Science.gov

Sample records for 1996-97 fixed target

  1. The Indigenous World, 1996-97 = El Mundo Indigena, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erni, Christian, Ed.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, legal, social, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1996-97. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries. In North America, these include threats of proposed oil drilling on sacred sites…

  2. Future Fixed Target Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

    2009-01-01

    We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

  3. Pennsylvania College of Technology Sourcebook, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stephen

    This report provides a statistical profile of Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT) and its service area for 1996-97. The first two sections provide a profile and history of the college, organizational charts, and a description of the governance system. Section III provides tables on students, including numbers of applications, enrollments, and…

  4. Texas Public School Dropouts, 1996-97 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Research and Evaluation.

    This annual report provides information about dropouts in Texas public schools for the 1996-97 school year. The report includes (1) historical dropout information; (2) a summary of dropout rates based on dropout characteristics and school district characteristics; (3) a listing of dropout rates broken down by county, district, and campus; and (4)…

  5. Annual Report: Doctoral Program Committee, Academic Year 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievrouw, Leah A.; Leazer, Greg; Lynch, Beverly; Abler, Susan; Mediavilla, Cynthia

    This document summarizes the activities of the University of California, Los Angeles's (UCLA's) Department of Library and Information Science (DLIS) Doctoral Program Committee, 1996-97. These activities are organized into two main areas: Operations and Students. Doctoral Program Committee (DPC) operations outlined include: preparing major policy…

  6. Career Program Completers: Class of 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    Each year, Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) conducts follow-up studies of students who completed a JCCC career program during the previous academic year. This report summarizes findings, based on both graduates' and their employers' satisfaction with JCCC, for the follow-up study of the class of 1996-97. Out of a list of 573…

  7. Child Care and Development Block Grant 1996-97: Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassell, Sue

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant Program (CCDBG) provides child care services for low-income families and activities to improve the overall quality and supply of child care for families in general. This report provides information on the characteristics of the children served at Arkansas CCDBG sites during 1996-97. Statistics are…

  8. Algal Data from Selected Sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, Water Years 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, Scott V.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    Algal community samples were collected at 15 sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program during water years 1996-97. Sites sampled were located in two physiographic provinces, the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateaus, and represented agricultural, mining, urban, and mixed land uses and background conditions. Algal samples were collected once per year during low-flow conditions. Quantitative algal samples were collected within two targeted instream habitat types including a taxonomically richest-targeted habitat and a depositional-targeted habitat. This report presents the algal community data collected at the fixed sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit. Algal data include densities (abundance of cells per square centimeter of substrate) and biovolumes (cubic micrometers of cells per square centimeter of substrate) for the two habitat types. Quality-assurance and quality-control results for algal samples indicate that the largest sampling variability tends to occur in samples from small streams.

  9. The 1994 Fermilab Fixed Target Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, J. |

    1994-11-01

    This paper highlights the results of the Fermilab Fixed Target Program that were announced between October, 1993 and October, 1994. These results are drawn from 18 experiments that took data in the 1985, 1987 and 1990/91 fixed target running periods. For this discussion, the Fermilab Fixed Target Program is divided into 5 major topics: hadron structure, precision electroweak measurements, heavy quark production, polarization and magnetic moments, and searches for new phenomena. However, it should be noted that most experiments span several subtopics. Also, measurements within each subtopic often affect the results in other subtopics. For example, parton distributions from hadron structure measurements are used in the studies of heavy quark production.

  10. Fixed-target physics at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The Fermilab Energy Saver is now successfully commissioned and fixed-target experimentation at high energy (800 GeV) has begun. In addition, a number of new experiments designed to exploit the unique features of the Tevatron are yet to come on-line. In this talk, we will review recent accomplishments in the fixed-target program and describe experiments in progress and others yet to come.

  11. Work First Client Enrollment Status Report (1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98 Data).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

    This report contains enrollment data about the North Carolina Division of Social Services Work First clients who were enrolled in North Carolina community colleges curriculum and extension programs during the academic years 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. North Carolina's welfare reform initiative, Work First, is the State's Temporary Assistance to…

  12. Louisiana's Achievements for Gender Equity in Vocational Education. Executive Summary 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargroder, Margaret

    Workplace and educational changes related to gender in Louisiana in 1996-97 suggest some progress but a continued need to reduce wide gender gaps in some occupational areas. Workplace data show a closing gender gap, but changes are occurring at different rates for different areas. Women's share of the total labor force continues to rise; wage…

  13. Report on Hate Crimes & Discrimination against Arab Americans, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Arab Anti Discrimination Committee, Washington, DC.

    Examples of hate crimes against Arab Americans in this report are those that were reported to the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), but the actual number of hate crimes and incidents of discrimination far exceeds those reported. As the report shows, Arab American civil rights were increasingly threatened in 1996-97 by the…

  14. Employer Survey Results for the PVCC Graduating Class of 1996-97. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Jennifer A.

    During the spring of 1998, Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) surveyed 17 employers of its 1996-97 graduates to evaluate the occupational success of its students and the effectiveness of the college's academic programs in preparing graduates for work in various professions. Results include: (1) more than 80% of employers rated the…

  15. 34 CFR 668.155 - Transitional rule for the 1996-97 award year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transitional rule for the 1996-97 award year. 668.155 Section 668.155 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Approval of Independently Administered...

  16. Emergency Immigrant Education Program (EIEP), 1996-97. Research Report on an Educational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Accountability.

    Services for immigrant students in the Houston Independent School District (Texas) are provided under provisions of the Emergency Immigrant Education Assistance Act. The implementation of these services was evaluated for the 1996-97 school year. A total of 20,558 eligible immigrant students were identified in the school district's database for…

  17. Thirtieth Annual Rank-Order Distribution of Administrative Salaries Paid, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Office of Institutional Research.

    This report presents comparative data collected from 87 state-supported universities in 45 states, and 27 university systems representing 21 states, on the administrative salaries they paid in 1996-97. The salaries are presented in rank-order (from highest to lowest) to facilitate comparisons of a participant's relative standing with other…

  18. Follow-Up Survey of PVCC Graduates, Class of 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William H., Jr.

    A follow-up survey was conducted on the 1996-97 Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) graduates to determine what jobs they had obtained, which schools they were attending, how much they earned, how satisfied they were with their employment or schooling, and what impact PVCC had upon their careers and education. Eighty-eight graduates…

  19. Educational Telecommunications: The State-by-State Analysis, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel Associates., Syracuse, NY.

    This report provides information about trends in educational telecommunications for 1996-97. The first section, "An Overview of Educational Telecommunications in the USA," presents a summary of trends in the following areas: the growth of telecommunications and distance education; leadership and governance in telecommunications development; the…

  20. Michigan Community Colleges Activities Classification Structure (ACS). 1996-97 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    Based on data submitted by Michigan's 28 community colleges for 1996-97, this report describes instruction, personnel revenues, and expenditures at the state's colleges and reviews the state funding formula. Section 1 provides historical data from 1986 to 1998 on state appropriations, property tax revenue, tuition and fee revenues, state equalized…

  1. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures.

  2. Physics landscape-fixed target energies

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1989-10-01

    An introductory review is presented of physics issues and opportunities at Fermilab fixed-target energies. Included are discussions of precision electroweak studies; deep inelastic lepton scattering; heavy quark production, spectroscopy, and decays; perturbative QCD; prompt photon production; massive lepton production; and spin dependence. 79 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Temporal correlations imaging fixed targets through turbulence.

    PubMed

    Gulich, Damián

    2016-06-15

    We study the temporal correlations from dynamic imaging through turbulence using incoherent light from fixed high-contrast targets. We conduct our experiment in controlled laboratory conditions using several values of the Cn2 constant from the weak to strong fluctuation regime. We employ detrended fluctuation analysis to measure long-range correlations while considering scintillation information for every recorded pixel. We find that turbulence strength generally increases temporal correlations in time series from pixels in high-contrast regions of the image. PMID:27304306

  4. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Garbincius, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs.

  5. Fixed target experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gutierrez, Gaston; Reyes, Marco A.

    2014-11-10

    This paper presents a review of the study of Exclusive Central Production at a Center of Mass energy of √s = 40 GeV at the Fermilab Fixed Target program. In all reactions reviewed in this paper, protons with an energy of 800 GeV were extracted from the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab and directed to a Liquid Hydrogen target. The states reviewed include π⁺π⁻, K⁰s K⁰s, K⁰s K±π∓, φφ and D*±. Partial Wave Analysis results will be presented on the light states but only the cross-section will be reviewed in the diffractive production of D*±.

  6. Fixed target experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Gaston; Reyes, Marco A.

    2014-11-10

    This paper presents a review of the study of Exclusive Central Production at a Center of Mass energy of √s = 40 GeV at the Fermilab Fixed Target program. In all reactions reviewed in this paper, protons with an energy of 800 GeV were extracted from the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab and directed to a Liquid Hydrogen target. The states reviewed include π⁺π⁻, K⁰s K⁰s, K⁰s K±π, φφ and D. Partial Wave Analysis results will be presented on the light states but only the cross-section will be reviewed in the diffractive production of D.

  7. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-10-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper we review recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab.

  8. Fixed-target hadron production experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris A.

    2015-08-01

    Results from fixed-target hadroproduction experiments (HARP, MIPP, NA49 and NA61/SHINE) as well as their implications for cosmic ray and neutrino physics are reviewed. HARP measurements have been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve predictions of the muon yields in EAS and of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes as well as to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. Recent measurements released by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment and for interpretation of EAS data. These hadroproduction experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  9. Financial Report of Ontario Universities 1996-97. Volume II-Affiliated and Federated Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This annual report presents 1996-97 financial information on 22 church-related colleges, universities, and seminaries in Ontario, Canada, which are also affiliated with public universities. Fourteen tables present the data in summary form and include: (1) combined revenue and expense and changes in fund balances; (2) revenue and additions by…

  10. College Costs, 1996-97. A Guide to Student Charges at Public, Four-Year Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This document provides information on student charges at public 4-year colleges and universities in the United States for the academic year 1996-97. A narrative section of the report discusses: what is included in the cost of college, the most recent cost figures for public institutions, average costs for American Association of State Colleges and…

  11. Outcome-Based Education Pilot Program: Guidelines for Developing Plans, 1993-94 to 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Development Services.

    Guidelines for North Carolina public schools that are interested in developing and submitting plans for outcome-based education (OBE) pilot programs for the years 1993-94 and 1996-97 are offered in this document. The OBE program is based on the premise that all students can learn and focuses on the expectations for achievement necessary for…

  12. Beauty and charm production at fixed-target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erik E. Gottschalk

    2003-12-10

    Fixed-target experiments continue to provide insights into the physics of particle production in strong interactions. The experiments are performed with different types of beam particles of varying energies, and many different target materials. Studies of beauty and charm production are of particular interest, since experimental results can be compared to perturbative QCD calculations. It is in this context that recent results from fixed-target experiments on beauty and charm production will be reviewed.

  13. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Accounting for the Years 1996-97 and 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected academic disciplines. Data for the study were collected from a total of 296 public and 390 private four-year institutions from the baseline year of 1996-97 to the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data…

  14. Review of calorimetry in Fermilab fixed-target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Crisler, M.B.

    1995-04-01

    The fixed-target program at Fermilab comprises as many as thirteen simultaneous experiments in ten separate beamlines using beams of primary protons, pions, kaons, electrons, neutrinos, and muons. The fixed target beamlines were last in operation in the latter half of 1991, shutting down in 1992. The next fixed target run is scheduled for early 1996. This article describes some of the wide variety of calorimetric devices that were in use in the past run or to be used in the coming run. Special attention is devoted to the new devices currently under construction.

  15. Performance of an Advanced MOS System in the 1996-97 National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislocky, Robert L.; Fritsch, J. Michael

    1997-12-01

    A prototype advanced model output statistics (MOS) forecast system that was entered in the 1996-97 National Collegiate Weather Forecast Contest is described and its performance compared to that of widely available objective guidance and to contest participants. The prototype system uses an optimal blend of aviation (AVN) and nested grid model (NGM) MOS forecasts, explicit output from the NGM and Eta guidance, and the latest surface weather observations from the forecast site. The forecasts are totally objective and can be generated quickly on a personal computer. Other "objective" forms of guidance tracked in the contest are 1) the consensus forecast (i.e., the average of the forecasts from all of the human participants), 2) the combination of NGM raw output (for precipitation forecasts) and NGM MOS guidance (for temperature forecasts), and 3) the combination of Eta Model raw output (for precipitation forecasts) and AVN MOS guidance (for temperature forecasts).Results show that the advanced MOS system finished in 20th place out of 737 original entrants, or better than approximately 97% of the human forecasters who entered the contest. Moreover, the advanced MOS system was slightly better than consensus (23d place). The fact that an objective forecast system finished ahead of consensus is a significant accomplishment since consensus is traditionally a very formidable "opponent" in forecast competitions. Equally significant is that the advanced MOS system was superior to the traditional guidance products available from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Specifically, the combination of NGM raw output and NGM MOS guidance finished in 175th place, and the combination of Eta Model raw output and AVN MOS guidance finished in 266th place. The latter result is most intriguing since the proposed elimination of all NGM products would likely result in a serious degradation of objective products disseminated by NCEP, unless they are replaced with equal

  16. Heavy flavor production at fixed target photo- and hadroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, S.

    1993-11-01

    Recent results on photo- and hadroproduction of heavy flavor particles from fixed target experiments at CERN and Fermilab are presented. These include results on production characteristics, cross-section and pair correlation for both charm and beauty mesons.

  17. Heavy flavor production in fixed-target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1990-09-01

    This presentation is a review of recent measurements on charm production at fixed-target experiments. The measurements are relevant to a number of basic physics issues: tests of perturbative QCD, fragmentation, and basic hadronic structure. We now have high quality, high statistics data from several fixed-target experiments. These include a total of about 30,000 fully reconstructed open charm decays and even more copious J/{Psi}, {Psi}, and {Upsilon} decays. Reconstruction of the full data is now reaching completion and we await final results for systematic physics interpretations. This review of the current situation will be followed by a brief look beyond, toward beauty production at fixed-target experiments.

  18. Mechanism of the 1996-97 non-eruptive volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of volcano-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of volcano monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm located beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm and background periods, and through Coulomb stress modeling of faulting types and hypocenter locations observed during the swarm. Through a comparison of models of deep and shallow intrusions to swarm observations,we aim to test the hypothesis that the 1996-97 swarm represented a shallow intrusion, or "failed" eruption.Observations of the 1996-97 swarm are found to be consistent with several scenarios including both shallow and deep intrusion, most likely involving a relatively small volume of intruded magma and/or a low degree of magma pressurization corresponding to a relatively low likelihood of eruption. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Recent heavy flavor physics results from fixed target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, L.

    1991-11-01

    Recent results from fixed target experiments in the field of heavy quark flavors, as published or otherwise disseminated in the last year, are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on distilling the main conclusions from these results. 35 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Event Display for the Fixed Target Experiment BM@N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsenberger, Konstantin

    2016-02-01

    One of the main problems to be solved in modern high energy physics experiments on particle collisions with a fixed target is the visual representation of the events during the experiment run. The article briefly describes the structure of the BM@N facility at the Nuclotron being under construction at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research with the aim to study properties of the baryonic matter in collisions of ions with fixed target at energies up to 4 GeV/nucleon (for Au79+). Aspects concerning the visualization of data and detector details at the modern experiments and possibilities of practical applications are discussed. We present event display system intended to visualize the detector geometries and events of particle collisions with the fixed target, its options and features as well as integration with BMNRoot software. The examples of graphical representation of simulated and reconstructed points and particle tracks with BM@N geometry are given for central collisions of Au79+ ions with gold target and deuterons with carbon target.

  1. Pyroclastic flows generated by gravitational instability of the 1996-97 lava dome of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, P.D.; Calder, E.S.; Druitt, T.H.; Hoblitt, R.; Robertson, R.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Young, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Numerous pyroclastic flows were produced during 1996-97 by collapse of the growing andesitic lava dome at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Measured deposit volumes from these flows range from 0.2 to 9 ?? 106 m3. Flows range from discrete, single pulse events to sustained large scale dome collapse events. Flows entered the sea on the eastern and southern coasts, depositing large fans of material at the coast. Small runout distance (<1 km) flows had average flow front velocities in the order of 3-10 m/s while flow fronts of the larger runout distance flows (up to 6.5 km) advanced in the order of 15-30 m/s. Many flows were locally highly erosive. Field relations show that development of the fine grained ash cloud surge component was enhanced during the larger sustained events. Periods of elevated pyroclastic flow productivity and sustained dome collapse events are linked to pulses of high magma extrusion rates.Numerous pyroclastic flows were produced during 1996-97 by collapse of the growing andesitic lava dome at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Measured deposit volumes from these flows range from 0.2 to 9??106 m3. Flows range from discrete, single pulse events to sustained large scale dome collapse events. Flows entered the sea on the eastern and southern coasts, depositing large fans of material at the coast. Small runout distance (<1 km) flows had average flow front velocities in the order of 3-10 m/s while flow fronts of the larger runout distance flows (up to 6.5 km) advanced in the order of 15-30 m/s. Many flows were locally highly erosive. Field relations show that development of the fine grained ash cloud surge component was enhanced during the larger sustained events. Periods of elevated dome pyroclastic flow productivity and sustained collapse events are linked to pulses of high magma extrusion rates.

  2. Evaluation of the 1996-97 Nonfiscal Common Core of Data Surveys Data Collection, Processing, and Editing Cycle. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Thomas A.

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) program of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) consists of five separate surveys. An evaluation was conducted of the nonfiscal surveys from the CCD for 1996-97. It focused primarily on the agency and school universe surveys, but it also included the state nonfiscal survey. The evaluation explored such…

  3. Recruiting Trends 1996-97. A National Study of Job Market Trends for New College Graduates among 508 Businesses, Industries, and Governmental Agencies. Twenty-Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheetz, L. Patrick

    This study examined recruiting trends of business, industry, and government among new college graduates. Questionnaires were mailed to 4,890 employers, of which 489 returned complete responses. The survey found that new college graduates of 1996-97 can expect growth in job opportunities. An increase of 6.2 percent in job prospects and an increase…

  4. Setting the Stage for the 21st Century. Chancellor's Annual Report, 1996-97. Positioning the Alabama College System for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainous, Fred

    The Chancellor's Annual Report 1996-97 outlines the recent accomplishments and future goals of the Alabama College System. The report also describes recent mergers and consolidations in the Alabama College System, and its projected fiscal future. Accomplishments fell into two major categories: teaching and learning improvement and workforce…

  5. 48 CFR 16.403-1 - Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive (firm target) contract specifies a target cost, a target profit, a price ceiling (but not a profit ceiling or floor),...

  6. Heavy flavor production at fixed target and collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-10-13

    A review is presented of heavy quark production in /bar p/p, p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. Calculations of total cross sections are described including contributions through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. Comparisons with available data on charm and bottom quark production show good agreement for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized. A discussion is presented of signatures, backgrounds, and expected event rates for top quark production. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  7. A high-rate fixed-target charm experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.

    1994-07-01

    In the P865 Letter of Intent, we have proposed a fixed-target experiment aimed at achieving high sensitivity to decays both of charm and of beauty. I describe here a revised version which is somewhat more optimized for charm and less so for beauty. The rationale for this change of emphasis is two-fold: by the time a new fixed-target experiment might run ({approx} Year 2000), it is likely that studies of beauty at the level proposed in P865 win no longer be competitive; furthermore, it may well be that charm is even more interesting than beauty since the background to rare processes beyond the Standard Model is so much smaller in charm than in beauty. At this workshop, Pakvasa has emphasized that rare and forbidden processes such as D{sup o} mixing, charm-changing neutral currents, and lepton-family-violating currents must exist at some level if we are ever to have an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings; some extensions of the Standard Model predict effects detectable at the level of sensitivity discussed here.

  8. The Super Fixed Target beauty facility at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Kwong; The SFT Collaboration

    1991-12-31

    The rationale for pursuing beauty physics at the SSC in a fixed target configuration is described. The increased beauty production cross section at the SSC, combined with high interaction rate capability of the proposed detector, results in 10{sup 10{minus}11} produced BB events per year. The long decay length of the B hadrons ({approx_equal} 10 cm) allows direct observation of B decays in the high resolution silicon microstrip vertex detector. To optimize the operation of the proposed beauty spectrometer and the SSC, parasitic extraction of attendant or artificially generated large amplitude protons using crystal channeling is proposed and explored. The large sample of fully reconstructed B events allows detailed studies of various CP violating decays with requisite statistics to confront the standard model. The CP physics potential of the proposed experiment is evaluated and compared with alternative approaches, such as symmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} B Factories and specialized hadron colliders.

  9. Preliminary design implications of SSC fixed-target operation

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1984-06-01

    This paper covers some of the accelerator physics issues relevant to a possible fixed-target operating mode for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). In the brief time available, no attempt has been made to design this capability into the SSC. Rather, I have tried to evaluate what the performance of such a machine might be, and to indicate the hardware implications and extraction considerations that would be part of an actual design study. Where appropriate, parameters and properties of the present LBL design for the SSC have been used; these should be taken as being representative of the general class of small-aperture, high-field colliders being considered by the accelerator physics community. Thus, the numerical examples given here must ultimately be reexamined in light of the actual parameters of the particular accelerator being considered.

  10. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Speech Pathology and Audiology for the Years 1996-97 and 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected academic disciplines. Data for the study were collected from a total of 296 public and 390 private four-year institutions from the baseline year of 1996-97 to the trend year of 1999-2000. A data table lists average salaries for both…

  11. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Services for the Years 1996-97 and 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected academic disciplines. Data for the study were collected from a total of 296 public and 390 private four-year institutions from the baseline year of 1996-97 to the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data…

  12. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Business/Managerial Economics for the Years 1996-97 and 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected academic disciplines. Data for the study were collected from a total of 296 public and 390 private four-year institutions from the baseline year of 1996-97 to the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data…

  13. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Marketing Management and Research for the Years 1996-97 and 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected academic disciplines. Data for the study were collected from a total of 296 public and 390 private four-year institutions from the baseline year of 1996-97 to the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data…

  14. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Enterprise Management and Operation for the Years 1996-97 and 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected academic disciplines. Data for the study were collected from a total of 296 public and 390 private four-year institutions from the baseline year of 1996-97 to the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data…

  15. Design and performance of liquid hydrogen target systems for the Fermilab Fixed Target Program

    SciTech Connect

    Allspah, D.; Danes, J.; Peifer, J.; Stanek, R.

    1991-07-01

    The Fermilab 1990--1991 Fixed Target Program featured six experiments utilizing liquid hydrogen or liquid deuterium targets as part of their apparatus. Each design was optimized to the criteria of the experiment, resulting in variations of material selection, methods of refrigeration and secondary containment. Collectively, the targets were run for a total of 14,184 hours with an average operational efficiency of 97.6%. The safe and reliable operation of these targets was complemented by an increased degree of documentation and component testing. This operation was also aided by several key upgrades. All the systems were designed and fabricated under a set of written guidelines that blend analytical calculations and empirical guidance drawn from over twenty years of target fabrication experience. 3 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Exploring portals to a hidden sector through fixed targets

    SciTech Connect

    Batell, Brian; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2009-11-01

    We discuss the sensitivity of neutrino experiments at the luminosity frontier to generic hidden sectors containing new (sub)-GeV neutral states. The weak interaction of these states with the standard model can be efficiently probed through all of the allowed renormalizable 'portals' (in the Higgs, vector, and neutrino sectors) at fixed target proton beam facilities, with complementary sensitivity to colliders. We concentrate on the kinetic-mixing vector portal, and show that certain regions of the parameter space for a new U(1){sub S} gauge sector with long-lived sub-GeV mass states decaying to standard model leptons are already severely constrained by the data sets at LSND, MiniBooNE, and NuMI/MINOS. Furthermore, scenarios in which portals allow access to stable neutral particles, such as MeV-scale dark matter, generally predict that the neutrino beam is accompanied by a 'dark matter beam', observable through neutral-current-like interactions in the detector. As a consequence, we show that the LSND electron recoil event sample currently provides the most stringent direct constraint on MeV-scale dark matter models.

  17. In celebration of the fixed target program with the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel et al.

    2001-12-28

    The Tevatron is the world's first large superconducting accelerator. With its construction, we gained the dual opportunities to advance the state of the art in accelerator technology with the machine itself and in particle physics with the experiments that became possible in a higher energy regime. There have been 43 experiments in the Tevatron fixed target program. Many of these are better described as experimental programs, each with a broad range of physics goals and results, and more than 100 collaborating physicists and engineers. The results of this program are three-fold: (1) new technologies in accelerators, beams and detectors which advanced the state of the art; (2) new experimental results published in the refereed physics journals; and (3) newly trained scientists who are both the next generation of particle physicists and an important part of the scientific, technical and educational backbone of the country as a whole. In this book they compile these results. There are sections from each experiment including what their physics goals and results were, what papers were published, and which students have received degrees. Summaries of these results from the program as a whole are quite interesting, but the physics results from this program are too broad to summarize globally. The most important of the results appear in later sections of this booklet.

  18. Is there a role for fixed target heavy ion physics beyond RHIC startup?

    SciTech Connect

    Sandweiss, J.

    1995-07-15

    The interesting and important physics opportunities provided by AGS and CERN fixed target facilities will be far from exhausted by the time of RHIC turn on. Given the need for the AGS to provide heavy ion beams for injection into RHIC, the cost effectiveness of fixed target experimentation with AGS beams will be high. Examples of the physics are given.

  19. Main Ring bunch spreaders: Past, 1987/1988 fixed target run, and proposed future

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.P.

    1989-02-26

    During the last 1987--1988 fixed target running period beam intensity was limited many times by coherent instabilities in both the Main Ring and in the Tevatron. The intensity thresholds for instabilities are generally inversely proportional to the proton bunch length. Since fixed target operations are insensitive to the longitudinal phase space emittance of the beam, bunch spreaders are employed to increase this emittance, and hence the bunch length. As a result, more beam intensity can be delivered to the fixed target experiments. This paper starts with a short history behind the old Main Ring bunch spreader. After discussing the physics of stimulated emittance growth, the design and performance of the 1987--1988 fixed target run Main Ring bunch spreader is discussed. Finally, designs of improved Main Ring and Tevatron bunch spreaders for the next fixed target run are proposed. 23 figs.

  20. Renaissance of the ~ 1-TeV Fixed-Target Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Appel, J.A.; Arms, K.E.; Balantekin, A.B.; Conrad, J.M.; Cooper, P.S.; Djurcic, Z.; Dunwoodie, W.; Engelfried, J.; Fisher, P.H.; Gottschalk, Erik Edward; de Gouvea, A.; Heller, K.; Ignarra, C.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kwan, S.; Loinaz, W.A.; Meadows, B.; Moore, R.; Morfin, J.G.; Naples, D.; /Pittsburgh U. /St. Mary's Coll., Minnesota /New Mexico State U. /Michigan U. /Wayne State U. /South Carolina U. /Florida U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Cincinnati U. /Columbia U. /Columbia U. /Northwestern U. /Yale U. /Fermilab /Argonne /Northwestern U. /APC, Paris

    2011-12-02

    This document describes the physics potential of a new fixed-target program based on a {approx}1 TeV proton source. Two proton sources are potentially available in the future: the existing Tevatron at Fermilab, which can provide 800 GeV protons for fixed-target physics, and a possible upgrade to the SPS at CERN, called SPS+, which would produce 1 TeV protons on target. In this paper we use an example Tevatron fixed-target program to illustrate the high discovery potential possible in the charm and neutrino sectors. We highlight examples which are either unique to the program or difficult to accomplish at other venues.

  1. Renaissance of the ~1 TeV Fixed-Target Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Appel, Jeffrey A.; Arms, Kregg Elliott; Balantekin, A.B.; Conrad, Janet Marie; Cooper, Peter S.; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dunwoodie, William M.; Engelfried, Jurgen; Fisher, Peter H.; Gottschalk, E.; /Fermilab /Northwestern U.

    2009-05-01

    This document describes the physics potential of a new fixed-target program based on a {approx} TeV proton source. Two proton sources are potentially available in the future: the existing Tevatron at Fermilab, which can provide 800 GeV protons for fixed-target physics, and a possible upgrade to the SPS at CERN, called SPS+, which would produce 1 TeV protons on target. In this paper we use an example Tevatron fixed-target program to illustrate the high discovery potential possible in the charm and neutrino sectors. We highlight examples which are either unique to the program or difficult to accomplish at other venues.

