease was 39% for {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and 46% for {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The anthropogenic sulfate fraction has declined making most of the river waters {delta}{sup 34}S values of sulfate higher through time. The overall decline in river sulfate and increase in {delta}{sup 34}S, while SO{sub 2} emissions from Iceland has been increasing, demonstrates the response of river chemistry in the remote North Atlantic to the decline in man-made emissions of SO{sub 2} in North America and Europe. 43 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Mercury in the atmosphere and in rainwater at Cape Point, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Walters, Chavon; Mkololo, Thumeka; Martin, Lynwill; Labuschagne, Casper; Silwana, Bongiwe; Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-01-01

    Mercury measurements were concurrently made in air (Gaseous Elemental Mercury, i.e. GEM) as well as in precipitation samples (Total mercury, i.e. TotHg) over a seven year period (2007-2013) at Cape Point, South Africa, during the rainy seasons (May-October). Eighty-five rain events, almost exclusively associated with cold fronts, have been identified of which 75% reached the Cape Point observatory directly across the Atlantic Ocean from the south, while 19% moved in to the measuring site via the Cape Town metropolitan region. In statistic terms the GEM, TotHg, CO and 222Rn levels within the urban-marine events do not differ from those seen in the marine rain episodes. Over the 2007-2013 period, the May till Oct averages for GEM ranged from 0.913 ng m-3 to 1.108 ng m-3, while TotHg concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 52.5 ng L-1 (overall average: 9.91 ng L-1). A positive correlation (R2 = 0.49, n = 7) has been found between the average annual (May till October) GEM concentrations in air and TotHg concentration in rainwater suggesting a close relationship between the two species. The wetter years are normally associated with higher GEM and TotHg levels. Both GEM and TotHg annual means correlate positively with total annual (May till October) rain depths. If one or two outlier years are removed from the data set, the R2 values increase from 0.23 to 0.10 for GEM and TotHg to 0.97 (n = 5) and 0.89 (n = 5), respectively. The relationship between annual mean GEM and annual precipitation depth also holds for the period 1996-2004 (R2 = 0.6, n = 8) when GEM was measured manually (low resolution data). A positive correlation was also seen between annual average GEM concentrations and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Index (SOI), for the 1996-2004 period (R2 = 0.7, n = 8). For the 2007-2013 periods this relationship was also positive but less pronounced. The relationship between annual precipitation depth and annual SOI suggests that the inter-annual variations of GEM

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period.

  4. Broad-scale suppression of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), associated with Bt cotton crops in Northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2017-04-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years. This response can be attributed, at least in part, to (1) a precautionary cap (30% of total cotton grown, by area) being applied to Ingard® to restrict the development of Bt resistance in the pest, and (2) during the Ingard® era, cotton production greatly increased (as did that of another host plant, sorghum) and H. armigera (in particular the 3rd and older generations) responded in concert with this increase in host plant availability. However, with the replacement of Ingard® with Bollgard II® cotton (containing two different Bt toxins) in 2005, and recovery of the cotton industry from prevailing drought, H. armigera failed to track increased host-plant supply and moth numbers decreased. Greater toxicity of the two gene product, introduction of no cap on Bt cotton proportion, and an increase in natural enemy abundance are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for the suppression observed.

  5. Analysis of UV Satellite and Ground Observed data for Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, Guido; Manca, Germana; Johnson, Kathleen

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 280 to 400 nanometers range has been found to be one of the primary cause for skin cancer. The correlation between UV radiation and skin cancer prevention is of global concern. Satellite observations from Nimbus7 (1978-1993), EarthProbe (1996-2004) and OMI/AURA (2004-present) provide long term UV time-series that can be used to study and compute the risk associated with exposure to harmful radiation. Additionally, several ground installations exist to acquire UV radiation data that can be paired with satellite observations. The current work presents the data mining analysis of UV time series from 1978 to present for the Italian region of Sardinia. Satellite observations are paired with ground measurements to provide historical averages of UV radiation, and daily maps of current exposure. A Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to fuse UV data with ground characteristics. The use of GIS is fundamental to calculate the real value of UV on the ground. It is known that the incidence of solar radiation, and consequently of UV, is modified by topography and surface features. Topography plays a important rule, because it is a major factor that determines the spatial variability of insulation and UV being a part of direct insulation. variation in elevation orientation (slope and aspect), and shadow cast by topographical features, determine the UV insulation in a given area or point.

  6. Geomorphic response of sandbars to the March 2008 high-flow experiment on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Schmidt, John C.; Kaplinski, Matt; Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    The completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 drastically altered the downstream flow regime and resulted in more than a 90 percent reduction of sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Sandbars that were maintained by annual floods and a large sediment supply are now fewer in number and smaller in area and volume. Efforts to maintain sandbars in the current era of dam management utilize controlled floods timed to occur during brief periods of sediment enrichment that result from tributary floods. Repeat surveys of 22 sandbars made before and after controlled floods conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008 document changes in sandbar volume; and repeat surveys at more than 100 sites document changes in sandbar elevation and morphology for the 2008 event. Each of the controlled floods resulted in sandbar deposition that was followed by erosion in the 6-month post-flood period. Erosion rates are positively correlated with post-flood dam release volumes and negatively correlated with post-flood tributary sediment supply volume. October 2008 sandbar volume was similar or larger than sandbar volume in February 1996, before the first of the three controlled floods. Deposition during the 2008 controlled flood was also associated with increases in the quantity of backwater habitat, which is used by native and non-native fish.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Periodic Oscillations in LASCO Coronal Mass Ejection Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalek, G.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.

