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Sample records for 1997 essentials grades 4-8

  1. Portraits of Outstanding Explorers. Grades 4-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Doris Hunter

    This resource book provides information and activity sheets on explorers of North America. The five sections of the book trace the explorers' contributions both geographically and chronologically. Each section includes thought questions, biographical portraits and skill activities for grades 4-8. Section 1, "They Opened the Door,"…

  2. AIDS Prevention Education Project, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Barbara K.; And Others

    A curriculum guide for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education program for grades 4-8 is presented in this document. The purpose of these materials is to serve as a resource to encourage and facilitate AIDS education in order to prevent the disease. It is recommended that this AIDS program be taught as part of the human…

  3. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  8. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  9. Consider the Earth: Environmental Activities for Grades 4-8. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Julie M.

    This book is designed to educate students in grades 4-8 about eight specific aspects of the environment. Activity-oriented experiences for both urban and rural children to gain certain understandings are provided. Concepts addressed include the fact that humans are animals and are living organisms, animals differ from plants in their ability to…

  10. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  11. Man and Environment for the Intermediate Grades; A Curriculum Guide for Environmental Studies for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Environmental Education, Miami, FL.

    This curriculum guide consists of environmental studies modules for grades 4-8. The curriculum, which is organized around major concepts, is intended to serve as a guide for program development and as a framework for compiling and sharing ideas on methods and application on a national basis. Each module may be utilized as an integral part of the…

  12. Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursal, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

  13. An effective science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unacceptable students in grades 4 -- 8: A Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, J. Kathleen

    This study explored science-specific strategies and materials that might be effective components in a Response to Intervention (RTI) science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Through an iterative Delphi process of responding to three rounds of questionnaires, a nationwide panel of 63 experts in the field of science education identified and came to consensus on 44 effective strategies and six instructional materials and types of equipment for supplemental instruction in science, resulting in a three tier RTI tutorial model. This model provides an initial guide for science educators in applicable practices for each tier of the RTI framework, and was developed to assist administrators, program managers, and science educators in developing effective, systemic RTI instructional programming for science education in grades 4 -- 8, and may provide an additional planning tool in determining evidence-based practices that may lead to achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Future research on specific intervention strategies within science and their effects on science achievement are needed, as well as a further examination to test the efficacy of the model on rates of science achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students.

  14. Native Americans Today: Resources and Activities for Educators, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfelder, Arlene; Beamer, Yvonne

    This activity guide seeks to dispel misrepresentations of Native Americans and build understanding among cultures by offering a hands-on approach to dissecting the whys and hows of institutionalized racism and by painting a realistic and diverse picture of modern American Indians. Each lesson includes a suggested grade level, materials and time…

  15. P. S. Write Soon! All about Letters (Grades 4-8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    A joint project of the United States Postal Service and the National Council of Teachers of English, this book provides ideas and activities to help students in grades 4 through 8 get into the letter writing habit. Section 1 stresses the joy of writing letters to friends, relatives, pen pals, and celebrities. The second section describes letters…

  16. ``IT'S ALL IN MOTION" -- A Hands-On Astronomy Workshop For Teachers of Grades 4-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, M. L.; Liu, C.; Conod, K.

    1999-12-01

    We describe the implementation and results of a four day hands-on astronomy workshop for in-service teachers of grades 4-8. This project, funded by a 1998-1999 IDEAS grant through the Space Telescope Science Institute, included 20 teacher participants from northern New Jersey. We used the workshop's unifying theme -- ``It's All in Motion!" -- to present to the teachers fundamental astrophysical concepts, relevant math and computer skills, and astronomy activities for their classrooms. We learned that there is a great need for this type of training, especially in New Jersey where there are new core curriculum standards and a newly mandated test in science for students in 4th and 8th grades. While the teachers learned content at different rates, the hands-on format gave them confidence to try some of these activities in their classes, especially among under-represented minorities. The most effective activities included human sundials, Sunspotters to measure the rotation of the Earth in 2 minutes, craters in the sand, group mini-reports from posters, speed calculations, physics and astronomy songs, the Ophiuchus Sculpture, a planetarium visit (especially needed in our urban area where the light pollution is severe), and Internet guided sites (See http://www.csam.montclair.edu/ west/ideasresources.html).

  17. A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Multicultural Education Curriculum for Grades 4-8. Cultural Exchange Task Cards [and] Test Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzler, Sally; And Others

    These activities for grades 4-8 are designed to promote understanding, appreciation, and respect for the diversity of cultures in the United States. Activities focus on four groups: American Indians, blacks, Asian Americans, and Mexican Americans. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the material is appropriate for fine arts, language arts, home…

  18. Manitoba Physical Education Assessment 1993. French Immersion Program: Grades 4, 8, 11. Final Report = Evaluation de L'Education Physique (1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This study assessed the strengths, weaknesses, and degree of implementation of the Manitoba (Canada) Physical Education curriculum in grades 4, 8, and 11 in French Immersion Schools. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations resulting from a review and interpretation of the findings by the Physical Education Educators on the grade…

  19. Completing the Cycle: It's Up to You. Phase 2, An Integrated Unit in Environmental Education, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    This curriculum module is designed to provide teachers with classroom activities that promote an understanding of environmental issues such as conservation, preservation, ecology, resource management, solid waste management, and recycling. The activities enable teachers, students in grades 4 through 8, and families to begin thinking about these…

  20. Minimum Teaching Essentials, Grades K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The purpose of this bulletin is to provide administrators, teachers, parents, and other members of the New York City educational community with a resource that identifies, within all disciplines, the basic body of knowledge and skills to be taught at each grade or level (K-9). The bulletin begins with a broad perspective of each subject area,…

  1. Physics 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination, June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document is a Physics 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 37 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value worth 70% of the examination and two written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of the examination. The exam contains sets of…

  2. Oregon Statewide Writing Assessment: Results, Analysis, and Sample Student Writings, 1993-1997. Grades 3 & 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bonnie

    Noting that statewide writing assessment shows the achievements of Oregon students over the last decade, this booklet explains the results for the 1993-1997 assessments and provides papers illustrating the work that Oregon students in grades 3 and 5 produce on the state test. The booklet's chapters are: (1) The History of Writing Assessment in…

  3. Umbra Ver. 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, III, Fred; Hart, Brian; Hart, Derek; Linebarger, John; Rigdon, J. Brian; Wolfenbarger, Paul; Xavier, Patrick; & Gottlieb, Eric

    2010-02-24

    Umbra is a software package that has been in development at Sandia National Laboratories since 1995, under the name Umbra since 1997. Umbra is a software framework written in C++ and Tcl/Tk that has been applied to many operations, primarily dealing with robotics and simulation. Umbra executables are C++ libraries orchestrated with Tcl/Tk scripts. Two major feature upgrades occurred from 4.7 to 4.8 1. System Umbra Module with its own Update Graph within the C++ framework. 2. New terrain graph for fast line-of-sight calculations All else were minor updates such as later versions of Visual Studio, OpenSceneGraph and Boost.

  4. Piecing Together the 20th Century: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Principles of Collage in Modern Music, Art, and Poetry (Grades 4-8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigel, Eric; McDonald, Nan L.

    2011-01-01

    This theory-to-practice article focuses on interdisciplinary classroom activities based on principles of collage in modern music, art, and poetry. A two-lesson sequence was designed for an inner-city Grade 4 and 5 general classroom of English language learners, where the unit was taught, assessed, and documented by the authors. Included in the…

  5. Lessons that Bear Repeating and Repeating that Bears Lessons: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Principles of Minimalism in Modern Music, Art, and Poetry (Grades 4-8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigel, Eric; McDonald, Nan L.

    2012-01-01

    This theory-to-practice article focuses on interdisciplinary classroom activities based on principles of minimalism in modern music, art, and poetry. A lesson sequence was designed for an inner-city Grades 4 and 5 general classroom of English language learners, where the unit was taught, assessed, and documented by the authors. Included in the…

  6. A Comparative Study of the Most Creative and Least Creative Student in Grades 4 - 8 at the Boston School for the Deaf, Randolph, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Marie S.

    To investigate the interrelationships between creativity and seven variables, 74 students in grades 4 through 8 plus the vocational group at a school for the deaf were tested. In addition to creativity, subjects were tested for intelligence, academic achievement, imaginative productions, perception by teachers, self-evaluation career aspirations,…

  7. Paleontology--Dinosaurs and Other Fossils: Digging into the Past. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    This book consists of two complete units on paleontology, dinosaurs, and fossils. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary…

  8. Oregon Statewide Writing Assessment: Results, Analysis, and Sample Student Writings, 1993-1997. Grades 8, 10, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bonnie

    Noting that statewide writing assessment shows the achievements of Oregon students over the last decade, this booklet explains the results for the 1993-1997 assessments and provides papers illustrating the work that Oregon students in grades 8, 10, and 11 produce on the state test. The booklet's chapters are: (1) The History of Writing Assessment…

  9. The NAEP 1997 Arts Report Card: Eighth-Grade Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Hilary R.; Sandene, Brent A.; Askew, Janice M.

    The last several years have seen a growing resolve among educators and policymakers to assure the place of a solid arts education in U.S. schools. In 1997, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) conducted a national assessment in the arts at grade 8. The assessment included the areas of music, theater, and visual arts. For each of…

  10. Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, & Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. In "Answers to Essential…

  11. Inventors and Inventions, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Lorraine Hopping

    This activity book encourages students to think like inventors by employing ready-to-use materials, a timeline game, and topics from social studies, mathematics, science, language arts, and art. The first section explains the definition of invention and explores accidental inventions. It is followed by a section that examines the effects of…

  12. Developing Essential Understanding of Rational Numbers for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5. Essential Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Carne; Fisher, William; Marks, Rick; Ross, Sharon; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on essential knowledge for teachers about rational numbers. It is organized around four big ideas, supported by multiple smaller, interconnected ideas--essential understandings. Taking teachers beyond a simple introduction to rational numbers, the book will broaden and deepen their mathematical understanding of one of the most…

  13. What I Learned from the Flood of 1997: Or, Why Archival Class Is Essential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinertson-Sand, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Relates the author's experiences of salvaging items following the Grand Forks (North Dakota) flood of 1997. Highlights include restoring home movies, paper documents, and photographs; setting realistic recovery goals; and preserving document copies in other locations. A sidebar describes experiences of the public library in Elba (Alabama) after…

  14. Creating Good Citizens in China: Comparing Grade 7-9 School Textbooks, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan-Choi Tse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Ideological indoctrination is explicit and pervasive in China, with the school curriculum used to mould the spirit and character of adolescents, fulfilling ideological and political purposes. But the exact content varies over time. Comparing two versions of textbooks published in 1997 and 2005, this paper depicts the continuities and change in the…

  15. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  16. Outcomes of dogs with grade 3 mast cell tumors: 43 cases (1997-2007).

    PubMed

    Hume, Carrie Tupper; Kiupel, Matti; Rigatti, Lora; Shofer, Frances S; Skorupski, Katherine A; Sorenmo, Karin U

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of dogs with grade 3 mast cell tumors (MCTs). Clinical and histopathological data were available for 43 dogs. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 133 and 257 days, respectively. Tumor size, lymph node (LN) status, and mitotic index (MI) significantly influenced PFS in univariate analysis. Tumor size and LN status remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Lymph node status, local tumor control, LN treatment, and MI significantly influenced OS in univariate analysis but only LN status remained significant in multivariate analysis. These results confirm that locoregional control improves outcomes in patients with grade 3 MCTs.