  2. Fixed lag smoothing target tracking in clutter for a high pulse repetition frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Uzair; Shi, Yi Fang; Song, Taek Lyul

    2015-12-01

    A new method to smooth the target hybrid state with Gaussian mixture measurement likelihood-integrated track splitting (GMM-ITS) in the presence of clutter for a high pulse repetition frequency (HPRF) radar is proposed. This method smooths the target state at fixed lag N and considers all feasible multi-scan target existence sequences in the temporal window of scans in order to smooth the target hybrid state. The smoothing window can be of any length N. The proposed method to smooth the target hybrid state at fixed lag is also applied to the enhanced multiple model (EMM) tracking algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the performance of fixed lag smoothing GMM-ITS significantly improves false track discrimination and root mean square errors (RMSEs).

  3. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1993-94 and 1996-97 in the Following 26 Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: History, General;...Visual and Performing Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 307 public institutions and 490 private colleges and universities based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1993-94 and the other for the trend year 1996-97. For each of the 26 disciplines, a summary includes a definition of the discipline; information on average…

  4. Salary-Trend Studies for the Years 1993-94 and 1996-97 in the Following 27 Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting, Administrative Assistant/Secretarial Science, General;...Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 307 public institutions and 490 private colleges and universities based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1993-94 and the other for the trend year 1996-97. For each of the 27 disciplines, a summary includes a definition of the discipline; information on average…

  5. New Fixed-Target Experiments to Search for Dark Gauge Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, James D.; Essig, Rouven; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., ITP

    2010-06-11

    Fixed-target experiments are ideally suited for discovering new MeV-GeV mass U(1) gauge bosons through their kinetic mixing with the photon. In this paper, we identify the production and decay properties of new light gauge bosons that dictate fixed-target search strategies. We summarize existing limits and suggest five new experimental approaches that we anticipate can cover most of the natural parameter space, using currently operating GeV-energy beams and well-established detection methods. Such experiments are particularly timely in light of recent terrestrial and astrophysical anomalies (PAMELA, FERMI, DAMA/LIBRA, etc.) consistent with dark matter charged under a new gauge force.

  6. AAHE Bulletin, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Theodore J., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 10 issues of this bulletin present reports, reviews and essays on issues concerning the advancement of higher education. Major articles include: "Learning, Teaching Technology"--an interview with Diana Laurillard of Britain's Open University; "Learning, Technology, and the Way We Work" (Russ Edgerton and Barbara Leigh Smith); "Implementing the…

  7. The fixed target experiment for studies of baryonic matter at the Nuclotron (BM@N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapishin, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    BM@N (Baryonic Matter at Nuclotron) is the first experiment to be realized at the accelerator complex of NICA-Nuclotron. The aim of the BM@N experiment is to study interactions of relativistic heavy-ion beams with fixed targets. The BM@N setup, results of Monte Carlo simulations and the BM@N experimental program are presented.

  8. 48 CFR 216.403-1 - Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts. 216.403-1 Section 216.403-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  9. 48 CFR 216.403-2 - Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts. 216.403-2 Section 216.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  10. 48 CFR 216.403-1 - Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts. 216.403-1 Section 216.403-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  11. 48 CFR 216.403-2 - Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts. 216.403-2 Section 216.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  12. 48 CFR 216.403-2 - Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts. 216.403-2 Section 216.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  13. 48 CFR 216.403-2 - Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts. 216.403-2 Section 216.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  14. 48 CFR 216.403-1 - Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts. 216.403-1 Section 216.403-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  15. 48 CFR 216.403-2 - Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts. 216.403-2 Section 216.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  16. 48 CFR 216.403-1 - Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts. 216.403-1 Section 216.403-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES...

  17. Overview of results from the Fermilab fixed target and collider experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, H.E.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper we present a review of recent QCD related results from Fermilab fixed target and collider experiments. Topics covered range from structure functions through W/Z production, heavy quark production and jet angular distributions. We also include the current state of knowledge about leptoquark pair production in hadronic collisions.

  18. Some highlights of the recent Fermilab Fixed Target Program of interest to the nuclear physics community

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, J.; Papavassiliou, V.; Zielinski, M.

    1995-02-01

    Many of the high energy physics questions addressed by the Fermilab Fixed Target Experiments are also of interest to the members of the nuclear community. Some recent highlights of the program, including studies of A-dependence of cross sections, evidence for parton rescattering in nuclear media, studies of heavy quark production, evidence for color transparency, and insights into QCD from meson systems, are discussed.

  19. High Transverse Momentum Direct Photon Production at Fermilab Fixed-Target Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Apanasevich, Leonard

    2005-05-01

    This thesis describes a study of the production of high transverse momentum direct photons and {pi}{sup 0} mesons by proton beams at 530 and 800 GeV/c and {pi}{sup -} beams at 515 GeV/c incident on beryllium, copper, and liquid hydrogen targets. The data were collected by Fermilab experiment E706 during the 1990 and 1991-92 fixed target runs. The apparatus included a large, finely segmented lead and liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and a charged particle spectrometer featuring silicon strip detectors in the target region and proportional wire chambers and drift tubes downstream of a large aperture analysis magnet. The inclusive cross sections are presented as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and to results from previous experiments.

  20. Preparation of a primary argon beam for the CERN fixed target physics

    SciTech Connect

    Küchler, D. O’Neil, M.; Scrivens, R.; Thomae, R.

    2014-02-15

    The fixed target experiment NA61 in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron is studying phase transitions in strongly interacting matter. Up to now they used the primary beams available from the CERN accelerator complex (protons and lead ions) or fragmented beams created from the primary lead ion beam. To explore a wider range of energies and densities a request was made to provide primary argon and xenon beams. This paper describes the results of the setting up and 10 week test run of the Ar{sup 11+} beam from the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source and the linear accelerator (Linac3) at CERN.

  1. J/{sub psi} production: Tevatron and fixed-target collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Petrelli, A.

    2000-06-01

    In this talk the author shows the results of a fit of the NRQCD matrix elements to the CDF data for direct J/{psi} production, by including the radiative corrections to the g g {r_arrow} {sup 3} S {sub 1}{sup [1]} channel and the effect of the k{sub T}-smearing. Furthermore he performs the NLO NRQCD analysis of J/{psi} production in fixed-target proton-nucleon collisions and he fits the colour-octet matrix elements to the available experimental data. The results are compared to the Tevatron ones.

  2. Physics Opportunities of a Fixed-Target Experiment using the LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Fleuret, F.; Hadjidakis, C.; Lansberg, J.P.; /Orsay, IPN

    2012-03-16

    We outline the many physics opportunities offered by a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment using the proton and lead-ion beams of the LHC extracted by a bent crystal. In a proton run with the LHC 7-TeV beam, one can analyze pp, pd and pA collisions at center-of-mass energy {radical}s{sub NN} {approx_equal} 115 GeV and even higher using the Fermi motion of the nucleons in a nuclear target. In a lead run with a 2.76 TeV-per-nucleon beam, {radical}s{sub NN} is as high as 72 GeV. Bent crystals can be used to extract about 5 x 10{sup 8} protons/sec; the integrated luminosity over a year reaches 0.5 fb{sup -1} on a typical 1 cm-long target without nuclear species limitation. We emphasize that such an extraction mode does not alter the performance of the collider experiments at the LHC. By instrumenting the target-rapidity region, gluon and heavy-quark distributions of the proton and the neutron can be accessed at large x and even at x larger than unity in the nuclear case. Single diffractive physics and, for the first time, the large negative-xF domain can be accessed. The nuclear target-species versatility provides a unique opportunity to study nuclear matter versus the features of the hot and dense matter formed in heavy-ion collisions, including the formation of the quark-gluon plasma, which can be studied in PbA collisions over the full range of target-rapidity domain with a large variety of nuclei. The polarization of hydrogen and nuclear targets allows an ambitious spin program, including measurements of the QCD lensing effects which underlie the Sivers single-spin asymmetry, the study of transversity distributions and possibly of polarized parton distributions. We also emphasize the potential offered by pA ultra-peripheral collisions where the nucleus target A is used as a coherent photon source, mimicking photoproduction processes in ep collisions. Finally, we note that W and Z bosons can be produced and detected in a fixed-target experiment and in their

  3. Physics opportunities of a fixed-target experiment using LHC beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Fleuret, F.; Hadjidakis, C.; Lansberg, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    We outline the many physics opportunities offered by a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment using the proton and lead-ion beams of the LHC extracted by a bent crystal. In a proton run with the LHC 7 TeV beam, one can analyze pp, pd and pA collisions at center-of-mass energy √{s}≃115 GeV and even higher using the Fermi motion of the nucleons in a nuclear target. In a lead run with a 2.76 TeV-per-nucleon beam, √{s} is as high as 72 GeV. Bent crystals can be used to extract about 5×108 protons/s; the integrated luminosity over a year reaches 0.5 fb-1 on a typical 1 cm long target without nuclear species limitation. We emphasize that such an extraction mode does not alter the performance of the collider experiments at the LHC. By instrumenting the target-rapidity region, gluon and heavy-quark distributions of the proton and the neutron can be accessed at large x and even at x larger than unity in the nuclear case. Single diffractive physics and, for the first time, the large negative-xF domain can be accessed. The nuclear target-species versatility provides a unique opportunity to study nuclear matter versus the features of the hot and dense matter formed in heavy-ion collisions, including the formation of the quark-gluon plasma, which can be studied in PbA collisions over the full range of target-rapidity domain with a large variety of nuclei. The polarization of hydrogen and nuclear targets allows an ambitious spin program, including measurements of the QCD lensing effects which underlie the Sivers single-spin asymmetry, the study of transversity distributions and possibly of polarized parton distributions. We also emphasize the potential offered by pA ultra-peripheral collisions where the nucleus target A is used as a coherent photon source, mimicking photoproduction processes in ep collisions. Finally, we note that W and Z bosons can be produced and detected in a fixed-target experiment and in their threshold domain for the first time, providing new ways to

  4. Surface target-tracking guidance by self-organizing formation flight of fixed-wing UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regina, N.; Zanzi, M.

    This paper presents a new concept of ground target surveillance based on a formation flight of two Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) of fixed-wing type. Each UAV considered in this work has its own guidance law specifically designed for two different aims. A self organizing non-symmetric collaborative surveying scheme has been developed based on pursuers with different roles: the close-up-pursuer and the distance-pursuer. The close-up-pursuer behaves according to a guidance law which takes it to continually over-fly the target, also optimizing flight endurance. On the other hand, the distancepursuer behaves so as to circle around the target by flying at a certain distance and altitude from it; moreover, its motion ensures the maximum “ seeability” of the ground based target. In addition, the guidance law designed for the distance-pursuer also implements a collision avoidance feature in order to prevent possible risks of collision with the close-up-pursuer during the tracking maneuvers. The surveying scheme is non-symmetric in the sense that the collision avoidance feature is accomplished by a guidance law implemented only on one of the two pursuers; moreover, it is collaborative because the surveying is performed by different tasks of two UAVs and is self-organizing because, due to the collision avoidance feature, target tracking does not require pre-planned collision-risk-free trajectories but trajectories are generated in real time.

  5. Quarkonium Physics at a Fixed-Target Experiment Using the LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lansberg, J.P.; Brodsky, S.J.; Fleuret, F.; Hadjidakis, C.; /Orsay, IPN

    2012-04-09

    We outline the many quarkonium-physics opportunities offered by a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment using the p and Pb LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal. This provides an integrated luminosity of 0.5 fb{sup -1} per year on a typical 1cm-long target. Such an extraction mode does not alter the performance of the collider experiments at the LHC. With such a high luminosity, one can analyse quarkonium production in great details in pp, pd and pA collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} {approx_equal} 115 GeV and at {radical}s{sub NN} {approx_equal} 72 GeV in PbA collisions. In a typical pp (pA) run, the obtained quarkonium yields per unit of rapidity are 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than those expected at RHIC and about respectively 10 (70) times larger than for ALICE. In PbA, they are comparable. By instrumenting the target-rapidity region, the large negative-x{sub F} domain can be accessed for the first time, greatly extending previous measurements by Hera-B and E866. Such analyses should help resolving the quarkonium-production controversies and clear the way for gluon PDF extraction via quarkonium studies. The nuclear target-species versatility provides a unique opportunity to study nuclear matter and the features of the hot and dense matter formed in PbA collisions. A polarised proton target allows the study of transverse-spin asymmetries in J/{Psi} and {Upsilon} production, providing access to the gluon and charm Sivers functions.

  6. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C·G > T·A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  7. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Munchel, Sarah; Hoang, Yen; Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C · G > T · A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  8. Low-Z polymer sample supports for fixed-target serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Feld, Geoffrey K.; Heymann, Michael; Benner, W. Henry; Pardini, Tommaso; Tsai, Ching -Ju; Boutet, Sebastien; Coleman, Matthew A.; Hunter, Mark S.; Li, Xiaodan; Messerschmidt, Marc; Opathalage, Achini; Pedrini, Bill; Williams, Garth J.; Krantz, Bryan A.; Fraden, Seth; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Evans, James E.; Segelke, Brent W.; Frank, Matthias

    2015-06-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offer a new avenue to the structural probing of complex materials, including biomolecules. Delivery of precious sample to the XFEL beam is a key consideration, as the sample of interest must be serially replaced after each destructive pulse. The fixed-target approach to sample delivery involves depositing samples on a thin-film support and subsequent serial introduction via a translating stage. Some classes of biological materials, including two-dimensional protein crystals, must be introduced on fixed-target supports, as they require a flat surface to prevent sample wrinkling. A series of wafer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-style grid supports constructed of low-Z plastic have been custom-designed and produced. Aluminium TEM grid holders were engineered, capable of delivering up to 20 different conventional or plastic TEM grids using fixed-target stages available at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). As proof-of-principle, X-ray diffraction has been demonstrated from two-dimensional crystals of bacteriorhodopsin and three-dimensional crystals of anthrax toxin protective antigen mounted on these supports at the LCLS. In conclusion, the benefits and limitations of these low-Z fixed-target supports are discussed; it is the authors' belief that they represent a viable and efficient alternative to previously reported fixed-target supports for conducting diffraction studies with XFELs.

  9. Proposed Fermilab fixed target experiment: Kaons at the Tevatron. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0898, evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed fixed target experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Femilab) in Batavia, Illinois, known as Kaons at the Tevatron (KTeV). The proposed KTeV project includes reconfiguration of an existing target station, enhancement of an existing beam transport system connected to existing utility facilities, and construction of a new experimental detector hall area. The study of the K meson, a type of subatomic particle, has been going on at Fermilab for 20 years. The proposed KTEV project advances the search for the origins of a violation of a fundamental symmetry of nature called charge parity (CP) violation. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  10. Report of the super fixed target beauty facility working group on progress towards the SFT at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Cumalat, J.; Carrigan, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    A low intensity 20 TeV proton beam extracted from the SSC by crystal channeling has been proposed for use in producing B hadrons in a fixed target configuration. This option for doing B physics offers a relatively inexpensive way of obtaining large numbers of reconstructable B decays for the study of rare B decays and CP violation in the B system. This paper reports on the progress during and since the 1990 Snowmass meeting in developing the techniques for the crystal extraction and discusses special advantages that an SSC fixed target spectrometer may have relative to other experimental methods for studying B decays.

  11. Fixed target combined with spectral mapping: approaching 100% hit rates for serial crystallography.

    PubMed

    Oghbaey, Saeed; Sarracini, Antoine; Ginn, Helen M; Pare-Labrosse, Olivier; Kuo, Anling; Marx, Alexander; Epp, Sascha W; Sherrell, Darren A; Eger, Bryan T; Zhong, Yinpeng; Loch, Rolf; Mariani, Valerio; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nelson, Silke; Lemke, Henrik T; Owen, Robin L; Pearson, Arwen R; Stuart, David I; Ernst, Oliver P; Mueller-Werkmeister, Henrike M; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-08-01

    The advent of ultrafast highly brilliant coherent X-ray free-electron laser sources has driven the development of novel structure-determination approaches for proteins, and promises visualization of protein dynamics on sub-picosecond timescales with full atomic resolution. Significant efforts are being applied to the development of sample-delivery systems that allow these unique sources to be most efficiently exploited for high-throughput serial femtosecond crystallography. Here, the next iteration of a fixed-target crystallography chip designed for rapid and reliable delivery of up to 11 259 protein crystals with high spatial precision is presented. An experimental scheme for predetermining the positions of crystals in the chip by means of in situ spectroscopy using a fiducial system for rapid, precise alignment and registration of the crystal positions is presented. This delivers unprecedented performance in serial crystallography experiments at room temperature under atmospheric pressure, giving a raw hit rate approaching 100% with an effective indexing rate of approximately 50%, increasing the efficiency of beam usage and allowing the method to be applied to systems where the number of crystals is limited. PMID:27487825

  12. Evaluation of water-level recovery, 1996-97 to 1999-2000, and comparison of 1999-2000 and 1972-73 water levels in Goleta Central Subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Scrudato, Matthew C.; Houston, Ernest R.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water levels were measured during January 1999-June 2000 to evaluate the rate of water-level recovery in the Goleta Central ground-water subbasin that has resulted from injection of about 2,225 acre-feet of surplus water for storage in the ground-water basin. Injection of surplus water was tabulated and compared with water-level rises since 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of the recharge effort. Water levels have risen about 4 to 37 feet since 1996-97. A preliminary water budget was compiled to assess recharge and discharge in the basin, and it is estimated that total inflow exceeded total outflow during 1998-99 by about 2,844 to 7,518 acre-feet. In addition, water levels for 1999-2000 were compared with water levels for 1972-73 to determine if a 'drought buffer' exists. Water levels measured in two wells during January 1999-June 2000 exceeded January 1972-June 1973 levels. Water levels in the remaining wells measured during January 1999-June 2000 ranged from less than 1 foot to about 32 feet below 1972-73 water levels. In general, the largest water-level rise between 1996-97 and 1999-2000 was about 37 feet in the southeastern end of the basin; the rise was less than 4 feet in the western end of the basin and about 10 feet north of the Goleta Fault. Long-term hydrographs indicate that water levels have been recovering throughout the basin since the early 1990's.

  13. A Novel Fixed-Target Task to Determine Articulatory Speed Constraints in Persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.; Pattee, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if talkers with ALS are limited in their ability to increase lower lip and jaw speed at an early stage of the disease when their speaking rate and intelligibility are only minimally or not affected. Method: A novel metronome paced fixed-target task was used to assess movement speed capacities during…

  14. Search for a New Gauge Boson in Electron-Nucleus Fixed-Target Scattering by the APEX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamyan, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Allada, K.; Anez, D.; Averett, T.; Barbieri, A.; Bartlett, K.; Beacham, J.; Bono, J.; Boyce, J. R.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Cranmer, K.; Dalton, M. M.; de Jager, C. W.; Donaghy, J.; Essig, R.; Field, C.; Folts, E.; Gasparian, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Gomez, J.; Graham, M.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Iqbal, S.; Jaros, J.; Jensen, E.; Kelleher, A.; Khandaker, M.; Lerose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Markowitz, P.; Maruyama, T.; Maxwell, V.; Mayilyan, S.; McDonald, J.; Michaels, R.; Moffeit, K.; Nelyubin, V.; Odian, A.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Paolone, M.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomerantz, I.; Qiang, Y.; Riordan, S.; Roblin, Y.; Sawatzky, B.; Schuster, P.; Segal, J.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Stepanyan, S.; Toro, N.; Walz, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Zhang, J.

    2011-11-01

    We present a search at the Jefferson Laboratory for new forces mediated by sub-GeV vector bosons with weak coupling α' to electrons. Such a particle A' can be produced in electron-nucleus fixed-target scattering and then decay to an e+e- pair, producing a narrow resonance in the QED trident spectrum. Using APEX test run data, we searched in the mass range 175-250 MeV, found no evidence for an A'→e+e- reaction, and set an upper limit of α'/α≃10-6. Our findings demonstrate that fixed-target searches can explore a new, wide, and important range of masses and couplings for sub-GeV forces.

  15. RD30 - study of an optical trigger proposed for a beauty search in fixed target mode at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochowski, C.; Charpak, G.; Giomataris, Y.; Joseph, C.; Perroud, J.-P.; Tran, M. T.; Chipaux, R.; Delbart, A.; Derre, J.; Lemoigne, Y.; Loucatos, S.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Kaplan, D. M.; Hill, T.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Chrisman, D.; Cline, D.; Rhoades, J.; Atac, M.; Buzuloiu, V.; Vlad, O. G.; Coltuc, D.; RD30 Collaboration

    1994-11-01

    The optical discriminator is based on the detection of Cherenkov light produced and trapped in a thin, spherical, crystal shell. It is only sensitive to charged particles with a non-zero impact parameter relative to the centre of the crystal sphere. The properties of this device, the results of tests in a particle beam and the expected performance in a fast selection of B events in fixed target experiments are reported.

  16. Feasibility of detecting B. -->. h/sup plus/h/sup minus/ in a fixed-target experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.C.; Mishra, C.S.; Moss, J.M.; McGaughey, P.; Kapustinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss a proposal to measure two-body, two-prong decays of neutral B mesons and ..lambda../sub b/ in an 800 GeV fixed-target experiment. We expect to obtain a large sample (/approximately/10/sup 3/ events) of these decays if the branching ratios are /approximately/5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. An expression of interest in a Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility (SFT) at the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-25

    The concept of a Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility (SFT) which uses a relatively low intensity 20 TeV proton beam as a generator of very high momenta B's is an exciting prospect which is very competitive with other B factory ideas. The yields of B's in such a facility are quite high (3 {times} 10{sup 10} {yields} 10{sup 11} B's per year). At this level of statistics, CP violation measurements will be possible in many modes. In addition, the fixed target configuration, because of the high momenta of the produced B's and the resulting long decay lengths, facilitates the detection and reconstruction of B's and offers unique opportunities for observation of the B decays. The limited solid angle coverage required for the fixed target spectrometer makes the cost of the facility much cheaper than other e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} or hadron collider options under consideration. The relatively low intensity 20 TeV beam (1 {yields} 2 {times} 10{sup 8} protons/second) needed for the SFT makes it possible to consider an extraction system which operates concurrently and in a non-interfering manner with the other collider experiments. One possible method for generating such a beam, crystal channeling, is discussed.

  18. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed. PMID:26351273

  19. Spin and diffractive physics with a fixed-target experiment at the LHC (AFTER-LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorce, C.; Chambert, V.; Didelez, J. P.; Genolini, B.; Hadjidakis, C.; Lansberg, J. P.; Rosier, P.; Brodsky, S. J.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.

    2013-04-15

    We report on the spin and diffractive physics at a future multi-purpose f xed-target experiment with proton and lead LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal. The LHC multi-TeV beams allow for the most energetic f xed-target experiments ever performed, opening new domains of particle and nuclear physics and complementing that of collider physics, in particular that of RHIC and the EIC projects. The luminosity achievable with AFTER using typical targets would surpass that of RHIC by more than 3 orders of magnitude. The f xed-target mode has the advantage to allow for measurements of single-spin asymmetries with polarized target as well as of single-diffractive processes in the target region.

  20. Selected Reference Books of 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1997-01-01

    Presents an annotated selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of biography, publishing, religion, popular culture, film and theater, literature, architecture, music, social sciences, archeology, history, and science, as well as new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  1. Directory of Mississippi Libraries, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Library Commission, Jackson.

    The Directory of Mississippi Libraries is an annual publication which provides librarians, educators, and other interested persons with a basic source of current information on Mississippi libraries. The major section of the directory consists of listings for public, academic, school, special and institutional libraries. In addition to basic…

  2. Supreme Court in Review--1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwendolyn H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 and 1997, the Supreme Court declared five acts of Congress to be unconstitutional. An overview of these decisions is offered in this article. It opens with a discussion of those acts that violated the First Amendment. These decisions dealt with the constitutionality of Arizona's "official English" statute; the Communications Decency Act,…

  3. Quantification of HER2 by Targeted Mass Spectrometry in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Breast Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Carine; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Lamerz, Jens; Kux van Geijtenbeek, Sabine; McKee, Thomas A; Venturi, Miro; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Hochstrasser, Denis; Cutler, Paul; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ducret, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The ability to accurately quantify proteins in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using targeted mass spectrometry opens exciting perspectives for biomarker discovery. We have developed and evaluated a selectedreaction monitoring assay for the human receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumors. Peptide candidates were identified using an untargeted mass spectrometry approach in relevant cell lines. A multiplexed assay was developed for the six best candidate peptides and evaluated for linearity, precision and lower limit of quantification. Results showed a linear response over a calibration range of 0.012 to 100 fmol on column (R(2): 0.99-1.00).The lower limit of quantification was 0.155 fmol on column for all peptides evaluated. The six HER2 peptides were quantified by selected reaction monitoring in a cohort of 40 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from women with invasive breast carcinomas, which showed different levels of HER2 gene amplification as assessed by standard methods used in clinical pathology. The amounts of the six HER2 peptides were highly and significantly correlated with each other, indicating that peptide levels can be used as surrogates of protein amounts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. After normalization for sample size, selected reaction monitoring peptide measurements were able to correctly predict 90% of cases based on HER2 amplification as defined by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists. In conclusion, the developed assay showed good analytical performance and a high agreement with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization data. This study demonstrated that selected reaction monitoring allows to accurately quantify protein expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and represents therefore a powerful approach for biomarker discovery studies. The untargeted mass spectrometry

  4. HaloPlex Targeted Resequencing for Mutation Detection in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples.

    PubMed

    Moens, Lotte N J; Falk-Sörqvist, Elin; Ljungström, Viktor; Mattsson, Johanna; Sundström, Magnus; La Fleur, Linnéa; Mathot, Lucy; Micke, Patrick; Nilsson, Mats; Botling, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled substantial advances in the study of human diseases. Combined with targeted DNA enrichment methods, high sequence coverage can be obtained for different genes simultaneously at a reduced cost per sample, creating unique opportunities for clinical cancer diagnostics. However, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) process of tissue samples, routinely used in pathology departments, results in DNA fragmentation and nucleotide modifications that introduce a number of technical challenges for downstream biomolecular analyses. We evaluated the HaloPlex target enrichment system for somatic mutation detection in 80 tissue fractions derived from 20 clinical cancer cases with paired tumor and normal tissue available in both FFPE and fresh-frozen format. Several modifications to the standard method were introduced, including a reduced target fragment length and two strand capturing. We found that FFPE material can be used for HaloPlex-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing, even when starting from small amounts of DNA. By specifically capturing both strands for each target fragment, we were able to reduce the number of false-positive errors caused by FFPE-induced artifacts and lower the detection limit for somatic mutations. We believe that the HaloPlex method presented here will be broadly applicable as a tool for somatic mutation detection in clinical cancer settings. PMID:26354930

  5. 48 CFR 16.403-2 - Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403-2... (successive targets) contract specifies the following elements, all of which are negotiated at the outset: (i... adjustment under other contract clauses providing for equitable adjustment or other revision of the...

  6. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-04-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within {+-}1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 {+-} 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 {+-} 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  7. A framework to analyze searches for gauge bosons of the hidden light sector in electron scattering fixed target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Beranek, T.

    2013-11-07

    Electron scattering fixed target experiments are a versatile tool to probe various kinds of physics phenomena. Recently fixed target experiments in which an electron beam is scattered off a heavy nucleus and a lepton-antilepton pair is created, i.e. e(A,Z) →e(A,Z)l{sup +}l{sup −}, were utilized to search for physics beyond the standard model at modest energies. In these experiments one searches for a small, narrow resonance in the invariant mass spectrum of the lepton-antilepton pair, arising from the exchange of a new light gauge boson γ′ coupling to the dark sector as well as very weakly to standard model particles. Such a signal would appear as an enhancement over a smooth QED background. Hence a precise understanding of the background is crucial. We present a theoretical analysis of the process e(A,Z) →e(A,Z)l{sup +}l{sup −}. Therefore we have performed an analysis of the cross section, which is then used to extract exclusion limits on the parameter space of the γ′, describing the existing experimental data taken at MAMI.