    2016-12-01

    A large set of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, 3463) has been selected to study their periodic oscillations in speed in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) field of view. These events, reported in the SOHO/LASCO catalog in the period of time 1996 - 2004, were selected based on having at least 11 height-time measurements. This selection criterion allows us to construct at least ten-point speed-distance profiles and evaluate kinematic properties of CMEs with a reasonable accuracy. To identify quasi-periodic oscillations in the speed of the CMEs a sinusoidal function was fitted to speed-distance profiles and the speed-time profiles. Of the considered events 22 % revealed periodic velocity fluctuations. These speed oscillations have on average amplitude equal to 87 km s^{-1} and period 7.8 R _{⊙}/241 min (in distance/time). The study shows that speed oscillations are a common phenomenon associated with CME propagation implying that all the CMEs have a similar magnetic flux-rope structure. The nature of oscillations can be explained in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves excited during the eruption process. More accurate detection of these modes could, in the future, enable us to characterize magnetic structures in space (space seismology).

  8. Identification of bacterial strains by laboratories participating in the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    Boot, R; Reubsaet, F A G

    2007-10-01

    The quality assurance programme (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) is a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. QAP comprises the quarterly distribution of two bacterial strains originating from various species of animals for identification to the species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing. We compared identification results reported by QAP participants over the years 1996-2004 with those obtained by the Dutch Bacterial Diagnostics reference laboratory on 68 samples comprising 71 bacterial strains and a fungus. Significant differences were found in the frequency of reported and correct identifications when bacteria were assigned to different groups based on morphology by Gram stain and on origin (animal versus environmental, rodent and rabbit versus other animal species, pathogen versus non-pathogens). Rodent and rabbit pathogens yielded 73% correct identifications, and with all bacterial strains only 60% of the identifications were correct. We assume that most QAP participants were from laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories. If this is true, the capabilities of laboratories in the laboratory animal discipline to correctly identify bacterial species are well below what are considered acceptable limits for human diagnostic laboratories. The distribution of cultured bacteria circumvents the most difficult step in the microbiological monitoring of animals, namely primary culture from clinical samples. We propose to set up a QAP that comprises the distribution of specimens mimicking clinical samples normally submitted to laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories.

  9. Empirical research on decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong province based on extended Kaya identity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxiu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 10⁴ tC in 1995 to 14396 × 10⁴ tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996-2004 to expansive coupling in 2005-2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink.

  10. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: Five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  11. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  12. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Butler, J. H.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  13. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  14. Assessing the relationship between global warming and mortality: lag effects of temperature fluctuations by age and mortality categories.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu

    2011-07-01

    Although interests in assessing the relationship between temperature and mortality have arisen due to climate change, relatively few data are available on lag structure of temperature-mortality relationship, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. This study identified the lag effects of mean temperature on mortality among age groups and death categories using polynomial distributed lag models in Brisbane, Australia, a subtropical city, 1996-2004. For a 1 °C increase above the threshold, the highest percent increase in mortality on the current day occurred among people over 85 years (7.2% (95% CI: 4.3%, 10.2%)). The effect estimates among cardiovascular deaths were higher than those among all-cause mortality. For a 1 °C decrease below the threshold, the percent increases in mortality at 21 lag days were 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.0%) and 3.4% (95% CI: 0.9%, 6.0%) for people aged over 85 years and with cardiovascular diseases, respectively. These findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce and prevent temperature-related mortality.

  15. Meat, milk and risk of lymphoid malignancies: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Barrios, Enrique; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2013-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, 697 cases with lymphoid neoplasms and 3606 controls with nonneoplastic conditions were included in a case-control study conducted in the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. They were administered a routine questionnaire that included 8 sections and a food frequency questionnaire focused on intakes of total meat, red meat, salted meat, barbecued meat, processed meat, milk, total vegetables and total fruits, and alcoholic beverages. Lymphoid cancers were analyzed by multiple polytomous regression. Red meat, salted meat, and milk were positively associated with risk of lymphoid cancers [odds ratios (OR) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest one of red meat = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.08, OR for whole milk = 2.92, 95% CI 2.63-3.63). On the other hand, plant foods, particularly total fruits, and alcoholic beverages (mainly red wine) were protective. We could conclude that these foods could play a significant role in the etiology of lymphoid malignancies.