  17. English 30, Part B: Reading. Readings Booklet [and] Questions Booklet. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    These booklets are intended for students in Alberta, Canada, taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30. The readings booklet presents 7 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction literature. After instructions for students, the booklet presents: (1) Lance Morrow's essay "Metaphors of the World, Unite!"; (2) Carl…

  18. English 30, Part A: Written Response. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This booklet presents the Written Response part of the English 30 Grade 12 Diploma examination in Alberta, Canada. After instructions for students, the booklet presents the first part of the examination in which students respond to Thom Gunn's poem "Tamer and Hawk," which addresses the nature and effect of a ruling passion in an…

  19. English 30, Part B: Reading. Readings Booklet. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, January 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30, this "readings booklet" presents 8 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction. After instructions for students, the booklet presents (1) Robert Penn Warren's poem "Summer Afternoons and Hypnosis"; (2) an excerpt from an interview with William…

  20. Ann Sevi Ak Tout Entelijans Elev Ayisyen Yo: Yon Seri leson matematik ak syans pou elev edikasyon jeneral ak elev edikasyon espesyal (4em-8em ane) = Tapping into Haitian Students' Multiple Intelligences: A Collection of Mathematics and Science Lessons for General and Special Education Students (Grades 4-8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of five mathematics and five science lessons for Haitian bilingual students in general and special education in grades 4-8. A thematic/interdisciplinary approach was used in designing the lesson, incorporating theory of multiple intelligences, Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, and other learning theories. The…

  1. Essential work of fracture approach to fatigue grading of asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriescu, Adrian

    The main objective of this thesis was to apply failure mechanics principles to the characterization of fatigue cracking of asphalt pavements and to identify the correlations between the pavement performance and the composition of binders. The essential work of fracture (EWF) method developed herein is an energy-based testing approach used for the fracture characterization of ductile materials. Developed for both binders and asphalt mixtures, the method provides fundamental parameters, such as specific essential work of fracture and critical tip opening displacement, as potential candidates for a better fatigue specification. It was shown that binders from different sources and with the same performance grade can have very different levels of fatigue susceptibility depending on their manufacturing method and hence failure properties. Also, the currently used binder loss modulus as developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program does not correlate with the newly proposed fracture mechanics based parameters. An extensive theological and ductile failure investigation on a large interval of testing conditions was performed for a group of binders that are used in the recently built test sections of Highway 655 in northern Ontario. It was found that the shift factors used in the construction of the master curves of the ductile fracture parameters differ from the shift factors of the rheological master curves. The difference was attributed to the response of the internal structure of the binder at the high strain levels that precede the failure phenomenon.

  2. Cardiovascular-sleep interaction in drug-naïve patients with essential grade I hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Provini, Federica; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Annagrazia; Pierangeli, Giulia; Cortelli, Pietro

    2013-03-01

    Lack of nighttime blood pressure (BP) reduction by 10-20% from the mean daytime values (dipping) has been described as a distinguishing feature of essential hypertension and associated, also in normotensive subjects, with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Mechanisms involved in the loss of the nocturnal dip are still unclear, but involvement of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity probably plays a crucial role. Sleep is fundamental in modulating ANS activity to maintain the physiological BP circadian rhythm, and for this reason its integrity has been widely investigated in hypertension. We investigated, under controlled conditions, the autonomic control of the CV system through an autonomic reflex screen in the awake condition and by assessment of circadian rhythm-, day-night-, time-, and state-dependent changes of BP and heart rate (HR) and associated sleep parameters in patients with a recent (≤1 yr) diagnosis of essential grade I hypertension naïve of therapy. Fourteen hypertensive patients (6 males, age: 43 ± 11 yrs; body mass index [BMI]: 24 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were compared with 28 healthy controls matched for sex, age, BMI (2 controls/patient) for cardiovascular reflex and to 8 different subjects from previous controls (6 males), comparable for age and BMI, for the day-night and nighttime CV profiles during two consecutive nights. The cardiovascular reflex screen data showed increased sympathetic effect in hypertensive patients, represented by higher overshoot of BP after Valsalva maneuver. Nighttime sleep architecture during the dark period in terms of duration, representation of sleep stages, sleep fragmentation, and incidence of arousals-periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) and PLMS arousals-was similar in patients and controls. Hypertensive patients displayed higher 24-h BP and HR values, but their sleep-related BP decrease was significantly reduced compared with controls. The circadian rhythms of BP and HR were intact and similar in

  3. Grade Inflation: Reality or Myth? Student Preparation Level vs. Grades at Brigham Young University, 1975-1994. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Danny R.

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which grade inflation has existed at Brigham Young University (BYU) after accounting for increased preparation levels of entering students over time. Analyses were conducted for the university at large and individual colleges. The study first developed a model to forecast student grade point…

  4. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  5. Tornadoes & Hurricanes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of tornadoes and hurricanes are important to children but are often missing from elementary textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science and social studies programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are emphasized throughout the…

  6. Floods & Droughts. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    Each year more lives are lost due to floods than due to the next 18 natural disasters put together. The element of human choice makes the study of floods and droughts an opportunity for decision making experiences for students. This document contains information and activities designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a…

  7. Crayfish Investigations: Inquiry in Action for Grades 4-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Hansen, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The author, an elementary school teacher, describes a way of incorporating an inquiry approach to teaching by refining a crayfish unit originally found in an ESS (Elementary Science Study) module. She used a "coupled-inquiry" approach, a combination of guided-inquiry and open-inquiry, with an application used for assessment purposes. In five or…

  8. Portraits of Outstanding African American Women. Grades 4-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Doris Hunter

    This resource book provides information and activity sheets on the achievements and contributions of exceptional African American women, past and present. The book contains six sections, thematically organized around the central issue(s) affecting the lives of the women featured. Introductory questions, biographical portraits and skill-building…

  9. Optacon Instructional Materials; Elementary Level, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabaugh, Barbara J.; And Others

    Provided in the manual are 15 units of sequential instructional materials designed to teach blind elementary students to read standard print through the use of the Optacon, an optical-to-tactile converter manufactured by Telesensory Systems, Inc. The materials allow for individualized rate of student progress, integration of numeral and letter…

  10. Earthquakes & Volcanoes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of earthquakes and volcanoes are important to children but are often missing from elementary science textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are also stressed throughout the document.…

  11. VISION: A School Program for Grades 4-8. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Eye Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This document is a curriculum supplement that is part of a nationwide public education program on the eye and marks the 25th anniversary of the National Eye Institute (NEI). The anatomy of the eye and imperfect eye problems are explained. This booklet provides three lesson plans: (1)The Eyes and the Great Brain Connection; (2) The Imperfect Eye;…

  12. Reading Comprehension Instruction in Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Researchers have found that readers they described as "strategic" had a purpose for reading, that they monitored their comprehension as they read, and they reflected on their reading. Although most readers have grasped fundamental reading processes by age 12, they still do not have well-articulated concepts about effective strategies to…

  13. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information..., the information shall be reviewed to determine whether it should remain classified. Ordinarily...

  14. Synthesis of Research Studies from 1997-2008 Using Qualitative Meta-Analytic Techniques on the Identification, Placement, and Representation of K-6 Grade Students in Special Education in Targeted U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine research studies conducted at the K-6 grades of public school in the U.S. covering from 1997-2008 with regard to how diverse students, in particular Latino, White, African American and Asian are identified, placed, and represented in special education programs at the national, state and school district…

  15. Adaptive 4-8 Texture Hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, L M; Duchaineau, M A; Joy, K I

    2004-08-02

    We address the texture level-of-detail problem for extremely large surfaces such as terrain during real-time, view-dependent rendering. A novel texture hierarchy is introduced based on 4-8 refinement of raster tiles, in which the texture grids in effect rotate 45 degrees for each level of refinement. This hierarchy provides twice as many levels of detail as conventional quad-tree-style refinement schemes such as mipmaps, and thus provides per-pixel view-dependent filtering that is twice as close to the ideal cutoff frequency for an average pixel. Because of this more gradual change in low-pass filtering, and due to the more precise emulation of the ideal cutoff frequency, we find in practice that the transitions between texture levels of detail are not perceptible. This allows rendering systems to avoid the complexity and performance costs of per-pixel blending between texture levels of detail. The 4-8 texturing scheme is integrated into a variant of the Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM) algorithm for view-dependent multiresolution mesh generation. Improvements to ROAM included here are: the diamond data structure as a streamlined replacement for the triangle bintree elements, the use of low-pass-filtered geometry patches in place of individual triangles, integration of 4-8 textures, and a simple out-of-core data access mechanism for texture and geometry tiles.

  16. Logic: A Unit for 4-8 Graders, Especially Gifted and Talented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Susan; Tansey, Pam

    The unit on logic is intended to teach critical thinking for gifted and talented students in grades 4-8. Sections are presented separately for students in grades 4-5 and 6-8. The younger students are instructed in such areas as scientific logic, math logic, spatial reasoning, deductive logic, inductive logic, and reasoning with analogies. The…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  20. Tempo, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayler, Michael, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The three issues of this 1997 publication on gifted and talented students focus on the themes of teaching gifted students in the regular classroom, atypical gifted students, and the 1997 annual conference of the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented. Major articles include the following: "Meeting the Needs of Gifted Learners in the Regular…

  1. Greek and Roman Plays: For the Intermediate Grades. Fearson Teacher Aids, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullum, Albert

    This resource presents scripts for 15 classical plays from ancient Greece and Rome. The scripts are adapted for classroom presentation by intermediate level students. Each play includes an introduction, instructions for staging and costumes, a vocabulary list, and a cast of characters. Enough roles are provided for participation by every child in…

  2. Shakespeare in the Classroom: Plays for the Intermediate Grades. Fearon Teacher Aids, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullum, Albert

    This resource presents scripts for eight Shakespearean plays. The scripts are adapted for classroom presentation by intermediate level students. Each play includes introductory materials, instructions for staging and costumes, a vocabulary list, and a cast of characters. Enough roles are provided for participation by every child in the class. Many…

  3. Creating an Assessment-Centered Classroom: Five Essential Assessment Strategies to Support Middle Grades Student Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The focus on grades and what they represent happens in every middle grades classroom--some students completely understand the concepts when reviewed, but perform poorly on the quiz; some gifted students score high on tests but appear bored in class. With the current emphasis on school accountability by standardized test scores, middle level…

  4. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information and Activity Booklet, Grades 9-12, 1997-1998. Imagine the Universe! Probing the Structure & Evaluation of the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Granger, Kara C.

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for grade 9 through grade 12 classrooms. Background information about star birth and life, black dwarfs, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and the electromagnetic spectrum is included. The seven activities focus on star mass,…

  5. Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of four commercial grades of Omani luban, the oleo-gum resin of Boswellia sacra FLUECK.

    PubMed

    Al-Saidi, Salim; Rameshkumar, K B; Hisham, Abdulkhader; Sivakumar, Nallusamy; Al-Kindy, Salma

    2012-03-01

    The essential oil compositions of four botanically certified and commercially available samples of Omani lubans (oleo-gum resins of Boswellia sacra Flueck.), locally known as Hoojri, Najdi, Shathari, and Shaabi in Jibali Arabic, obtained from plants growing in four different geographic locations of the Dhofar region of Oman, were analyzed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR spectroscopy. The market price of these four grades of lubans differed considerably, according to their color, clump size, and texture. However, this study revealed that Hoojri, the first grade luban, and Shaabi, the fourth grade luban, which greatly differed in their price, closely resembled each other in their essential oil composition, yield, and physicochemical characteristics, except the color and texture. The composition, yield, and specific rotation of the oils of Najdi and Shathari, the second and the third grade lubans, respectively, were different from those of Hoojri and Shaabi, but they both had high limonene contents. Najdi oil was different from the other three oils in terms of its high myrcene content. α-Pinene was the principal component in all the oils and can be considered as a chemotaxonomical marker that confirms the botanical and geographical source of the resins. All the oils showed pronounced activity against a panel of bacteria, and the trend in their bioactivity and their mode of action are discussed.