  8. Targeting multiple dyslipidemias with fixed combinations--focus on extended release niacin and simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Anbu; Arora, Anjali; Sperling, Laurence S; Khan, Bobby V

    2008-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Several pharmacological agents have been developed over the past 50 years which target various lipid components such as low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar to other risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the management of dyslipidemia can be complicated and may require combination therapy for effective treatment. This review discusses the biochemical mechanisms of action and clinical uses for simvastatin (the most widely available and commercially prescribed statin) and niacin, and the combination of these agents in the management and treatment of dyslipidemia. PMID:19183748

  9. The CO2 stimulus for cerebrovascular reactivity: Fixing inspired concentrations vs. targeting end-tidal partial pressures.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joseph A

    2016-06-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) studies have elucidated the physiology and pathophysiology of cerebral blood flow regulation. A non-invasive, high spatial resolution approach uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as the vasoactive stimulus and magnetic resonance techniques to estimate the cerebral blood flow response. CVR is assessed as the ratio response change to stimulus change. Precise control of the stimulus is sought to minimize CVR variability between tests, and show functional differences. Computerized methods targeting end-tidal CO2 partial pressures are precise, but expensive. Simpler, improvised methods that fix the inspired CO2 concentrations have been recommended as less expensive, and so more widely accessible. However, these methods have drawbacks that have not been previously presented by those that advocate their use, or those that employ them in their studies. As one of the developers of a computerized method, I provide my perspective on the trade-offs between these two methods. The main concern is that declaring the precision of fixed inspired concentration of CO2 is misleading: it does not, as implied, translate to precise control of the actual vasoactive stimulus - the arterial partial pressure of CO2 The inherent test-to-test, and therefore subject-to-subject variability, precludes clinical application of findings. Moreover, improvised methods imply widespread duplication of development, assembly time and costs, yet lack uniformity and quality control. A tabular comparison between approaches is provided. PMID:27000209

  10. Studies of the LBL CMOS integrated amplifier/discriminator for randomly timed inputs from fixed target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, J.S.; Yarema, R.J.; Zimmerman, T.

    1988-12-01

    A group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has reported an elegant CMOS VLSI circuit for amplifying, discriminating, and encoding the signals from highly-segmented charge output devices, e.g., silicon strip detectors or pad readout structures in gaseous detectors. The design exploits switched capacitor circuits and the well-known time structure of data acquisition in colliding beam accelerators to cancel leakage effects and switching noise. For random inputs, these methods are not directly applicable. However, the high speed of the reset switches makes possible a mode of operation for fixed target experiments that uses fast resets to erase unwanted data from random triggers. Data acquisition in this mode has been performed. Details of operation and measurements of noise and rate capability will be presented. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Identification of Cold-Responsive miRNAs and Their Target Genes in Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Senlei; Wang, Youning; Li, Kexue; Zou, Yanmin; Chen, Liang; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    As a warm climate species, soybean is highly sensitive to chilling temperatures. Exposure to chilling temperatures causes a significant reduction in the nitrogen fixation rate in soybean plants and subsequent yield loss. However, the molecular basis for the sensitivity of soybean to chilling is poorly understood. In this study, we identified cold-responsive miRNAs in nitrogen-fixing nodules of soybean. Upon chilling, the expression of gma-miR397a, gma-miR166u and gma-miR171p was greatly upregulated, whereas the expression of gma-miR169c, gma-miR159b, gma-miR319a/b and gma-miR5559 was significantly decreased. The target genes of these miRNAs were predicted and validated using 5' complementary DNA ends (5'-RACE) experiments, and qPCR analysis identified putative genes targeted by the cold-responsive miRNAs in response to chilling temperatures. Taken together, our results reveal that miRNAs may be involved in the protective mechanism against chilling injury in mature nodules of soybean. PMID:25100171

  12. Identification of Cold-Responsive miRNAs and Their Target Genes in Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules of Soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Senlei; Wang, Youning; Li, Kexue; Zou, Yanmin; Chen, Liang; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    As a warm climate species, soybean is highly sensitive to chilling temperatures. Exposure to chilling temperatures causes a significant reduction in the nitrogen fixation rate in soybean plants and subsequent yield loss. However, the molecular basis for the sensitivity of soybean to chilling is poorly understood. In this study, we identified cold-responsive miRNAs in nitrogen-fixing nodules of soybean. Upon chilling, the expression of gma-miR397a, gma-miR166u and gma-miR171p was greatly upregulated, whereas the expression of gma-miR169c, gma-miR159b, gma-miR319a/b and gma-miR5559 was significantly decreased. The target genes of these miRNAs were predicted and validated using 5' complementary DNA ends (5'-RACE) experiments, and qPCR analysis identified putative genes targeted by the cold-responsive miRNAs in response to chilling temperatures. Taken together, our results reveal that miRNAs may be involved in the protective mechanism against chilling injury in mature nodules of soybean. PMID:25100171

  13. The muon component in extensive air showers and new p+C data in fixed target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Meurer, C.; Bluemer, J.; Engel, R.; Haungs, A.; Roth, M.

    2007-03-19

    One of the most promising approaches to determine the energy spectrum and composition of the cosmic rays with energies above 1015 eV is the measurement of the number of electrons and muons produced in extensive air showers (EAS). Therefore simulation of air showers using electromagnetic and hadronic interaction models are necessary. These simulations show uncertainties which come mainly from hadronic interaction models. One aim of this work is to specify the low energy hadronic interactions which are important for the muon production in EAS. Therefore we simulate extensive air showers with a modified version of the simulation package CORSIKA. In particular we investigate in detail the energy and the phase space regions of secondary particle production, which are most important for muon production. This phase space region is covered by fixed target experiments at CERN. In the second part of this work we present preliminary momentum spectra of secondary {pi}+ and {pi}- in p+C collisions at 12 GeV/c measured with the HARP spectrometer at the PS accelerator at CERN. In addition we use the new p+C NA49 data at 158 GeV/c to check the reliability of hadronic interaction models for muon production in EAS. Finally, possibilities to measure relevant quantities of hadron production in existing and planned accelerator experiments are discussed.

  14. Studies of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent Distributions with a Fixed-Target ExpeRiment Using the LHC Beams (AFTER@LHC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacrier, L.; Anselmino, M.; Arnaldi, R.; Brodsky, S. J.; Chambert, V.; den Dunnen, W.; Didelez, J. P.; Genolini, B.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.; Gao, Y.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lorcé, C.; Mikkelsen, R.; Pisano, C.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Rosier, P.; Schienbein, I.; Schlegel, M.; Scomparin, E.; Trzeciak, B.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Ulrich, R.; Yang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the studies of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) at a future fixed-target experiment -AFTER@LHC- using the p+ or Pb ion LHC beams, which would be the most energetic fixed-target experiment ever performed. AFTER@LHC opens new domains of particle and nuclear physics by complementing collider-mode experiments, in particular those of RHIC and the EIC projects. Both with an extracted beam by a bent crystal or with an internal gas target, the luminosity achieved by AFTER@LHC surpasses that of RHIC by up to 3 orders of magnitude. With an unpolarised target, it allows for measurements of TMDs such as the Boer-Mulders quark distributions and the distribution of unpolarised and linearly polarised gluons in unpolarised protons. Using polarised targets, one can access the quark and gluon Sivers TMDs through single transverse-spin asymmetries in Drell-Yan and quarkonium production. In terms of kinematics, the fixed-target mode combined with a detector covering ηlab ∈ [1, 5] allows one to measure these asymmetries at large x↑ in the polarised nucleon.

  15. New prospects in fixed target searches for dark forces with the SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, S.; Holt, R. J.; Tadepalli, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    An intense 120 GeV proton beam incident on an extremely long iron target generates enormous numbers of light-mass particles that also decay within that target. If one of these particles decays to a final state with a hidden gauge boson, or if such a particle is produced as a result of the initial collision, then that weakly interacting hidden-sector particle may traverse the remainder of the target and be detected downstream through its possible decay to an e+e-, μ+μ-, or π+π- final state. These conditions can be realized through an extension of the SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab, and in this initial investigation we consider how it can serve as an ultrasensitive probe of hidden vector gauge forces, both Abelian and non-Abelian. A light, weakly coupled hidden sector may well explain the dark matter established through astrophysical observations, and the proposed search can provide tangible evidence for its existence—or, alternatively, constrain a "sea" of possibilities.

  16. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline recommends fixed-dose strategies instead of targeted goals to lower blood cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sidney C; Grundy, Scott M

    2014-08-12

    The American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Task Force on Practice Guidelines recently issued the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults. This new guideline endorses a paradigm shift in strategies for reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events by lowering blood cholesterol. Whereas previous guidelines focused on therapy to decrease low-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to specific target levels, the new guideline instead proposes implementation of cholesterol-lowering treatment using evidenced-based intensity of statin therapy without such targets. The guideline also provides a new risk estimator for primary prevention decisions, including stroke outcomes and data on African Americans, which will significantly increase the number of patients recommended for outcome-related benefits of cholesterol-lowering therapy. The first section of this paper reviews the process by which the task force developed the new evidence-based guideline, the major findings and recommendations, and their implications. The second section primarily focuses on the question of how much low-density lipoprotein cholesterol should be lowered and on additional considerations in risk assessment. PMID:25104531

  17. A modular and compact portable mini-endstation for high-precision, high-speed fixed target serial crystallography at FEL and synchrotron sources.

    PubMed

    Sherrell, Darren A; Foster, Andrew J; Hudson, Lee; Nutter, Brian; O'Hea, James; Nelson, Silke; Paré-Labrosse, Olivier; Oghbaey, Saeed; Miller, R J Dwayne; Owen, Robin L

    2015-11-01

    The design and implementation of a compact and portable sample alignment system suitable for use at both synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) sources and its performance are described. The system provides the ability to quickly and reliably deliver large numbers of samples using the minimum amount of sample possible, through positioning of fixed target arrays into the X-ray beam. The combination of high-precision stages, high-quality sample viewing, a fast controller and a software layer overcome many of the challenges associated with sample alignment. A straightforward interface that minimizes setup and sample changeover time as well as simplifying communication with the stages during the experiment is also described, together with an intuitive naming convention for defining, tracking and locating sample positions. The setup allows the precise delivery of samples in predefined locations to a specific position in space and time, reliably and simply. PMID:26524301

  18. A modular and compact portable mini-endstation for high-precision, high-speed fixed target serial crystallography at FEL and synchrotron sources

    PubMed Central

    Sherrell, Darren A.; Foster, Andrew J.; Hudson, Lee; Nutter, Brian; O’Hea, James; Nelson, Silke; Paré-Labrosse, Olivier; Oghbaey, Saeed; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Owen, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    The design and implementation of a compact and portable sample alignment system suitable for use at both synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) sources and its performance are described. The system provides the ability to quickly and reliably deliver large numbers of samples using the minimum amount of sample possible, through positioning of fixed target arrays into the X-ray beam. The combination of high-precision stages, high-quality sample viewing, a fast controller and a software layer overcome many of the challenges associated with sample alignment. A straightforward interface that minimizes setup and sample changeover time as well as simplifying communication with the stages during the experiment is also described, together with an intuitive naming convention for defining, tracking and locating sample positions. The setup allows the precise delivery of samples in predefined locations to a specific position in space and time, reliably and simply. PMID:26524301

  19. A modular and compact portable mini-endstation for high-precision, high-speed fixed target serial crystallography at FEL and synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, Darren A.; Foster, Andrew J.; Hudson, Lee; Nutter, Brian; O'Hea, James; Nelson, Silke; Paré-Labrosse, Olivier; Oghbaey, Saeed; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Owen, Robin L.

    2015-10-06

    The design and implementation of a compact and portable sample alignment system suitable for use at both synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) sources and its performance are described. The system provides the ability to quickly and reliably deliver large numbers of samples using the minimum amount of sample possible, through positioning of fixed target arrays into the X-ray beam. The combination of high-precision stages, high-quality sample viewing, a fast controller and a software layer overcome many of the challenges associated with sample alignment. A straightforward interface that minimizes setup and sample changeover time as well as simplifying communication with the stages during the experiment is also described, together with an intuitive naming convention for defining, tracking and locating sample positions. The setup allows the precise delivery of samples in predefined locations to a specific position in space and time, reliably and simply.

  20. A modular and compact portable mini-endstation for high-precision, high-speed fixed target serial crystallography at FEL and synchrotron sources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sherrell, Darren A.; Foster, Andrew J.; Hudson, Lee; Nutter, Brian; O'Hea, James; Nelson, Silke; Pare-Labrosse, Olivier; Oghbaey, Saeed; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Owen, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    The design and implementation of a compact and portable sample alignment system suitable for use at both synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) sources and its performance are described. The system provides the ability to quickly and reliably deliver large numbers of samples using the minimum amount of sample possible, through positioning of fixed target arrays into the X-ray beam. The combination of high-precision stages, high-quality sample viewing, a fast controller and a software layer overcome many of the challenges associated with sample alignment. A straightforward interface that minimizes setup and sample changeover time as well as simplifying communication with themore » stages during the experiment is also described, together with an intuitive naming convention for defining, tracking and locating sample positions. Lastly, the setup allows the precise delivery of samples in predefined locations to a specific position in space and time, reliably and simply.« less

  1. A modular and compact portable mini-endstation for high-precision, high-speed fixed target serial crystallography at FEL and synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, Darren A.; Foster, Andrew J.; Hudson, Lee; Nutter, Brian; O'Hea, James; Nelson, Silke; Pare-Labrosse, Olivier; Oghbaey, Saeed; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Owen, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    The design and implementation of a compact and portable sample alignment system suitable for use at both synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) sources and its performance are described. The system provides the ability to quickly and reliably deliver large numbers of samples using the minimum amount of sample possible, through positioning of fixed target arrays into the X-ray beam. The combination of high-precision stages, high-quality sample viewing, a fast controller and a software layer overcome many of the challenges associated with sample alignment. A straightforward interface that minimizes setup and sample changeover time as well as simplifying communication with the stages during the experiment is also described, together with an intuitive naming convention for defining, tracking and locating sample positions. Lastly, the setup allows the precise delivery of samples in predefined locations to a specific position in space and time, reliably and simply.

  2. The data acquisition system for a fixed target experiment at NICA complex at JINR and its connection to the ATLAS TileCal readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiwa, K. G.; Slepnev, I.; Bazylev, S.

    2015-10-01

    Today's large-scale science projects have always encountered challenges in processing large data flow from the experiments, the ATLAS detector records proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN every 50 ns which results in a total data flow of 10 Pb/s. These data must be reduced to the science data product for further analysis, thus a very fast decisions need to be executed, to modify this large amounts of data at high rates. The capabilities required to support this scale of data movement is development and improvement of high-throughput electronics. The upgraded LHC will provide collisions at rates that will be at least 10 times higher than those of today due to it's luminosity by 2022. This will require a complete redesign of the read-out electronics and Processing Units (PU) in the Tile-calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment. A general purpose, high-throughput PU has been developed for the TileCal at CERN, by using several ARM-processors in cluster configuration. The PU is capable of handling large data throughput and apply advanced operations at high rates. This system has been proposed for the fixed target experiment at NICA complex to handle the first level processes and event building. The aim of this work is to have a look at the architecture of the data acquisition system (DAQ) of the fixed target experiment at the NICA complex at JINR, by compiling the data-flow requirements of all the subcomponents. Furthermore, the VME DAQ modules characteristics to control, triggering and data acquisition will be described in order to define the DAQ with maximum readout efficiency, no dead time and data selection and compression.

  3. An electron fixed target experiment to search for a new vector boson A' decaying to e+e-

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rouven Essig; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2011-02-02

    We describe an experiment to search for a new vector boson A' with weak coupling alpha' > 6 x 10–8 α to electrons (α' = e2/4π) in the mass range 65 MeV < mA' < 550 MeV. New vector bosons with such small couplings arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing of the "dark photon" A' with the photon -- one of the very few ways in which new forces can couple to the Standard Model -- and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. A' bosons are produced by radiation off an electronmore » beam, and could appear as narrow resonances with small production cross-section in the trident e+e- spectrum. We summarize the experimental approach described in a proposal submitted to Jefferson Laboratory's PAC35, PR-10-009. This experiment, the A' Experiment (APEX), uses the electron beam of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory (CEBAF) at energies of ~1-4 GeV incident on 0.5-10% radiation length Tungsten wire mesh targets, and measures the resulting e+e- pairs to search for the A' using the High Resolution Spectrometer and the septum magnet in Hall A. With a ~1 month run, APEX will achieve very good sensitivity because the statistics of e+e- pairs will be ~10,000 times larger in the explored mass range than any previous search for the A' boson. These statistics and the excellent mass resolution of the spectrometers allow sensitivity to α'/α one to three orders of magnitude below current limits, in a region of parameter space of great theoretical and phenomenological interest. Similar experiments could also be performed at other facilities, such as the Mainz Microtron.« less

  4. An Electron Fixed Target Experiment to Search for a New Vector Boson A' Decaying to e+e-

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; /Jefferson Lab

    2010-06-11

    We describe an experiment to search for a new vector boson A' with weak coupling {alpha}' {approx}> 6 x 10{sup -8} {alpha} to electrons ({alpha} = e{sup 2}/4{pi}) in the mass range 65 MeV < m{sub A'} < 550 MeV. New vector bosons with such small couplings arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing of the 'dark photon' A' with the photon - one of the very few ways in which new forces can couple to the Standard Model - and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. A' bosons are produced by radiation off an electron beam, and could appear as narrow resonances with small production cross-section in the trident e{sup +}e{sup -} spectrum. We summarize the experimental approach described in a proposal submitted to Jefferson Laboratory's PAC35, PR-10-009. This experiment, the A' Experiment (APEX), uses the electron beam of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory (CEBAF) at energies of {approx} 1-4 GeV incident on 0.5-10% radiation length Tungsten wire mesh targets, and measures the resulting e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs to search for the A' using the High Resolution Spectrometer and the septum magnet in Hall A. With a {approx} 1 month run, APEX will achieve very good sensitivity because the statistics of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs will be {approx} 10,000 times larger in the explored mass range than any previous search for the A' boson. These statistics and the excellent mass resolution of the spectrometers allow sensitivity to {alpha}'/{alpha} one to three orders of magnitude below current limits, in a region of parameter space of great theoretical and phenomenological interest. Similar experiments could also be performed at other facilities, such as the Mainz Microtron.

  5. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing as a Reliable Diagnostic Assay for the Detection of Somatic Mutations in Tumours Using Minimal DNA Amounts from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Material

    PubMed Central

    Koudijs, Marco J.; Nijman, Ies; Hinrichs, John W. J.; Cuppen, Edwin; van Lieshout, Stef; Loberg, Robert D.; de Jonge, Maja; Voest, Emile E.; de Weger, Roel A.; Steeghs, Neeltje; Langenberg, Marlies H. G.; Sleijfer, Stefan; Willems, Stefan M.; Lolkema, Martijn P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers a way to implement testing of multiple genetic aberrations in diagnostic pathology practice, which is necessary for personalized cancer treatment. However, no standards regarding input material have been defined. This study therefore aimed to determine the effect of the type of input material (e.g. formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) versus fresh frozen (FF) tissue) on NGS derived results. Moreover, this study aimed to explore a standardized analysis pipeline to support consistent clinical decision-making. Method We used the Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform in combination with the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to sequence frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes, and validated the NGS detected variants in 250 FFPE samples using standard diagnostic assays. Next, 386 tumour samples were sequenced to explore the effect of input material on variant detection variables. For variant calling, Ion Torrent analysis software was supplemented with additional variant annotation and filtering. Results Both FFPE and FF tissue could be sequenced reliably with a sensitivity of 99.1%. Validation showed a 98.5% concordance between NGS and conventional sequencing techniques, where NGS provided both the advantage of low input DNA concentration and the detection of low-frequency variants. The reliability of mutation analysis could be further improved with manual inspection of sequence data. Conclusion Targeted NGS can be reliably implemented in cancer diagnostics using both FFPE and FF tissue when using appropriate analysis settings, even with low input DNA. PMID:26919633

  6. Facts and Figures about Education in Alaska, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This booklet provides a variety of demographic information about the Alaska school system covering, in most cases, the past 10 years. The Alaska Commissioners of Education from 1917 to the present are listed, followed by a phone directory of the department, and general district and school information. The section on student information gives…

  7. Planning 1997-98, Progress 1996-97. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Gail M.

    Established in fall 1980, TheLearningCenter at South Plains College, in Texas, is designed to provide assistance to students seeking specialized services, offering developmental and college-level courses, peer-tutoring, computer-aided instruction, learning opportunities, and learning assessments. This annual report describes instructional…

  8. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Adalyn, Ed.; Gilroy, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of all of Volume 7 (26 issues) of the journal, "The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education," a biweekly journal that addresses issues in higher education for Hispanic Americans. Each issue presents several feature articles, a policy update called "Outlook on Washington," and a sample student success story. Major articles…

  9. SUCCESS Program Planning/Evaluation Report for 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallade, Ronald; Connet, Margaret Jensen; Wells, Nancy

    The SUCCESS Program of the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools provides employment, health, mental health, and social services in a comprehensive "one-stop shopping" manner at the most accessible location for children and youth, the public school that they attend. During the 1995-96 school year, the strategies of the SUCCESS program were delivered to…

  10. Advanced Light Source activity report 1996/97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Ten years ago, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) existed as a set of drawings, calculations, and ideas. Four years ago, it stored an electron beam for the first time. Today, the ALS has moved from those ideas and beginnings to a robust, third-generation synchrotron user facility, with eighteen beam lines in use, many more in planning or construction phases, and hundreds of users from around the world. Progress from concepts to realities is continuous as the scientific program, already strong in many diverse areas, moves in new directions to meet the needs of researchers into the next century. ALS staff members who develop and maintain the infrastructure for this research are similarly unwilling to rest on their laurels. As a result, the quality of the photon beams the authors deliver, as well as the support they provide to users, continues to improve. The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the results of these efforts in an accessible form for a broad audience. The Scientific Program section, while not comprehensive, shares the breadth, variety, and interest of recent research at the ALS. (The Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports provides a more comprehensive and more technical view.) The Facility Report highlights progress in operations, ongoing accelerator research and development, and beamline instrumentation efforts. Although these Activity Report sections are separate, in practice the achievements of staff and users at the ALS are inseparable. User-staff collaboration is essential as they strive to meet the needs of the user community and to continue the ALS's success as a premier research facility.

  11. ECS Information Clearinghouse. State Issues Report, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    To help stakeholders stay abreast of educational legislation, information which directly affects pre-K through 12 education is presented. The information is in the form of raw data and addresses the following topics: accountability, accreditation, administration, alternative education, assessment/testing, at-risk youth, attendance, bilingual…

  12. Financial Report of Ontario Universities 1996-97. Supplementary Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This volume provides supplementary data to the annual report for 43 provincially assisted universities, colleges, and church-related institutions of higher education in Ontario, Canada. The information includes further details concerning various sources of revenue, including grants from the major funding agencies of the federal government, as well…

  13. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  14. Academic and Special Libraries in Idaho. 1996/97 Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Sandy, Comp.

    This directory provides a concise list of academic and special libraries in Idaho. Libraries are listed alphabetically, and include library contact name, title, telephone, fax number, and address. The directory also contains an alphabetical listing of the library contacts, which includes the name of the library where the person works and the…

  15. Experimental Facilities Division progress report 1996--97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the activities of the Experimental Facilities Division (XFD) in support of the users of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), primarily focusing on the past year of operations. In September 1996, the APS began operations as a national user facility serving the US community of x-ray researchers from private industry, academic institutions, and other research organizations. The start of operations was about three months ahead of the baseline date established in 1988. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) overview; (2) user operations; (3) user administration and technical support; (4) R and D in support of view operations; (5) collaborative research; and (6) long-term strategic plans for XFD.

  16. Profiling Cancer Gene Mutations in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Colorectal Tumor Specimens Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangxuan; Chen, Liangjing; Sah, Sachin; Latham, Gary J.; Patel, Rajesh; Song, Qinghua; Koeppen, Hartmut; Tam, Rachel; Schleifman, Erica; Mashhedi, Haider; Chalasani, Sreedevi; Fu, Ling; Sumiyoshi, Teiko; Raja, Rajiv; Forrest, William; Hampton, Garret M.; Lackner, Mark R.; Hegde, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The success of precision oncology relies on accurate and sensitive molecular profiling. The Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Panel, a targeted enrichment method for next-generation sequencing (NGS) using the Ion Torrent platform, provides a fast, easy, and cost-effective sequencing workflow for detecting genomic “hotspot” regions that are frequently mutated in human cancer genes. Most recently, the U.K. has launched the AmpliSeq sequencing test in its National Health Service. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical application of the AmpliSeq methodology. Methods. We used 10 ng of genomic DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor specimens to sequence 46 cancer genes using the AmpliSeq platform. In a validation study, we developed an orthogonal NGS-based resequencing approach (SimpliSeq) to assess the AmpliSeq variant calls. Results. Validated mutational analyses revealed that AmpliSeq was effective in profiling gene mutations, and that the method correctly pinpointed “true-positive” gene mutations with variant frequency >5% and demonstrated high-level molecular heterogeneity in CRC. However, AmpliSeq enrichment and NGS also produced several recurrent “false-positive” calls in clinically druggable oncogenes such as PIK3CA. Conclusion. AmpliSeq provided highly sensitive and quantitative mutation detection for most of the genes on its cancer panel using limited DNA quantities from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. For those genes with recurrent “false-positive” variant calls, caution should be used in data interpretation, and orthogonal verification of mutations is recommended for clinical decision making. PMID:24664487

  17. Application of targeted metagenomics to explore abundance and diversity of CO₂-fixing bacterial community using cbbL gene from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Basit; Keshri, Jitendra; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-09-10

    Sequestration of CO(2) by autotrophic bacteria is a key process of biogeochemical carbon cycling in soil ecosystem. Rhizosphere is a rich niche of microbial activity and diversity, influenced by change in atmospheric CO(2). Structural changes in rhizosphere composition influence microbial communities and the nutrient cycling. In the present study, the bacterial diversity and population dynamics were established using cbbL and 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomics approach from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea. A total of 108 cbbL clones were obtained from the rhizospheric soil which revealed predominance of cbbL sequences affiliated to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium meliloti, Ochrobactrum anthropi and a variety of uncultured cbbL harboring bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene clone library exhibited the dominance of Firmicutes (34.4%), Proteobacteria (18.3%), Actinobacteria (17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (16.1%). About 43% nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene clone library were novel genera which showed <95% homology with published sequences. Gene copy number of cbbL and 16S rRNA genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR), was 9.38 ± 0.75 × 10(7) and 5.43 ± 0.79 × 10(8) (per g dry soil), respectively. The results exhibited bacterial community structure with high bacterial diversity and abundance of CO(2)-fixing bacteria, which can be explored further for their role in carbon cycling, sustainable agriculture and environment management. PMID:22766402

  18. Exact Green's functions for a Brownian particle reversibly binding to a fixed target in a finite, two-dimensional, circular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya

    2012-06-01

    Despite the apparent need to study reversible reactions between molecules confined to a two-dimensional space such as the cell membrane, exact Green’s functions for this case have not been reported. Here we present exact analytical Green’s functions for a Brownian particle reversibly reacting with a fixed reaction center in a finite two-dimensional circular region with reflecting or absorbing boundaries, considering either a spherically symmetric initial distribution or a particle that is initially bound. We show that Green’s function can be used to predict the effect of measurement uncertainties on the outcome of single-particle/molecule-tracking experiments in which molecular interactions are investigated. Hence, we bridge the gap between previously known solutions in one dimension (Agmon 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 81 2811) and three dimensions (Kim and Shin 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1578), and provide an example of how the knowledge of Green’s function can be used to predict experimentally accessible quantities.

  19. Detection of truncated HER2 forms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue captures heterogeneity and is not affected by HER2-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Juliane M; Thomas, Marlene; Korn, René; Dietmann, Gabriele; Rutz, Christoph; Brockhoff, Gero; Specht, Katja; Hasmann, Max; Feuerhake, Friedrich

    2013-08-01

    Truncated forms of HER2, previously identified in subsets of HER2-positive breast cancer, originate from proteolytic extracellular domain (ECD) cleavage or alternative translation initiation. They lack ECD but may retain intracellular domain functionality, potentially associated with unfavorable prognosis, metastasis, and decreased sensitivity to antibody-based HER2-targeted therapy. To study the distribution of truncated HER2 in breast cancer, we detected loss of membrane-bound ECD independently of its molecular origin in paraffin sections, combining multispectral unmixing of chromogenic duplex IHC for HER2 ECD and intracellular domain with advanced image analysis. HER2 C-terminal fragment 611-transfected MCF7 and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-treated SKBR3 cell lines were used as controls. Applying a prototype work flow to whole sections, paired surgical resection/core needle biopsy samples, and paired samples from 69 patients of a phase 2 neoadjuvant clinical trial, we observed unexpected heterogeneity of ECD loss at the single-cell level, and in different areas of individual tumors, indicating that extent and localization of HER2 ECD loss add relevant information to averaging truncated HER2 across whole sections. We show acceptable run-to-run variation (coefficient of variation, <0.15), image analysis results in moderate agreement with conventional slide assessment (Cohen's κ = 0.59), and no obvious interference with previous HER2-ECD-targeted therapy. We conclude that duplex IHC and digital image processing extend current approaches of truncated HER2 detection. PMID:23727348

  20. An electron fixed target experiment to search for a new vector boson A' decaying to e+e-

    SciTech Connect

    Rouven Essig; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2011-02-02

    We describe an experiment to search for a new vector boson A' with weak coupling alpha' > 6 x 10–8 α to electrons (α' = e2/4π) in the mass range 65 MeV < mA' < 550 MeV. New vector bosons with such small couplings arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing of the "dark photon" A' with the photon -- one of the very few ways in which new forces can couple to the Standard Model -- and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. A' bosons are produced by radiation off an electron beam, and could appear as narrow resonances with small production cross-section in the trident e+e- spectrum. We summarize the experimental approach described in a proposal submitted to Jefferson Laboratory's PAC35, PR-10-009. This experiment, the A' Experiment (APEX), uses the electron beam of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory (CEBAF) at energies of ~1-4 GeV incident on 0.5-10% radiation length Tungsten wire mesh targets, and measures the resulting e+e- pairs to search for the A' using the High Resolution Spectrometer and the septum magnet in Hall A. With a ~1 month run, APEX will achieve very good sensitivity because the statistics of e+e- pairs will be ~10,000 times larger in the explored mass range than any previous search for the A' boson. These statistics and the excellent mass resolution of the spectrometers allow sensitivity to α'/α one to three orders of magnitude below current limits, in a region of parameter space of great theoretical and phenomenological interest. Similar experiments could also be performed at other facilities, such as the Mainz Microtron.