  16. Work-related road traffic collisions in the UK.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

    2009-03-01

    Road traffic collisions while at work are the single largest cause of occupational fatality in the United Kingdom. Work-related road collisions do not comprise a homogenous group, but take many forms, encompassing the use of varying types of vehicle used for diverse purposes. A sample of over 2000 collision cases was considered, over 1000 in detail, from UK police forces, involving drivers/workers of all ages, and covering the years 1996-2004 inclusive. There were three key findings. (1) There were six main classes of collision-involved vehicles. These were company cars, vans/pickups, large goods vehicles (LGVs), buses (PCVs or 'passenger carrying vehicles'), taxis/minicabs, and emergency vehicles (police, fire/rescue and ambulance). (2) The drivers of company cars, vans/pickups, and large goods vehicles (LGVs) all appeared to have a high 'blameworthiness ratio' in their collision involvement. Company car drivers showed excess speed as a causal factor, whereas van drivers showed more observational failures, and LGV drivers showed more fatigue and vehicle defects as factors. (3) The drivers of buses (PCVs), taxis/minicabs, and emergency vehicles showed a low 'blameworthiness ratio' in their collision involvement. Their problems seemed to be primarily with the other drivers/parties with whom they share the road. While they made a variety of mistakes or errors, they were more likely to become the victim of another party's mistake or error.

  17. Meat consumption, animal products, and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguayan men.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro Luis; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; De Stefani, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, all incident cases of bladder cancer were included in a case-control study in order to study the role of meat consumption and product animals in the etiology of urothelial cancer. The study included 225 cases and 1,510 hospitalized controls with non-neoplastic conditions, not related to smoking and alcohol drinking. Relative risks, approximated by the odds ratios, were calculated in order to clarify the effect of meat consumption in the etiology of urothelial cancer. Total meat consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11), total processed meat (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27), frankfurters (hot dogs) (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21), ham (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.67) and salted meat (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78-4.18) were positively associated with risk of bladder cancer. Animal products, like cheese, whole milk, and total eggs were also associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for eggs 4.05, 95% CI 2.68-6.12). In conclusion, total meat, processed meat, and eggs could play an important role in the etiology of bladder cancer in Uruguay.

  18. Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Angot, H.; Dommergue, A.; Magand, O.; Barret, M.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brunke, E.-G.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Edwards, G.; Howard, D.; Powell, J.; Keywood, M.; Wang, F.

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge of the distribution of mercury concentrations in air of the Southern Hemisphere was until recently based mostly on intermittent measurements made during ship cruises. In the last few years continuous mercury monitoring has commenced at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere, providing new and more refined information. In this paper we compare mercury measurements at several remote sites in the Southern Hemisphere made over a period of at least 1 year at each location. Averages of monthly medians show similar although small seasonal variations at both Cape Point and Amsterdam Island. A pronounced seasonal variation at Troll research station in Antarctica is due to frequent mercury depletion events in the austral spring. Due to large scatter and large standard deviations of monthly average median mercury concentrations at Cape Grim, no systematic seasonal variation could be found there. Nevertheless, the annual average mercury concentrations at all sites during the 2007-2013 period varied only between 0.85 and 1.05 ng m-3. Part of this variability is likely due to systematic measurement uncertainties which we propose can be further reduced by improved calibration procedures. We conclude that mercury is much more uniformly distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere than the distributions suggested by measurements made onboard ships. This finding implies that smaller trends can be detected in shorter time periods. We also report a change in the trend sign at Cape Point from decreasing mercury concentrations in 1996-2004 to increasing concentrations since 2007.

  19. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, reproductive freedom, and deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper I argue that the account of deliberative democracy advanced by Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson (1996, 2004) is a useful normative theory that can help enhance our deliberations about public policy in morally pluralistic societies. More specifically, I illustrate how the prescriptions of deliberative democracy can be applied to the issue of regulating non-medical uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), such as gender selection. Deliberative democracy does not aim to win a philosophical debate among rival first-order theories, such as libertarianism, egalitarianism or feminism. Rather, it advances a second-order analysis that strives to help us determine what would constitute a reasonable balance between the conflicting fundamental values that arise in the context of regulating PGD. I outline a theoretical model (called the Reasonable Genetic Intervention Model) that brings these issues to the fore. Such a model incorporates the concern for both procedural and substantive principles; and it does so in way that takes provisionality seriously.

  20. Dynamic scaling in chemical ecology.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Richard K; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann

    2008-07-01

    Natural rates of chemical production, release, and transport of fluid-borne molecules drive fundamental biological responses to these stimuli. The scaling of the field signaling environment to laboratory conditions recreates essential features of the dynamics and establishes ecological relevance. If appropriately scaled, laboratory simulations of physical regimes, coupled with natural rates of chemical cue/signal emission, facilitate interpretation of field results. From a meta-analysis of papers published in 11 journals over the last 22 years (1984-1986, 1994-1996, 2004-2006), complete dynamic scaling was rare in both field and laboratory studies. Studies in terrestrial systems often involved chemical determinations, but rarely simulated natural aerodynamics in laboratory wind tunnels. Research in aquatic (marine and freshwater) systems seldom scaled either the chemical or physical environments. Moreover, nearly all research, in all environments, focused on organism-level processes without incorporating the effects of individual-based behavior on populations, communities, and ecosystems. As a result, relationships between chemosensory-mediated behavior and ecological function largely remain unexplored. Outstanding exceptions serve as useful examples for guiding future research. Advanced conceptual frameworks and refined techniques offer exciting opportunities for identifying the ecological significance of chemical cues/signals in behavioral interactions and for incorporating individual effects at higher levels of biological organization.