  6. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  7. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  8. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  9. Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

  10. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information & Activity Booklet Grades K-8, 1997-1998. Star-Child--A Learning Center for Young Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truelove, Elizabeth; Dejoie, Joyce

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for kindergarten through grade 8 classrooms. Background information on massive stars and medium stars and activities with subjects such as star life, constellation shapes, nebula terminology, astronomical distances, and pulsars is included. The 12…

  11. Communicator, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortolussi, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The CAG "Communicator" focus is on serving gifted students in California. This document consists of the four issues of "communicator" issued during 1997. Featured articles include: (1) "The Gifted Student At Risk. It Can't Be True" (Judy Roseberry); (2) "Tech Net-Technology and At-Risk Students" (Judy Lieb); (3) "Reviving Ophelia: Saving the…

  12. Offspring, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Amy, Ed.; Mangigian, Lisa, Ed.; Crombez, Mary Margaret, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The two issues of this magazine for parents, teachers, and others involved in cooperative nursery schools are designed to provide a forum for views on dealing with young children, express a variety of ideas, promote to cooperative philosophy, and to enhance the relationships of those involved in cooperative nursery schools. The Spring 1997 issue…

  13. 10 CFR 4.8 - Information collection requirements: OMB approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 4.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 4.8 Information collection requirements: OMB approval. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has submitted the...

  14. Education and training in the paediatric senior house officer grade: analysis of RCPCH hospital/child health visits reports, 1997–2001

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C; Anderson, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Retrospective audit of visits reports (1997–2001) against the RCPCH criteria for general professional training. Hospital and/or community child health departments who were responsible for training paediatric senior house officers were visited to assess whether RCPCH criteria of education were being met. Follow up visits were undertaken where limited education and training approval was given. Reports were received from 214 of 242 (88%) hospital and/or community based departments in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Results: Satisfactory achievement of the 12 training criteria by departments varied widely: 39–95% (median 66%) achieved. Follow up visits reported significant improvements in most departments. Criteria which departments struggled to achieve reasonable standards were: (1) ensuring SHOs were performing educationally appropriate duties (39% achieved); and (2) satisfactory outpatient experience (41% achieved). Twenty four per cent of hospital based departments did not have a paediatrician with 12 months or more experience of paediatrics resident on call. Conclusions: The visiting process highlighted areas of good practice, encouraged change to meet the criteria, and recommended increased resources and staffing where necessary to improve training and hence the service. The need for continuing approval for education and training in these departments encouraged significant efforts on the part of trainers and managers to meet the requirements, and consequently the quality of service to children has been enhanced. PMID:12716724

  15. 43 CFR 3802.4-8 - Cessation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-8 Cessation of operations. The operator...

  16. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  17. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  18. Candidates, Campaigns, & Elections: Projects, Activities, Literature Links. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Linda; Johnson, Mary Oates

    This resource book provides activities about elections and campaigns that involve students in active learning. The book introduces students to the organization of government and how politicians present themselves and are covered by the media. The activities include literature links, primary sources, and maps and charts for tracking results. The…

  19. American History Time Lines. Grades 4-8. Big, Reproducible, Easy-To-Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Susan Washburn

    This resource is designed to enhance learning about topics in United States history. The reproducible time lines are easy to use and is designed to encourage students to research other dates and events of the era under study. Suggestions are given for classroom use. The introduction has instructional subjects, such as: "12 Great Ways To Use…

  20. Exploring Energy with TOYS. Complete Lessons for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Beverley A. P.

    The project Teaching Science with TOYS promotes toys as an ideal mechanism for science instruction, because they are an everyday part of the students' world and carry a user-friendly message. TOYS Teacher Resource Modules are collections of "TOYS" activities grouped around a topic or theme with supporting science content and pedagogical…

  1. Fun with Physics: Real-Life Problem Solving for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    The goal of this guide is to provide resources for teachers and trainers to use in helping students improve their scientific thinking and problem solving skills in real-life situations. Each activity is characterized by inquiry-based learning, process skill development, and gender equity considerations. Topics for activities include problem…

  2. Windows to the World: Themes for Cross-Cultural Understanding. Grade 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Phyllis; Royse, Brooke Sarno; Kepler, John

    The purpose of this book is to help equip students with some of the concepts, attitudes and skills for successful cross-cultural understanding. The emphasis is on the exploration of cultural perspectives, both of themselves and others. The book is divided into chapters devoted to particular themes and uses the kaleidoscope of various world…

  3. Mind Sparklers. Fireworks for Igniting Creativity in Young Minds. Book 2 for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robert E.

    The activities in this book were designed to encourage students to perceive what is going on around them, to be both receptive to and critical of the ideas of others, to analyze problems, to elaborate upon ideas, to explore possibilities, and to see relationships. The activities call for all 18 of E. Paul Torrance's creative thinking abilities.…

  4. Extraordinary Women from U.S. History: Readers Theatre for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chari R.

    Readers Theater is a presentation by two or more participants who read from scripts and interpret a literary work in such a way that the audience imaginatively sense characterization, setting, and action. Traditionally, the primary focus of readers theater is on an effective reading of the script, not on a dramatic presentation. The scripts in…

  5. Learn to Think and Write: A Paradigm for Teaching Grades 4-8, Introductory Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Una McGinley

    2011-01-01

    The EPILLAW Paradigm is a practical method for developing writing skills. It consists of an original nine-level taxonomy and sequential methodology of listening, speaking, writing and reading. In this method, the development of writing precedes the development of reading. The work consists of two books. In the introductory book, the author…

  6. Art Connections: Integrating Art throughout the Curriculum. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kimberly Boehler; Loftus, Diana Standing

    Based on concepts of discipline-based art education, this instructional resource presents art experiences which use a variety of media to integrate art across the curriculum. Basic concepts of art are introduced in the first five lessons. The remaining 14 lessons are aimed at developing knowledge and skill bases in art processes, skills, media,…

  7. The Complete Science Fair Handbook. For Teachers and Parents of Students in Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.; Asimov, Isaac

    Interest in a science fair is low when students feel undirected and lack the information they need to produce a successful project. For many students, parents, and teachers, planning and carrying out a science fair project may be very frustrating. This book is designed to be a reference that helps teachers guide students through this process. The…

  8. Total Synthesis of (−)-4,8,10-Tridesmethyl Telithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Velvadapu, Venkata; Paul, Tapas; Wagh, Bharat; Glassford, Ian; DeBrosse, Charles; Andrade, Rodrigo B.

    2011-01-01

    Novel sources of antibiotics are required to address the serious problem of antibiotic resistance. Telithromycin (2) is a third-generation macrolide antibiotic prepared from erythromycin (1) and used clinically since 2004. Herein we report the details of our efforts that ultimately led to the total synthesis of (−)-4,8,10-tridesmethyl telithromycin (3) wherein methyl groups have been replaced with hydrogens. The synthesis of desmethyl macrolides has emerged as a novel strategy for preparing bioactive antibiotics. PMID:21815685

  9. Differentiation of CD3-4-8- human fetal thymocytes in vivo: characterization of a CD3-4+8- intermediate

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Human thymocyte differentiation was examined by injecting fetal thymic progenitor populations into human thymic xenografts in SCID-hu mice. Thymic progenitors were fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye PKH2. The phenotypes of their progeny could be identified by flow cytometric analysis of cells with a very high fluorescent PKH2 signal. Intrathymic injection of purified triple negative (TN) CD3-4-8- thymocytes resulted in the sequential appearance of CD3-4+8-, CD3-4+8+, and CD3+4+8+ cells, with the subsequent appearance of small numbers of phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ cells over a 4-d period. Sorted CD3-4+8- thymocytes injected intrathymically rapidly differentiated to CD4+8+ cells. CD4+8+ fetal thymocytes in cell cycle differentiated into phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ populations, whereas nondividing CD4+8+ cells failed to differentiate after intrathymic transfer. The number of cell divisions that occurred between the injection of TN thymocytes and their progeny at different time points was estimated based on the decrease in the intensity of the PKH2 label. The average length of the cell cycle for the TN population was calculated to be 24 h. The SCID-hu model thus provides a useful tool for studying the kinetics of cell division and differentiation of human thymocytes in vivo. PMID:8315382

  10. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  11. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  12. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  13. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  14. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and...

  15. The Essential Role of H19 Contributing to Cisplatin Resistance by Regulating Glutathione Metabolism in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Hong; Suo, Sha-Sha; Xu, Xiao-Li; Ni, Mao-Wei; Gu, Lin-Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Liang-Yan; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yue-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Primary and acquired drug resistance is one of the main obstacles encountered in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) chemotherapy. Cisplatin induces DNA damage through cross-linking and long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play an important role in chemical induced DNA-damage response, which suggests that lincRNAs may be also associated with cisplatin resistance. However, the mechanism of long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) acting on cisplatin resistance is not well understood. Here, we showed that expression of lin-RECK-3, H19, LUCAT1, LINC00961, and linc-CARS2-2 was enhanced in cisplatin-resistant A2780-DR cells, while transcriptome sequencing showed decreased Linc-TNFRSF19-1 and LINC00515 expression. Additionally, we verified that different H19 expression levels in HGSC tissues showed strong correlation with cancer recurrence. H19 knockdown in A2780-DR cells resulted in recovery of cisplatin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that six NRF2-targeted proteins, including NQO1, GSR, G6PD, GCLC, GCLM and GSTP1 involved in the glutathione metabolism pathway, were reduced in H19-knockdown cells. Furthermore, H19-knockdown cells were markedly more sensitive to hydrogen-peroxide treatment and exhibited lower glutathione levels. Our results reveal a previously unknown link between H19 and glutathione metabolism in the regulation of cancer-drug resistance. PMID:27193186

  16. The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alison Adair

    The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for fifth grade. Additionally, a determination was made concerning whether and alignment existed between the data sources. An inter coder examined 10% of the entries from each data source to ensure reliability. Data collection included recording message units that referred to the explicit directions for the instruction and assessment of expository text were from each of the six data sources. Next, the message units were organized into categories and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. Due to the differences in the length, format, and content of each data source, a matrix was designed in order to determine if any alignment was present between data sources. The study resulted in 5 major findings: First, the science teacher's editions presented more message units related to the explicit directions for instruction or assessment of reading in expository text. Second, formatting in the basal reader teacher's editions has remained much the same as in the past, in that they are still scripted and many of the activities continue to be presented without directions to teachers. Third, the instruction of word attack skills is still included in the fifth grade science and reading teacher's editions. Fourth, there was no clear definition for the meaning of the terms skills and strategies in order for teachers to become more effective when teaching students. Finally, an alignment did exist between the TEKS and teacher's editions, with the exception of word analysis in all but one of the science series. The only categories assessed in either the reading or

  17. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  18. Argipressin(4-8) upregulate CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kan-Yan; Xiong, Ying; Du, Yu-Cang

    2002-07-01

    In order to study the effect of argipressin(4-8)(AVP(4-8)) on the mRNA level and activity of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase(CCT) in rat hippocampal neurons, and elucidate it's possible mechanism. Rat hippocampal neurons treated with AVP(4-8) or actinomycin D were incubated with different time periods. The mRNA level of CCT was detected using RT-PCR plus Southern blot, CCT activity was determined by measuring the rate of incorporation of (14)C - phosphocholine into cytidine diphosphate-choline(CDP-choline). It was found that AVP4-8 could upregulate the CCT mRNA in rat hippocampal neurons. ZDC(C)PR, the antagonist of AVP(4-8), could greatly inhibit this upregulation. Using actinomycin D to inhibite the eucaryotic transcription, it was found that the halflife of CCT mRNA could be prolonged by coincubation with AVP(4-8). Meanwhile, AVP(4-8) could also increase CCT activity in rat hippocampal neurons. These results demonstrated that AVP(4-8) upregulated CCT mRNA level and its activity through stabilizing the CCT mRNA in rat hippocampal neurons.