  1. 48 CFR 1852.216-83 - Fixed price incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed price incentive... 1852.216-83 Fixed price incentive. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(c), insert the following clause: Fixed Price Incentive (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The Target profit of this...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.216-83 - Fixed price incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Fixed price incentive. 1852... 1852.216-83 Fixed price incentive. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(c), insert the following clause: Fixed Price Incentive (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The Target profit of this...

  3. Mutation and Transcriptional Profiling of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Specimens as Companion Methods to Immunohistochemistry for Determining Therapeutic Targets in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC): A Pilot of Proof of Principle.

    PubMed

    Saba, Nabil F; Wilson, Malania; Doho, Gregory; DaSilva, Juliana; Benjamin Isett, R; Newman, Scott; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Magliocca, Kelly; Rossi, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    The role of molecular methods in the diagnosis of head and neck cancer is rapidly evolving and holds great potential for improving outcomes for all patients who suffer from this diverse group of malignancies . However, there is considerable debate as to the best clinical approaches, particularly for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The choices of NGS methods such as whole exome, whole genome, whole transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) or multiple gene resequencing panels, each have strengths and weakness based on data quality, the size of the data, the turnaround time for data analysis, and clinical actionability. There have also been a variety of gene expression signatures established from microarray studies that correlate with relapse and response to treatment, but none of these methods have been implemented as standard of care for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Because many genomic methodologies are still far from the capabilities of most clinical laboratories, we chose to explore the use of a combination of off the shelf targeted mutation analysis and gene expression analysis methods to complement standard anatomical pathology methods. Specifically, we have used the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq cancer panel in combination with the NanoString nCounter Human Cancer Reference Kit on 8 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) OPSCC tumor specimens, (4) HPV-positive and (4) HPV-negative. Differential expression analysis between HPV-positive and negative groups showed that expression of several genes was highly likely to correlate with HPV status. For example, WNT1, PDGFA and OGG1 were all over-expressed in the positive group. Our results show the utility of these methods with routine FFPE clinical specimens to identify potential therapeutic targets which could be readily applied in a clinical trial setting for clinical laboratories lacking the instrumentation or bioinformatics infrastructure to support comprehensive genomics workflows. To the best of our knowledge

  4. [Advantages of fixed combinations].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2008-07-01

    Fixed combinations are indicated in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension when monotherapy does not sufficiently reduce IOP. Fixed combinations show better efficacy than the instillation of each separate component and are at least equivalent to the administration of both components in a separate association. They simplify treatment, increase compliance and quality of life, and decrease exposure to preservatives. Although they are less aggressive for patients when a new drug needs to be added, the use of fixed combinations should not decrease the follow-up. PMID:18957922

  5. Montana Statewide Education Profile: K-12 Public Schools, School Year 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Dori B.; Lamson, Joe; Love, Catherine; Quinlan, Madalyn

    This is Montana's first education profile. The measures in the profile, and the information they contain, provide a clear picture of education in the state. Public school education is provided by more than 460 school districts in this, the U.S.'s fourth largest state in terms of land. With only a few large communities, more than two-thirds of the…

  6. ESPN2 Sports Figures Makes Math and Physics a Ball! 1996-97 Educator's Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusczyk, Richard; Lehoczky, Sandor

    This guide is designed to accompany ESPN's SportsFigures video segments which were created to enhance the interest and learning progress of high school students in mathematics, physics, and physical science. Using actual, re-enacted, or staged events, the problems presented in each of the 16 Sports Figures segments illustrate the relationship…

  7. Analysis of U.S. Propane Markets Winter 1996-97, An

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This study constitutes an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends. The Energy Information Administration's approach focused on identifying the underlying reasons for the tight supply/demand balance in the fall of 1996, and on examining the potential for a recurrence of these events next year.

  8. Seismic subduction of the Nazca Ridge as shown by the 1996-97 Peru earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, W.; Mendoza, C.; Engdahl, E.R.; Choy, G.L.; Norabuena, E.

    1999-01-01

    By rupturing more than half of the shallow subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge, the great November 12, 1996 Peruvian earthquake contradicts the hypothesis that oceanic ridges subduct aseismically. The mainshock's rupture has a length of about 200 km and has an average slip of about 1.4 m. Its moment is 1.5 x 1028 dyne-cm and the corresponding M(w) is 8.0. The mainshock registered three major episodes of moment release as shown by a finite fault inversion of teleseismically recorded broadband body waves. About 55% of the mainshock's total moment release occurred south of the Nazca Ridge, and the remaining moment release occurred at the southern half of the subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge. The rupture south of the Nazca Ridge was elongated parallel to the ridge axis and extended from a shallow depth to about 65 km depth. Because the axis of the Nazca Ridge is at a high angle to the plate convergence direction, the subducting Nazca Ridge has a large southwards component of motion, 5 cm/yr parallel to the coast. The 900-1200 m relief of the southwards sweeping Nazca Ridge is interpreted to act as a 'rigid indenter,' causing the greatest coupling south of the ridge's leading edge and leading to the large observed slip. The mainshock and aftershock hypocenters were relocated using a new procedure that simultaneously inverts local and teleseismic data. Most aftershocks were within the outline of the Nazca Ridge. A three-month delayed aftershock cluster' occurred at the northern part of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Aftershocks were notably lacking at the zone of greatest moment release, to the south of the Nazca Ridge. However, a lone foreshock at the southern end of this zone, some 140 km downstrike of the mainshock's epicenter, implies that conditions existed for rupture into that zone. The 1996 earthquake ruptured much of the inferred source zone of the M(w) 7.9-8.2 earthquake of 1942, although the latter was a slightly larger earthquake. The rupture zone of the 1996 earthquake is immediately north of the seismic gap left by the great earthquakes (M(w) ~8.8-9.1) of 1868 and 1877. The M(w) 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake of 1995 occurred at the southern end of this great seismic gap. The M(w) 8.2 deep-focus Bolivian earthquake of 1994 occurred directly downdip of the 1868 portion of that gap. The recent occurrence of three significant earthquakes on the periphery of the great seismic gap of the 1868 and 1877 events, among other factors, may signal an increased seismic potential for that zone.

  9. NCAA Guide for the College-Bound Student-Athlete, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Stephen A.

    This booklet provides a guide for college-bound student-athletes on eligibility requirements for participation in intercollegiate athletics, financial aid, recruiting, and related issues. It provides National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and II academic eligibility requirements, questions and answers about core-course…

  10. Multilingual Education Programs: 1996-97. Research Report on an Educational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Accountability.

    To study the effectiveness of multilingual education programs in the Houston Independent School District (Texas), four groups of students were identified for the analysis of their Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) results. These groups were: (1) students enrolled in bilingual education classes; (2) students in English as a Second Language…

  11. ExceL Grant Evaluation Report, Year I, 1996-97. Publication Number 96.14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Holly

    ExceL grants are a local funding initiative of the Austin Independent School District (Texas) designed to improve student achievement at the elementary level. Schools submit proposals for the 4-year grants, and the amount of the grant is determined based on the number of students not meeting minimum expectations on the Texas Assessment of Academic…

  12. Violence and Discipline Problems in U.S. Public Schools: 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaviside, Sheila; Rowand, Cassandra; Williams, Catrina; Farris, Elizabeth

    Under a Congressional mandate, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is required to collect data on the frequency, seriousness, and incidence of violence in elementary and secondary schools. The NCES responded to this requirement by commissioning a survey, the Principal/School Disciplinarian Survey on School Violence, the results of…

  13. Trace ResourceBook: Assistive Technologies for Communication, Control & Computer Access. 1996-97 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Peter A., Ed.; And Others

    This resource book lists approximately 1,500 products designed specifically for the needs of people with disabilities. Typically, each product is pictured; basic information is provided including manufacturer name, product cost, size, and weight; and the product is briefly described. The book's four sections each describe products designed for…

  14. Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.

    SciTech Connect

    LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

    2003-07-01

    The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

  15. A Report on Teen Pregnancy in Montana. 1996/97 Montana Special Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief "Kids Count" report explores the impact of and factors that bear on teen pregnancy in Montana and ways to prevent teen pregnancy. Statistics and summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) live births to women under age 20, 1990-95; (2) Montana's unmarried teen births as compared to neighboring states; (3) number of Montana teen…

  16. Library and Learning Resources Programs Statistical Data Report, Fiscal Year 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This study, the first of its kind, examines the ability of the California Community College System to provide its students and faculty with Library and Learning Resources Programs and Services that are sufficient in quality, depth, and diversity to support each college's educational programs. The study covers a 7-year period from 1988-1989 through…

  17. Not So Good: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Linda A.

    1997-01-01

    The annual survey of college and university faculty salaries is reported, including data and narrative concerning trends in salary increases in both nominal and real terms; in relation to academic rank; and by sector (public/private) and institution type, gender, institutional rating, and discipline. The role of unions in these trends is also…

  18. Reading Recovery Program 1996-97 Evaluation Report. Pamphlet 98-C-002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense Education Activity, Arlington, VA.

    A study examined the effectiveness of Reading Recovery programs at 36 Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS). Annually, approximately 500 "below grade level" students are given the opportunity to become independent readers through this program. Major findings are: (1) Reading Recovery students significantly outperformed students not in Reading…

  19. Arizona's School to Work System. Site Visit Reports (1996-97).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Judith A.; Larson, Elizabeth Hunt

    This document profiles the following 13 regional partnerships that together constitute Arizona's school-to-work (STW) system: Cochise STW Partnership; Coconino County STW Partnership; Eastern Arizona STW Partnership; East Valley STW Initiative; Mohave Workforce Development Partnership; Northeast Valley School to Work Consortium; Northland School…

  20. Transiency and Stability in the Los Angeles Unified School District, 1996-97. Publication No. 710.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Lynette

    A report on transiency and stability in the Los Angeles Unified School District (California) has been published for almost 3 decades. "Transiency" refers to the number of students who enter and leave during the school year, and is expressed as a percentage (rate) of the starting enrollment. "Stability" refers to the student population that has…

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an urban stormwater treatment unit in Madison, Wisconsin, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waschbusch, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    The material retained in the treatment chamber had high concentrations of lead and PAH and may be subject to special disposal restrictions based on those concentrations and the presence of benzo(a)anthracene. The chemical makeup of the retained material in other similar stormwater treatment units will probably vary depending on the land use and activities in the drainage basin.

  2. Tidewater Community College Biennial Transfer Student Report, 1996-97 and 1997-98 Academic Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicki, Heidi

    This report provides an analysis of Tidewater Community College (TCC) (Virginia) students who transferred to a four-year institution in Virginia beginning in fall 1996 or 1997. The following topics are discussed: overview of the transfer process; acceptance and enrollment rates for each of the four-year institutions; performance of TCC graduates…

  3. [Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy]. Annual report 1996--97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Annual report lists initiatives, activities and achievements for the year: Reforming environmental approvals; streamlining environmental legislation; strengthening environmental assessment; changes to the electricity sector; landfill standards; soil cleanup guideline; regulatory reforms; 3-year plan for priority standards; vehicle emissions testing; the fight against smog; greenhouse gas reduction; municipalities get responsibility for water and sewage works; remedial action plans -- RAPs; Ontario`s sport fish; MISA regulations, Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement; pollution prevention partnerships; and EECO `96, Environment and Energy Conference of Ontario. An expenditure statement concludes the document.

  4. North Carolina's Smart Start Initiative: 1996-97 Annual Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Frank Porter Graham Center.

    Smart Start is a multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, community-based initiative to serve North Carolina children under age 6 and their families to ensure that all children enter school healthy and prepared to succeed. To achieve this, local county partnerships have focused both their attention and their funds on three major areas of service…

  5. Concentrations and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Yazoo River, northwestern Mississippi, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    Increased nutrient loading to the Gulf of Mexico from off-continent flux has been identified as contributing to the increase in the areal extent of the low dissolved-oxygen zone that develops annually off the coast of Louisiana and Texas. The proximity of the Yazoo River Basin in northwestern Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and the intensive agriculture in the basin have lead to speculation that the Yazoo River Basin contributes a disproportionate amount of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Mississippi River and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico. Water samples from the Yazoo River were collected during 1996 and 1997 and were analyzed for total nitrogen, nitrate as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphorus as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These data were used to compute annual loads of nitrogen and phosphorus discharged from the Yazoo River for 1996 and 1997. Annual loads of nitrogen and phosphorus were calculated by two methods. The first used multivariate regression and the second multiplied the mean annual concentration by the total annual flow. Load estimates based on the product of the mean annual concentration and the total annual flow were within the 95 percent confidence interval for the load calculated by multivariate regression in all cases. The Yazoo River loads, compared to long-term annual loads in the Mississippi River, indicated that the Yazoo River was contributing 2.3 percent or less of the total nitrogen load, 5.7 percent or less of the total phosphorus load, and 1 percent or less of the nitrate load in 1996 and 1997. The total nitrogen load from the Yazoo River Basin into the Mississippi River and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico was proportional to its discharge, the nitrate load was less than expected, whereas the total phosphorus load was slightly higher than expected based on discharge.

  6. Stream monitoring and educational program in the Red River Basin, Texas, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Phillips, D. Grant

    1998-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the 1996–97 stream monitoring and outreach activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Red River Authority of Texas, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the City of Wichita Falls, the Wichita County Water Improvement District No. 2, and the Texas Water Development Board. The fact sheet was prepared by the USGS in cooperation with the Red River Authority of Texas.

  7. Bilingual Program Evaluation Report on Idea Language Proficiency Tests, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangarm, Isara; And Others

    The report presents findings concerning the language proficiency of elementary, middle, and high school students receiving bilingual services in the Las Cruces Public Schools (New Mexico). The report contains five sections: general information about the bilingual program in the school district; the Idea Language Proficiency Tests (IPT); results of…

  8. Fact Book on Theological Education for the Academic Year 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Jonathan, Ed.; Aleshire, Daniel, Ed.

    This annual compilation of data is based on information received from 232 member schools of the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. The membership consists of Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Orthodox theological schools, both university-related divinity schools and free standing seminaries. This edition reflects…

  9. Streamflow gains and losses in the lower Boise River basin, Idaho, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Study results indicate that additional seepage runs are needed on irrigation canals and creeks, the Boise River, and the New York Canal. Piezometers installed at different depths are needed to better define vertical ground-water movement and gradients. Additional work is needed to determine how seepage in canals and streams relates to environmental characteristics.

  10. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  11. Fixing Dataset Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  12. Fixed and Sunk Costs Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Henry; Yang, Bill Z.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the concepts of, and the link between, fixed costs and sunk costs. Argues that the root of confusion is the inconsistency in defining the term fixed costs. Consistently defines fixed and sunk costs, and describes how instructors must teach under these definitions. (RLH)

  13. Apparatus for fixing latency

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus for fixing computational latency within a deterministic region on a network comprises a network interface modem, a high priority module and at least one deterministic peripheral device. The network interface modem is in communication with the network. The high priority module is in communication with the network interface modem. The at least one deterministic peripheral device is connected to the high priority module. The high priority module comprises a packet assembler/disassembler, and hardware for performing at least one operation. Also disclosed is an apparatus for executing at least one instruction on a downhole device within a deterministic region, the apparatus comprising a control device, a downhole network, and a downhole device. The control device is near the surface of a downhole tool string. The downhole network is integrated into the tool string. The downhole device is in communication with the downhole network.

  14. [Fixed-dose combination].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoshio

    2015-03-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) do not achieve satisfactory glycemic control by monotherapy alone, and often require multiple oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). Combining OHAs with complementary mechanisms of action is fundamental to the management of T2DM. Fixed-dose combination therapy(FDC) offers a method of simplifying complex regimens. Efficacy and tolerability appear to be similar between FDC and treatment with individual agents. In addition, FDC can enhance adherence and improved adherence may result in improved glycemic control. Four FDC agents are available in Japan: pioglitazone-glimepiride, pioglitazone-metformin, pioglitazone-alogliptin, and voglibose-mitiglinide. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these four combinations are identified and discussed. PMID:25812374

  15. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  16. Targeting of a Fixed Bacterial Immunogen to Fc Receptors Reverses the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Gram-Negative Bacterium, Francisella tularensis, during the Early Stages of Infection.

    PubMed

    Babadjanova, Zulfia; Wiedinger, Kari; Gosselin, Edmund J; Bitsaktsis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells at the early stages of bacterial infection is important for host protection against the pathogen. Many intracellular bacteria, including Francisella tularensis, the agent of tularemia, utilize the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, to evade the host immune response. It is well established that IL-10 has the ability to inhibit robust antigen presentation by dendritic cells and macrophages, thus suppressing the generation of protective immunity. The pathogenesis of F. tularensis is not fully understood, and research has failed to develop an effective vaccine to this date. In the current study, we hypothesized that F. tularensis polarizes antigen presenting cells during the early stages of infection towards an anti-inflammatory status characterized by increased synthesis of IL-10 and decreased production of IL-12p70 and TNF-α in an IFN-ɣ-dependent fashion. In addition, F. tularensis drives an alternative activation of alveolar macrophages within the first 48 hours post-infection, thus allowing the bacterium to avoid protective immunity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that targeting inactivated F. tularensis (iFt) to Fcγ receptors (FcɣRs) via intranasal immunization with mAb-iFt complexes, a proven vaccine strategy in our laboratories, reverses the anti-inflammatory effects of the bacterium on macrophages by down-regulating production of IL-10. More specifically, we observed that targeting of iFt to FcγRs enhances the classical activation of macrophages not only within the respiratory mucosa, but also systemically, at the early stages of infection. These results provide important insight for further understanding the protective immune mechanisms generated when targeting immunogens to Fc receptors. PMID:26114641

  17. Funding human services: fixed utility versus fixed budget.

    PubMed

    McCready, D J; Rahn, S L

    1986-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that government allocations for human services based on inputs rather than outcomes, reduce efficiency in social and health service provision. An alternative system of budgeting or contracting on the basis of cost-per-closed case and case outcome is discussed. An interdependency between fixed budget and fixed utility models of allocation is affirmed. The locus of decision-making for operationalizing this interdependency is seen as the program and budget review panel to which operating agencies and government departments must submit financial and program accounting information from year to year. In isolation, the fixed budget approach degenerates into routine allocation or contract renewal with a focus on such input and output variables as volume of service and unit cost, and the fixed utility approach, into political stalemate. Simulated examples are given to demonstrate how allocation on the basis of inputs and outputs alone provides an incentive to inefficiency, and a fixed utility orientation to efficiency. PMID:10311890

  18. Evidence of the big fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  19. Full and partial gauge fixing

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzad, A.

    2007-08-15

    Gauge fixing may be done in different ways. We show that using the chain structure to describe a constrained system enables us to use either a full gauge, in which all gauged degrees of freedom are determined, or a partial gauge, in which some first class constraints remain as subsidiary conditions to be imposed on the solutions of the equations of motion. We also show that the number of constants of motion depends on the level in a constraint chain in which the gauge fixing condition is imposed. The relativistic point particle, electromagnetism, and the Polyakov string are discussed as examples and full or partial gauges are distinguished.

  20. The Double Fixed Charge Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Coster, H. G. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis is made of the AC characteristics of a membrane consisting of two fixed charge regions of opposite sign, in contact. It is shown that the equivalent parallel capacitance and conductance of such a membrane undergo a strong dispersion at low frequencies. The dielectric dispersion is a result of polarization effects in the diffusion of coions in each of the two fixed charge lattices. This, at low frequencies, gives rise to a very large diffusion capacitance. The form of the dispersion characteristics is very similar to those observed for synthetic-fused anion-cation membranes and various cellular membranes. PMID:4702011

  1. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  2. Assessment of selected water-quality and biological data collected in the Wichita River basin, Texas, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Phillips, D. Grant

    2000-01-01

    The Wichita River Basin in northwest Texas (fig. 1) covers about 3,440 square miles (mi2 ) of the 94,500-mi2 Red River Basin. The drainage area above Lake Kemp (fig. 1) is 2,086 mi2. The Wichita River Basin is characterized by rolling plains and prairie with an average annual (1961–90) rainfall of 28.9 inches at Wichita Falls (population about 100,000), the largest city in the basin (Ramos, 1997). Cattle grazing and agriculture are predominant industries outside the Wichita Falls city limits. One of the earliest oil fields in Texas, the Electra oil field, is in the basin; although some oil is still being produced, oil field activity has decreased from the boom years of the 1920s–30s. The surfacewater supply in this basin generally is of poor quality—dissolved solids concentrations vary from slightly saline (1,000 to 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)) to very saline (10,000 to 35,000 mg/L).

  3. Academic Year Abroad 1996-97: The Most Complete Guide to Planning Academic Year Study Abroad. Twenty-fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,371 study-abroad programs that take place during the academic year (usually September through June), and that are at least one academic quarter in length (usually 8 to 10 weeks). An introductory section provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the…

  4. Vacation Study Abroad 1996-97: The Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study. Forty-sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 1,810 summer and short-term academic and language study-abroad programs that range from one-week language study courses to full-summer or semester-length university programs. An introductory section provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide,…

  5. Simulation of Temperature, Nutrients, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Dissolved Oxygen in the Catawba River, South Carolina, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Sanders, Curtis L., Jr.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2003-01-01

    Time-series plots of dissolved-oxygen concentrations were determined for various simulated hydrologic and point-source loading conditions along a free-flowing section of the Catawba River from Lake Wylie Dam to the headwaters of Fishing Creek Reservoir in South Carolina. The U.S. Geological Survey one-dimensional dynamic-flow model, BRANCH, was used to simulate hydrodynamic data for the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model. Waterquality data were used to calibrate the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model and included concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll a, and biochemical oxygen demand in water samples collected during two synoptic sampling surveys at 10 sites along the main stem of the Catawba River and at 3 tributaries; and continuous water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations measured at 5 locations along the main stem of the Catawba River. A sensitivity analysis of the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations to model coefficients and data inputs indicated that the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were most sensitive to watertemperature boundary data due to the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics and the solubility of dissolved oxygen. Of the model coefficients, the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentration was most sensitive to the biological oxidation rate of nitrite to nitrate. To demonstrate the utility of the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model for the Catawba River, the model was used to simulate several water-quality scenarios to evaluate the effect on the 24-hour mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations at selected sites for August 24, 1996, as simulated during the model calibration period of August 23 27, 1996. The first scenario included three loading conditions of the major effluent discharges along the main stem of the Catawba River (1) current load (as sampled in August 1996); (2) no load (all point-source loads were removed from the main stem of the Catawba River; loads from the main tributaries were not removed); and (3) fully loaded (in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control National Discharge Elimination System permits). Results indicate that the 24-hour mean and minimum dissolved-oxygen concentrations for August 24, 1996, changed from the no-load condition within a range of - 0.33 to 0.02 milligram per liter and - 0.48 to 0.00 milligram per liter, respectively. Fully permitted loading conditions changed the 24-hour mean and minimum dissolved-oxygen concentrations from - 0.88 to 0.04 milligram per liter and - 1.04 to 0.00 milligram per liter, respectively. A second scenario included the addition of a point-source discharge of 25 million gallons per day to the August 1996 calibration conditions. The discharge was added at S.C. Highway 5 or at a location near Culp Island (about 4 miles downstream from S.C. Highway 5) and had no significant effect on the daily mean and minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration. A third scenario evaluated the phosphorus loading into Fishing Creek Reservoir; four loading conditions of phosphorus into Catawba River were simulated. The four conditions included fully permitted and actual loading conditions, removal of all point sources from the Catawba River, and removal of all point and nonpoint sources from Sugar Creek. Removing the point-source inputs on the Catawba River and the point and nonpoint sources in Sugar Creek reduced the organic phosphorus and orthophosphate loadings to Fishing Creek Reservoir by 78 and 85 percent, respectively.

  6. Direct Loan Evaluation. Assessment of Department of Education Administration: Academic Years 1995-96 and 1996-97. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD.

    As part of a 5-year evaluation of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program, this study assessed the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) administration of the program. Data were obtained through interviews with ED and other federal officials, institutional surveys, reviews of documents, attendance at meetings and training events, facilitated…

  7. Water quality in the southern Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp in the vicinity of the Tamiami Trail, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Haag, Kim H.

    1999-01-01

    The quality of water flowing southward in the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp was characterized by three synoptic surveys along an 80-mile section of the Tamiami Trail and along a 24-mile transect down the Shark River Slough, by monthly sampling of a background reference site in the central Big Cypress Swamp, and by sampling of fish tissue for contaminants at several sites near the Trail. The quality of water along the Trail is spatially variable due to natural and human influences. Concentrations of dissolved solids and common ions such as chloride and sulfate were lowest in the central and eastern Big Cypress Swamp and were higher to the west due to the effects of seawater, especially during the dry season, and to the east due to canal drainage from the northern Everglades. Concentrations of total phosphorus tended to decrease from west to east along the 80-mile section of the Trail, and were usually about 0.01 milligram per liter or less in the Everglades. Short-term loads (based on average discharge for 4 days) of total phosphorus and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonia plus organic nitrogen) across four gaged sections of the Tamiami Trail were highest in the Everglades near the S-12 structures primarily due to the relatively greater discharges in that section. Concentrations of dissolved solids and total phosphorus at the central Big Cypress Swamp site increased significantly during the dry season as waters ponded. Effects of nearby, upstream agricultural activities were evident at a site in the western Big Cypress Swamp where relatively high concentrations of total phosphorus, total mercury, and dissolved organic carbon and high periphyton biomass accumulation rates were measured and where several pesticides were detected. The most frequently detected pesticides along the Trail were atrazine (14 detections), tebuthiuron (11 detections), and metolachlor (5 detections), and most concentrations were less than 0.1 microgram per liter. DDT compounds were the only pesticides detected in fish from five sites. Total DDT ranged from 5 to 6 micrograms per kilogram in largemouth bass and from 11 to 17 micrograms per kilogram in Florida gar.

  8. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  9. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    SciTech Connect

    Sommars, Mark F.

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  10. Genetic and structural analysis of the Rhizobium meliloti fixA, fixB, fixC, and fixX genes.

    PubMed Central

    Earl, C D; Ronson, C W; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    The fixA, fixB, fixC, and fixX genes of Rhizobium meliloti 1021 constitute an operon and are required for nitrogen fixation in alfalfa nodules. DNA homologous to the R. meliloti fixABC genes is present in all other Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species examined, but fixABC-homologous sequences were found in only one free-living diazotroph, Azotobacter vinelandii. To determine whether the fixABCX genes share sequence homology with any of the 17 Klebsiella pneumoniae nif genes, we determined the entire nucleotide sequence of the fixA, fixB, fixC, and fixX genes and defined four open reading frames that code for polypeptides of molecular weights 31,146, 37,786, 47,288, and 10,937, respectively. Neither DNA nor amino acid sequence homology to the R. meliloti fixA, -B, -C, and -X genes was found in the K. pneumoniae nif operon. The fixX gene contains a cluster of cysteine residues characteristic of ferredoxins and is highly homologous to an Azotobacter ferredoxin which has been shown to donate electrons to nitrogenase. The fixABC operon contains a promoter region that is highly homologous to other nifA-activated promoters. We also found a duplication of the 5' end of the fixABCX operon; a 250-bp region located 520 bp upstream of the fixABCX promoter bears more than 65% homology to the 5' end of the transcribed region, including the first 32 codons of fixA. Images PMID:3029021

  11. Multiple Fixed-Point Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edler, F.; Ederer, P.

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the construction and investigation of multiple fixed-point cells usable for the calibration of thermocouples at temperatures above 1100 C. These fixed-point cells made of pure graphite are characterized by a simple construction as well as by a flexible application. The cylindrical basic mount is equipped with a central hole for the insertion of a thermocouple, and with eight drill holes containing exchangeable cartridges which surround the central bore axially symmetrically. The cartridges are filled with different metal-carbon (Me-C) eutectics: cobalt-carbon (Co-C), nickel-carbon (Ni-C), palladium-carbon (Pd-C), and rhodium-carbon (Rh-C). The melting temperatures of the different Me-C eutectics of the cartridges were compared to the melting temperatures of commonly used Me-C eutectic fixed-point cells of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by using a Pt/Pd thermocouple (Co-C, Ni-C) and Type B thermocouples (Pd-C, Rh-C). The uncertainties () of the emfs measured at the inflection points of the melting curves are in the order of a few V which correspond to temperature equivalents between 0.3 K and 0.6 K. Furthermore, the difference between the melting temperatures of the Co-C and Ni-C cartridges was found to be 4.2 K by using simultaneously two sets of four cartridges filled with the two materials and placed alternately in the eight outer holes of one basic mount.