  1. Evidence for an Evolving Cyclotron Line Energy in 4U 1538-522

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton Hemphill, Paul; Rothschild, Richard E.; Fuerst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Klochkov, Dmitry; Kretschmar, Peter; Pottschmidt, Katja; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    In this talk, I present results from a comprehensive analysis of the existing RXTE, INTEGRAL, and Suzaku data for the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538-522. This persistent X-ray pulsar has a clearly-detected cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF), which appears to have increased in energy over the past decade, from approximately 20-21 keV as measured by RXTE in 1996-2004 to ~22-23 keV as found in the 2012 Suzaku observation. This spectral feature is the only direct measurement of the neutron star's magnetic field strength, and its behavior can be used to track the conditions in the accretion mound near the neutron star surface. Our analysis finds that the increased CRSF energy is especially prominent in spectra from the peak of the main pulse, which suggests that the physical origin of this shift in energy may be restricted to a single magnetic pole, possibly indicating some reconfiguration of the structure of the accretion mound not reflected in the other spectral parameters. I will discuss the analysis and some implications of this result, especially in the context of work by Staubert et al. (2015, A&A 572, 119), which unveiled a secular trend in the CRSF energy of the prototypical CRSF source, Hercules X-1.

  2. [Principles and criteria used by the National Evaluation Committee of Research Activity (CNEAI-Spain) for the assessment of scientific publications: 1989-2009].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2010-11-01

    Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books.

  3. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  5. Stochastic approaches for time series forecasting of boron: a case study of Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Durdu, Omer Faruk

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a seasonal and non-seasonal prediction of boron concentrations time series data for the period of 1996-2004 from Büyük Menderes river in western Turkey are addressed by means of linear stochastic models. The methodology presented here is to develop adequate linear stochastic models known as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) to predict boron content in the Büyük Menderes catchment. Initially, the Box-Whisker plots and Kendall's tau test are used to identify the trends during the study period. The measurements locations do not show significant overall trend in boron concentrations, though marginal increasing and decreasing trends are observed for certain periods at some locations. ARIMA modeling approach involves the following three steps: model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking. In the model identification step, considering the autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) results of boron data series, different ARIMA models are identified. The model gives the minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) is selected as the best-fit model. The parameter estimation step indicates that the estimated model parameters are significantly different from zero. The diagnostic check step is applied to the residuals of the selected ARIMA models and the results indicate that the residuals are independent, normally distributed, and homoscadastic. For the model validation purposes, the predicted results using the best ARIMA models are compared to the observed data. The predicted data show reasonably good agreement with the actual data. The comparison of the mean and variance of 3-year (2002-2004) observed data vs predicted data from the selected best models show that the boron model from ARIMA modeling approaches could be used in a safe manner since the predicted values from these models preserve the basic

  6. Trends in Imaging after Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mousumi; Muenz, Daniel G.; Worden, Francis P.; Haymart, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The largest growth in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) diagnosis is in low-risk cancers. Trends in imaging after DTC diagnosis are understudied. Hypothesizing a reduction in imaging utilization due to rising low-risk disease, we evaluated post-diagnosis imaging patterns over time and patient characteristics that are associated with likelihood of imaging. Methods Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we identified patients diagnosed with localized, regional or distant DTC between 1991 and 2009. We reviewed Medicare claims for neck ultrasound, I-131 scan, or PET scan within 3 years post-diagnosis. Using regression analyses we evaluated trends of imaging utilization. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of imaging based on patient characteristics. Results 23,669 patients were included. Patients diagnosed during 2001-2009, compared to 1991-2000, were more likely to have localized disease (p<0.001) and tumors less than 1cm (p<0.001). Use of neck ultrasound and I-131 scan increased in patients with localized disease (p=<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively), regional disease (p<0.001 and p<0.001), and distant metastasis (p=0.001 and p=0.015). Patients diagnosed after 2000 were more likely to undergo neck ultrasound (OR 2.15, 95% CI 2.02-2.28) and I-131 scan (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.54). PET scan use from 2005-2009, compared to 1996-2004, increased 32.4-fold (p=<0.001) in localized patients, 13.1-fold (p<0.001) in regional disease patients, and 33.4-fold (p<0.001) in patients with distant DTC. Conclusion Despite a rise in low-risk disease, the use of post-diagnosis imaging increased in all stages of disease. The largest growth was in use of PET scan after 2004. PMID:25565063

  7. ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY 4U 1608-522 IN THE UPPER-BANANA STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Sakurai, Soki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the physics of mass accretion onto weakly magnetized neutron stars (NSs), 95 archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data sets of an atoll source 4U 1608-522, acquired over 1996-2004 in the so-called upper-banana state, were analyzed. The object meantime exhibited 3-30 keV luminosity in the range of {approx}< 10{sup 35}-4 x 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}, assuming a distance of 3.6 kpc. The 3-30 keV Proportional Counter Array spectra, produced one from each data set, were represented successfully with a combination of a soft and a hard component, the presence of which was revealed in a model-independent manner by studying spectral variations among the observations. The soft component is expressed by the so-called multi-color disk model with a temperature of {approx}1.8 keV, and is attributed to the emission from an optically thick standard accretion disk. The hard component is a blackbody (BB) emission with a temperature of {approx}2.7 keV, thought to be emitted from the NS surface. As the total luminosity increases, a continuous decrease is observed in the ratio of the BB luminosity to that of the disk component. This property suggests that it gradually becomes difficult for the matter flowing through the accretion disk to reach the NS surface, presumably forming outflows driven by the increased radiation pressure. On timescales of hours to days, the overall source variability was found to be controlled by two independent variables: the mass accretion rate and the innermost disk radius, which changes both physically and artificially.