  19. Freshman Survey Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Steve; Hiris, Eric

    The Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) sponsors a national annual survey that gathers data on incoming freshman classes at two- and four-year institutions. The data allow the colleges to compare their students with previous classes and with the "average" American freshman. This report presents findings from the 1997 CIRP…

  20. AusEinetter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AusEinetter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document comprises the two AusEinetter newsletters published in 1997. The first newletter describes the background and structure of Australia's Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People (AusEinet) and discusses the necessity of early intervention for mental health issues in young people 5-25 years of age. The following…

  1. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the…

  2. First Teacher, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Lisa Lyons, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These six theme-oriented newsletter issues present specific curriculum planning ideas and activities for teachers of young children. The theme of the January-February 1997 issue is "The Arts of Winter." Topics in this issue include celebrating with music and movement, learning songs, classroom visitors and the arts, art in picture books,…

  3. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular…

  4. TASH Newsletter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TASH Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Ten issues of the 1997 newsletter of TASH comprise this document. An issue typically contains news items, a column by the organization's executive director, reports from special interest groups, legislative testimony, conference information, and several major articles, such as the following: "Multicultural Perspectives: Excerpts from Opening…

  5. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information…

  6. READ Perspectives 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Rosalie Pedalino, Ed.; Thomsen, Kerri Lynne, Ed.; Kimbrell, William, W., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document comprises the two 1997 issues of the journal. Articles include the following: "The Importance of Learning English: A National Survey of Hispanic Parents" (Michael La Velle); "The Languages of Immigrants" (Charles L. Glenn); "Follow-Up Study on the Bethlehem, PA School District's English Acquisition…

  7. The Computer Revolution. An Introduction to Computers. A Good Apple Activity Book for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgren, John

    This booklet is designed to introduce computers to children. A letter to parents is provided, explaining that a unit on computers will be taught which will discuss the major parts of the computer and programming in the computer language BASIC. Suggestions for teachers provide information on starting, the binary system, base two worksheet, binary…

  8. Learning from Your Community: Folklore and Video in the Schools. A Classroom Curriculum for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gail; Patterson, Don

    This curriculum guide describes a unit of study designed to help students learn academic and technical skills necessary for creating a video. Mayesville Elementary School (South Carolina) teachers and their students collaborated with a videographer and folklorist in a series of 3-week school residencies requiring students to develop stories using…

  9. Essential Tremor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Featured ContentMedication ScheduleVaricose VeinsMarch 2017October 2016Medication ScheduleAttention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)March 2017April 1997familydoctor.org editorial staffFamily ...

  10. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's…

  11. Differentiation of human mature thymocytes: existence of a T3+4-8- intermediate stage.

    PubMed

    De la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Marcos, M A; Cabrero, E; Martinez-A, C

    1986-06-01

    A T3 complex-bearing subpopulation was characterized within an in vivo cycling T4-8- early thymocyte compartment which contains cells constitutively expressing interleukin 2 and transferrin receptors. We show differentiation in vitro of both mature subsets of thymocytes (T3+4+8- and T3+4-8+) from the above T4-8- compartment, their appearance being preceded by cells in a T3+4-8- intermediate stage. Furthermore, those mature thymocytes generated in vitro contain functionally competent cells which use T3, T4 and T8 structures for their cytolytic activity. The finding of T3+4-8- thymocytes in vivo, together with the observation that T3 antigen expression precedes that of T4 or T8 molecules in vitro, shows that T3 (and presumably Ti) is present early in ontogeny, and suggests that T3+4-8- cells constitute an "intermediate" stage relevant to the connection between early precursors and mature thymocytes during T lymphocyte ontogeny.

  12. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Sacramento START: An Evaluation Report, September, 1996-May, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamare, Judith

    This report provides an assessment of the progress of Sacramento START, an after-school learning program, for the period from September 1996 through May 1997. Evaluation instruments included standardized test scores for students in grades three through six and interviews with 18 principals from 20 START schools and teachers from 18 schools. Test…

  14. Climate Assessment for 1997.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Gerald D.; Halpert, Michael S.

    1998-05-01

    The global climate during 1997 was affected by both extremes of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with weak Pacific cold episode conditions prevailing during January and February, and one of the strongest Pacific warm episodes (El Niño) in the historical record prevailing during the remainder of the year. This warm episode contributed to major regional rainfall and temperature anomalies over large portions of the Tropics and extratropics, which were generally consistent with those observed during past warm episodes. In many regions, these anomalies were opposite to those observed during 1996 and early 1997 in association with Pacific cold episode conditions.Some of the most dramatic El Niño impacts during 1997 were observed in the Tropics, where anomalous convection was evident across the entire Pacific and throughout most major monsoon regions of the world. Tropical regions most affected by excessive El Niño-related rainfall during the year included 1) the eastern half of the tropical Pacific, where extremely heavy rainfall and strong convective activity covered the region from April through December; 2) equatorial eastern Africa, where excessive rainfall during OctoberDecember led to widespread flooding and massive property damage; 3) Chile, where a highly amplified and extended South Pacific jet stream brought increased storminess and above-normal rainfall during the winter and spring; 4) southeastern South America, where these same storms produced above-normal rainfall during JuneDecember; and 5) Ecuador and northern Peru, which began receiving excessive rainfall totals in November and December as deep tropical convection spread eastward across the extreme eastern Pacific.In contrast, El Niño-related rainfall deficits during 1997 included 1) Indonesia, where significantly below-normal rainfall from June through December resulted in extreme drought and contributed to uncontrolled wildfires; 2) New Guinea, where drought contributed to large-scale food

  15. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Martinez, C

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requirements of these thymocytes were characterized and related to the T3-receptor complex and IL-2 pathways, thought to be used by mature lymphocytes. The results show that addition of recombinant IL-2 promotes, in a dose-dependent way, proliferation and acquisition of effector functions by cultured T3+4-8- thymocytes, the growth being inhibitable by monoclonal antibody 33B73 (anti-Tac). Furthermore, cytolytic activity of T3+4-8- cells induced by recombinant IL-2 is specifically blocked by monoclonal antibody OKT3, showing that it operates via the T3-receptor complex and does not require either T4 or T8 molecules. The finding of in vitro responsiveness to recombinant IL-2 in T3+4-8- thymocytes suggests a role of IL-2 in the growth and maturation of cells committed to the T-cell lineage, during intrathymic differentiation, prior to expression of T4 and T8 molecules. PMID:3929254

  16. Human CD4- 8- T cells are a distinctive immunoregulatory subset.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei-Chuan; Patel, Kalpesh; Taub, Dennis D; Longo, Dan L; Goetzl, Edward J

    2010-07-01

    Human CD4(-)8(-) T cells are a minor subset quantitatively but potentially important in immunity because they are predominantly distributed at body surfaces, and their number and activities increase in autoimmune diseases and decrease with aging. Distinguishing characteristics of CD4(-)8(-) T cells are found to include a unique profile of cytokines, including Serpin E1, which is not generated by other T cells, MIF, and TGF-beta. At 2-5% of the total in mixtures with CD4 + CD8 T cells, CD4(-)8(-) T cells enhance the generation of IFN-gamma and IL-17 by up to 12- and 5-fold, respectively, without contributing either cytokine or affecting cytokine production by NK/NKT cells. CD4(-)8(-) T cell-derived MIF is their major enhancer and TGFbeta their principal inhibitor of CD4 and CD8 T cell cytokine production. Decreases in CD4(-)8(-) T cell effects may diminish protective immunity in aging, whereas increases may augment the severity of autoimmune diseases.

  17. APT related papers presented at the 1997 particle accelerator conference, Vancouver, May 12--16, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.

    1997-07-01

    Tritium is essential for the US nuclear weapons to function, but because it is radioactive with a half-life of 12.3 years, the supply must be periodically replenished. Presently, only reactor or accelerator systems can be used to produce tritium. This report is a compilation of 31 papers given at the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference which dealt with the accelerator production of tritium. The papers are grouped into two categories, invited and contributed.

  18. 28. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 3/22/1923, corrected 4/8/1925, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 3/22/1923, corrected 4/8/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. SECTIONS OF SOUTHSIDE INTAKE - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. 30. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 11/19/1928, corrected 4/8/1925, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 11/19/1928, corrected 4/8/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. ELEVATION AND SECTIONS BRIDGE SPAN - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. 43 CFR 1610.4-8 - Selection of resource management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection of resource management plan..., BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-8 Selection of resource management plan. After publication of the draft resource management plan and draft environmental impact statement, the Field...

  1. 43 CFR 1610.4-8 - Selection of resource management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection of resource management plan..., BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-8 Selection of resource management plan. After publication of the draft resource management plan and draft environmental impact statement, the Field...

  2. Biennial Report, 1997-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    This report describes the 1997-99 biennium activities of the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) Board. Part 1 provides an Agency Overview. Details are given on mission and purpose, cooperative relationships, the State Board, the State Board Staff, and WTCS Districts. Part 2 explores the 1997-99 Budget and Policy Actions. It discusses the…

  3. Phenol oxidation through its adduct formation with chromium complex of 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Jayanthi; Guadalupe, Hernández J.; Thangarasu, Pandiyan

    2017-04-01

    Structural and electronic properties of [cis-[Cr(tmpcH)X2]n+ (n = 2 or 4; X = OH-, Cl-, Br- and H2O; tmpcH = 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane were analyzed by DFT and TD-DFT methods. The local reactivity active site of the ligand was determined by the condensed-to atom Fukui indexes (CAFI) f(r). In the study, the axial bond distance with metal ion undergoes a considerable change from shorter to longer as OH < Cl- < Br- < H2O, agreeing with the molecular orbital analysis where the dz2 energy is lowered for OH- compared to H2O at the axial position. After analyzing the geometrical data collected from literature for the complexes of Cr(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn (II) with tmpcH, it was found that the bond distance decreases with increasing number of d-electrons in the 3d orbital, suggesting that the over-lapping of oribital (π) from Npy with the metal d-orbital is more effective than those from Ncyclam with metal d-orbital. Therefore, the change of different oxidation states for [cis-[Cr(tmpcH)X2]n+ influences significantly the geometrical and electronic parameters. For cis-[Cr(tmpcH)Cl2]2+ the calculated bands are red shifted except for the lower energy band (595 nm) which agrees qualitatively with the experimental one; in addition, the effect of solvent on the electronic transition was analyzed. Furthermore, we collected the electronic data for several chromium complexes from the literature, and compared with our results by plotting the data against number of chromium compounds. Finally, the phenol oxidation properties of the chromium complexes were studied, and phenol forms an adduct with [Cr(tmpcH)Cl]3+ to yield [Cr(tmpcH)Cl-OPh]2+ which could produce the phenol radical, which is enhanced by the presence of -OCH3 group at para- position in the phenolic ring.

  4. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  5. Annual Energy Review 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  6. SDSS J094604.90+183541.8: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR AT z = 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Farnsworth, Kara; Hall, Patrick B.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-08-15

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed quasar identified serendipitously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The object, SDSS J094604.90+183541.8, was initially targeted for spectroscopy as a luminous red galaxy, but the SDSS spectrum has the features of both a z = 0.388 galaxy and a z = 4.8 quasar. We have obtained additional imaging that resolves the system into two quasar images separated by 3.''06 and a bright galaxy that is strongly blended with one of the quasar images. We confirm spectroscopically that the two quasar images represent a single-lensed source at z = 4.8 with a total magnification of 3.2, and we derive a model for the lensing galaxy. This is the highest redshift lensed quasar currently known. We examine the issues surrounding the selection of such an unusual object from existing data and briefly discuss implications for lensed quasar surveys.

  7. Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction (VSELP) speech coding at 4.8 kbps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerson, Ira A.; Jasiuk, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) speech coders exhibit good performance at data rates as low as 4800 bps. The major drawback to CELP type coders is their larger computational requirements. The Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction (VSELP) speech coder utilizes a codebook with a structure which allows for a very efficient search procedure. Other advantages of the VSELP codebook structure is discussed and a detailed description of a 4.8 kbps VSELP coder is given. This coder is an improved version of the VSELP algorithm, which finished first in the NSA's evaluation of the 4.8 kbps speech coders. The coder uses a subsample resolution single tap long term predictor, a single VSELP excitation codebook, a novel gain quantizer which is robust to channel errors, and a new adaptive pre/postfilter arrangement.