  12. KTeV results: Re(e'/e) and rare decay results

    SciTech Connect

    Juliana Whitmore

    2002-10-07

    The KTeV physics program encompasses many goals including a precision measurement of the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) in K{sub S,L} {yields} {pi}{pi} decays, and studies of rare neutral kaon decays. The KTeV detector collected data during the Fermilab fixed-target runs of 1996-97 and 1999. This article focuses on the precision measurement of the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) using the 1996-97 data set. In addition, measurements of the neutral kaon parameters {tau}{sub s}, {Delta}m, {phi}{sub {+-}}, {Delta}{phi} from that data set and a new measurement of the branching fraction of K{sub L} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} from the 1997 and 1999 data also are presented.

  13. Adaptive MFR parameter control: fixed vs. variable probabilities of detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, Yvo; Driessen, Hans; Zwaga, Jitse

    2005-09-01

    In this paper an efficient adaptive parameter control scheme for Multi Function Radar (MFR) is used. This scheme has been introduced in.5 The scheme has been designed in such a way that it meets constraints on specific quantities that are relevant for target tracking while minimizing the energy spent. It is shown here, that this optimal scheme leads to a considerable variation of the realized detection probability, even within a single scenario. We also show that constraining or fixing the probability of detection to a certain predefined value leads to a considerable increase in the energy spent on the target. This holds even when one optimizes the fixed probability of detection. The bottom line message is that the detection probability is not a design parameter by itself, but merely the product of an optimal schedule.

  14. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladders. 1917.118 Section 1917.118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.118 Fixed ladders. (a) Scope and applicability. This section applies to all fixed ladders...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed ladders. 1917.118 Section 1917.118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.118 Fixed ladders. (a) Scope and applicability. This section applies to all fixed ladders...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.120 - Fixed stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed stairways. 1917.120 Section 1917.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.120 Fixed stairways. (a) Definition. “Fixed...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.120 - Fixed stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed stairways. 1917.120 Section 1917.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.120 Fixed stairways. (a) Definition. “Fixed...

  18. Wake Shield Target Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-05-15

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed.

  19. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  20. Expanding the regulatory network that controls nitrogen fixation in Sinorhizobium meliloti: elucidating the role of the two-component system hFixL-FxkR.

    PubMed

    Reyes-González, Alma; Talbi, Chouhra; Rodríguez, Susana; Rivera, Patricia; Zamorano-Sánchez, David; Girard, Lourdes

    2016-06-01

    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, nitrogen fixation is regulated in response to oxygen concentration through the FixL-FixJ two-component system (TCS). Besides this conserved TCS, the field isolate SM11 also encodes the hFixL-FxkR TCS, which is responsible for the microoxic response in Rhizobium etli. Through genetic and physiological assays, we evaluated the role of the hFixL-FxkR TCS in S. meliloti SM11. Our results revealed that this regulatory system activates the expression of a fixKf orthologue (fixKa), in response to low oxygen concentration. Null mutations in either hFixL or FxkR promote upregulation of fixK1, a direct target of FixJ. Furthermore, the absence of this TCS translates into higher nitrogen fixation values as well as higher expression of fixN1 in nodules. Individual mutations in each of the fixK-like regulators encoded in the S. meliloti SM11 genome do not completely restrict fixN1 or fixN2 expression, pointing towards redundancy among these regulators. Both copies of fixN are necessary to achieve optimal levels of nitrogen fixation. This work provides evidence that the hFixL-FxkR TCS is activated in response to low oxygen concentration in S. meliloti SM11 and that it negatively regulates the expression of fixK1, fixN1 and nitrogen fixation. PMID:27010660

  1. Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Loknath; Sinha, Mausumi

    2015-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy associated excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep disorder related to shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, presently it is being used as a lifestyle medicine; in India, it has been misused as an “over the counter” drug. Modafinil is known to have several cutaneous side effects. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug induced reaction pattern characterized by recurrence of eruption at the same site of the skin or mucous membrane with repeated systemic administration. Only two case reports exist in the literature describing modafinil induced FDE until date. Here, we report two similar cases. The increasing use of this class of drug amongst the medical personnel might be posing a threat to the proper use and encouraging subsequent abuse. There might be a considerable population using these drugs unaware of the possible adverse effects. Authorities should be more alert regarding the sale and distribution of such medicines. PMID:25878389

  2. Statistical analysis of fixed income market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaschi, Massimo; Grilli, Luca; Vergni, Davide

    2002-05-01

    We present cross and time series analysis of price fluctuations in the US Treasury fixed income market. Bonds have been classified according to a suitable metric based on the correlation among them. The classification shows how the correlation among fixed income securities depends strongly on their maturity. We study also the structure of price fluctuations for single time series.

  3. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). For fixed ladders consisting of wood side rails and wood rungs or cleats, used at a pitch in the range..., cleats, and steps shall be free of splinters, sharp edges, burrs, or projections which may be a hazard... of fixed ladders shall be considered to come in the range of 75 degrees and 90 degrees with...

  5. Negotiating a Fixed-Unit Price Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquale, Mathew; Morrison, Wade

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concept of "fixed-unit price contracting," an arrangement that is becoming popular with private industry councils (PICs). Guidelines include (1) find out as much as you can about the PIC's requirements; (2) figure out whether you can meet the PIC's requirements; and (3) keep in mind that most elements of a fixed-unit price contract…

  6. Gaining Insight into an Organization's Fixed Assets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Elisabet

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to school district implementation of June 2001 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement 34 designed to change how schools report fixed assets. Includes planning for GASB implementation, conducting fixed-asset inventories, and making time for GASB reporting. (PKP)

  7. 78 FR 20705 - Fixed Income Roundtable

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Fixed Income Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of roundtable..., efficiency, and other aspects of fixed income markets. The roundtable will focus on the municipal...

  8. Optimal mixing and optimal stirring for fixed energy, fixed power, or fixed palenstrophy flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunasin, Evelyn; Lin, Zhi; Novikov, Alexei; Mazzucato, Anna; Doering, Charles R.

    2012-11-01

    We consider passive scalar mixing by a prescribed divergence-free velocity vector field in a periodic box and address the following question: Starting from a given initial inhomogeneous distribution of passive tracers, and given a certain energy budget, power budget, or finite palenstrophy budget, what incompressible flow field best mixes the scalar quantity? We focus on the optimal stirring strategy recently proposed by Lin et al. ["Optimal stirring strategies for passive scalar mixing," J. Fluid Mech. 675, 465 (2011)], 10.1017/S0022112011000292 that determines the flow field that instantaneously maximizes the depletion of the H-1 mix-norm. In this work, we bridge some of the gap between the best available a priori analysis and simulation results. After recalling some previous analysis, we present an explicit example demonstrating finite-time perfect mixing with a finite energy constraint on the stirring flow. On the other hand, using a recent result by Wirosoetisno et al. ["Long time stability of a classical efficient scheme for two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 50(1), 126-150 (2012)], 10.1137/110834901 we establish that the H-1 mix-norm decays at most exponentially in time if the two-dimensional incompressible flow is constrained to have constant palenstrophy. Finite-time perfect mixing is thus ruled out when too much cost is incurred by small scale structures in the stirring. Direct numerical simulations in two dimensions suggest the impossibility of finite-time perfect mixing for flows with fixed power constraint and we conjecture an exponential lower bound on the H-1 mix-norm in this case. We also discuss some related problems from other areas of analysis that are similarly suggestive of an exponential lower bound for the H-1 mix-norm.

  9. A fixed-point framework for launch vehicle ascent guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun

    Recent interests in responsive launch have highlighted the need for rapid and fully automated ascent guidance planning and guidance parameter generation for launch vehicles. This dissertation aims at developing methodology and algorithms for on-demand generation of optimal launch vehicle ascent trajectories from lift-off to achieving targeting conditions outside the atmosphere. The entire ascent trajectory from lift-off to final target point is divided into two parts: atmospheric ascent portion and vacuum ascent portion. The two portions are integrated via a fixed-point iteration based on the continuity condition at the switch point between atmospheric ascent portion and vacuum ascent portion. The previous research works on closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance shows that the classical finite difference method is well suited for fast solution of the constrained optimal three-dimensional ascent problem. The exploitation of certain unique features in the integration procedure between the atmospheric portion and vacuum portion and the finite difference method, allows us to cast the atmospheric ascent problem into a nested fixed-point iteration problem. Therefore a novel Fixed-Point Iteration algorithm is presented for solving the endo-atmospheric ascent guidance problem. Several approaches are also provided for facilitating the convergence of the fixed-point iteration. The exo-atmospheric ascent portion allows an optimal coast in between the two vacuum powered stages. The optimal coast enables more efficient usage of the propellant. The Analytical Multiple-Shooting algorithm is developed to find the optimal trajectory for this portion. A generic launch vehicle model is adopted in the numerical simulation. A series of open-loop and closed-loop simulations are performed. The results verify the effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the Fixed-Point Iteration (FPI) algorithm and Analytical Multiple-Shooting (AMS) algorithm developed in this research. In

  10. [What are the effects of fixed-dose combination of candesartan and amlodipine].

    PubMed

    Vítovec, Jiří; Špinar, Jindřich

    2016-04-01

    We are presenting a current view on a fixed-dose combination of amlodipine and candesartan in the treatment of hypertension. Major studies on the individual preparations as well as studies examining their combination are included. This fixed-dose combination expands our possibilities with regard to attaining the blood pressure target values, in particular in patients with risk factors or patients with comorbidities. Finally, the benefit mainly consists in the greater compliance of the patient with a minimum adverse effects. PMID:27250611

  11. [FIXED COMBINATION ATORVASTATIN-EZETIMIBE (ATOZET®)].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular prevention in subjects at high or very high risk requires a drastic reduction in LDL cholesterol according to the concept "the lower, the better". The combination of an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis and a selective inhibitor of intestinal absorption results in a complementary and synergistic LDL-lowering activity. Besides a first fixed combination ezetimibe-simvastatin (Inegy®), a new fixed combination is presented, Atozet® that combines atorvastatin and ezetimibe. Because atorvastatin is more potent than simvastatin, this novel fixed combination should facilitate reaching therapeutic goals in terms of LDL cholesterol amongst patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia and/or at high or very high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26983314

  12. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability ofmore » the process model.« less

  13. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Rich; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets.The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The paper will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe

  14. EVALUATING MULTICOMPONENT COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION IN FIXED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An equilibrium column model (ECM) was developed to evaluate multicomponent competition in fixed-bed adsorption columns. The model ignores mass transfer resistances and uses ideal adsorbed solution theory to predict the competitive effects in multicomponent mixtures. The bed capac...

  15. Anderson Acceleration for Fixed-Point Iterations

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Homer F.

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to support research on acceleration methods for fixed-point iterations, with applications to computational frameworks and simulation problems that are of interest to DOE.

  16. Characterizations of fixed points of quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yuan

    2011-05-15

    Let {phi}{sub A} be a general quantum operation. An operator B is said to be a fixed point of {phi}{sub A}, if {phi}{sub A}(B)=B. In this note, we shall show conditions under which B, a fixed point {phi}{sub A}, implies that B is compatible with the operation element of {phi}{sub A}. In particular, we offer an extension of the generalized Lueders theorem.

  17. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate. PMID:26067196

  18. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate. PMID:26067196

  19. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  20. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  1. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  2. Evidence for a fixed capacity limit in attending multiple locations

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Keisuke; May, Lisa M.; Vogel, Edward K.; Awh, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A classic question concerns whether humans can attend multiple locations or objects at once. Although it is generally agreed that the answer to this question is “yes,” the limits on this ability are subject to extensive debate. According to one view, attentional resources can be flexibly allocated to a variable number of locations, with an inverse relationship between the number of selected locations and the quality of information processing at each location. Alternatively, these resources might be quantized in a “discrete” fashion that enables concurrent access to a small number of locations. Here, we report a series of experiments comparing these alternatives. In each experiment, we cued participants to attend a variable number of spatial locations and asked them to report the orientation of a single, briefly presented target. In all experiments, participants’ orientation report errors were well-described by a model that assumes a fixed upper limit in the number of locations that can be attended. Conversely, report errors were poorly described by a flexible-resource model that assumes no fixed limit on the number of locations that can be attended. Critically, we showed that these discrete limits were predicted by cue-evoked neural activity elicited before the onset of the target array, suggesting that performance was limited by selection processes that began prior to subsequent encoding and memory storage. Together, these findings constitute novel evidence supporting the hypothesis that human observers can attend only a small number of discrete locations at an instant. PMID:24217849

  3. A comparison of carbide fracture during fixed depth and fixed load scratch tests

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.V.; Kosel, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    In order to simulate abrasion of dual-phase materials containing large carbides under fixed depth conditions an apparatus has been designed and used to perform scratch tests at a fixed depth of cut on such materials. The scratch test consists of two support arms tipped with small steel balls held in contact with surface by /sup 700/ g, while the scratch tool is mounted on the tip of a central arm whose adjustable length allow control of the depth of cut. The scratch tool does not deflect significant when it encounters a large carbide. Scratch tests with the new apparatus have been performed on Co-base Stellite alloys containing large Cr-rich carbides, using individual particles of alumina as scratch tools to generate fixed depth scratches. A in situ SEM scratch test apparatus has also been used to genrate fixed load scratches. Comparison of the scratches shows that for comparable average scratch depths, under fixed load conditions the scratch tool deflects over the carbides without causing fracture, but that since it cannot deflect under fixed depth conditions it induces gross carbide fracture. Results suggest that the fixed depth scratch test can be successfully employed to simulate fixed depth abrasion, which has been previously shown to generate gross carbide fracture in these alloys. The in situ SEM scratch test simulates fixed load abrasion conditions such as those which occur in rubber wheel abrasion tests. 12 refs., 9 figs

  4. Inadvertent tooth movement with fixed lingual retainers.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Timothy G; Proffit, William R; Samara, Said A

    2016-02-01

    Fixed retainers are effective in maintaining the alignment of the anterior teeth more than 90% of the time, but they can produce inadvertent tooth movement that in the most severe instances requires orthodontic retreatment managed with a periodontist. This is different from relapse into crowding when a fixed retainer is lost. These problems arise when the retainer breaks but remains bonded to some or all teeth, or when an intact retainer is distorted by function or was not passive when bonded. In both instances, torque of the affected teeth is the predominant outcome. A fixed retainer made with dead soft wire is the least likely to create torque problems but is the most likely to break. Highly flexible twist wires bonded to all the teeth appear to be the most likely to produce inadvertent tooth movement, but this also can occur with stiffer wires bonded only to the canines. Orthodontists, general dentists, and patients should be aware of possible problems with fixed retainers, especially those with all teeth bonded, because the patient might not notice partial debonding. Regular observations of patients wearing fixed retainers by orthodontists in the short term and family dentists in the long term are needed. PMID:26827985

  5. Radiative convection with a fixed heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumaı̂tre, S.

    2001-10-01

    We have determined the marginal stability curve of convective instability in the usual Rayleigh-Bénard configuration with radiative transfer and a fixed total heat flux at the boundaries instead of a fixed temperature. In the Milne-Eddington approximation, radiative transfer introduces a new length scale and breaks the invariance of the Boussinesq equations under an arbitrary temperature shift, which occurs when the heat flux is fixed at the boundaries. The convergence to the limits where the non-radiative cases are expected is studied in this approximation. Then, using a second-order perturbative calculation, we show that the presence of radiation can change qualitatively the instability pattern: there is a range of optical parameters where the Cahn-Hillard equation is not anymore the one appropriate to describe the instability near the threshold.

  6. [Fixed-drug combinations for hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2014-08-01

    The recent guidelines for the treatment of hypertension recommend a fixed-dose combination (polypill) therapy to achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control. Among them, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or diuretics are the representative recommended combination since each drug has evidence of reducing cardiovascular events. Recent studies using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring have also suggested that the fixed-dose ARB-based combination therapies with either CCBs or diuretics are well tolerated and effectively lower the BP throughout a 24-hour interval by their long-acting half-lives, nighttime BP lowering effect and improving adherence. It will become more important to use these fixed-dose antihypertensive drugs adequately for controlling the 24-hour blood pressure. PMID:25167756

  7. Sputter target

    DOEpatents

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  8. Carbon-Fixing Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Summaryplantcell;28/7/tpc.116.tt0716/FIG1F1fig1Photosynthesis in plants converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy. Although photosynthesis involves many proteins and catalytic processes, it often is described as two sets of reactions, the light-dependent reactions and the carbon-fixing reactions. This lesson introduces the core biochemistry of the carbon-fixing reactions of photosynthesis, as well as its variations, C4 and CAM. Finally, it addresses how and why plants are affected by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, and research efforts to increase photosynthetic efficiency in current and future conditions. PMID:27493209

  9. Management strategy 3: fixed rate fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous chapters outlined management strategies for pond fertilization that take into account specific individual pond nutrient needs. Those methods would most likely be more ecologically efficient than a pre-determined fixed-rate nutrient addition strategy. However, the vast majority of available ...

  10. Fixed Drug Eruption Due to Ornidazole

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    A 56-year-old male developed an ulcer on his glans penis and mucosae of upper and lower lips 3 days after taking ofloxacin, cephalexin, and ornidazole. Clinically, a provisional diagnosis of fixed drug eruption was made. The causative drug was confirmed by an oral provocation test which triggered a reactivation of all lesions only with ornidazole. PMID:25484435

  11. Fixing the Shadows While Moving the Gnomon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    It is a common practice to fix a vertical gnomon and study the moving shadow cast by it. This shows our local solar time and gives us a hint regarding the season in which we perform the observation. The moving shadow can also tell us our latitude with high precision. In this paper we propose to exchange the roles and while keeping the shadows…

  12. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  13. Fixed drug eruption against rupatadine fumarate.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Vural; Fidan, Tulin

    2011-09-01

    Second generation of antihistaminics have better therapeutic efficacy and more predictable pharmacological responses at lower doses than older compounds. However, new compounds have a reduced adverse reaction profile; clinicians can also encounter some unexpected adverse effects of these newer compounds. We report the first case of fixed drug eruption of rupatadine fumarate, which was confirmed by oral provocation test. PMID:21959412

  14. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... details shall be such as to prevent or minimize the accumulation of water on wood parts. (iii) When... and fastenings. (2) Design stresses. Design stresses for wood components of ladders shall not exceed those specified in § 1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... details shall be such as to prevent or minimize the accumulation of water on wood parts. (iii) When... and fastenings. (2) Design stresses. Design stresses for wood components of ladders shall not exceed those specified in § 1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... details shall be such as to prevent or minimize the accumulation of water on wood parts. (iii) When... and fastenings. (2) Design stresses. Design stresses for wood components of ladders shall not exceed those specified in § 1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... details shall be such as to prevent or minimize the accumulation of water on wood parts. (iii) When... and fastenings. (2) Design stresses. Design stresses for wood components of ladders shall not exceed those specified in § 1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §...

  18. Deep Learning Experiences within a Fixed Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; Olmstead, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Two and a half years ago, elementary school librarians in the Birmingham Public School district (Troy, Michigan) had to change to a fixed schedule for half the day with kindergarten through second grade students. This change was due to cutbacks and the need for common planning time among classroom teachers. School librarians found themselves…

  19. ASIC For Complex Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petilli, Stephen G.; Grimm, Michael J.; Olson, Erlend M.

    1995-01-01

    Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performs 24-bit, fixed-point arithmetic operations on arrays of complex-valued input data. High-performance, wide-band arithmetic logic unit (ALU) designed for use in computing fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and for performing ditigal filtering functions. Other applications include general computations involved in analysis of spectra and digital signal processing.

  20. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  1. Fixing Advising: A Model for Faculty Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Robert M.; Kahla, Marlene; Allen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses mandates to fix the advising process with a focus on faculty advising systems. Measures of student success and satisfaction, administrative issues, and faculty concerns are among the many factors discussed. Regression analysis is used to explore long-voiced faculty complaints that students do not follow advice. A case study is…

  2. Fixed Versus Flexible MMPI Diagnostic Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates the consequences on total misdiagnosis rates of using conventional (fixed) rather than flexible (Bayesian) rules when using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in diagnosis. Concludes that the range of base rates and the separation of distributions of normal and abnormal scores affect the difference in the misdiagnosis…

  3. Target capture and target ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  4. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for...

  5. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for...

  6. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for...

  7. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for...

  8. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for...

  9. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $ . (End of clause)...

  11. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides...

  12. 48 CFR 52.216-9 - Fixed Fee-Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed Fee-Construction. 52....216-9 Fixed Fee—Construction. As prescribed in 16.307(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when a cost-plus-fixed-fee construction contract is contemplated: Fixed...

  13. 24 CFR 84.80 - Conditions for use of Lump Sum (fixed price or fixed amount) grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (fixed price or fixed amount) grants. 84.80 Section 84.80 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Use of Lump Sum Grants § 84.80 Conditions for use of Lump Sum (fixed price or fixed amount) grants. (a) Heads...

  14. Parallel fixed point implementation of a radial basis function network in an FPGA.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Alisson C D; Fernandes, Marcelo A C

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a parallel fixed point radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) trained online with a least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The processing time and occupied area were analyzed for various fixed point formats. The problems of precision of the ANN response for nonlinear classification using the XOR gate and interpolation using the sine function were also analyzed in a hardware implementation. The entire project was developed using the System Generator platform (Xilinx), with a Virtex-6 xc6vcx240t-1ff1156 as the target FPGA. PMID:25268918

  15. Parallel Fixed Point Implementation of a Radial Basis Function Network in an FPGA

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alisson C. D.; Fernandes, Marcelo A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a parallel fixed point radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) trained online with a least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The processing time and occupied area were analyzed for various fixed point formats. The problems of precision of the ANN response for nonlinear classification using the XOR gate and interpolation using the sine function were also analyzed in a hardware implementation. The entire project was developed using the System Generator platform (Xilinx), with a Virtex-6 xc6vcx240t-1ff1156 as the target FPGA. PMID:25268918

  16. Fixed-Cell Imaging of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Bagley, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The acknowledged genetic malleability of fission yeast has been matched by impressive cytology to drive major advances in our understanding of basic molecular cell biological processes. In many of the more recent studies, traditional approaches of fixation followed by processing to accommodate classical staining procedures have been superseded by live-cell imaging approaches that monitor the distribution of fusion proteins between a molecule of interest and a fluorescent protein. Although such live-cell imaging is uniquely informative for many questions, fixed-cell imaging remains the better option for others and is an important-sometimes critical-complement to the analysis of fluorescent fusion proteins by live-cell imaging. Here, we discuss the merits of fixed- and live-cell imaging as well as specific issues for fluorescence microscopy imaging of fission yeast. PMID:27371603

  17. Fixed drug eruptions with intraoral presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rahul; Bihari, Manorama; Bhuvan, Jyoti; Saad, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Fixed-drug eruption (FDE) is an unusual and rare adverse drug reaction. This type of reaction is actually a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction that occurs as lesions recurring at the same skin site due to repeated intake of an offending drug. Here is a case report of a 58-year-old male patient who developed intraoral FDEs after ingestion of the first dose of ornidazole. PMID:26097341

  18. Azithromycin induced bullous fixed drug eruption

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Sancheti, Karan; Podder, Indrashis; Das, Nilay Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a common type of drug eruption seen in skin clinics. It is characterized by solitary or multiple, round to oval erythematous patches with dusky red centers, some of which may progress to bulla formation. Bullous FDE may be caused by a number of drugs. We hereby describe a case of azithromycin-induced bullous FDE; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case being reported. PMID:26997729

  19. Topology of the Two Fixed Centers Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, A.; Martínez Alfaro, J.; Vindel, P.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we give a complete topological characterization of the Two Fixed Centers (TFC) problem flow. This characterization is based on the link formed by some basic periodic orbits. The Restricted Circular Three-Body (RCTB) problem is considered as a perturbation of the TFC in the case of two primaries with equal masses. The basic periodic orbits of the integrable problem can be continued in the non-integrable one.

  20. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  1. RSRM nozzle fixed housing cooldown test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolieau, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Flight 5 aft segments with nozzles were exposed to -17 F temperatures while awaiting shipment to KSC in February, 1989. No records were found which show that any previous nozzles were exposed to air temperatures as low as those seen by the Flight 5 nozzles. Thermal analysis shows that the temperature of the fixed housing, and forward and aft exit cone components dropped as low as -10 F. Structural analysis of the nozzles at these low temperatures show the forward and aft exit cone adhesive bonds to have a positive margin of safety, based on a 2.0 safety factor. These analyses show the normal and shear stresses in the fixed housing bond as low values. However, the hoop and meridinal stresses were predicted to be in the 4000 psi range; the failure stress allowable of EA913NA adhesive at -7 F. If the bonds did break in directions perpendicular to the surfaces, called bond crazing, no normal bond strength would be lost. Testing was conducted in two phases, showing that no degradation to the adhesive bonds occurred while the Flight 5 nozzles were subjected to subzero temperatures. The results of these tests are documented. Phase 1 testing cooled a full-scale RSRM insulated fixed housing to -13 F, with extensive bondline inspections. Phase 2 testing cooled the witness panel adhesive tensile buttions to -13 F, with failure strengths recorded before, during, and after the cooldown.

  2. Fixed-combination and emerging glaucoma therapies.

    PubMed

    Woodward, David F; Chen, June

    2007-05-01

    Ocular hypotensive agents are the only approved pharmacotherapy for glaucoma. Despite significant advances during the past two decades, a large proportion of glaucoma patients require more than one drug. The most recent additions to the armamentarium of antiglaucoma drugs are fixed-combination products for the glaucoma patient who is insufficiently responsive to monotherapy. Fixed-combination products have the combined efficacy of two ocular hypotensive drugs, and the convenience of a two-drug treatment regimen in a single container, which may aid patient adherence to treatment. Available fixed-combination products consist of timolol 0.5% as an invariant with brimonidine 0.2%, dorzolamide 2%, travoprost 0.004%, latanoprost 0.005% or bimatoprost 0.03%. Research on more advanced antiglaucoma medications continues. Promising new directions appear to be the Rho-kinase inhibitors, microtubule-disrupting agents, serotonergics and cannabimimetics. Efforts continue to improve existing antiglaucoma drugs in an attempt to design second-generation cholinomimetics, adrenergics, prostaglandins and prostamides. PMID:17604504

  3. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  4. Maps showing the change in modern sediment thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, between 1996-97 and 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Denny, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, in 1996 and 1997, using high-resolution sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection systems, and again in 2011, using interferometric sonar and high-resolution chirp seismic-reflection systems. This report presents a comparison of sediment thickness and distribution as mapped during these two investigations. These spatial data support research on the Quaternary evolution of the Fire Island coastal system and provide baseline information for research on coastal processes along southern Long Island.