  8. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2005-10-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2004; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2004 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  9. Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Observations of the Low-mass X-ray Binary 4U 1608-522 in the Upper-banana State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Sakurai, Soki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the physics of mass accretion onto weakly magnetized neutron stars (NSs), 95 archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data sets of an atoll source 4U 1608-522, acquired over 1996-2004 in the so-called upper-banana state, were analyzed. The object meantime exhibited 3-30 keV luminosity in the range of <~ 1035-4 × 1037 erg s-1, assuming a distance of 3.6 kpc. The 3-30 keV Proportional Counter Array spectra, produced one from each data set, were represented successfully with a combination of a soft and a hard component, the presence of which was revealed in a model-independent manner by studying spectral variations among the observations. The soft component is expressed by the so-called multi-color disk model with a temperature of ~1.8 keV, and is attributed to the emission from an optically thick standard accretion disk. The hard component is a blackbody (BB) emission with a temperature of ~2.7 keV, thought to be emitted from the NS surface. As the total luminosity increases, a continuous decrease is observed in the ratio of the BB luminosity to that of the disk component. This property suggests that it gradually becomes difficult for the matter flowing through the accretion disk to reach the NS surface, presumably forming outflows driven by the increased radiation pressure. On timescales of hours to days, the overall source variability was found to be controlled by two independent variables: the mass accretion rate and the innermost disk radius, which changes both physically and artificially.

  10. Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Angot, H.; Dommergue, A.; Magand, O.; Barret, M.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brunke, E.-G.; Pfaffhuber, K.; Edwards, G.; Howard, D.; Powell, J.; Keywood, M.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge of the distribution of mercury concentrations in air of the Southern Hemisphere was until recently based mostly on intermittent measurements made during ship cruises. In the last few years continuous mercury monitoring has commenced at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere providing new and more refined information. In this paper we compare mercury measurements at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere made over a period of at least one year at each location. Averages of monthly medians show similar although small seasonal variations at both Cape Point and Amsterdam Island. A pronounced seasonal variation at Troll Research Station in Antarctica is due to frequent mercury depletion events in the austral spring. Due to large scatter and large standard deviations of monthly average median mercury concentrations at Cape Grim no systematic seasonal variation could be found there. Nevertheless, the annual average mercury concentrations at all sites during the 2007-2013 period varied only between 0.85 and 1.05 ng m-3. Part of this variability is likely due to systematic measurement uncertainties which we propose can be further reduced by improved calibration procedures. We conclude that mercury is much more uniformly distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere than the distributions suggested by measurements made onboard ships. This finding implies (a) that trends observed at one or a few sites in the Southern Hemisphere are likely to be representative for the whole hemisphere, and (b) that smaller trends can be detected in shorter time periods. We also report a change of the trend sign at Cape Point from decreasing mercury concentrations in 1996-2004 to increasing concentrations since 2007.

  11. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infections associated with eating ground beef--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-02-24

    Salmonella infections cause an estimated 1.4 million human illnesses and 400 deaths annually in the United States. Although the incidence of several other foodborne bacterial infections decreased substantially during 1996-2004, the incidence of Salmonella infections declined modestly. In September 2004, the New Mexico Department of Health received reports from the New Mexico Scientific Laboratory Division of eight Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates that had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns using XbaI and BlnI restriction enzymes. The patients were from three New Mexico counties and had onsets of illness during August 18-29. A review of PFGE patterns submitted to the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance (PulseNet) database for Salmonella revealed 31 indistinguishable patient isolates of S. Typhimurium from nine states (Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin) and the District of Columbia, with illness onset occurring during August 11-October 2, 2004. The S. Typhimurium isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. An investigation conducted by state health departments, CDC, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) identified ground beef purchased at a national chain of supermarkets as the source of S. Typhimurium infections. Traceback results indicated product originating from a common supplier; however, evaluators determined that plant practices conformed to FSIS production guidelines, and no product recalls were made. This report describes the investigation and underscores the risk for salmonellosis from contact with contaminated ground beef, despite regulatory directives to reduce Salmonella contamination in beef production. Reduced contamination and consumption of raw or undercooked meat and further education of the food service industry and consumers are critical to

  12. Studying the effects of POs and MCs on the Salmonella ALOP with a quantitative risk assessment model for beef production.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Pirkko; Ranta, Jukka; Maijala, Riitta