  8. Desmethyl Macrolides: Synthesis and Evaluation of 4,8-Didesmethyl Telithromycin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need for novel sources of antibiotics to address the incessant and inevitable onset of bacterial resistance. To this end, we have initiated a structure-based drug design program that features a desmethylation strategy (i.e., replacing methyl groups with hydrogens). Herein, we report the total synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of 4,8-didesmethyl telithromycin (5), a novel desmethyl analogue of the third-generation ketolide antibiotic telithromycin (2), which is an FDA-approved semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin (1). We found 5 to be eight times more active than previously prepared 4,8,10-tridesmethyl congener (3) and two times more active than 4,10-didesmethyl regioisomer (4) in MIC assays. While less potent than telithromycin (2) and paralleling the observations made in the previous study of 4,10-didesmethyl analogue (4), the inclusion of a single methyl group improves biological activity, thus supporting its role in antibiotic activity. PMID:24015325

  9. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of azilsartan with that of candesartan cilexetil in Japanese patients with grade I–II essential hypertension: a randomized, double-blind clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Azilsartan is a novel angiotensin receptor blocker being developed for hypertension treatment. This 16-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of azilsartan (20–40 mg once daily by forced titration) and its ability to provide 24-h blood pressure (BP) control, with that of candesartan cilexetil (candesartan; 8–12 mg once daily by forced titration) in 622 Japanese patients with grade I–II essential hypertension. Efficacy was evaluated by clinic-measured sitting BP, and by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at week 14. Participants (mean age: 57 years, 61% males) had a mean baseline sitting BP of 159.8/100.4 mm Hg. The mean change from baseline in sitting diastolic BP at week 16 (primary endpoint) was −12.4 mm Hg in the azilsartan group and −9.8 mm Hg in the candesartan group, demonstrating a statistically significant greater reduction with azilsartan vs. candesartan (difference: −2.6 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI): −4.08 to −1.22 mm Hg, P=0.0003). The week 16 (secondary endpoint) mean change from baseline in sitting systolic BP was −21.8 mm Hg and −17.5 mm Hg, respectively, a significant decrease with azilsartan vs. candesartan (difference: −4.4 mm Hg, 95% CI: −6.53 to −2.20 mm Hg, P<0.0001). On ABPM, the week 14 mean changes from baseline in diastolic and systolic BP were also significantly greater with azilsartan over a 24-h period, and during the daytime, night-time and early morning. Safety and tolerability were similar among the two groups. These data demonstrate that once-daily azilsartan provides a more potent 24-h sustained antihypertensive effect than that of candesartan but with equivalent safety. PMID:22278628

  10. RNA polymerase I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Christoph; Plitzko, Jürgen; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Transcription of ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the initiation factor Rrn3. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals how Rrn3 binding converts an inactive Pol I dimer into an initiation-competent monomeric complex and provides insights into the mechanisms of Pol I-specific initiation and regulation.

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  12. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  13. Fair & Accurate Grading for Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many changes in education over the past century, grading and reporting practices have essentially remained the same. In part, this is because few teacher preparation programs offer any guidance on sound grading practices. As a result, most current grading practices are grounded in tradition, rather than research on best practice. In an…

  14. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  15. Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains papers from the 1997 Thermal Barrier Coatings Workshop, sponsored by the TBC Interagency Coordination Committee. The Workshop was held in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky, May 19-21, 1997. The papers cover the topics of heat transfer and conductivity of thermal barrier coatings, failure mechanisms and characterization of the coatings as well as characterization of coating deposition methods. Speakers included research, development and user groups in academia, industry and government.

  16. Arkansas Music Curriculum Framework 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This framework for music contains four instructional strands. Each strand has content standards and cumulative student learning expectations for grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12. The strands are: (1) "Create and Perform," in which students will demonstrate musical competency through creating and performing; (2) "Listen…

  17. Instructional Practices: An Evaluation of a K4-8 School's Writing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCudden, Renae Marie

    2010-01-01

    Teaching children to write successfully is an area of great concern to educators in the 21 st century. According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data, the writing skills of two-thirds of the students in elementary, middle, and high school are below grade level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). In 2003, the…

  18. Essential pitfalls in "essential" tremor.

    PubMed

    Espay, Alberto J; Lang, Anthony E; Erro, Roberto; Merola, Aristide; Fasano, Alfonso; Berardelli, Alfredo; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2017-03-01

    Although essential tremor has been considered the most common movement disorder, it has largely remained a diagnosis of exclusion: many tremor and nontremor features must be absent for the clinical diagnosis to stand. The clinical features of "essential tremor" overlap with or may be part of other tremor disorders and, not surprisingly, this prevalent familial disorder has remained without a gene identified, without a consistent natural history, and without an acceptable pathology or pathophysiologic underpinning. The collective evidence suggests that under the rubric of essential tremor there exists multiple unique diseases, some of which represent cerebellar dysfunction, but for which there is no intrinsic "essence" other than a common oscillatory behavior on posture and action. One approach may be to use the term essential tremor only as a transitional node in the deep phenotyping of tremor disorders based on historical, phenomenological, and neurophysiological features to facilitate its etiologic diagnosis or serve for future gene- and biomarker-discovery efforts. This approach deemphasizes essential tremor as a diagnostic entity and facilitates the understanding of the underlying disorders to develop biologically tailored diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  20. Effects of 6/6 and 4/8 watch systems on sleepiness among bridge officers.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Mikko; Partinen, Markku; Repo, Risto; Sorsa, Matti; Siivonen, Pertti

    2008-04-01

    During the last ten years, severe sleepiness or falling asleep by watch keeping officers has been a direct or a contributing factor in a number of maritime accidents. This study examined the relationship between two watch systems and its impact on fatigue and sleepiness in bridge officers. A questionnaire and a sleep/work diary were sent to a representative sample of the Finnish Maritime Officer Association. In all, 185 bridge officers answered the questionnaire on sleep, work hours, and safety, including the Skogby Excessive Daytime Sleepiness index (SEDS); 42% of the bridge officers worked two 4 h watches (4/8) per day, while 26% worked two 6 h watches per day (6/6). Ninety-five of the participants completed a sleep diary for seven consecutive days while at sea. The timing of the watch duties and sleep was recorded, as was subjective sleepiness every 2 h using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). 17.6% of the participants had fallen asleep at least once while on duty during their career. Compared to the 4/8 watch system, the officers working the 6/6 watch system reported shorter sleep durations, more frequent nodding-off on duty (7.3% vs. 1.5%), and excessive sleepiness (32% vs. 16% with SEDS>14). Based on a logistic regression analysis, high SEDS was significantly related with probable obstructive sleep apnea (OR 5.7), the 6/6 watch system (OR 4.0), and morningness-eveningness while controlling simultaneously several individual and sleep-related factors. Subjective sleepiness (KSS) was highest at 04:00 and 06:00 h. In a multivariate analysis, the KSS was significantly related to time of day, time after awaking, sleep length, and interactions of the watch systems with age, morningness-eveningness, and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) score. Severe sleepiness at 04:00-06:00 h was especially problematic in the 6/6 watch system among evening types and among the bridge officers with high ESS. The results suggest the 6/6 watch system is related to a higher risk of

  1. [Endocrinology 1996-1997].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, V

    1998-04-06

    Post-traumatic stress-induced disorders are still the focus of interest and most recently discussions are under way whether stress-induced cortisol excess leads to atrophy of the brain. In investigation on carcinogenesis the first reports were published on the use of antisense-oligonucleotides during inhibition of the development of tumours by a humoral mechanism and on the gene-based neuroendocrine differentiation of the lungs, perhaps associated with the basis for the development of small cell carcinoma. The oncogenic action of superoxides has also humoral mediators. Interest in nitrogen oxide is focused on two areas: inflammations and hypertension. Intraluminal NO concentrations increase in asthma 2-10x, in cystitis 30-100x, in Crohn's disease 20-200x. Humoral mechanisms in asthma offer new drugs--inhibitors of the development or action of leucotrienes. The basal NO production is reduced in "essential" hypertension but it is not known whether it is the cause or consequence. IGF-I increases the formation of NO in the vascular wall and thus perhaps reduces vascular contractility. As far as IGF is concerned, it is obvious that if recombinant preparations will be available, they will be tested in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myotonic dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, catabolic conditions, osteoporosis, in renal failure and to promote wound healing. STH may also prove useful in cardiac failure, in particular in cardiac cachexia. That TRH has receptors in the gut is not surprising, it acts, however, even there via TSH. Thrombopoietin is being tested in clinical trials. Neocytolysis is a new phenomenon: when erythropoietin secretion declines new erythrocytes disappear and only old ones remain in the blood stream. Alpha-adducin is a renal tubular protein, regulating the sodium balance.

  2. Cylinder-shaped ultrasonic motors 4.8 mm in diameter using electroactive piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Laihui; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Chunsheng; Wang, Haixia; Luo, Haosu

    2007-01-01

    Two cylinder-shaped ultrasonic motors 4.8mm in diameter were developed. This kind of motor was driven by four pieces of piezoelectric materials, which were used to excite the two first-bending vibrations. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystal and Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramic piezoelectric materials were used as drive elements. The motor based on PMNT crystals could operate at a voltage of 25Vp-p (peak to peak). When driven by a 100Vp-p voltage, the motor could run at frequency ranging from 26to68kHz and the revolution speed reached 450rpm. Its maximum output torque was 0.6mNm. The motor based on the PZT ceramic did not exhibit high performance as the PMNT crystal motor. The piezoelectric materials affect the performance of the motors greatly.

  3. Observation of gamma rays with a 4.8 hour periodicity from CYG X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Energetic (E35 MeV) Gamma rays were observed from Cyg X-3 with the SAS-2 Gamma ray telescope. They are modulated at the 4.8 sup h period observed in the X-ray and infrared regions, and within the statistical error are in phase with this emission. The flux above 100 MeV has an average value of (4.4 + or - 1.1)x 10 to the -6 power/sq cm/sec. If the distance to Cyg X-3 is 10 kpcs, this flux implies a luminosity of more than 10 to the 37th power ergs/s if the radiation is isotropic and about 10 to the 36th power ergs/s if the radiation is restricted to a cone of one steradian, as it might be in a pulsar.

  4. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  5. LARP LHC 4.8 GHZ Schottky System Initial Commissioning with Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; Jansson, Andreas; Jones, O.Rhodri; Caspers, Fritz; /CERN

    2011-03-18

    The LHC Schottky system consists for four independent 4.8 GHz triple down conversion receivers with associated data acquisition systems. Each system is capable of measuring tune, chromaticity, momentum spread in either horizontal or vertical planes; two systems per beam. The hardware commissioning has taken place from spring through fall of 2010. With nominal bunch beam currents of 10{sup 11} protons, the first incoherent Schottky signals were detected and analyzed. This paper will report on these initial commissioning results. A companion paper will report on the data analysis curve fitting and remote control user interface of the system. The Schottky system for the LHC was proposed in 2004 under the auspices of the LARP collaboration. Similar systems were commissioned in 2003 in the Fermilab Tevatron and Recycler accelerators as a means of measuring tunes noninvasively. The Schottky detector is based on the stochastic cooling pickups that were developed for the Fermilab Antiproton Source Debuncher cooling upgrade completed in 2002. These slotted line waveguide pickups have the advantage of large aperture coupled with high beam coupling characteristics. For stochastic cooling, wide bandwidths are integral to cooling performance. The bandwidth of slotted waveguide pickups can be tailored by choosing the length of the pickup and slot spacing. The Debuncher project covered the 4-8 GHz band with eight bands of pickups, each with approximately 500 MHz of bandwidth. For use as a Schottky detector, bandwidths of 100-200 MHz are required for gating, resulting in higher transfer impedance than those used for stochastic cooling. Details of hardware functionality are reported previously.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1997 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1997 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 71 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. In 1997, annual mean ground-water levels in Georgia ranged from 6.2 feet (ft) lower to 5.6 ft higher than in 1996. Of the 71 wells summarized in this report, 23 wells had annual mean water levels that were higher, 35 wells had annual mean water levels that were lower, and 11 wells had annual mean water levels that were about the same in 1997 as during 1996. Data for two wells are incomplete because data collection was discontinued at one well, and the equipment was vandalized at one well. Record-low daily mean water levels were recorded in six wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, one well tapping the Caliborne aquifer, two wells tapping the Clayton aquifer, and three wells tapping Cretaceous aquifers. These record lows were from 0.2 to 5.6 ft lower than previous record lows. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standard. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground

  7. 1997 buyer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This journal contains the Environmental Solutions 1997 Buyer`s Guide. It is a comprehensive resource for locating suppliers of environmental, health and safety products and services. Vendors are listed alphabetically, with complete mailing address, telephone and fax information, and by product or service category. Also included is a list of the products and services which of greatest interest in 1996.