  5. Hydrology and cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in Little Bean Marsh : a remnant riparian wetland along the Missouri River in Platte County, Missouri, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of concurrent water-quality and hydrologic data on riparian wetlands in the Midwestern United States has resulted in a lack of knowledge about the water-quality functions that these wetlands provide. Therefore, Little Bean Marsh, a remnant riparian wetland along the Missouri River, was investigated in 1996 and 1997 primarily to determine the magnitude and character of selected water-quality benefits that can be produced in such a wetland and to identify critical processes that can be managed in remnant or restored riparian wetlands for amelioration of water quality. Little Bean Marsh averages 69 hectares in size, has a maximum depth of about 1 meter, and the majority of the marsh is covered by macrophytes. In 1997, 41 percent of the water received by Little Bean Marsh was from direct precipitation, 14 percent was from ground-water seepage, 30 percent from watershed runoff, and 15 percent was backflow from Bean Lake. Although, Little Bean Marsh was both a ground-water recharge and discharge area, discharge to the marsh was three times the recharge to ground water. Ground-water levels closely tracked marsh water levels indicating a strong hydraulic connection between ground water and the marsh. Reduced surface runoff and ground-water availability are stabilizing influences on marsh hydrology and probably contribute to the persistence of emergent vegetation. The rapid hydraulic connection between Little Bean Marsh and ground water indicates that the hydrologic regime of most wetlands along the lower Missouri River is largely a function of the altitude of the marsh bottom relative to the altitude of the water table. More water was lost from the marsh through evapotranspiration (59 percent) than all other pathways combined. This is partially because the transpiration process of abundant macrophytes can greatly contribute to the evapotranspiration above that lost from open water surfaces. Surface outflow accounted for 36 percent and ground-water seepage accounted for only 5 percent of the losses. Large residence times allows the marsh to greatly affect water quality before water escapes as ground-water recharge or surface outflow. The shallowness of Little Bean Marsh and ion exclusion during ice formation caused the highest specific conductances of 1,100 to 1,300 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius to occur during the winter. This concentration of dissolved solutes under ice can make wetlands more vulnerable to toxic contaminants than deeper surface-water bodies. Dissolved oxygen was less than 5 mg/L (milligrams per liter) for 3 to 4 months and near 0 mg/L for about 1 month in summer. Despite depths of less than 1 meter, temperature stratification persisted more than 3 months during the summers of 1996 and 1997, preventing mixing and contributing to periods of anoxia. Shallow depths and extended periods of anoxia in the marsh limit the ability of some organisms to escape high-temperature stress. Turbidity in Little Bean Marsh usually was low for several reasons: sediment loadings from the largely flood-plain drainage were low, emergent vegetation shade out algae and shield the water from wind, and high concentrations of bivalent cations increase flocculation rates of inorganic suspended material. The high concentrations of bivalent cations was largely because of a substantial amount of ground-water seepage into the marsh. Dissolved organic nitrogen was the dominant nitrogen species in Little Bean Marsh. Denitrification and biotic uptake kept more than 62 percent of nitrate (NO3) and 43 percent of ammonium (NH4) concentrations in marsh samples less than a detection limit of 0.005 mg/L. This contrasts with the Missouri River where inorganic NO3 dominates. Consequently, artificial flood-plain drainage that bypasses riparian wetlands likely deliver substantially more biotically available inorganic nitrogen to receiving waters than surface water that has been routed through a remnant wetland. Aver

  6. Self Evaluation Guide for Institutional Participation in Title IV and Other Federal Progams. 12th Edition. 1995-96 and 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This guide is designed as an in-house tool for postsecondary educational institutions to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of their administration of financial aid programs in compliance with federal laws and regulations. References to current regulations or, where final regulations have not yet been issued, to statute, are included for…

  7. Match observations in the Arctic winter 1996/97: High stratospheric ozone loss rates correlate with low temperatures deep inside the polar vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, A.; Rex, M.; Steger, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Braathen, G. O.; Reimer, E.; Alfier, R.; Beck, A.; Alpers, M.; Cisneros, J.; Claude, H.; De Backer, H.; Dier, H.; Dorokhov, V.; Fast, H.; Godin, S.; Hansen, G.; Kanzawa, H.; Kois, B.; Kondo, Y.; Kosmidis, E.; Kyrö, E.; Litynska, Z.; Molyneux, M. J.; Murphy, G.; Nakane, H.; Parrondo, C.; Ravegnani, F.; Varotsos, C.; Vialle, C.; Viatte, P.; Yushkov, V.; Zerefos, C.; von der Gathen, P.

    2000-01-01

    With the Match technique, which is based on the coordinated release of ozonesondes, chemical ozone loss rates in the Arctic stratospheric vortex in early 1997 have been quantified in a vertical region between 400 K and 550 K. Ozone destruction was observed from mid February to mid March in most of these levels, with maximum loss rates between 25 and 45ppbv/day. The vortex averaged loss rates and the accumulated vertically integrated ozone loss have been smaller than in the previous two winters, indicating that the record low ozone columns observed in spring 1997 were partly caused by dynamical effects. The observed ozone loss is inhomogeneous through the vortex with the highest loss rates located in the vortex centre, coinciding with the lowest temperatures. Here the loss rates per sunlit hour reached 6 ppbv/h, while the corresponding vortex averaged rates did not exceed 3.9 ppbv/h.

  8. Water-quality data for the Rio Grande between Picacho Bridge near Las Cruces and Calle del Norte Bridge near Mesilla, New Mexico, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    The City of Las Cruces is concerned about water quality in a reach of the Rio Grande that receives outfall from the City of Las Cruces wastewater-treatment plant. Water-quality samples were collected from the Rio Grande at Picacho Bridge near Las Cruces, New Mexico; from the sampling site at the City of Las Cruces wastewater-treatment plant; and from the Rio Grande at Calle del Norte Bridge near Mesilla, New Mexico. The samples were collected on 12 days from August 6, 1996, to February 28, 1997, and were analyzed for a suite of dissolved and total constituents including trace metals. Instantaneous stream discharge was measured concurrently with collection of the Rio Grande samples. At the wastewater- treatment plant, the City of Las Cruces provided instantaneous discharge rates concurrent with sampling. Quality-control measures used in this study to ensure analytical accuracy included replicate sampling, replicate analysis of split samples, ambient blanks, equipment blanks, and analysis of standard reference water samples.

  9. The Journal of Staff, Program, & Organization Development, Volume 14, Numbers 1-4, 1996-97. New Forums Faculty Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Edward, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This quarterly publication serves as a medium for the exchange of ideas regarding the planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of professional development practices at two- and four-year colleges. The four issues in volume 14 feature the following articles: (1) "A Home-Grown Faculty Development Program," (Jane T. Rauton); (2) "Creating…

  10. Direct Loan Evaluation. Case Study Summary Report: Academic Year 1996-97. Volume One--Study Findings [and] Volume Two-- Case Study Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD.

    As part of a 5-year evaluation of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program, 12 participating institutions of higher education were visited to examine the diversity of approaches used by schools in planning for and implementing the program. The schools included public and private two- and four-year institutions and proprietary schools. Major…

  11. Direction of foot force for pushes against a fixed pedal: role of effort level.

    PubMed

    Gruben, Kreg G; Rogers, Lynn M; Schmidt, Matthew W

    2003-07-01

    Control of the force exerted by the foot on the ground is critical to human locomotion. During running on a treadmill and pushing against a fixed pedal, humans increased foot force in a linear manner in sagittal plane force space. However, for pushes against a moving pedal, force output was linear for some participants but slightly curved for others. A primary difference between the static and dynamic pedaling studies was that the dynamic study required participants to push with varying peak effort levels, whereas a constant peak effort level was used for the fixed pedal pushes. The present study evaluated the possibility that force direction varied with level of effort. Seated humans pushed against a fixed pedal to a series of force magnitude targets. The force direction varied systematically with effort level consistent with the force path curvature observed for dynamic pedaling. PMID:12893955

  12. Impaired Inhibitory Force Feedback in Fixed Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Mugge, Winfred; Schouten, Alfred C; van Hilten, Jacobus J; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2016-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial disorder associated with an aberrant host response to tissue injury. About 25% of CRPS patients suffer poorly understood involuntary sustained muscle contractions associated with dysfunctional reflexes that result in abnormal postures (fixed dystonia). A recent modeling study simulated fixed dystonia (FD) caused by aberrant force feedback. The current study aims to validate this hypothesis by experimentally recording the modulation of reflexive force feedback in patients with FD. CRPS patients with and without FD, patients with FD but without CRPS, as well as healthy controls participated in the experiment. Three task instructions and three perturbation characteristics were used to evoke a wide range of responses to force perturbations. During position tasks ("maintain posture"), healthy subjects as well as patients resisted the perturbations, becoming more stiff than when being relaxed (i.e., the relax task). Healthy subjects and CRPS patients without FD were both more compliant during force tasks ("maintain force") than during relax tasks, meaning they actively gave way to the imposed forces. Remarkably, the patients with FD failed to do so. A neuromuscular model was fitted to the experimental data to separate the distinct contributions of position, velocity and force feedback, as well as co-contraction to the motor behavior. The neuromuscular modeling indicated that inhibitory force feedback is deregulated in patients with FD, for both CRPS and non-CRPS patients. From previously published simulation results and the present experimental study, it is concluded that aberrant force feedback plays a role in fixed dystonia. PMID:25955788

  13. 47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1031 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper application therefor, authorize the construction and operation of temporary fixed stations in...

  14. 47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1031 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper application therefor, authorize the construction and operation of temporary fixed stations in...

  15. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts... fixed-price contract clause requires the determination or negotiation of costs. However, application...

  16. Detection in fixed and random noise in foveal and parafoveal vision explained by template learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Foveal and parafoveal contrast detection thresholds for Gabor and checkerboard targets were measured in white noise by means of a two-interval forced-choice paradigm. Two white-noise conditions were used: fixed and twin. In the fixed noise condition a single noise sample was presented in both intervals of all the trials. In the twin noise condition the same noise sample was used in the two intervals of a trial, but a new sample was generated for each trial. Fixed noise conditions usually resulted in lower thresholds than twin noise. Template learning models are presented that attribute this advantage of fixed over twin noise either to fixed memory templates' reducing uncertainty by incorporation of the noise or to the introduction, by the learning process itself, of more variability in the twin noise condition. Quantitative predictions of the template learning process show that it contributes to the accelerating nonlinear increase in performance with signal amplitude at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  17. Fixed film phosphorus removal--flexible enough?

    PubMed

    Rogalla, F; Johnson, T L; McQuarrie, J

    2006-01-01

    While biological phosphorus removal (BPR) has been practised for 30 years, up to recently it has been restricted mainly to activated sludge processes, with the corresponding need for large basin volumes. Yet, research with biofilm reactors showed that the principle of alternate anaerobic and aerated conditions was applicable to fixed bacteria by changing the conditions in time rather than in space. Attached growth enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems are attractive because of their compactness and capability to retain high biomass levels. However, the phosphorus extraction depends on backwashes to enhance the phosphorus-rich attached biomass, and correct control of unsteady effluent quality created by frequently modified process conditions. Accordingly, EBPR remains a challenging task in terms of combining nitrogen and phosphorus removal using attached growth systems. Nevertheless, a combination of activated sludge and biofilm carriers, in the integrated fixed-film activated sludge system, provides treatment opportunities not readily available using suspended growth systems. Current practice is only at the beginning of exploiting the full potential of this combination, but the first full-scale results show that compact tankage and low nutrient results based on biological principles are possible. PMID:16889243

  18. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing. PMID:26933409

  19. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing. PMID:26933409

  20. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    PubMed Central

    Jayasheel, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India) states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document. PMID:21350725

  1. Fixed-dose combination therapy for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Lyn C

    2004-01-01

    Fixed-dose combination therapy offers stable products containing two or more medications with different mechanisms of action and safety profiles. It is also convenient for patients since only one product rather than two or more needs to be applied. Topical corticosteroids are often the mainstay of therapy in psoriasis. Diprosalic and Nerisalic contain a topical corticosteroid (betamethasone dipropionate and diflucortolone, respectively) and salicylic acid. A left/right study showed that both products have comparable efficacy. It has also been shown that betamethasone dipropionate + salicylic acid ointment has similar efficacy to clobetasol and calcipotriene (calcipotriol) ointments. Betamethasone dipropionate + salicylic acid lotion has similar efficacy to clobetasol lotion. Faster improvement of scaling, itching, and redness was noted with betamethasone dipropionate + salicylic acid lotion compared with betamethasone dipropionate alone. Dovobet (Daivobet) ointment is a fixed-dose combination product containing betamethasone dipropionate and calcipotriene. Clinical studies have shown that it has greater efficacy and a faster speed of onset than the individual components or tacalcitol. Once daily and twice daily treatments have similar efficacy. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index reductions of approximately 40% after 1 week and 70% after 4 weeks of therapy were consistently noted in six large international studies involving >6000 patients. Betamethasone dipropionate + calcipotriene treatment is associated with approximately 75% less adverse cutaneous events as compared with tacalcitol, 50% less compared with calcipotriene, and a similar number as treatment with betamethasone dipropionate. PMID:15109271

  2. [Fiber-reinforced composite in fixed prosthodontics].

    PubMed

    Pilo, R; Abu Rass, Z; Shmidt, A

    2010-07-01

    Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) is composed of resin matrix and fibers filler. Common types of fibers: polyethylene, carbon and glass. Fibers can be continuous and aligned, discontinuous and aligned, discontinuous and randomly oriented. The architecture of the fibers is unidirectional, woven or braided. The two main types are: dry fibers or impregnated. Inclusion of fibers to resin composite increased its average flexural strength in 100-200 MPa. FRC can be utilized by the dentist in direct approach (splinting, temporary winged bridge) or indirect approach (laboratory made fixed partial denture). Laboratory fixed partial denture (FPD) is made from FRC substructure and Hybrid/Microfill particulate composite veneer. Main indications: interim temporary FPD or FPD in cases of questionable abutment teeth, in aesthetic cases where All Ceram FPD is not feasible. Retention is attained by adhesive cementation to minimally prepared teeth or to conventionally prepared teeth; other options are inlay-onlay bridges or hybrid bridges. Contraindications are: poor hygiene, inability to control humidity, parafunction habits, and more than two pontics. Survival rate of FRC FPD over 5 years is 75%, lower compared to porcelain fused to metal FPD which is 95%. Main reasons for failure are: fracture of framework and delamination of the veneer. Part of the failures is repairable. PMID:21485555

  3. Experimental Study on Nonlinear Vibrations of Fixed-Fixed Curved Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Patel, B. P.

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear dynamic behavior of fixed-fixed shallow and deep curved beams is studied experimentally using non-contact type of electromagnetic shaker and acceleration measurements. The frequency response obtained from acceleration measurements is found to be in fairly good agreement with the computational response. The travellingwave phenomenon along with participation of higher harmonics and softening nonlinearity are observed. The experimental results on the internal resonance of curved beams due to direct excitation of anti-symmetric mode are reported for the first time. The deep curved beam depicts chaotic response at higher excitation amplitude.

  4. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory...

  5. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory...

  6. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory...

  7. 49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section 587.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of...

  8. 49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section 587.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed industrial stairs. 1910.24 Section 1910.24 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs. (a... fixed general industrial stairs. This classification includes interior and exterior stairs...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed industrial stairs. 1910.24 Section 1910.24 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs. (a... fixed general industrial stairs. This classification includes interior and exterior stairs...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed industrial stairs. 1910.24 Section 1910.24 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs. (a... fixed general industrial stairs. This classification includes interior and exterior stairs...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed industrial stairs. 1910.24 Section 1910.24 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs. (a... fixed general industrial stairs. This classification includes interior and exterior stairs...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed industrial stairs. 1910.24 Section 1910.24 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs. (a... fixed general industrial stairs. This classification includes interior and exterior stairs...

  14. 46 CFR 121.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 121.410 Section 121... AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 121.410 Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device,...

  15. 46 CFR 121.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 121.410 Section 121... AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 121.410 Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device,...

  16. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory...

  17. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory...

  18. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  19. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  20. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  1. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  2. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  3. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  4. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  5. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  6. 48 CFR 46.304 - Fixed-price service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price service... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.304 Fixed-price service contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-4, Inspection of Services—Fixed-Price, in...

  7. 48 CFR 1828.370 - Fixed-price contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contract... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 1828.370 Fixed-price contract... Risk, in all negotiated fixed-price contracts for the development, production,...

  8. 48 CFR 47.104-2 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.104-2 Fixed-price contracts. (a) F.o.b. destination. 49 U.S.C. 10721 and 13712 rates do not apply to shipments under fixed-price f.o.b. destination contracts (delivered...

  9. 48 CFR 1816.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firm-fixed-price contracts... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1816.202 Firm-fixed-price contracts....

  10. 48 CFR 1828.370 - Fixed-price contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contract... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 1828.370 Fixed-price contract... Risk, in all negotiated fixed-price contracts for the development, production,...

  11. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 31... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts. The applicable subparts of part 31 shall be used in the pricing of fixed-price contracts,...

  12. 48 CFR 46.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price supply... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.302 Fixed-price supply contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-2, Inspection of Supplies—Fixed-Price, in solicitations...

  13. 48 CFR 46.304 - Fixed-price service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price service... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.304 Fixed-price service contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-4, Inspection of Services—Fixed-Price, in...

  14. 48 CFR 47.104-2 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.104-2 Fixed-price contracts. (a) F.o.b. destination. 49 U.S.C. 10721 and 13712 rates do not apply to shipments under fixed-price f.o.b. destination contracts (delivered...

  15. 48 CFR 52.243-1 - Changes-Fixed-Price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-Fixed-Price. 52....243-1 Changes—Fixed-Price. As prescribed in 43.205(e), insert the following clause: Changes—Fixed-Price (AUG 1987) (a) The Contracting Officer may at any time, by written order, and without notice...

  16. 48 CFR 1816.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firm-fixed-price contracts... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1816.202 Firm-fixed-price contracts....

  17. 48 CFR 52.243-1 - Changes-Fixed-Price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes-Fixed-Price. 52....243-1 Changes—Fixed-Price. As prescribed in 43.205(e), insert the following clause: Changes—Fixed-Price (AUG 1987) (a) The Contracting Officer may at any time, by written order, and without notice...

  18. 48 CFR 52.243-1 - Changes-Fixed-Price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes-Fixed-Price. 52....243-1 Changes—Fixed-Price. As prescribed in 43.205(e), insert the following clause: Changes—Fixed-Price (AUG 1987) (a) The Contracting Officer may at any time, by written order, and without notice...

  19. 48 CFR 46.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price supply... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.302 Fixed-price supply contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-2, Inspection of Supplies—Fixed-Price, in solicitations...

  20. 48 CFR 52.243-1 - Changes-Fixed-Price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes-Fixed-Price. 52....243-1 Changes—Fixed-Price. As prescribed in 43.205(e), insert the following clause: Changes—Fixed-Price (AUG 1987) (a) The Contracting Officer may at any time, by written order, and without notice...

  1. 48 CFR 31.102 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts. 31... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.102 Fixed-price contracts. The applicable subparts of part 31 shall be used in the pricing of fixed-price contracts,...

  2. 50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking. 660.219 Section 660.219 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a)...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  7. 10 CFR 600.29 - Fixed obligation awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed obligation awards. 600.29 Section 600.29 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.29 Fixed obligation awards. (a) General. This section contains provisions applicable to the award of financial assistance instruments on a fixed amount...

  8. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  9. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  10. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  11. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  12. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  13. 47 CFR 15.307 - Coordination with fixed microwave service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordination with fixed microwave service. 15... Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.307 Coordination with fixed microwave service. (a... Private Operational-Fixed Microwave Service (OFS) operating under part 101 of this chapter to...

  14. 47 CFR 15.307 - Coordination with fixed microwave service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordination with fixed microwave service. 15... Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.307 Coordination with fixed microwave service. (a... Private Operational-Fixed Microwave Service (OFS) operating under part 101 of this chapter to...

  15. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  16. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  17. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed fire... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls....

  18. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed fire... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls....

  19. Auditory target detection in reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Patrick M.; Freyman, Richard L.; Balakrishnan, Uma

    2004-04-01

    Measurements and theoretical predictions of auditory target detection in simulated reverberant conditions are reported. The target signals were pulsed 13-octave bands of noise and the masker signal was a continuous wideband noise. Target and masker signals were passed through a software simulation of a reverberant room with a rigid sphere modeling a listener's head. The location of the target was fixed while the location of the masker was varied in the simulated room. Degree of reverberation was controlled by varying the uniform acoustic absorption of the simulated room's surfaces. The resulting target and masker signals were presented to the listeners over headphones in monaural-left, monaural-right, or binaural listening modes. Changes in detection performance in the monaural listening modes were largely predictable from the changes in target-to-masker ratio in the target band, but with a few dB of extra masking in reverberation. Binaural detection performance was generally well predicted by applying Durlach's [in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory (Academic, New York, 1972)] equalization-cancellation theory to the direct-plus-reverberant ear signals. Predictions in all cases were based on a statistical description of room acoustics and on acoustic diffraction by a sphere. The success of these detection models in the present well-controlled reverberant conditions suggests that they can be used to incorporate listening mode and source location as factors in speech-intelligibility predictions.

  20. Review of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of solution of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics are presented. Scattering experiments of a beam of particles at a nonrelativisitic energy by a target made up of particles are analyzed. The Schroedinger equation is used to develop the quantum mechanical description of the system and one of several functions depending on the relative distance of the particles. The inverse problem is the construction of the potentials from experimental measurements.

  1. Tackling Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document is designed to help British training and enterprise councils (TECs) and further education (FE) colleges develop and implement strategies for achieving the National Targets for Education and Training (NTET), which were developed by the Confederation of British Industry in 1992 and endorsed by the British government. The findings from…

  2. Low crosstalk optical hierarchical authentication with a fixed random phase lock based on two beams interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dajiang; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel method to achieve the purpose of hierarchical authentication based on two beams interference. In this method, different target images indicating different authentication levels are analytically encoded into corresponding phase-only masks (phase keys) and amplitude-only masks (amplitude keys) with the help of a random phase mask, which is created in advance and acts as the fixed lock of this authentication system. For the authentication process, a legal user can obtain a specified target image at the output plane if his/her phase key, and amplitude key, which should be settled close against the fixed internal phase lock, are respectively illuminated by two coherent beams. By comparing the target image with all the standard certification images in the database, the system can thus verify the user's identity. In simple terms, this system can not only confirm the legality of a user but also distinguish his/her identity level. Moreover, in despite of the internal phase lock of this system being fixed, the crosstalk between different pairs of keys hold by different users is low. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are both provided to demonstrate the validity of this method.

  3. Breaking the fixed-arrival-time restriction in reaching movements of neural prosthetic devices.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan; da Silva, Marco

    2011-06-01

    We routinely generate reaching arm movements to function independently. For paralyzed users of upper extremity neural prosthetic devices, flexible, high-performance reaching algorithms will be critical to restoring quality-of-life. Previously, algorithms called real-time reach state equations (RSE) were developed to integrate the user's plan and execution-related neural activity to drive reaching movements to arbitrary targets. Preliminary validation under restricted conditions suggested that RSE might yield dramatic performance improvements. Unfortunately, real-world applications of RSE have been impeded because the RSE assumes a fixed, known arrival time. Recent animal-based prototypes attempted to break the fixed-arrival-time assumption by proposing a standard model (SM) that instead restricted the user's movements to a fixed, known set of targets. Here, we leverage general purpose filter design (GPFD) to break both of these critical restrictions, freeing the paralyzed user to make reaching movements to arbitrary target sets with various arrival times and definitive stopping. In silico validation predicts that the new approach, GPFD-RSE, outperforms the SM while offering greater flexibility. We demonstrate the GPFD-RSE against SM in the simulated control of an overactuated 3-D virtual robotic arm with a real-time inverse kinematics engine. PMID:21189232

  4. Quality of fixed prosthodontics after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Glantz, P O; Nilner, K; Jendresen, M D; Sundberg, H

    1993-08-01

    Interviews and/or clinical examinations by means of the California Dental Association quality evaluation system were carried out in a group of persons who had received extensive restorative treatments with fixed partial dentures 15 years before this study. The studied group consisted of 77 persons who agreed to participate from an original group of 150 persons selected at random from the Swedish Dental Insurance System records. Of the original group 20 had died, 17 were not traceable or not able to participate for medical reasons, and 36 declined to participate. Thirty-two per cent of the recorded reconstructions had been lost, and 8% partially lost during the 15-year period. Thirty-five per cent of the reconstructions were rated as Satisfactory, whereas the remaining ones had mixed clinical quality ratings. Failures and Not Acceptable quality ratings were found to be caused mainly by fractures, loss of retention, and/or dental caries. PMID:8237309

  5. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine.

    PubMed

    Jhaj, Ratinder; Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies. Levocetirizine, an active (R)-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past. PMID:27440959

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid induced generalized fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Calka, Omer; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Bulut, Gulay

    2014-09-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a rare form of drug allergies that recur at the same cutaneous or mucosal site in every usage of drug. Single or multiple round, sharply demarcated and dusky red plaques appear soon after drug exposure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA: 3α,7β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid) is used for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Some side effects may be observed, such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, pruritus and headaches. We encountered only three cases of lichenoid reaction regarding the use of UDCA among previous studies. In this article, we reported a generalized FDE case related to UDCA intake in a 59-year-old male patient with cholestasis for the first time in the literature. PMID:24147950

  7. Secure Computation with Fixed-Point Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catrina, Octavian; Saxena, Amitabh

    Secure computation is a promising approach to business problems in which several parties want to run a joint application and cannot reveal their inputs. Secure computation preserves the privacy of input data using cryptographic protocols, allowing the parties to obtain the benefits of data sharing and at the same time avoid the associated risks. These business applications need protocols that support all the primitive data types and allow secure protocol composition and efficient application development. Secure computation with rational numbers has been a challenging problem. We present in this paper a family of protocols for multiparty computation with rational numbers using fixed-point representation. This approach offers more efficient solutions for secure computation than other usual representations.

  8. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine

    PubMed Central

    Jhaj, Ratinder; Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies. Levocetirizine, an active (R)-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past. PMID:27440959

  9. Partial gauge fixing and equivariant cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Given a gauge theory with gauge group G, it is sometimes useful to find an equivalent formulation in terms of a nontrivial gauge subgroup H ⊂G. This amounts to fixing the gauge partially from G down to H. We study this problem systematically, both from the algebraic and from the path integral points of view. We find that the usual BRST cohomology must be replaced by an equivariant version and that the ghost Lagrangian must always include quartic ghost terms, even at tree level. Both the Cartan and Weil models for equivariant cohomology play a role and find natural interpretations within the physics framework. Applications include the construction of D-brane models of emergent space, the 't Hooft Abelian projection scenario in quantum chromodynamics and the formulation of the low-energy effective theories of grand unified models.

  10. Settling of fixed erythrocyte suspension droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that when particles behave collectively rather than individually, the fractionation of micron-size particles on the basis of size, density, and surface characteristics by centrifugation and electrophoresis is hindered. The formation and sedimentation of droplets containing particles represent an extreme example of collective behavior and pose a major problem for these separation methods when large quantities of particles need to be fractionated. Experiments are described that measure droplet sizes and settling rates for a variety of particles and droplets. Expressions relating the particle concentration in a drop to measurable quantities of the fluids and particles are developed. The number of particles in each droplet is then estimated, together with the effective droplet density. Red blood cells from different animals fixed in glutaraldehyde provide model particle groups.

  11. Fixed Eigenvector Analysis of Thermographic NDE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been shown effective for reducing thermographic NDE data. This paper will discuss an alternative method of analysis that has been developed where a predetermined set of eigenvectors is used to process the thermal data from both reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) and graphiteepoxy honeycomb materials. These eigenvectors can be generated either from an analytic model of the thermal response of the material system under examination, or from a large set of experimental data. This paper provides the details of the analytic model, an overview of the PCA process, as well as a quantitative signal-to-noise comparison of the results of performing both conventional PCA and fixed eigenvector analysis on thermographic data from two specimens, one Reinforced Carbon-Carbon with flat bottom holes and the second a sandwich construction with graphite-epoxy face sheets and aluminum honeycomb core.

  12. Meprobamate-induced fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Zaïem, Ahmed; Kaabi, Widd; Badri, Talel; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Sahnoun, Rym; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh; Lakhal, Mohamed; El Aidli, Sihem

    2014-01-01

    Meprobamate is usually a safe drug prescribed for anxiety disorders. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is an exceptional cutaneous adverse effect of this drug. We report a case of FDE induced by meprobamate with positive patch test. A 22-year-old woman was prescribed for depression meprobamate, aceprometazine, valpromide and lorazepam. On the second day of treatment, the patient presented red erythematous and pruriginous plaques in the limbs and the face. After stopping the previous treatment, the patient's lesions resolved completely within 3 weeks with residual pigmentation. One month later, patch tests were performed and were positive to meprobamate. Exceptional cases of FDE were reported in literature with meprobamate. None has reported the use of patch test to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:24446836

  13. Link and subgraph likelihoods in random undirected networks with fixed and partially fixed degree sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jacob G.; Foster, David V.; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-10-01

    The simplest null models for networks, used to distinguish significant features of a particular network from a priori expected features, are random ensembles with the degree sequence fixed by the specific network of interest. These “fixed degree sequence” (FDS) ensembles are, however, famously resistant to analytic attack. In this paper we introduce ensembles with partially-fixed degree sequences (PFDS) and compare analytic results obtained for them with Monte Carlo results for the FDS ensemble. These results include link likelihoods, subgraph likelihoods, and degree correlations. We find that local structural features in the FDS ensemble can be reasonably well estimated by simultaneously fixing only the degrees of a few nodes, in addition to the total number of nodes and links. As test cases we use two protein interaction networks (Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the internet on the autonomous system (AS) level, and the World Wide Web. Fixing just the degrees of two nodes gives the mean neighbor degree as a function of node degree, ⟨k'⟩k , in agreement with results explicitly obtained from rewiring. For power law degree distributions, we derive the disassortativity analytically. In the PFDS ensemble the partition function can be expanded diagrammatically. We obtain an explicit expression for the link likelihood to lowest order, which reduces in the limit of large, sparse undirected networks with L links and with kmax≪L to the simple formula P(k,k')=kk'/(2L+kk') . In a similar limit, the probability for three nodes to be linked into a triangle reduces to the factorized expression PΔ(k1,k2,k3)=P(k1,k2)P(k1,k3)P(k2,k3) .