    2007-08-15

    The Finnish Salmonella Control Programme and the special guarantees (SG) of import concerning Salmonella in the beef production chain were examined within the risk analysis framework. The appropriate level of protection (ALOP de facto since not referred to as ALOP in regulation), performance objectives (PO), and microbiological criteria (MC) were identified along the beef production chain. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model using the Bayesian probabilistic method was developed for the beef chain to evaluate the capability of different POs to contribute to the ALOP. The influence of SGs was studied as an intervention protecting Finnish consumers. The QMRA made it possible to translate an ALOP without a stated food safety objective (FSO) to POs when implemented for both ready-to-eat (RTE) and non-RTE products. According to the results, the Finnish ALOP de facto for beef, beef preparations and products (10 human Salmonella cases/100,000) was reached in all of the years 1996-2004. However, if the prevalence at the slaughter, domestic cut beef, and retail levels would increase to the level of POs set (maximum 1%), the ALOP de facto would be exceeded by a factor of roughly two. On the other hand, the zero tolerance applied to MCs would keep the true Salmonella prevalence at production steps with POs clearly below 1%, and the ALOP would then be achievable. The influence of SGs on the total exposure was so small (average 0.1% added to the total prevalence of beef-derived foods at retail) that their relevance may be doubted with the current amount and Salmonella prevalence in beef-derived imports. On the other hand, a change in import profile could increase the protective effect of the SGs. Although practical follow-up has to be carried out as apparent prevalences, the objectives and criteria should be estimated as true prevalences and incidences with quantified uncertainties in order to achieve a sound, transparent scientific-based understanding of

  13. Postdam evolution of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Collins, B. D.; Fairley, H. C.; Rubin, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    floods” (1160 m3/s), which occurred in 1996, 2004, and 2008. Dune fields downwind and within 100 m of controlled-flood sandbars tend to have higher sand-transport rates, more open sand, and less biologic soil crust than relict dune fields. They also generally have less vegetation, although vegetation has increased in some dune fields of each type over the study interval (2003 to present). We anticipate that, if current dam operations (with occasional sediment-rich 1160 m3/s flows) continue, greater differences in sand mobility, open sand area, biologic soil crust, and vegetation will develop between modern- and relict-sediment-sourced aeolian landscapes.

  14. Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand

  15. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer for the potential therapy of adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Silver, Jared N; Elder, Melissa; Conlon, Thomas; Cruz, Pedro; Wright, Amy J; Srivastava, Arun; Flotte, Terence R

    2011-08-01

    ). Currently, rAAV vectors are being utilized in phase I/II clinical trials for cystic fibrosis, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Canavan's disease, Parkinson's disease, hemophilia, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, arthritis, Batten's disease, and Leber's congenital amaurosis (Flotte et al., 1996 , 2004 ; Kay et al., 2000 ; Aitken et al., 2001 ; Wagner et al., 2002 ; Manno et al., 2003 ; Snyder and Francis, 2005 ; Maguire et al., 2008 ; Cideciyan et al., 2009 ). In this study, we present preclinical data to support the viability of an rAAV-based gene transfer strategy for cure of ADA-SCID. We report efficient transduction of a variety of postmitotic target tissues in vivo, subsequent human ADA (hADA) expression, and enhanced hADA secretion in tissues and blood, with increasing peripheral lymphocyte populations over time.

  16. Real-Time CME Forecasting Using HMI Active-Region Magnetograms and Flare History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We have recently developed a method of predicting an active region s probability of producing a CME, an X-class Flare, an M-class Flare, or a Solar Energetic Particle Event from a free-energy proxy measured from SOHO/MDI line-of-sight magnetograms. This year we have added three major improvements to our forecast tool: 1) Transition from MDI magnetogram to SDO/HMI magnetogram allowing us near-real-time forecasts, 2) Automation of acquisition and measurement of HMI magnetograms giving us near-real-time forecasts (no older than 2 hours), and 3) Determination of how to improve forecast by using the active region s previous flare history in combination with its free-energy proxy. HMI was turned on in May 2010 and MDI was turned off in April 2011. Using the overlap period, we have calibrated HMI to yield what MDI would measure. This is important since the value of the free-energy proxy used for our forecast is resolution dependent, and the forecasts are made from results of a 1996-2004 database of MDI observations. With near-real-time magnetograms from HMI, near-real-time forecasts are now possible. We have augmented the code so that it continually acquires and measures new magnetograms as they become available online, and updates the whole-sun forecast from the coming day. The next planned improvement is to use an active region s previous flare history, in conjunction with its free-energy proxy, to forecast the active region s event rate. It has long been known that active regions that have produced flares in the past are likely to produce flares in the future, and that active regions that are nonpotential (have large free-energy) are more likely to produce flares in the future. This year we have determined that persistence of flaring is not just a reflection of an active region s free energy. In other words, after controlling for free energy, we have found that active regions that have flared recently are more likely to flare in the future.