  8. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  9. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  10. Osservazioni di Mercurio nel 1997.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, M.

    1999-08-01

    The observations of Mercury received by the UAI Planet Section during 1997 are analyzed. Nine observers contributed 60 report forms, mainly concerning the January, April and July elongations of the planet. Several disk markings were detected, as well as bright cusps. Visual phase estimates showed a reverse Schroeter effect.

  11. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  12. Information Technology and Disabilities, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Tom, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Articles published during 1997 include: "The Multi-Disability Workstation for Small Libraries" (Dick Banks and Steve Noble); "Talking Books: Toward a Digital Model" (John Cookson and others); "World Wide Access: Focus on Libraries" (Sheryl Burgstahler); "The Virtual Library: Collaborative Data Exchange and Electronic Text Delivery" (Steve Noble);…

  13. Star formation and black hole growth at z ≅ 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Shemmer, Ohad; Lira, Paulina

    2014-08-10

    We report Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations of 44 z ≅ 4.8 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This flux-limited sample contains the highest mass black holes (BHs) at this redshift. Ten of the objects were detected by Herschel and five show emission that is not clearly associated with the AGNs. The star formation (SF) luminosity (L{sub SF}) obtained by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with standard SF templates, taking into account AGN contribution, is in the range 10{sup 46.62}-10{sup 47.21} erg s{sup –1} corresponding to SF rates of 1090-4240 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Fitting with very luminous submillimeter galaxy SEDs gives SF rates that are smaller by 0.05 dex when using all bands and 0.1 dex when ignoring the 250 μm band. A 40 K graybody fits to only the 500 μm fluxes reduce L{sub SF} by about a factor of two. A stacking analysis of 29 undetected sources gives significant signals in all three bands. A SF template fit indicates L{sub SF} = 10{sup 46.19-46.23} erg s{sup –1} depending on the assumed AGN contribution. A 40 K fit to the stacked 500 μm flux gives L{sub SF} = 10{sup 45.95} erg s{sup –1}. The mean BH mass (M{sub BH}) and AGN luminosity (L{sub AGN}) of the detected sources are significantly higher than those of the undetected ones. The spectral differences are seen all the way from UV to far infrared wavelengths. The mean optical-UV spectra are similar to those predicted for thin accretion disks around BHs with similar masses and accretion rates. We suggest two alternative explanations to the correlation of L{sub SF}, L{sub AGN} and M{sub BH}, one involving no AGN feedback and the second involving moderate feedback that affects, but does not totally quench, SF in three-quarters of the sources. We compare our L{sub SF} and L{sub AGN} to lower redshift samples and show a new correlation between L{sub SF} and M{sub BH}. We also examine several rather speculative ideas about

  14. Was the Timpson, Texas, M4.8 event induced by fluid injection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Z.; Eichhubl, P.; Gale, J.; Olson, J. E.; Frohlich, C.; Gono, V.

    2014-12-01

    A M4.8 earthquake with dominant strike-slip near Timpson, east Texas, the largest documented earthquake to date in that region, has received extensive attention due to the possible linkage to waste water injection. The reliably located aftershocks align along a previously mapped fault striking about N42°W. Two active injection wells are located within 3 km of the aftershocks. One injection well became operational in August 2006 with an average injection rate of 42,750 m3/mo at an average pumping pressure of 12.4 MPa at depths between 1853 and 1868 m. Six months later, the second well started injection at 15,600 m3/mo. To investigate the causative relationship between fluid injection and possibly induced seismic fault slip, we integrated geologic and geophysical data into a poroelastic finite element model to simulate the spatial and temporal evolution of pore pressure and stress fields and analyze the stability of fault by applying the Coulomb failure criterion. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the sensitivity of Coulomb failure stress to the variability of input parameters including permeability of injection layer, fault orientation and permeability, and orientation and magnitude of stress state prior to injection. Assuming a Byerlee friction coefficient of 0.6, and using best available estimates of layer permeability, fault orientation, and stress tensor orientation and magnitude, we calculated fault slip occurs 55 months after the start of injection in the model, close to the observed delay of 69 months between injection and the M4.8 event. However, even with principal stress directions and fault orientation being reasonably well constrained, Coulomb failure stress is highly sensitive to input parameters resulting in large uncertainties in correlating injection rate and volume with the onset of induced seismic events. In addition, injection layer and fault zone permeability has a profound effect on the pore pressure evolution. These results

  15. Star Formation and Black Hole Growth at z ~= 4.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Shemmer, Ohad; Lira, Paulina

    2014-08-01

    We report Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations of 44 z ~= 4.8 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This flux-limited sample contains the highest mass black holes (BHs) at this redshift. Ten of the objects were detected by Herschel and five show emission that is not clearly associated with the AGNs. The star formation (SF) luminosity (L SF) obtained by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with standard SF templates, taking into account AGN contribution, is in the range 1046.62-1047.21 erg s-1 corresponding to SF rates of 1090-4240 M ⊙ yr-1. Fitting with very luminous submillimeter galaxy SEDs gives SF rates that are smaller by 0.05 dex when using all bands and 0.1 dex when ignoring the 250 μm band. A 40 K graybody fits to only the 500 μm fluxes reduce L SF by about a factor of two. A stacking analysis of 29 undetected sources gives significant signals in all three bands. A SF template fit indicates L SF = 1046.19-46.23 erg s-1 depending on the assumed AGN contribution. A 40 K fit to the stacked 500 μm flux gives L SF = 1045.95 erg s-1. The mean BH mass (M BH) and AGN luminosity (L AGN) of the detected sources are significantly higher than those of the undetected ones. The spectral differences are seen all the way from UV to far infrared wavelengths. The mean optical-UV spectra are similar to those predicted for thin accretion disks around BHs with similar masses and accretion rates. We suggest two alternative explanations to the correlation of L SF, L AGN and M BH, one involving no AGN feedback and the second involving moderate feedback that affects, but does not totally quench, SF in three-quarters of the sources. We compare our L SF and L AGN to lower redshift samples and show a new correlation between L SF and M BH. We also examine several rather speculative ideas about the host galaxy properties including the possibility that the detected sources are above the SF mass sequence (MS) at z ~= 4.8

  16. Essential tremor.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Essential tremor, including the juvenile and senile variations, may be a result of a disorder of the servomechanism that controls physiologic tremor. Hands and arms are affected most commonly, and the tremor can vary in amplitude as well as frequency. Long-term treatment with propranolol has been helpful for some patients, although older patients are less likely to benefit. Other drugs and behaviour modification therapy have been less successful. Surgical treatment is effective but should probably be reserved for severe cases. An effective instrument for measuring the subjective and objective aspects of the tremor is still needed, as is an effective long-term method of treatment. PMID:7018658

  17. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, Yang; Wang, Yao; Jiangwei, Yin; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  18. An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4-8-year old children: associations with temperament.

    PubMed

    Buss, Kristin A; Dennis, Tracy A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Sippel, Lauren M

    2011-04-01

    Although there is great interest in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive processes that create risk for psychopathology, there is a paucity of research in young children. One event-related potential (ERP), the N2, is thought to index conflict monitoring and has been linked cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. Most of this research, however, has been conducted with adults, adolescents, and older children, but not with younger children. To address this gap, the current study examined 26 4-8-year-olds, who completed a cued flanker task while EEG was continuously recorded. We assessed whether the N2 was detectable in this group of young children and examined associations between the N2 and factors reflecting affective risk (e.g., reduced executive attention, temperamental effortful control, and temperamental surgency). We documented an N2 effect (greater N2 amplitude to incongruent versus congruent flankers), but only in children older than 6 years of age. Increases in the N2 effect were associated with less efficient executive attention and lower temperamental effortful control. We discuss the implications of these findings and consider how they may inform future studies on biomarkers for cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety.

  19. A 4.8 kbps code-excited linear predictive coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremain, Thomas E.; Campbell, Joseph P., Jr.; Welch, Vanoy C.

    1988-01-01

    A secure voice system STU-3 capable of providing end-to-end secure voice communications (1984) was developed. The terminal for the new system will be built around the standard LPC-10 voice processor algorithm. The performance of the present STU-3 processor is considered to be good, its response to nonspeech sounds such as whistles, coughs and impulse-like noises may not be completely acceptable. Speech in noisy environments also causes problems with the LPC-10 voice algorithm. In addition, there is always a demand for something better. It is hoped that LPC-10's 2.4 kbps voice performance will be complemented with a very high quality speech coder operating at a higher data rate. This new coder is one of a number of candidate algorithms being considered for an upgraded version of the STU-3 in late 1989. The problems of designing a code-excited linear predictive (CELP) coder to provide very high quality speech at a 4.8 kbps data rate that can be implemented on today's hardware are considered.

  20. Familial Constitutional Rearrangement of Chromosomes 4 & 8: Phenotypically Normal Mother and Abnormal Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Fulesh

    2016-01-01

    Balanced chromosome translocations carriers mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression but may have more risk of recurrent spontaneous abortions &/or children with serious birth defects due to unbalanced chromosome complements. Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements have variable clinical expression and are rare. We present here a case report of three siblings affected with intellectual disability and minor dysmorphic features of face and limbs, born to a non-consanguineous couple in which mother had 5 abortions. The constitutional chromosome analysis revealed balanced translocation t (4;8) in mother and all the three siblings were karyotypically normal. Chromosomal microarray in one of the probands revealed partial monosomy 8pter-p23 and a partial trisomy 4pter-p16. Phenotypic features were recorded in 3 probands using Human Phenotype Ontology terms to query web-based tool Phenomizer. The harmonized description using globally accepted ontology is very important especially in case of rare genetic conditions and the heterogeneous phenotypes which make it even more challenging. The prevalence of sub-microscopic unbalanced translocations may be under-reported due to lesser use of molecular genetic analysis. The familial expression of abnormal phenotypes including intellectual disability make the individuals candidate for molecular genetic analysis and phenotyping to help defer the status of idiopathic mental retardation and identify sub-entity of genetic condition. PMID:27190830

  1. Implementing dosimetry in GATE: dose-point kernel validation with GEANT4 4.8.1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Ludovic; Chouin, Nicolas; Bitar, Abdalkader; Lisbona, Albert; Bardiès, Manuel

    2007-02-01

    GATE is a recent Monte Carlo code, based on GEANT4, and used in nuclear medicine mainly for imaging and detector design. Our goal was to implement dosimetry within GATE (i.e., combining the excellent potential of Gate for image modeling with GEANT4 dosimetric capabilities. The latest release of GEANT4 (4.8.1) completely revised the electron multiple scattering propagation algorithm. In this work, we calculated dose point kernels (DPK) for 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, and 3 MeV monoenergetic electrons. We then compared our results with data obtained with another Monte Carlo code (MCNPX) or from the reference publication from Berger and Seltzer. To facilitate comparison, all calculated dose distributions were scaled to the corresponding R(CSDA), as given by the ESTAR NIST web database. Some GEANT4 parameters (i.e., Stepmax), or the shell thickness, had to be adjusted in order to achieve good agreement for energies below 1 MeV. For all energies except 10 keV, calculated DPKs do not differ significantly from the reference, as assessed by a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. This preliminary step allowed us to consider the integration of GEANT4 dosimetric capabilities within the Gate framework.