  14. Do foliar endophytic bacteria fix nitrogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Frank, C.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Carper, D.; Vandehey, N.; O'Neil, J.; Dekas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic microorganisms - bacteria and fungi that live inside healthy plant tissue - are a relatively unexplored source of functional diversity in natural ecosystems. Prior to modern sequencing technology, detecting uncultured endophytic bacteria and assessing their putative functions was challenging. However, recent work has revealed a remarkable diversity of as yet non-culturable endophytic taxa and is beginning to identify functional roles within plant microbiomes. We recently examined bacterial communities in the foliage of a long-lived, high-elevation conifer species, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and discovered a community strongly dominated by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacteraceae), with several taxa closely related to known nitrogen fixers. Given limber pine's status as a pioneer species that is able to grow in low fertility soils, we hypothesized that this bacterial community has a potential functional role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, providing a source of this limiting nutrient to the host tree. We used the radioisotope 13N2 to confirm that N2 rapidly diffuses into pine needles, where it could potentially be fixed. With an acetylene reduction assay we confirmed nitrogenase enzyme activity inside excised twigs 4 times over a growing season, and estimate potential rates of N2 fixation at 0.1 nmol N2 g needle-1 hr-1. Scaled to the stand level, this N input could be on the order of ~20 mg N m-2 d-1 over a growing season. While these rates are low, the long lifespan of individual trees (~1000 years) makes them biologically meaningful. Still, measured rates of acetylene reduction and bulk 15N2 incorporation are quite variable in space and time. Much work remains to better characterize the plant-microbial interactions in this system, including the rates of nitrogen fixation and their variability over the growing season, across edaphic conditions, among host species, and through plant development; and to determine which community members are responsible

  15. Integration-deficient Lentiviral Vectors Expressing Codon-optimized R338L Human FIX Restore Normal Hemostasis in Hemophilia B Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suwanmanee, Thipparat; Hu, Genlin; Gui, Tong; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Kutschera, Ina; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Monahan, Paul E; Kafri, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) have been shown to transduce a wide spectrum of target cells and organs in vitro and in vivo and to maintain long-term transgene expression in nondividing cells. However, epigenetic silencing of episomal vector genomes reduces IDLV transgene expression levels and renders these safe vectors less efficient. In this article, we describe for the first time a complete correction of factor IX (FIX) deficiency in hemophilia B mice by IDLVs carrying a novel, highly potent human FIX cDNA. A 50-fold increase in human FIX cDNA potency was achieved by combining two mechanistically independent yet synergistic strategies: (i) optimization of the human FIX cDNA codon usage to increase human FIX protein production per vector genome and (ii) generation of a highly catalytic mutant human FIX protein in which the arginine residue at position 338 was substituted with leucine. The enhanced human FIX activity was not associated with liver damage or with the formation of human FIX-directed inhibitory antibodies and rendered IDLV-treated FIX-knockout mice resistant to a challenging tail-clipping assay. A novel S1 nuclease-based B1-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay showed low levels of IDLV integration in mouse liver. Overall, this study demonstrates that IDLVs carrying an improved human FIX cDNA safely and efficiently cure hemophilia B in a mouse model. PMID:23941813

  16. Target assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    A target for a proton beam which is capable of generating neutrons for absorption in a breeding blanket includes a plurality of solid pins formed of a neutron emissive target material disposed parallel to the path of the beam and which are arranged axially in a plurality of layers so that pins in each layer are offset with respect to pins in all other layers, enough layers being used so that each proton in the beam will strike at least one pin with means being provided to cool the pins. For a 300 mA, 1 GeV beam (300 MW), stainless steel pins, 12 inches long and 0.23 inches in diameter are arranged in triangular array in six layers with one sixth of the pins in each layer, the number of pins being such that the entire cross sectional area of the beam is covered by the pins with minimum overlap of pins.

  17. Fixed-combination treatments for intraocular hypertension in Chinese patients – focus on bimatoprost-timolol

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Ling, Zhihong; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs). In the People’s Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in the People’s Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People’s Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons of BTFC with other fixed-combination drugs, and treatment adherence and persistence with treatment in Chinese patients are unknown and will require further study. PMID:25999695

  18. Fixed-combination treatments for intraocular hypertension in Chinese patients - focus on bimatoprost-timolol.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Ling, Zhihong; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs). In the People's Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in the People's Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People's Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons of BTFC with other fixed-combination drugs, and treatment adherence and persistence with treatment in Chinese patients are unknown and will require further study. PMID:25999695

  19. On-road experiment to assess drivers' detection of roadside targets as a function of headlight system, target placement, and target reflectance.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Ian J; Brumbelow, Matt; Frischmann, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Adaptive headlights swivel with steering input to keep the beams on the roadway as drivers negotiate curves. To assess the effects of this feature on driver's visual performance, a field experiment was conducted at night on a rural, unlit, and unlined two-lane road during which 20 adult participant drivers searched a set of 60 targets. High- (n=30) and low- (n=30) reflectance targets were evenly distributed on straight road sections and on the inside or outside of curves. Participants completed three target detection trials: once with adaptive high-intensity discharge (HID) headlights, once with fixed HID headlights, and once with fixed halogen headlights. Results indicated the adaptive HID headlights helped drivers detect targets that were most difficult to see (low reflectance) at the points in curves found by other researchers to be most crucial for successful navigation (inside apex). For targets placed on straight stretches of road or on the outside of curves, the adaptive feature provided no significant improvement in target detection. However, the pattern of results indicate that HID lamps whether fixed or adaptive improved target detection somewhat, suggesting that part of the real world crash reduction measured for this adaptive system (Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2012a) may be due to the differences in the light source (HID vs. halogen). Depending on the scenario, the estimated benefits to driver response time associated with the tested adaptive (swiveling HID) headlights ranged from 200 to 380ms compared with the fixed headlight systems tested. PMID:25603548

  20. Patients' satisfaction and maintenance of fixed partial denture

    PubMed Central

    Geiballa, Ghada Hassan; Abubakr, Neamat Hassan; Ibrahim, Yahia Eltayib

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate patient satisfaction with fixed prosthesis following placement and to assess the oral health and oral hygiene practices awareness by survey questionnaire. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety-two questionnaires were filled by patients wearing fixed prosthesis; the questionnaire included the subjective perception of treatment with fixed prosthesis, patients' perception of clinical outcome, regarding esthetics, masticatory function, speech, and together patient's attitude toward oral hygiene measures. Results: Results showed that 84% of the patients were satisfied with their fixed prosthesis, while only 46.4% of patients were satisfied with the chewing ability. In concern, with esthetic outcome, 80% of patients showed that they were satisfied with the esthetic. The results showed that a high significantly number of patients did not use any form of interdental aids' to clean their fixed prosthesis (94%). The main reason for not using any dental aids' (91.1%) was a lack of post fixed prosthodontics instructions and not been informed by the dentist. Conclusion: High percentages of patients were satisfied with their fixed prosthesis. The most important finding of this study was that majority of patients showed a lack of knowledge regarding post fixed prosthodontics instructions and the significance of maintenance of fixed prosthesis using dental aids'. Of particular concern was the majority of dentists did not pay attention to the post treatment instructions concerning the maintenance of fixed prosthesis. PMID:27095906

  1. Targeting engineering synchronization in chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-07-01

    A method of targeting engineering synchronization states in two identical and mismatch chaotic systems is explained in detail. The method is proposed using linear feedback controller coupling for engineering synchronization such as mixed synchronization, linear and nonlinear generalized synchronization and targeting fixed point. The general form of coupling design to target any desire synchronization state under unidirectional coupling with the help of Lyapunov function stability theory is derived analytically. A scaling factor is introduced in the coupling definition to smooth control without any loss of synchrony. Numerical results are done on two mismatch Lorenz systems and two identical Sprott oscillators.

  2. Drug discrimination under a concurrent fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, D E; Li, M

    1999-01-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a two-key concurrent fixed-ratio 10 fixed-ratio 40 schedule of food presentation, in which the fixed-ratio component with the lower response requirement was programmed to reinforce responding on one key after drug administration (pentobarbital-biased key) and on the other key after saline administration (saline-biased key). After responding stabilized, pigeons averaged 98% of their responses on the pentobarbital-biased key during training sessions preceded by pentobarbital, and they averaged 90% of their responses on the saline-biased key during training sessions preceded by saline. In test sessions preceded by doses of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, or ethanol, pigeons switched from responding on the saline-biased key at low doses to responding on the pentobarbital-biased key at higher doses (the dose-response curve was quantal). High doses of phencyclidine produced responding on both keys, whereas pigeons responded almost exclusively on the saline-biased key after all doses of methamphetamine. These and previous experiments using concurrent reinforcement schedules to study drug discrimination illustrate that the schedule of reinforcement is an important determinant of the shape of dose-effect curves in drug-discrimination experiments. PMID:10503298

  3. Fixed duration MDT in paucibacillary leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mathai, R; George, S; Jacob, M

    1991-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a fixed duration of multidrug therapy (MDT) for paucibacillary leprosy which is currently widely implemented in India. A clinico-pathological study was initiated in 1984 to assess the efficacy of this regimen. The clinical and histological responses of the patients to MDT were assessed at the end of 6 months, when their treatment was stopped, and at 2 1/2 years, when they were released from surveillance, and compared with the responses of a matched patient group to conventional dapsone (DDS) monotherapy during the same period. Of 28 patients who completed the MDT schedule, there was less than 60% improvement in 33% of them when treatment was stopped at the end of 6 months and in 20% of them at the end of 2 1/2 years. Of 26 patients receiving DDS monotherapy, 37% showed less than 60% improvement at the end of 6 months but only 8.8% had less than 60% improvement at 2 1/2 years. It is concluded that MDT for paucibacillary leprosy as recommended by WHO may not have a major advantage over DDS monotherapy, since about 20% of those patients on MDT continue to have evidence of active disease when discharged from surveillance. PMID:2071980

  4. Materials and techniques in fixed prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Naylor, W P; Beatty, M W

    1992-07-01

    If we have learned anything from our experiences with all-ceramic systems such as Cerestore, Cerapearl, and even Dicor, it is that it takes years to uncover the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of new materials and technologies. Manufacturers' initial claims for fit, strength, esthetics, biocompatibility, wear characteristics, and clinical performance should be viewed as preliminary until supported by independent laboratory and clinical studies. Laboratory testing alone may not provide sufficient insight into the relative strengths and weaknesses of products or assure comparable performance in the commercial dental laboratory or the ultimate testing arena, the oral environment. Moreover, the diversity of the new materials and techniques discussed demonstrates the breadth and depth of the technologic changes in dental biomaterials. The rate at which these dental products enter the marketplace and their sheer number alone are indeed staggering. Furthermore, these advances are not emerging from any single nation but from manufacturers all around the world (Japan, Germany, as well as the United States), indicating our international reliance on one another. Clearly, the decade of the 1990s is emerging as an exciting period in the development of biomaterials in comprehensive fixed prosthodontics and dentistry in general. PMID:1327885

  5. Seven lean years. [No quick fix available

    SciTech Connect

    Byron, C.

    1980-12-22

    The end of the cheap oil era is having a more profound impact than any other single issue or event since World War II, making the everything crisis a more-appropriate label than energy crisis. Warnings from OPEC that oil may rise to $60 per barrel will not have worldwide inventories as a moderating force because the Iran-Iraq war has reduced OPEC production to the point where oil companies are unwilling to draw down their stockpiles. The cartel's prices have merely exploited a worldwide increase in demand for oil that would have pushed prices up anyway. The social and economic havoc is straining the economies of developed countries and could bankrupt and destabilize much of the Third World. The search for non-OPEC oil sources and alternatives to oil prompted a global race to discover new reserves, exploit renewable fuel sources, and initiate conservation. With no quick fix available, a painful period is foreseen while people learn to husband natural resources. (DCK)

  6. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  7. Difficulty in dislodging in vivo fixed radiostrontium.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, V R; Jagtap, V S; Pahuja, D N; Rajan, M G R; Samuel, A M

    2004-07-01

    Many trials based on the basic phenomena of isotopic dilution, adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, etc., have been attempted for the decorporation of radiostrontium, particularly Sr, after its entry in the in vivo system. We have recently demonstrated a non-isotopic carrier effect of some common calcium salts (calcium = 9 mg mL) to reduce the whole body retention of radiostrontium, if administered within 2 h after radiostrontium exposure and furthermore once daily, in rats, supplemented with calcium fortified diet. However, 25-30% of radiostrontium (compared to 50-60% in untreated animals) was still found to be retained in the animal even after 2 wk of treatment. Trial of some simple interventional measures, which would not adversely affect the animal metabolism, like pyrophosphate and magnesium sulfate, sodium citrate, chitin (a bio-absorbent), crown ether (a metal-chelator), and ammonium chloride, was therefore attempted to dislodge this remaining radiostrontium by switching over these animals to normal diet and subjecting them to different lines of treatment with these simple interventions through diet and drinking water separately for a further 4 wk. However, this remaining portion of radiostrontium is fixed in the bone and is difficult to dislodge. PMID:15194921

  8. Likelihoods for fixed rank nomination networks.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Peter; Fosdick, Bailey; Volfovsky, Alex; Stovel, Katherine

    2013-12-01

    Many studies that gather social network data use survey methods that lead to censored, missing, or otherwise incomplete information. For example, the popular fixed rank nomination (FRN) scheme, often used in studies of schools and businesses, asks study participants to nominate and rank at most a small number of contacts or friends, leaving the existence of other relations uncertain. However, most statistical models are formulated in terms of completely observed binary networks. Statistical analyses of FRN data with such models ignore the censored and ranked nature of the data and could potentially result in misleading statistical inference. To investigate this possibility, we compare Bayesian parameter estimates obtained from a likelihood for complete binary networks with those obtained from likelihoods that are derived from the FRN scheme, and therefore accommodate the ranked and censored nature of the data. We show analytically and via simulation that the binary likelihood can provide misleading inference, particularly for certain model parameters that relate network ties to characteristics of individuals and pairs of individuals. We also compare these different likelihoods in a data analysis of several adolescent social networks. For some of these networks, the parameter estimates from the binary and FRN likelihoods lead to different conclusions, indicating the importance of analyzing FRN data with a method that accounts for the FRN survey design. PMID:25110586

  9. How to fix a broken clock

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Analyne M.; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Fortunate are those who rise out of bed to greet the morning light well rested with the energy and enthusiasm to drive a productive day. Others however, depend on hypnotics for sleep and require stimulants to awaken lethargic bodies. Sleep/wake disruption is a common occurrence in healthy individuals throughout their lifespan and is also a comorbid condition to many diseases (neurodegenerative) and psychiatric disorders (depression and bipolar). There is growing concern that chronic disruption of the sleep/wake cycle contributes to more serious conditions including diabetes (type 2), cardiovascular disease and cancer. A poorly functioning circadian system resulting in misalignments in the timing of clocks throughout the body may be at the root of the problem for many people. In this article, we discuss environmental (light therapy) and lifestyle changes (scheduled meals, exercise and sleep) as interventions to help fix a broken clock. We also discuss the challenges and potential for future development of pharmacological treatments to manipulate this key biological system. PMID:24120229

  10. Galvanic gold plating for fixed dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Tuncer Burak; Yilmaz, Burak

    2013-01-01

    Metal ceramic partial fixed dental prostheses have been commonly used for the replacement of missing teeth for many years. Because of an increase in the price of gold, base metal alloys have been the choice of alloy for the fabrication of metal ceramic restorations in many dental clinics. Some major disadvantages of base metals are their corrosion and the dark coloration they may cause at the crown margins. This article describes a galvanic gold-plating technique, which is used to minimize corrosion and improve the esthetics of metal ceramic restorations fabricated with Cr-Co base metal alloys. This technique involves the deposition of a 6 μm to 8 μm 24 K gold layer directly onto the Cr-Co cast prosthesis framework. The technique improves metal surface properties, making them more biocompatible and usable, however, requires additional equipment and experienced laboratory technicians. Clinical studies should be performed to corroborate the long term success of this technique. PMID:24926220

  11. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  12. Accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  13. Fixed target matrix for femtosecond time-resolved and in situ serial micro-crystallography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mueller, C.; Marx, A.; Epp, S. W.; Zhong, Y.; Kuo, A.; Balo, A. R.; Soman, J.; Schotte, F.; Lemke, H. T.; Owen, R. L.; et al

    2015-08-18

    We present a crystallography chip enabling in situ room temperature crystallography at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL) sources. Compared to other in situ approaches, we observe extremely low background and high diffraction data quality. The chip design is robust and allows fast and efficient loading of thousands of small crystals. The ability to load a large number of protein crystals, at room temperature and with high efficiency, into prescribed positions enables high throughput automated serial crystallography with microfocus synchrotron beamlines. In addition, we demonstrate the application of this chip for femtosecond time-resolved serial crystallography at the Linacmore » Coherent Light Source (LCLS, Menlo Park, California, USA). As a result, the chip concept enables multiple images to be acquired from each crystal, allowing differential detection of changes in diffraction intensities in order to obtain high signal-to-noise and fully exploit the time resolution capabilities of XFELs.« less

  14. A fast ring-imaging Cherenkov counter for a fixed-target heavy-quark experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Isenhower, L.D.; Atac, M. |; Brown, C.N.; Darden, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    We present a design for a fast ring-imaging Cherenkov counter operating in the visible. The Cherenkov photons are imaged on an array of small Winston cones and read out with optical fibers and VLPCs. the design is optimized for {pi}/K/p separation in the range 10 < p < 100 GeV/c.

  15. Fixed target matrix for femtosecond time-resolved and in situ serial micro-crystallography.

    PubMed

    Mueller, C; Marx, A; Epp, S W; Zhong, Y; Kuo, A; Balo, A R; Soman, J; Schotte, F; Lemke, H T; Owen, R L; Pai, E F; Pearson, A R; Olson, J S; Anfinrud, P A; Ernst, O P; Dwayne Miller, R J

    2015-09-01

    We present a crystallography chip enabling in situ room temperature crystallography at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL) sources. Compared to other in situ approaches, we observe extremely low background and high diffraction data quality. The chip design is robust and allows fast and efficient loading of thousands of small crystals. The ability to load a large number of protein crystals, at room temperature and with high efficiency, into prescribed positions enables high throughput automated serial crystallography with microfocus synchrotron beamlines. In addition, we demonstrate the application of this chip for femtosecond time-resolved serial crystallography at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS, Menlo Park, California, USA). The chip concept enables multiple images to be acquired from each crystal, allowing differential detection of changes in diffraction intensities in order to obtain high signal-to-noise and fully exploit the time resolution capabilities of XFELs. PMID:26798825

  16. E789 and P865: High-rate fixed-target studies of charm and beauty

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    Experiment 789 at Fermilab used the high-rate E605/E772 spectrometer to study low-multiplicity charm and beauty decays. Preliminary results on charm and beauty production are presented based on analysis of [approx] 100% of the charm data and [approx] 50% of the beauty data. A new experiment is proposed to improve charm and beauty sensitivity by several orders of magnitude.

  17. Fixed target matrix for femtosecond time-resolved and in situ serial micro-crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, C.; Marx, A.; Epp, S. W.; Zhong, Y.; Kuo, A.; Balo, A. R.; Soman, J.; Schotte, F.; Lemke, H. T.; Owen, R. L.; Pai, E. F.; Pearson, A. R.; Olson, J. S.; Anfinrud, P. A.; Ernst, O. P.; Dwayne Miller, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a crystallography chip enabling in situ room temperature crystallography at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL) sources. Compared to other in situ approaches, we observe extremely low background and high diffraction data quality. The chip design is robust and allows fast and efficient loading of thousands of small crystals. The ability to load a large number of protein crystals, at room temperature and with high efficiency, into prescribed positions enables high throughput automated serial crystallography with microfocus synchrotron beamlines. In addition, we demonstrate the application of this chip for femtosecond time-resolved serial crystallography at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS, Menlo Park, California, USA). The chip concept enables multiple images to be acquired from each crystal, allowing differential detection of changes in diffraction intensities in order to obtain high signal-to-noise and fully exploit the time resolution capabilities of XFELs. PMID:26798825

  18. Fixed target single-shot imaging of nanostructures using thin solid membranes at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Daewoong; Kim, Chan; Kim, Yoonhee; Ebisu, Tomio; Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sunam; Kim, Sangsoo; Tono, Kensuke; Noh, Do Young; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Song, Changyong

    2016-02-01

    Single-shot imaging using femtosecond x-ray pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has revealed high-resolution structures of Au nanoparticles and biological macromolecular complexes. The x-ray pulse power of 10 GW is enough to vaporize specimen when it is focused on a few microns area. This makes it essential to have a single particle loader to provide fresh samples to the x-ray pulses. In this paper we introduce single-shot imaging at Spring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA) to investigate various types of specimen, from metallic nanoparticles to biological macromolecules, prepared on Si3N4 membrane. A significant reduction in sample consumption is achieved while maintaining a data acquisition rate of 30 Hz, which is compatible with the current SACLA operation rate.

  19. Fixed charge in the cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Elul, R.

    1967-01-01

    1. Focal electric field was generated by passing a current of 5 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-5 A from a micropipette into the culture medium. Movement of cells at a distance of 5-50 μ from the electrode tip was observed. In case of cells embedded in the culture only local deformation of the membrane was observed. 2. The cell species explored included neurones, glia, muscle fibres, connective cells, malignant cells and erythrocytes. All cells responded in a similar manner to the electric field, and the current required was in the same range. 3. Cells were attracted to a positive micropipette and repelled from a negative one: the only exception was observed in certain malignant cells which moved in the opposite direction. 4. Movement and membrane deformation could be obtained with electrodes filled with various concentrated and isotonic solutions. The composition of the culture medium also had no qualitative influence on these effects. 5. Metabolic poisons or rupture of the cell membrane had no effect on the movement. Isolated membrane fragments showed movement similar to that of intact cells. 6. The possibility of artifacts due to proximity of the focal electrode is considered. It is shown that electro-osmosis cannot account for the present observations. Some other artifacts are also excluded. 7. It is proposed that the most satisfactory way to account for the present observations is by a membrane carrying negative fixed charge of the order of 2·5 × 103 e.s.u./cm2. Some physiological consequences of presence of negative charge in the membrane are briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:6040152

  20. Auxins upregulate nif and fix genes.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    In a recent publication we analyzed the global effects triggered by IAA overproduction in S. meliloti RD64 under free-living conditions by comparing the gene expression pattern of wild type 1021 with that of RD64 and 1021 treated with IAA and other four chemically or functionally related molecules. Among the genes differentially expressed in RD64 and IAA-treated 1021 cells we found two genes of pho operon, phoT and phoC. Based on this finding we examined the mechanisms for mineral P solubilization in RD64 and the potential ability of this strain to improve Medicago growth under P-starved conditions. Here, we further analyze the expression profiles obtained in microarray analysis and evaluate the specificity and the extent of overlap between all treatments. Venn diagrams indicated that IAA- and 2,4-D-regulated genes were closely related. Furthermore, most differentially expressed genes from pSymA were induced in 1021 cells treated with 2,4-D, ICA, IND and Trp as compared to the untreated 1021 cells. RT-PCR analysis was employed to analyze the differential expression patterns of nitrogen fixation genes under free-living and symbiotic conditions. Under symbiotic condition, the relative expression levels of nif and fix genes were significantly induced in Mt- RD64 plants and in Mt-1021 plants treated with IAA and 2,4-D whereas they were unchanged or repressed in Mt-1021 plants treated with the other selected compounds when compared to the untreated Mt-1021 plants. PMID:20930554

  1. Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment: Subsonic Fixed Wing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florance, Jennifer P.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Aeroelasticity Branch will examine other experimental efforts within the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) program (such as testing of the NASA Common Research Model (CRM)) and other NASA programs and assess aeroelasticity issues and research topics.

  2. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:26802680

  3. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    SciTech Connect

    Khoo, Eric L.H.; Schick, Karlissa; Plank, Ashley W.; Poulsen, Michael; Wong, Winnie W.G.; Middleton, Mark; Martin, Jarad M.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  4. Regeneration and Fixed-Width Analysis of Markov Chain Monte Carlo Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latuszynski, Krzysztof

    2009-07-01

    In the thesis we take the split chain approach to analyzing Markov chains and use it to establish fixed-width results for estimators obtained via Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures (MCMC). Theoretical results include necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of regeneration for central limit theorems for ergodic Markov chains and a regenerative proof of a CLT version for uniformly ergodic Markov chains with E_{π}f^2< infty. To obtain asymptotic confidence intervals for MCMC estimators, strongly consistent estimators of the asymptotic variance are essential. We relax assumptions required to obtain such estimators. Moreover, under a drift condition, nonasymptotic fixed-width results for MCMC estimators for a general state space setting (not necessarily compact) and not necessarily bounded target function f are obtained. The last chapter is devoted to the idea of adaptive Monte Carlo simulation and provides convergence results and law of large numbers for adaptive procedures under path-stability condition for transition kernels.

  5. Molecular characterization of the breakpoints of an inversion fixed between Drosophila melanogaster and D. subobscura

    SciTech Connect

    Cirera, S.; Martin-Campos, J.M.; Segarra, C.

    1995-01-01

    The two breakpoints of a chromosomal inversion fixed since the split of Drosophila melanogaster and D. subobscura lineages have been isolated and sequenced in both species. The regions spanning the break-points initially were identified by the presence of two signals after interspecific in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes. Interspecific comparison of the sequenced regions allowed us to delineate the location of the breakpoints. Close to one of these breakpoints a new transcription unit (bcn92) has been identified in both species. The inversion fixed between D. melanogaster and D. subobscura does not seem to have broken any transcription unit. Neither complete nor defective transposable elements were found in the regions encompassing the breakpoints. Short thymine-rich sequences (30-50 hp long) have been found bordering the breakpoint regions. Although alternating Pur-Pyr sequences were detected, these putative target sites for topoisomerase II were not differentially clustered in the breakpoints. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  7. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast (˜100 Hz) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  8. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  9. 46 CFR 184.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 184.410 Section 184.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER... Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic...

  10. 46 CFR 184.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 184.410 Section 184.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER... Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic...

  11. Ingestion of a Fixed Partial Denture During General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neustein, Steve; Beicke, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dental trauma during anesthesia is a common occurrence. Many patients have had extensive dental work, which is more fragile than the natural dentition. This work may include crowns, fixed partial dentures (bridges), and porcelain veneers. We report for the first time, a case in which a fixed partial denture became dislodged and was ingested, and was recovered postoperatively with endoscopy. PMID:17579503

  12. 5 CFR 532.105 - Pay-fixing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay-fixing authority. 532.105 Section 532.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.105 Pay-fixing authority. The head of each agency shall...

  13. 5 CFR 532.105 - Pay-fixing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay-fixing authority. 532.105 Section 532.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.105 Pay-fixing authority. The head of each agency shall...

  14. 48 CFR 216.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive contracts. 216.403 Section 216.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts 216.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts....

  15. 48 CFR 846.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 846.302 Section 846.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  16. 48 CFR 546.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 546.302 Section 546.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 546.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  17. 40 CFR 63.1042 - Standards-Separator fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards-Separator fixed roof. 63...) National Emission Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1042 Standards—Separator fixed roof. (a) This section applies to owners and operators subject to this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 63.902 - Standards-Tank fixed roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fixed roof. This section does not apply to a fixed-roof tank that is also equipped with an internal... tank internal pressure in accordance with the tank design specifications. The device shall be designed... position whenever the tank internal pressure is within the internal pressure operating range determined...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed and portable ladders. 1918.24 Section 1918.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Gangways and Other Means of Access § 1918.24 Fixed and portable ladders. (a)...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed and portable ladders. 1918.24 Section 1918.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Gangways and Other Means of Access § 1918.24 Fixed and portable ladders. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 1562.25 - Fixed base operator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed base operator requirements. 1562.25 Section 1562.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY... Operations § 1562.25 Fixed base operator requirements. (a) Security program. Each FBO must adopt and...