  17. Major Geomagnetic Storms (Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) Generated by Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Webb, D. F.; Zhang, J.; Berdichevsky, B. D.; Biesecker, D. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kataoka, R.; Steinberg, J. T.; Thompson, B. J.; Wu, C.-C.; Zhukov, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-nine major geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) observed in 1996 to 2004 were the focus of a Living with a Star Coordinated Data-Analysis Workshop (CDAW) in March, 2005. In 9 cases, the storm driver appears to have been purely a corotating interaction region (CIR) without any contribution from coronal mass ejection-related material (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs). These storms were generated by structures within CIRs located both before and/or after the stream interface that included persistently southward magnetic fields for intervals of several hours. We compare their geomagnetic effects with those of 159 CIRs observed during 1996 - 2005. The major storms form the extreme tail of a continuous distribution of CIR geoeffectiveness which peaks at Dst approx. -40 nT but is subject to a prominent seasonal variation of - 40 nT which is ordered by the spring and fall equinoxes and the solar wind magnetic field direction towards or away from the Sun. The O'Brien and McPherron [2000] equations, which estimate Dst by integrating the incident solar wind electric field and incorporating a ring current loss term, largely account for the variation in storm size. They tend to underestimate the size of the larger CIR-associated storms by Dst approx. 20 nT. This suggests that injection into the ring current may be more efficient than expected in such storms. Four of the nine major storms in 1996 - 2004 occurred during a period of less than three solar rotations in September - November, 2002, also the time of maximum mean IMF and solar magnetic field intensity during the current solar cycle. The maximum CIR-storm strength found in our sample of events, plus additional 23 probable CIR-associated Dst less than or equal to -100 nT storms in 1972 - 1995, is (Dst = -161 nT). This is consistent with the maximum storm strength (Dst approx. -180 nT) expected from the O'Brien and McPherron equations for the typical range of solar wind

  18. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch

  19. Effects of River Regulation on Aeolian Landscapes, Grand Canyon National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment deposits in the Colorado River corridor include fluvial sandbars and aeolian dune fields, and the fluvial deposits are the primary sediment source for sand in the aeolian dunes. This 7-year study examined the effects of river regulation at Glen Canyon Dam (alteration of flow regime, sediment-supply reduction, and consequent loss of fluvial sandbars) on aeolian landscapes downstream in Grand Canyon National Park. A comparative study was developed between aeolian landscapes in Grand Canyon, Arizona, and Cataract Canyon, Utah, upstream of Glen Canyon Dam and its reservoir (Lake Powell), where hydrology and sediment supply of the Colorado River are affected substantially less by artificial river regulation than occurs in Grand Canyon. Before closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, sediment-rich floods (mean annual peak 2400 m3/s) formed sandbars from which wind moved sand inland to form aeolian dunes. After dam operations reduced the amplitude and frequency of high flows, and eliminated the mainstream fluvial sediment supply, Grand Canyon’s fluvial sandbars lost open sand area owing to erosion by river flows and the spread of riparian vegetation. Two types of aeolian landscapes now occur in Grand Canyon: (1) modern fluvial sourced, those downwind of post-dam sandbars; and (2) relict fluvial sourced, whose primary sediment source was deposits from pre-dam floods that were larger than any post-dam flows have been. Sediment supply has been reduced to type (1) dune fields because post-dam sandbars are smaller than in the pre-dam era; new sediment supply to type (2) dune fields essentially has been eliminated. Type 1 aeolian landscapes can receive new windblown sand from sandbars formed by controlled floods (1160 m3/s), which occurred in 1996, 2004, and 2008. Type 1 dune fields, being downwind and within 100 m of controlled-flood sandbars, have significantly higher aeolian sand-transport rates, more open sand, and less biologic soil crust than relict type 2 dune

  20. Design and Build of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway considering the Impacts of Warming Climate and Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W.; Jin, H.; Cheng, G.; Wu, Q.; Lai, Y.

    2005-12-01

    During the period from 1960 to 2000, an 1°C increase of air temperature has been observed along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) traversing 632 km of warm and ice-rich permafrost through the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Correspondingly, mean annual ground temperatures (MAGTs) of warm (>-1 °C) permafrost on average increased about 0.3 to 0.5°C during 1970s-1990, while that of colder permafrost had increased by 0.1 to 0.3°C. During 1996-2004, ground temperatures at the permafrost table were increasing at the rates of 0.01-0.08°C a-1, and the permafrost table was lowering at the rates of 2.6 to 6.6 cm a-1; and the ground temperatures at depths of 6 to 8 m were warming at the rates of 0.02 to 0.05°C a-1. Consequently, the strengths of permafrost as the foundation of the QTR would be weakened if proper engineering measures were not taken. Based on the experiences and lessons learned from the road construction in permafrost regions from Alaska, Canada and Russia, and northeastern China, and taking into consideration of possible climatic warming along the QTR during the next 100 years, the design and construction of the QTR adopted the principle of``cooling the roadbed'' because most of the permafrost along the route is too deep to be thawed, too thermally sensitive to climatic warming and too critical to have appreciable thaw settlements. About 550 km of QTR is in continuous permafrost zone, 82 km is in discontinuous permafrost zone; 275 km is in warm permafrost areas, and 110 km of permafrost is ice-rich. The QTR is designed for safe operations during the next 100 years during which a warming of 2.2 to 2.6°C by 2050 is projected. Without engineering measures to keep ground frozen or maintain the settlement within the acceptable limits, thaw settlement in the foundation soils, and induced environmental instability would threaten the integrity and safety of QTR operation. However, only increasing therma resistance, such as increasing fill thickness or