  2. The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fábio L; Assumpção, Marcelo; Facincani, Edna M; França, George S; Assine, Mario L; Paranhos, Antônio C; Gamarra, Roberto M

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable.

  3. The ANGPTL3-4-8 model, a molecular mechanism for triglyceride trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysing circulating triglycerides (TG) into free fatty acids that are taken up by peripheral tissues. Postprandial LPL activity rises in white adipose tissue (WAT), but declines in the heart and skeletal muscle, thereby directing circulating TG to WAT for storage; the reverse is true during fasting. However, the mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of LPL activity during the fed–fast cycle has been elusive. Recent identification of lipasin/angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8), a feeding-induced hepatokine, together with Angptl3 and Angptl4, provides intriguing, yet puzzling, insights, because all the three Angptl members are LPL inhibitors, and the deficiency (overexpression) of any one causes hypotriglyceridaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia). Then, why does nature need all of the three? Our recent data that Angptl8 negatively regulates LPL activity specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles suggest an Angptl3-4-8 model: feeding induces Angptl8, activating the Angptl8–Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles, thereby making circulating TG available for uptake by WAT, in which LPL activity is elevated owing to diminished Angptl4; the reverse is true during fasting, which suppresses Angptl8 but induces Angptl4, thereby directing TG to muscles. The model suggests a general framework for how TG trafficking is regulated. PMID:27053679

  4. A study of DNA tube formation mechanisms using 4-, 8-, and 12-helix DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yonggang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Junping; Yan, Hao

    2006-04-05

    This paper describes the design and characterization of a new family of rectangular-shaped DNA nanostructures (DNA tiles) containing 4, 8, and 12 helices. The self-assembled morphologies of the three tiles were also investigated. The motivation for designing this set of DNA nanostructures originated from the desire to produce DNA lattices containing periodic cavities of programmable dimensions and to investigate the mechanism of DNA tube formation. Nine assembly scenarios have been investigated through the combination of the three different tiles and three sticky end association strategies. Imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed self-assembled structures with varied cavity sizes, lattice morphologies, and orientations. Six samples show only tube formation, two samples show both 2D lattices (>2 microm) and tubes, and one sample shows only 2D lattices without tubes. We found that a lower tile dimensional anisotropy, weaker connection, and corrugated design favor the large 2D array formation, while the opposite (higher tile anisotropy, stronger connection, and uncorrugated design) favors tube formation. We discuss these observations in terms of an energy balance at equilibrium and the kinetic competition between diffusion-limited lateral lattice growth versus fluctuation of the lattice to form tubes at an early stage of the assembly. The DNA nanostructures and their self-assembly demonstrated herein not only provide a new repertoire of scaffolds to template the organization of nanoscale materials, but may also provide useful information for investigating other self-assembly systems.

  5. Investigation of incomplete fusion dynamics at energy 4-8 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Harish; Tali, Suhail A.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Singh, D.; Ali, Rahbar; Kumar, Kamal; Sathik, N. P. M.; Parashari, Siddharth; Ali, Asif; Dubey, R.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.

    2017-04-01

    The recoil-catcher activation technique followed by the offline γ-ray spectroscopy has been adopted for the excitation function measurement of residues populated in 12,13C induced reactions with 175Lu target at lower projectile energies ≈ 4- 8 MeV /nucleon. The independent cross-sections for some of the populated residues have been estimated by subtracting the contributions of higher charge precursor isobars from the measured cumulative cross-sections. The measured excitation functions are compared with theoretical predictions based on statistical model code PACE-4. This comparison reveals that complete fusion process solely contributes in the formation of xn-pxn channels and an enhancement in the measured cross-sections of α-emitting channels from the theoretical predictions may be attributed to the incomplete fusion process. The incomplete fusion probability is found to be higher in case of 12C than for a one neutron rich projectile 13C throughout the incident energy region. Present findings obtained for 12,13C + 175Lu systems have been compared with informations extracted from previously studied systems and projectile structure is found to strongly affect the incomplete fusion dynamics in terms of projectile α-Q-value along with projectile-target mass-asymmetry. Moreover, it may be pointed out that Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematic is probably the projectile structure dependent systematic. A substantial contribution to incomplete fusion coming from collision trajectories with ℓ ≤ℓcrit is also observed, contrary to the SUMRULE model assumptions.

  6. Real-time optimal adaptation for planetary geometry and texture: 4-8 tile hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Lok M; Duchaineau, Mark A; Joy, Kenneth I

    2005-01-01

    The real-time display of huge geometry and imagery databases involves view-dependent approximations, typically through the use of precomputed hierarchies that are selectively refined at runtime. A classic motivating problem is terrain visualization in which planetary databases involving billions of elevation and color values are displayed on PC graphics hardware at high frame rates. This paper introduces a new diamond data structure for the basic selective-refinement processing, which is a streamlined method of representing the well-known hierarchies of right triangles that have enjoyed much success in real-time, view-dependent terrain display. Regular-grid tiles are proposed as the payload data per diamond for both geometry and texture. The use of 4-8 grid refinement and coarsening schemes allows level-of-detail transitions that are twice as gradual as traditional quadtree-based hierarchies, as well as very high-quality low-pass filtering compared to subsampling-based hierarchies. An out-of-core storage organization is introduced based on Sierpinski indices per diamond, along with a tile preprocessing framework based on fine-to-coarse, same-level, and coarse-to-fine gathering operations. To attain optimal frame-to-frame coherence and processing-order priorities, dual split and merge queues are developed similar to the Realtime Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM) Algorithm, as well as an adaptation of the ROAM frustum culling technique. Example applications of lake-detection and procedural terrain generation demonstrate the flexibility of the tile processing framework.

  7. Monthly energy review, March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This is an overview of the March 1997 energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The Contents of the report include an update on the effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on electric utilities, an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 60 tabs.

  8. Career Placement and Graduate Transfer Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    This report provides data on career and transfer outcomes of 1997 graduates from the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI). A brief preface explains that surveys were distributed to 1,551 graduates from 1997, with a total response rate of 84.8 percent (n=1,315). Results from the survey indicate that, with small exception, 1997 graduates are…

  9. Monthly energy review, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This is an overview of the May energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Energy production during February 1997 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu, a 1.9% decrease from the level of production during February 1996. Coal production increased 1.2%, natural gas production decreased 2.9%, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 2.1%. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.3% from the level of production during February 1996. Energy consumption during February 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.0% below the level of consumption during February 1996. Consumption of petroleum products decreased 4.4%, consumption of natural gas was down 3.5%, and consumption of coal fell 2.2%. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 6.7% from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during February 1997 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.1% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 12.7% and net imports of natural gas were up 7.4%. Net exports of coal fell 12.1% from the level in February 1996. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  10. Career Education. Human Ecology/Home Economics Objectives, Grades 6-12. DS Manual 2850.1 [and] Approved List of Essential Textbooks/Instructional Materials for Human Ecology/Home Economics, Grades 6-12. DS Manual 2850.2; Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides program and instructional objectives as guidelines for a human ecology/home economics program in Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). Four sections are inlcuded in the manual: (1) Human Ecology/Home Economics Program Objectives; (2) Human Ecology/Home Economics, Grades 6-8, Exploratory; (3) Fundamentals Level…

  11. How Zucchini Won Fifth-Grade Hearts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Denise

    1987-01-01

    A nutrition education program for grades K through 6 in Arizona is described, and essential elements of the program are given. Children learn about foods and the role of nutrients in health through gardening. (MT)

  12. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  13. Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously…

  14. China: Tradition and Transformation. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1997 (China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in China in 1997. The participants represented various regions of the U.S. and different grade levels and subject areas. The 15 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "China's One-Child Policy" (Michael Borrowman); (2) "China Chooses a…

  15. Diffractive and refractive timescales at 4.8 GHz in PSR B0329+54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, W.; Kijak, J.; Gupta, Y.; Krzeszowski, K.

    2011-10-01

    Aims: We present the results of flux density monitoring of PSR B0329+54 at the frequency of 4.8 GHz using the 32-m TCfA radiotelescope. The observations were conducted between 2002 and 2005. The main goal of the project was to find interstellar scintillation (ISS) parameters for the pulsar at the frequency at which it was never studied in detail. To achieve this, the 20 observing sessions consisted of 3-min integrations, which on average lasted 24 h. This gave us sufficient sensitivity to all types of flux density variations over a wide range of timescales. The character of the observations makes our project unique amongst other ISS oriented observing programs, at least at high frequency. Methods: Flux density time series obtained for each session were analysed using structure functions. For some of the individual sessions as well as for the general average structure function we were able to identify two distinctive timescales present, the timescales of diffractive and refractive scintillations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case when both scintillation timescales, tDISS = 42.7 min and tRISS = 305 min, were observed simultaneously in a uniform data set and estimated using the same method. Results: The obtained values of the ISS parameters combined with the data found in the literature allowed us to study the frequency dependence of these parameters over a wide range of observing frequencies, which is crucial for understanding the ISM turbulence. We found that the Kolmogorov spectrum is not best suited for describing the density fluctuations of the ISM, and a power-law spectrum with β = 4 seems to fit better with our results. We were also able to estimate the transition frequency (transition from strong to weak scintillation regimes) as νc = 10.1 GHz, much higher than was previously predicted. We were also able to estimate the strength of scattering parameter u = 2.67 and the Fresnel scale as rF = 6.7 × 108 m.

  16. LLE review. Quarterly report, April 1997--June 1997. Volume 71

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1997, includes an article discussing the results from recent experiments performed on OMEGA. These experiments used a new beam-smoothing device-distributed polarization rotators-in concert with existing techniques to improve the on-target uniformity of each beam. The result of this improved radiation uniformity was a substantive reduction in imprinting-the nonuniformity caused by the laser. A novel way to study the time dependence of this imprinting is also presented in this article.

  17. Essential thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Jean B

    2007-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) characterized by a sustained elevation of platelet number with a tendency for thrombosis and hemorrhage. The prevalence in the general population is approximately 30/100,000. The median age at diagnosis is 65 to 70 years, but the disease may occur at any age. The female to male ratio is about 2:1. The clinical picture is dominated by a predisposition to vascular occlusive events (involving the cerebrovascular, coronary and peripheral circulation) and hemorrhages. Some patients with ET are asymptomatic, others may experience vasomotor (headaches, visual disturbances, lightheadedness, atypical chest pain, distal paresthesias, erythromelalgia), thrombotic, or hemorrhagic disturbances. Arterial and venous thromboses, as well as platelet-mediated transient occlusions of the microcirculation and bleeding, represent the main risks for ET patients. Thromboses of large arteries represent a major cause of mortality associated with ET or can induce severe neurological, cardiac or peripheral artery manifestations. Acute leukemia or myelodysplasia represent only rare and frequently later-onset events. The molecular pathogenesis of ET, which leads to the overproduction of mature blood cells, is similar to that found in other clonal MPDs such as chronic myeloid leukemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen. Polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen and ET are generally associated under the common denomination of Philadelphia (Ph)-negative MPDs. Despite the recent identification of the JAK2 V617F mutation in a subset of patients with Ph-negative MPDs, the detailed pathogenetic mechanism is still a matter of discussion. Therapeutic interventions in ET are limited to decisions concerning the introduction of anti-aggregation therapy and/or starting platelet cytoreduction. The therapeutic value of hydroxycarbamide and aspirin in high risk

  18. Phytotoxicity of 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone isolated from Carya cathayensis Sarg. to various plant species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Xian; Yu, Min-Feng; Ruan, Xiao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-26

    The aqueous extract from Carya cathayensis Sarg. exocarp was centrifuged, filtered, and separated into 11 elution fractions by X-5 macroporous resin chromatography. A phenolic compound, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from the fractions with the strongest phytotoxicity by bioassy-guided fractionation, and investigated for phytotoxicity on lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The testing results showed that the treatment with 0.6 mM 4,8-DHT could significantly depress the germination vigor of lettuce and wheat, reduce the germination rate of lettuce and cucumber, and also inhibit radicle length, plumule length, and fresh weight of seedlings of lettuce and onion, but could significantly promote plumule length and fresh weight of seedlings of cucumber (p < 0.05). For the tested five plants, the 4,8-DHT was the most active to the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT had the selectivity of dosage, action target (plant type) and content (seed germination or seedling growth).