  2. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Daniel; Chillet, Daniel; Sentieys, Olivier

    2006-12-01

    Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flooding systems by means of an approved fire detection device installed and interconnected with a pre... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910... § 1910.160 Fixed extinguishing systems, general. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flooding systems by means of an approved fire detection device installed and interconnected with a pre... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910... § 1910.160 Fixed extinguishing systems, general. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flooding systems by means of an approved fire detection device installed and interconnected with a pre... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910... § 1910.160 Fixed extinguishing systems, general. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies...

  6. 48 CFR 846.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 846.302 Section 846.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  7. 48 CFR 16.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firm-fixed-price contracts. 16.202 Section 16.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.202...

  8. 48 CFR 846.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 846.302 Section 846.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  9. 48 CFR 546.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 546.302 Section 546.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 546.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  10. 48 CFR 846.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 846.302 Section 846.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  11. 48 CFR 546.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 546.302 Section 546.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 546.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  12. 48 CFR 16.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firm-fixed-price contracts. 16.202 Section 16.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.202...

  13. 48 CFR 846.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 846.302 Section 846.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  14. 48 CFR 546.302 - Fixed-price supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price supply contracts. 546.302 Section 546.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 546.302 Fixed-price supply contracts....

  15. 30 CFR 75.360 - Preshift examination at fixed intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preshift examination at fixed intervals. 75.360 Section 75.360 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.360 Preshift examination at fixed intervals. (a)(1) Except...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162 Section 1910.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed...

  17. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Stage of Construction on or After or Which Undergo a Major Conversion Completed on or After September 15...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following enclosed...) System types and alternatives. (1) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system may be...

  18. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Stage of Construction on or After or Which Undergo a Major Conversion Completed on or After September 15...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following enclosed...) System types and alternatives. (1) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system may be...

  19. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Stage of Construction on or After or Which Undergo a Major Conversion Completed on or After September 15...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following enclosed...) System types and alternatives. (1) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system may be...

  20. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Stage of Construction on or After or Which Undergo a Major Conversion Completed on or After September 15...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following enclosed...) System types and alternatives. (1) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system may be...

  1. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Stage of Construction on or After or Which Undergo a Major Conversion Completed on or After September 15...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following enclosed...) System types and alternatives. (1) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system may be...

  2. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  3. 49 CFR 218.109 - Hand-operated fixed derails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-operated fixed derails. 218.109 Section 218.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Derails § 218.109 Hand-operated fixed derails. (a)(1) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with...

  4. 49 CFR 218.109 - Hand-operated fixed derails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-operated fixed derails. 218.109 Section 218.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Derails § 218.109 Hand-operated fixed derails. (a)(1) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with...

  5. 49 CFR 218.109 - Hand-operated fixed derails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated fixed derails. 218.109 Section 218.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Derails § 218.109 Hand-operated fixed derails. (a)(1) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with...

  6. 49 CFR 218.109 - Hand-operated fixed derails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-operated fixed derails. 218.109 Section 218.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Derails § 218.109 Hand-operated fixed derails. (a)(1) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with...

  7. 49 CFR 218.109 - Hand-operated fixed derails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated fixed derails. 218.109 Section 218.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Derails § 218.109 Hand-operated fixed derails. (a)(1) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with...

  8. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  9. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  10. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  11. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  12. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  13. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  14. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  15. 12 CFR 619.9180 - Fixed interest spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed interest spread. 619.9180 Section 619.9180 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9180 Fixed interest spread. A percentage to be added to the cost of money to the bank or association as the means...

  16. 34 CFR 76.566 - Fixed costs-restricted rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed costs-restricted rate. 76.566 Section 76.566 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.566 Fixed costs—restricted rate....

  17. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing...

  18. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing...

  19. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing...

  20. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing...

  1. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing...

  2. 47 CFR 15.307 - Coordination with fixed microwave service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coordination with fixed microwave service. 15.307 Section 15.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.307 Coordination with fixed microwave service....

  3. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  4. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  5. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  6. 47 CFR 15.307 - Coordination with fixed microwave service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coordination with fixed microwave service. 15.307 Section 15.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.307 Coordination with fixed microwave service....

  7. 47 CFR 15.307 - Coordination with fixed microwave service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coordination with fixed microwave service. 15.307 Section 15.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.307 Coordination with fixed microwave service....

  8. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-6 - Calculating fixed fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculating fixed fee. 970.1504-1-6 Section 970.1504-1-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-6 Calculating fixed fee. (a) In recognition...

  9. Fixed points for weakly inward mappings in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaoyuan; Jia, Baoguo; Li, Guo-Zhen

    2006-07-01

    S. Hu and Y. Sun [S. Hu, Y. Sun, Fixed point index for weakly inward mappings, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 172 (1993) 266-273] defined the fixed point index for weakly inward mappings, investigated its properties and studied the fixed points for such mappings. In this paper, following S. Hu and Y. Sun, we continue to investigate boundary conditions, under which the fixed point index for the completely continuous and weakly inward mapping, denoted by i(A,[Omega],P), is equal to 1 or 0. Correspondingly, we can obtain some new fixed point theorems of the completely continuous and weakly inward mappings and existence theorems of solutions for the equations Ax=[mu]x, which extend many famous theorems such as Leray-Schauder's theorem, Rothe's two theorems, Krasnoselskii's theorem, Altman's theorem, Petryshyn's theorem, etc., to the case of weakly inward mappings. In addition, our conclusions and methods are different from the ones in many recent works.

  10. [Is it possible to combine fixed therapeutic associations?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2009-03-01

    The number of fixed associations to treat intraocular pressure has increased over the recent years, to improve patient's treatment adherence. They are generally considered as comparable to the same components administered separately with, in some cases, less side effects. It could thus be appealing to combine fixed associations to reduce these side effects and retain efficacy. However, almost all fixed associations contain timolol, a beta blocker, with a risk of an excessive beta blocking dose and related systemic adverse drug reactions. Several fixed-associations contain a prostaglandin analogue. Their combination would not have a superior efficacy to one fixed combination taken alone. Furthermore, an increased risk or incidence of adverse drug reactions would appear. Specific clinical studies are required before recommending their use in daily clinical practice. PMID:19515336

  11. On the potential of fixed arrays for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R W; Rabinowitz, W M

    1993-09-01

    Microphone arrays with fixed (time-invariant) weights are directed at enhancing a desired signal from one direction (straight ahead) while attenuating spatially distributed interference and reverberation. Using the theory of sensitivity-constrained optimal beamforming [Cox et al., IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Sig. Process. ASSP-34, 393-398 (1986)], free-field arrays of head-sized extents were studied. The key parameters affecting array design and performance are the set of transfer functions from the target direction to each array microphone [H(f)] and the intermicrophone cross-spectral densities for isotropic noise [Szz(f)]. Design variables included the orientation of the array, the number, and [as motivated by Soede, Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology (1990)] the directionality of the microphones within the array, and the complexity and robustness of the required processing. Performance was characterized by the broadband intelligibility-weighted directivity (gain against isotropic noise) and noise sensitivity (reflecting the array's sensitivity to uncorrelated noise, as well as device tolerances). For broadside orientation, a variety of arrays based on cardioid and hypercardioid microphones gave very similar performance. They can provide directivities of 7-8 dB with easily implemented weights (simple scalars). For endfire orientation, as Soede (1990) recognized, similar directivities result with weights based on analog gains and pure time delays. However, with weightings chosen independently for each frequency, directivities up to approximately 11 dB may be obtained, although the increased noise sensitivities of these arrays require practical evaluation. Because of sound diffraction, placement of arrays onto the head potentially impacts both their design and performance. In-situ measurements of H(f) and Szz(f) as well as simplified theoretical models are suggested to explore the optimization of head-mounted arrays. PMID:8408974

  12. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    the transaction by the ISO, take a decision to expand the existing system, or retain the original structure of the system. Also, the thesis investigates the impact of wheeling transactions on congestion management, where we present a generalized mathematical model for the Fixed Transmission Right (FTR) auction. The auction guarantees FTR availability to all participants on a non-discriminatory basis, in which system users are permitted to buy, sell and trade FTRs through an auction. When FTRs are utilized with LMPs, they increase the efficient use of the transmission system and let a transmission customer gain advantageous features such as acquiring a mechanism to offset the extra cost due to congestion charges, providing financial and operational certainty and making system users pay for the actual use of the congested paths. The thesis also highlighted FTR trading in secondary markets to self-arrange access across different paths, create long-term transmission rights and provide more commercial certainty.

  13. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-09-11

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale.

  14. Procrastination by pigeons with fixed-interval response requirements.

    PubMed

    Mazur, J E

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments studied the phenomenon of procrastination, in which pigeons chose a larger, more delayed response requirement over a smaller, more immediate response requirement. The response requirements were fixed-interval schedules that did not lead to an immediate food reinforcer, but that interrupted a 55-s period in which food was delivered at random times. The experiments used an adjusting-delay procedure in which the delay to the start of one fixed-interval requirement was varied over trials to estimate an indifference point--a delay at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. Experiment 1 found that as the delay to a shorter fixed-interval requirement was increased, the adjusting delay to a longer fixed-interval requirement also increased, and the rate of increase depended on the duration of the longer fixed-interval requirement. Experiment 2 found a strong preference for a fixed delay of 10 s to the start of a fixed-interval requirement compared to a mixed delay of either 0 or 20 s. The results help to distinguish among different equations that might describe the decreasing effectiveness of a response requirement with increasing delay, and they suggest that delayed reinforcers and delayed response requirements have symmetrical but opposite effects on choice. PMID:9540230

  15. Procrastination by pigeons with fixed-interval response requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, J E

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments studied the phenomenon of procrastination, in which pigeons chose a larger, more delayed response requirement over a smaller, more immediate response requirement. The response requirements were fixed-interval schedules that did not lead to an immediate food reinforcer, but that interrupted a 55-s period in which food was delivered at random times. The experiments used an adjusting-delay procedure in which the delay to the start of one fixed-interval requirement was varied over trials to estimate an indifference point--a delay at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. Experiment 1 found that as the delay to a shorter fixed-interval requirement was increased, the adjusting delay to a longer fixed-interval requirement also increased, and the rate of increase depended on the duration of the longer fixed-interval requirement. Experiment 2 found a strong preference for a fixed delay of 10 s to the start of a fixed-interval requirement compared to a mixed delay of either 0 or 20 s. The results help to distinguish among different equations that might describe the decreasing effectiveness of a response requirement with increasing delay, and they suggest that delayed reinforcers and delayed response requirements have symmetrical but opposite effects on choice. PMID:9540230

  16. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Meshless method for solving fixed boundary problem of plasma equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    This study solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with a fixed plasma boundary by utilizing a meshless method for the first time. Previous studies have utilized a finite element method (FEM) to solve an equilibrium inside the fixed separatrix. In order to avoid difficulties of FEM (such as mesh problem, difficulty of coding, expensive calculation cost), this study focuses on the meshless methods, especially RBF-MFS and KANSA's method to solve the fixed boundary problem. The results showed that CPU time of the meshless methods was ten to one hundred times shorter than that of FEM to obtain the same accuracy.

  18. Follow-up problems with fixed appliances in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Ari, Timucin

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliances are commonly used in managing early orthodontic problems. Despite their widespread use, they have the potential to impinge on the soft tissues, interfere with the eruption of adjacent teeth and become dislodged or broken. These two case reports present the poor outcomes of fixed appliance treatments if the patient fails to attend follow-up appointments. A successful outcome of treatment with fixed appliances depends upon proper patient selection and the communication skills of the dentist to help patients/parents understand the importance of regular checkups. PMID:25928968

  19. Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.

  20. Photosynthate Metabolism in the Source Leaves of N2-Fixing Soybean Plants

    PubMed Central

    de Veau, Edward J. I.; Robinson, J. Michael; Warmbrodt, Robert D.; Kremer, Diane F.

    1992-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams), which were symbiotic with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and which grew well upon reduced nitrogen supplied solely through N2 fixation processes, often exhibited excess accumulation of starch and sucrose and diminished soluble protein in their source leaves. Nitrate and ammonia, when supplied to the nodulated roots of N2-fixing plants, mediated a reduction of foliar starch accumulation and a corresponding increase in soluble protein in the source leaves. This provided an opportunity to examine the potential metabolic adjustments by which NO3− and NH4+ (N) sufficiency or deficiency exerted an influence upon soybean leaf starch synthesis. When compared with soybean plants supplied with N, elevated starch accumulation was focused in leaf palisade parenchyma tissue of N2-fixing plants. Foliar activities of starch synthesis pathway enzymes including fructose-1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase, phosphohexoisomerase, phosphoglucomutase (PGM), as well as adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (in some leaves) exhibited highest activities in leaf extracts of N2-fixing plants when expressed on a leaf protein basis. This was interpreted to mean that there was an adaptation of these enzyme activities in the leaves of N2-fixing plants, and this contributed to an increase in starch accumulation. Another major causal factor associated with increased starch accumulation was the elevation in foliar levels of fructose-6-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), which had risen to chloroplast concentrations considerably in excess of the Km values for their respective target enzymes associated with starch synthesis, e.g. elevated G1P with respect to adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPG-PPiase) binding sites. The cofactor glucose-1,6-bisphosphate (G1,6BP) was found to be obligate for maximal PGM activity in soybean leaf extracts of N2-fixing as well as N-supplemented plants, and G1,6BP levels in

  1. Fix and forget or fix and report: a qualitative study of tensions at the front line of incident reporting

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Tanya Anne; Chreim, Samia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Practitioners frequently encounter safety problems that they themselves can resolve on the spot. We ask: when faced with such a problem, do practitioners fix it in the moment and forget about it, or do they fix it in the moment and report it? We consider factors underlying these two approaches. Methods We used a qualitative case study design employing in-depth interviews with 40 healthcare practitioners in a tertiary care hospital in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a thematic analysis, and compared the findings with the literature. Results ‘Fixing and forgetting’ was the main choice that most practitioners made in situations where they faced problems that they themselves could resolve. These situations included (A) handling near misses, which were seen as unworthy of reporting since they did not result in actual harm to the patient, (B) prioritising solving individual patients’ safety problems, which were viewed as unique or one-time events and (C) encountering re-occurring safety problems, which were framed as inevitable, routine events. In only a few instances was ‘fixing and reporting’ mentioned as a way that the providers dealt with problems that they could resolve. Conclusions We found that generally healthcare providers do not prioritise reporting if a safety problem is fixed. We argue that fixing and forgetting patient safety problems encountered may not serve patient safety as well as fixing and reporting. The latter approach aligns with recent calls for patient safety to be more preventive. We consider implications for practice. PMID:25749025

  2. Neurochemical changes correlated with behavior maintained under fixed-interval and fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J E; Hoffmann, S M

    1991-01-01

    Key pecking of 4 pigeons was maintained under a multiple 3-min fixed-interval, 30-response fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation. Only one schedule was in effect during an experimental session, and each was correlated with a different keylight stimulus and location (left vs. right). The different schedule components alternated across days or weeks. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from chronically implanted intracerebroventricular cannulae following sessions with the different schedules, as well as following sessions in which reinforcement was withheld (extinction), when response-independent food was delivered, and when the experimental chamber was dark and there were no scheduled events. Metabolites of the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Compared to the fixed-ratio condition, responding maintained under the fixed-interval schedule resulted in consistently higher levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid in all pigeons. Levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, a metabolite of norepinephrine, and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, another dopamine metabolite, were also higher in 3 of the 4 pigeons following exposure to the fixed-interval schedules when compared to levels of these metabolites after exposure to the fixed-ratio schedule. Extinction of fixed-ratio responding resulted in large increases in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid compared to levels of this metabolite under the fixed-ratio schedule, whereas this serotonin metabolite decreased during extinction of responding under the fixed-interval schedule. Control procedures suggested that the neurochemical changes were not related to the rate of responding but were a function of the specific experimental conditions. Distinctive neurochemical changes that accompany schedule-controlled responding show the

  3. Simple circuit produces high-speed, fixed duration pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrahan, N. M.

    1965-01-01

    Circuit generates an output pulse of fixed width from a variable width input pulse. The circuit consists of a tunnel diode in parallel with an inductance driven by a constant current generator. It is used for pulsed communication equipment design.

  4. Towards the minimal nitrogen-fixing symbiotic genome.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Juan

    2016-09-01

    diCenzo and coworkers have reverse engineered a rhizobium into a non-nitrogen fixer, creating a genomic platform for gain-of-function genetics studies, which should aid to identify the minimal nitrogen fixing symbiotic genome. PMID:27188818

  5. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment... employer shall sample the dry chemical supply of all but stored pressure systems at least annually...

  6. 16. PIER CAP DETAIL, SHOWING EXPANSION AND FIXED BEARING SHOES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. PIER CAP DETAIL, SHOWING EXPANSION AND FIXED BEARING SHOES, BOTTOM CHORD / END POST CONNECTION AND CANTILEVERED SIDEWALK. VIEW TO WEST. - Holbrook Bridge, Spanning Little Colorado River at AZ 77, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  7. 6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  8. 3. VIEW NORTH SHOWING FIXED SPAN, COVERED SPAN, MOVEABLE TRANSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH SHOWING FIXED SPAN, COVERED SPAN, MOVEABLE TRANSITION SPAN AND PONTOON FLOATING SPAN - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  9. 4. DETAIL VIEW FIXED SPAN INCLUDING TRUSS, MOVEABLE SPAN WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW FIXED SPAN INCLUDING TRUSS, MOVEABLE SPAN WHICH THE NEXT UNIT TO THE RIGHT, AND FIRST UNIT OF PONTOON FLOATING SPAN. - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  10. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF ON RIGHT FOREGROUND FIXED SPAN TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF ON RIGHT FOREGROUND FIXED SPAN TO TRANSITIONAL MOVEABLE SPAN TO FLOATING SPAN IN MIDDLEGROUND - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  11. FIXED END OF MIDDLE SPAN. WESTERN SIDE SHOWING WELDING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIXED END OF MIDDLE SPAN. WESTERN SIDE SHOWING WELDING OF TOP PLATE ADDED TO STRENGTHEN THE BRIDGE. - Spile Bridge Road Bridge, Spanning Black Lake Outlie at Spile Bridge Road, Oswegatchie, St. Lawrence County, NY

  12. An Alternative to the Fixed Step Salary Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.

    1970-01-01

    The focus of this study is the development of an effective alternative to fixed step salary approaches to salary evaluation in school districts. A prototype model was derived which considered nine factors in salary evaluation. (Author/MF)

  13. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... retained as long as they are maintained in good condition to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge... barges with sleeping accommodations for more than 12 persons. (b) A fixed carbon dioxide or...

  14. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... retained as long as they are maintained in good condition to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge... barges with sleeping accommodations for more than 12 persons. (b) A fixed carbon dioxide or...

  15. 4. GENERAL VIEW EAST AND NORTH SIDES WITH FIXED UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW EAST AND NORTH SIDES WITH FIXED UMBILICAL TOWER FAR LEFT; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Interior view of fixed end of northernmost truss span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of fixed end of northernmost truss span, looking due south. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  17. Detail view of fixed end of northernmost truss span. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fixed end of northernmost truss span. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  18. 34 CFR 76.566 - Fixed costs-restricted rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., but only those associated with salaries and wages that are charged as indirect costs, including— (a... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.566 Fixed costs—restricted rate....

  19. 34 CFR 76.566 - Fixed costs-restricted rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., but only those associated with salaries and wages that are charged as indirect costs, including— (a... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.566 Fixed costs—restricted rate....

  20. 34 CFR 76.566 - Fixed costs-restricted rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., but only those associated with salaries and wages that are charged as indirect costs, including— (a... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.566 Fixed costs—restricted rate....

  1. 22. VIEW OF FIXED SPAN SUBSTRUCTURE, EAST SPAN, SHOWING CANTILEVEREDBEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF FIXED SPAN SUBSTRUCTURE, EAST SPAN, SHOWING CANTILEVERED-BEAM SIDEWALK SUPPORTS, LONGITUDINAL GIRDER AND TRANSVERSE ROADBED BEAMS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Congress Street Bascule Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at Congress Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Careful Planning Key to Accurate Fixed Reports Assets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MaRous, Arnold M.

    1986-01-01

    Only with careful planning can school business managers develop fixed asset information and good recordkeeping. Use of a simple inventory system and discussion with school districts already utilizing this system will assist planning. (CJH)

  3. 17. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE MACHINERY HOUSE ON FIXED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE MACHINERY HOUSE ON FIXED SPAN - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Groton Bridge, Spanning Thames River between New London & Groton, New London, New London County, CT

  4. 9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL

  5. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gross tons and greater, a fixed carbon dioxide or clean agent system as described in 46 CFR subpart 95... construction, conversion or automation of which is contracted for on or after July 1, 1968, the systems...

  6. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gross tons and greater, a fixed carbon dioxide or clean agent system as described in 46 CFR subpart 95... construction, conversion or automation of which is contracted for on or after July 1, 1968, the systems...

  7. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gross tons and greater, a fixed carbon dioxide or clean agent system as described in 46 CFR subpart 95... construction, conversion or automation of which is contracted for on or after July 1, 1968, the systems...

  8. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

  9. Impact: a case study examining the closure of a large urban fixed site needle exchange in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In 2008, one of the oldest fixed site needle exchanges in a large urban city in Canada was closed due to community pressure. This service had been in existence for over 20 years. Case Description This case study focuses on the consequences of the switch to mobile needle exchange services immediately after the closure and examines the impact of the closure on changes in risk behavior related to drug use, needle distribution and access to services The context surrounding the closure was also examined. Discussion and Evaluation After the closure of the fixed site exchange, access to needle exchange services decreased as evidenced by the sharp decline in numbers of clients reached, and the numbers of needles distributed and collected monthly. Reports related to needle reuse and selling of syringes suggest changes in risk behaviors. Thousands of needles remain unaccounted for in the community. To date, a new fixed site has not been found. Conclusion Closing the fixed site needle exchange had an adverse effect on already vulnerable clients and reduced access to comprehensive harm reduction services. While official public policy supports a fixed site, politicization of the issue has meant a significant setback for harm reduction with reduced potential to meet public health targets related to reducing the spread of blood borne diseases. This situation is unacceptable from a public health perspective. PMID:20500870

  10. Visually evoked potentials in eccentrically and centrally fixing amblyopes.

    PubMed Central

    Srebro, R

    1984-01-01

    Visually evoked potentials to checkerboard pattern reversal were found to be nearly five times larger in eccentrically fixing amblyopic eyes than in centrally fixing amblyopic eyes when compared with the fellow non-amblyopic eye. The two groups of amblyopes had comparably poor visual acuity and differed in no other way save in their fixation behaviour. This suggests that at least two neurodevelopmental mechanisms subserve human amblyopia and that only one of these resembles the animal model of visual deprivation. PMID:6733071

  11. Fixed pitch rotor performance of large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Corrigan, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental fixed pitch wind turbine performance data is presented for both the DOE/NASA Mod-0 and the Danish Gedser wind turbines. Furthermore, a method for calculating the output power from large fixed pitch wind turbines is presented. Modifications to classical blade element momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident in high winds (low tip speed ratios) where aerodynamic stall occurs as the blade experiences high angles of attack.

  12. On Determining if Tree-based Networks Contain Fixed Trees.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Maria; Anipchenko-Ulaj, Olga; Ashfaq, Aisha; Chiu, Joyce; Kaiser, Mahedi; Ohsawa, Max Shoji; Owen, Megan; Pavlechko, Ella; St John, Katherine; Suleria, Shivam; Thompson, Keith; Yap, Corrine

    2016-05-01

    We address an open question of Francis and Steel about phylogenetic networks and trees. They give a polynomial time algorithm to decide if a phylogenetic network, N, is tree-based and pose the problem: given a fixed tree T and network N, is N based on T? We show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard to decide, by reduction from 3-Dimensional Matching (3DM) and further that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable. PMID:27125655

  13. [Immune response to sheep erythrocytes fixed in formaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, D

    1978-01-01

    Treatment of sheep erythrocytes with 1.5% of formaldehyde alter their immunogenic properties. On the background of immune response to nonfixed erythrocytes, the performed studies showed the following peculiarities in the reaction of mice to fixed erythrocytes: 1) the primary response of animals, in ected with fixed erythrocytes, was rather weak after its determination by the number of rosette forming cells (RFC), antibody forming cells (AFC) in the spleen and by the of hemagglutinins (HA) in serum; 2) in contrast to the primary response the fixed erythrocytes induced a good secondary response, which was considerably higher/according to the number of RFC and titre of HA/in mice sensibilized by nonfixed erytrocytes in advance than in those presensibilized by fixed cells. Therefore the fixed erythrocytes were weaker inducers of immunologic memory than the nonfixed under equal other conditions. 3) In contrast to the nonfixed the fixed erythrocytes did not induce the formation of large amounts of direct AFC during the secondary response as well even then when the animals were presensibilized by nonfixed form of the antigen. PMID:77759

  14. Contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect

    Steigies, C. T.; Barjatya, A.

    2012-11-15

    Langmuir probes are standard instruments for plasma density measurements on many sounding rockets. These probes can be operated in swept-bias as well as in fixed-bias modes. In swept-bias Langmuir probes, contamination effects are frequently visible as a hysteresis between consecutive up and down voltage ramps. This hysteresis, if not corrected, leads to poorly determined plasma densities and temperatures. With a properly chosen sweep function, the contamination parameters can be determined from the measurements and correct plasma parameters can then be determined. In this paper, we study the contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes, where no hysteresis type effect is seen in the data. Even though the contamination is not evident from the measurements, it does affect the plasma density fluctuation spectrum as measured by the fixed-bias Langmuir probe. We model the contamination as a simple resistor-capacitor circuit between the probe surface and the plasma. We find that measurements of small scale plasma fluctuations (meter to sub-meter scale) along a rocket trajectory are not affected, but the measured amplitude of large scale plasma density variation (tens of meters or larger) is attenuated. From the model calculations, we determine amplitude and cross-over frequency of the contamination effect on fixed-bias probes for different contamination parameters. The model results also show that a fixed bias probe operating in the ion-saturation region is affected less by contamination as compared to a fixed bias probe operating in the electron saturation region.

  15. Image-based target detection with multispectral UWB OFDM radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufler, Travis D.; Garmatyuk, Dmitriy S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes an image-based automatic target detection algorithm to be used in clutter and sparse target environments. We intend to apply the algorithm to an ultra-wideband multispectral radar concept by means of employing multi-carrier waveforms based upon Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation. Individual sub-bands of an OFDM waveform can be processed separately to yield range and cross-range reconstruction of a target scene containing both targets and clutter. Target detection in resulting images will be performed and contrasted with the detection performance of a traditional fixed-waveform Synthetic Aperture Radar system. The target detection algorithm is implemented through the use of scalar and vector field operations performed on the images from the reconstructed target scene. We hypothesize that the use of vector operations and field analysis will allow for an adaptive approach to the detection of targets within clutter.

  16. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Gorzolka, Karin; Walch, Axel

    2014-11-01

    The molecular investigation of archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples provides the chance to obtain molecular patterns as indicatives for treatment and clinical end points. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging is capable of localizing molecules like proteins and peptides in tissue sections and became a favorite platform for the targeted and non-targeted approaches, especially in clinical investigations for biomarker research. In FFPE tissues the recovery of proteomic information is constrained by fixation-induced cross-links of proteins. The promising new insights obtained from FFPE in combination with the comprehensive patients' data caused much progress in the optimization of MS imaging protocols to investigate FFPE samples. This review presents the past and current research in MALDI MS imaging of FFPE tissues, demonstrating the improvement of analyses, their actual limitations, but also the promising future perspectives for histopathological and tissue-based research. PMID:24838644

  17. 47 CFR 101.85 - Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS). 101.85 Section 101.85 Telecommunication... Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS...-satellite service (FSS). The rules in this section provide for a transition period during which...

  18. 47 CFR 101.85 - Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS). 101.85 Section 101.85 Telecommunication... Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS...-satellite service (FSS). The rules in this section provide for a transition period during which...

  19. 47 CFR 101.85 - Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS). 101.85 Section 101.85 Telecommunication... Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS...-satellite service (FSS). The rules in this section provide for a transition period during which...

  20. 47 CFR 101.85 - Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS). 101.85 Section 101.85 Telecommunication... Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS...-satellite service (FSS). The rules in this section provide for a transition period during which...