  1. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone ecosystem as influenced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Another paper by Paul Carrara describes the recent movement of a large landslide block dated by tree-ring analyses in the Tower Falls area. The section under Yellowstone Lake studies begins with a classic paper by J. David Love and others on ancestral Lake Yellowstone. Other papers in this section include results and interpretation of the high-resolution bathymetric, seismic reflection, and submersible studies by Lisa Morgan and others. Ken Pierce and others describe results from their studies of shorelines along Yellowstone Lake and their interpretation of inflation-deflation cycles, tilting, and faulting in the Yellowstone caldera. The influence of sublacustrine hydrothermal vent fluids on the geochemistry of Yellowstone Lake is described by Laurie Balistrieri and others. In Pat Shanks and others' chapter, hydrothermal reactions, stable-isotope systematics, sinter deposition, and spire formation are related to the geochemistry of sublacustrine hydrothermal deposits in Yellowstone Lake. The geochemical studies section considers park-wide geochemical systems in Yellowstone National Park. In Bob Rye and Alfred Truesdell's paper, the question of recharge to the deep thermal reservoir underlying the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park is discussed. Irving Friedman and Dan Norton report on the chloride flux emissions from Yellowstone in their paper questioning whether Yellowstone is losing its steam. Wildlife issues as addressed by examining trace-element and stable-isotope geochemistry are discussed in a chapter by Maurice Chaffee and others. In another chapter by Chaffee and others, natural and anthropogenic anomalies and their potential impact on the environment using geochemistry is reported. Pam Gemery-Hill and others present geochemical data for selected rivers, lake waters, hydrothermal vents, and subaerial geysers for the time interval of 1996-2004. The life cycle of gold deposits near th

  2. The same teacher, the same curriculum materials, different schools: What is the enacted curriculum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, Tammy

    This research examines how the same teacher implements the same curriculum material in two different schools. The aim of the study is to examine how the enacted algebra curriculum may change when the same teacher enacts the same written curriculum materials in different classes. This research comprises two case studies. Each case examines one teacher who taught the beginning of the mathematical topic "equivalent algebraic expressions", to two 7th grade classes from different schools. The same textbook was used in all four classes. The data collected includes: 1. Observations: 25930 lessons throughout the school year in each of the participating classes; Other mathematics classes in each of the schools; Other non9mathematics classes in the participating classes. A total of 130 lessons were observed. The observations included continuous observations of the teaching of "equivalent algebraic expressions" (15919 lessons) in each class. These observations are the main data source of this research; 2. Interviews with the teachers; 3. Informal conversations; and 4. Field notes. The data was analyzed both through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The research focuses on the following two aspects of the enacted curriculum: implementation of the recommendation that appeared in the curriculum materials and the types of algebraic activity that the students were exposed to during the teaching of the mathematical topic. Kieran's framework (Kieran, 1996, 2004), which distinguishes between three types of algebraic activities 9 generational, transformational and global/meta9level 9 was employed for the examination of the algebraic activities. Comparisons were made for two aspects of the research: between the enacted curriculum in each of the classes and the curriculum materials; and between each of the classes taught by same teacher. It was found that in case study 1, that examined teacher Sara and schools Carmel and Tavor -- most of the recommendations for instruction that

  3. Short-Term Effects of the 2008 High-Flow Experiment on Macroinvertebrates in Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Kincaid, Dustin W.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Kelly, Holly A.W.; Behn, Kathrine A.; White, Tyler; Hall, Robert O.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically altered the physical environment (especially discharge regime, water temperatures, and sediment inputs) of the Colorado River. High-flow experiments (HFE) that mimic one aspect of the natural hydrograph (floods) were implemented in 1996, 2004, and 2008. The primary goal of these experiments was to increase the size and total area of sandbar habitats that provide both camping sites for recreational users and create backwaters (areas of stagnant flow in the lee of return-current eddies) that may be important as rearing habitat for native fish. Experimental flows might also positively or negatively alter the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery in the clear tailwater reach below Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., and native fish populations in downstream reaches (for example, endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha) through changes in available food resources. We examined the short-term response of benthic macroinvertebrates to the March 2008 HFE at three sites [river mile 0 (RM 0, 15.7 miles downriver from the dam), RM 62, and RM 225] along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam by sampling immediately before and then 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after the HFE. We selected these sites because of their importance to management; RM 0 has a valuable trout fishery, and RM 62 is the location of the largest population of the endangered humpback chub in the Grand Canyon. In addition to the short-term collection of samples, as part of parallel investigations, we collected 3 years of monthly (quarterly for RM 62) benthic macroinvertebrate samples that included 15 months of post-HFE data for all three sites, but processing of the samples is only complete for one site (RM 0). At RM 0, the HFE caused an immediate 1.75 g AFDM/m2 (expressed as grams ash-free dry mass, or AFDM) reduction of macroinvertebrate biomass that was driven by significant reductions in the biomass of the two dominant taxa in this reach-Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New