  19. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Why are essential genes essential? - The essentiality of Saccharomyces genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojie; Ren, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes are defined as required for the survival of an organism or a cell. They are of particular interests, not only for their essential biological functions, but also in practical applications, such as identifying effective drug targets to pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has approximately 6,000 open reading frames, 15 to 20% of which are deemed as essential. Some of the essential genes, however, appear to perform non-essential functions, such as aging and cell death, while many of the non-essential genes play critical roles in cell survival. In this paper, we reviewed and analyzed the levels of essentiality of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes and have grouped the genes into four categories: (1) Conditional essential: essential only under certain circumstances or growth conditions; (2) Essential: required for survival under optimal growth conditions; (3) Redundant essential: synthetic lethal due to redundant pathways or gene duplication; and (4) Absolute essential: the minimal genes required for maintaining a cellular life under a stress-free environment. The essential and non-essential functions of the essential genes were further analyzed. PMID:28357303

  1. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  2. 1, 2, 3--the Moon and Me [Videotapes and Teacher's Guide with Activities for Math and Science, Grades 4-8].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This set of six videotapes and a teacher's guide follows an interdisciplinary approach and integrates science, mathematics, and writing. The teacher's guide accompanies the videotapes. Six lessons include: (1) "Rotation Duration," which explores the time that it takes for the Moon to go around the Earth and studies the common Moon…

  3. Paleontology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for gifted students, these reproducible paleontology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of paleontology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and the…

  4. Reaching and Teaching Stressed and Anxious Learners in Grades 4-8: Strategies for Relieving Distress and Trauma in Schools and Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehlberg, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    Not all children cope equally well with the stresses and traumas life throws their way, and every educator recognizes that "deer in the headlights" look some children get when current events and past traumas combine to trigger a fight-or-flight stress response. No matter how safe the classroom may be in reality, trauma deactivates cognitive…

  5. Entomology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classrrom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Sue; And Others

    These reproducible entomology units are an introduction to a fascinating world within a world. Originally designed for gifted students, these units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of entomology. Included are two complete…

  6. LLE 1997. Annual report, October 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 1997 (FY97) concluded the fifth year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and is the final report for the first five years of the cooperative agreement. In September 1997, the cooperative agreement was renewed for an additional five years. We summarize our research during FY97, the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students in LLE programs. A general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results are found on pp. 161-167. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters after three years of operation. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion requires precise drive uniformity, the control of hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion of the fusion target, and accurate target fabrication and characterization. The article summarizes a wide variety of experiments relating to direct-drive laser fusion, from high-yield implosion experiments to planar and spherical Rayleigh-Taylor experiments, laser-imprinting experiments, and laser-plasma interaction experiments. A detailed analysis of the equation of motion for an electron in a plane wave is presented beginning on p. 24. A guiding center model is postulated and compared to numerical simulation of the actual particle motion. The formula is also verified analytically using the method of multiple scales. Work continues on this formalism to study the effects of the pondermotive force on laser-plasma interactions. A theoretical calculation of the dephasing time of an electron accelerated by a laser pulse is found on pp. 92-100. The trajectory of a charged particle, determined analytically for various pulse shapes, is then used to determine the dephasing time of an accelerated particle.

  7. 1997 NASA/MSFC Summer Teacher Enrichment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a report on the follow-up activities conducted for the 1997 NASA Summer Teacher Enrichment Program (STEP), which was held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the seventh consecutive year. The program was conducted as a six-week session with 17 sixth through twelfth grade math and science teachers from a six-state region (Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, Louisiana, Mississippi and Missouri). The program began on June 8, 1997, and ended on July 25, 1997. The long-term objectives of the program are to: increase the nation's scientific and technical talent pool with a special emphasis on underrepresented groups, improve the quality of pre-college math and science education, improve math and science literacy, and improve NASA's and pre-college education's understandings of each other's operating environments and needs. Short-term measurable objectives for the MSFC STEP are to: improve the teachers' content and pedagogy knowledge in science and/or mathematics, integrate applications from the teachers' STEP laboratory experiences into science and math curricula, increase the teachers' use of instructional technology, enhance the teachers' leadership skills by requiring them to present workshops and/or inservice programs for other teachers, require the support of the participating teacher(s) by the local school administration through a written commitment, and create networks and partnerships within the education community, both pre-college and college. The follow-up activities for the 1997 STEP included the following: academic-year questionnaire, site visits, academic-year workshop, verification of commitment of support, and additional NASA support.

  8. 1997 Leonid Shower from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Nugent, David; Tedesco, Ed; Murthy, Jayant

    In November 1997, the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite (MSX) was deployed to observe the Leonid shower from space. The shower lived up to expectations, with abundant bright fireballs. Twenty-nine meteors were detected by a wide-angle, visible wavelength, camera near the limb of the Earth in a 48-minute interval, and three meteors by the narrow field camera. This amounts to a meteoroid influx of 5.5 +/- 0.6 10^-5 km^-2 hr^-1 for masses > 0.3 gram. The limiting magnitude for limb observations of Leonid meteors was measured at M_v = -1.5 magn. The Leonid shower magnitude population index was 1.6 +/- 0.2 down to M_v = -7 magn., with no sign of an upper mass cut-off.

  9. Martin Schwarzschild (1912-1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    1997-12-01

    Martin Schwarzschild, the ASP Bruce Medalist for 1965, died on 10 April 1997. A refugee from Hitler's Germany who firmly embraced his adopted country, Schwarzschild not only solved a number of fundamental problems in stellar structure and evolution but also taught the rest of the astronomical community how to do so with his 1958 text, Structure and Evolution of the Stars. At about the time of his 1979 retirement, he turned to a completely different question of how to model spheroidal galaxies self-consistently and sent another generation of students and collaborators forward toward the still somewhat distant solution. It is impossible for anyone who ever interacted with Schwarzschild to remain entirely solemn when remembering him. (SECTION: Obituary)

  10. FY 1997 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-06-01

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996.

  11. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report. Quarterly report, October 1997--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The periodical covers the results of inspections performed between October 1997 and December 1997 by the NRC`s Quality Assurance, Vendor Inspection and Maintenance Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations.

  12. Characterization engineering status report April 1997--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1997-10-01

    The report identifies the activities of the Characterization Engineering organization for the time period of April through September 1997. Characterization Engineering (CE) continues to make progress in support of the project goal of characterizing the Hanford high level waste tanks. Two core sampling systems were operational during this reporting period, rotary mode core sample truck system No. 2 and push mode core sample truck system No. 1. The deployment of the third rotary mode core sample truck system No. 4 continued to be delayed during the reporting period due to exhauster design issues. The schedule to close the exhauster design issues had not yet been finalized at the end of the reporting period. The availability average for all core sampling systems for this period is 49%. This is an increase compared to 37% during the last reporting period. Sixteen tanks were core sampled during the reporting period and l40 samples were retrieved. This is the most tanks cores and segments ever sampled in a six month period. Average sampler recoveries exceeded the performance goals of 80% for system No. 1 and 60% for systems No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4.

  13. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  14. Water Supply at Los Alamos during 1997

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Maes; S. G. McLin; W. D. Purtymun

    1998-12-01

    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1997 totaled about 1,285.9 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1997. About 2.4 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used to irrigate public parks and recreational lands. The total water usage in 1997 was about 1,288.3 million gallons, or about 135 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was down about 82.2 million gallons in 1997 compared with the pumpage in 1996. Four new replacement wells were drilled and cased in Guaje Canyon between October 1997 and March 1998. These wells are currently being developed and aquifer tests are being performed. A special report summarizing the geological, geophysical, and well construction logs will be issued in the near future for these new wells.

  15. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  16. Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  17. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, March 4-8, 1996. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yunjin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996. The main workshop is divided into two smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on March 4-6. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on March 6-8. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  18. Teaching Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelly Stagg; McClay, Jill Kedersha; Main, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of interview research examining writing instruction and assessment practices in 216 Grades 4-8 classrooms across the 10 Canadian provinces and 2 (of 3) territories. Researchers found that participating teachers scheduled daily time for writing, either in language arts classes or through integrating writing…

  19. Grade Inflation and School Competition: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Swedish Upper Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, C.; Wikstrom, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between grade inflation and school competition by studying graduates from the Swedish upper secondary schools in 1997. The final grades are compared to the SweSAT national test scores. Single school municipalities are compared with multiple school municipalities in order to study if potential intra-municipal…

  20. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  1. Stephan Mueller (1930”1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kenneth H.; Ansorge, Joerg

    Stephan Mueller, professor emeritus at the Institute of Geophysics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich and highly respected leader of international geoscience, died February 17, 1997. His untimely death, due to pneumonia following intestinal surgery, came just 18 months after his retirement from the ETH Chair of Geophysics and Directorship of the Swiss Seismological Service. He is survived by his wife, Doris, two sons, and six grandchildren. Mueller received a diploma in physics at the University of Stuttgart in 1957 and an M.S. in electrical engineering from Columbia University in New York in 1959. As an undergraduate at Stuttgart, he was influenced by seismologist Wilhelm Hillerand geophysics quickly became his major academic and career objective. After receiving a 1954-1955 German Academic Interchange Scholarship at Columbia, Mueller sought out Maurice Ewing and his group at Lamont Geological Observatory, where Mueller's enthusiasm for geophysics was strongly encouraged. While at Lamont, he participated in the first U.S. deep-sea geophysical expedition in the Mediterranean Sea during the summer of 1956 aboard the RV Vema.

  2. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  3. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  4. LLE review. Quarterly report, July 1997--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1997, begins with a general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters. Other highlights of the wide variety of research presented in this issue are: a promising method to directly observe the cold compressed shell of an imploding target. The shell is normally observed by backlighting. The proposal described here is to use a high-Z dopant that fluoresces under radiation from the hot core in the K{alpha} line. A study of the instabilities associated with near-forward stimulated Brillouin scattering. It includes a calculation of the saturation times and steady-state gain exponents. A successful program of pulse shaping for the OMEGA laser system. Examples of a variety of pulse shapes that can be programmed are presented. A description of the angular-scattering characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optical devices operating in transient and extended scattering modes. The possibility of applying these devices as modulators in practical IR imaging systems is evaluated. A faster method of shaping and finishing IR materials by the use of magnetorheological fluids. Detailed specifications and test results are included. An integrated circuit tester based on interferometric imaging. This technique holds promise of ultrafast noninvasive testing of the voltage states of sections of microchips. Continued success of the Laboratory`s High School Summer Research Program. The program, which started in 1989, has brought several dozen young people into intimate contact with modern science and technology. The volume concludes with a Laser Facility Report and the National Laser Users` Facility News.

  5. Incidence of herpes zoster, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, J. P.; Riedlinger, K.; Chun, C.; Weinmann, S.; Houston, H.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated age-specific herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan (KPNW) during 1997-2002 and tested for secular trends and differences between residents of two states with different varicella vaccine coverage rates. The cumulative proportions of 2-year-olds vaccinated increased from 35% in 1997 to 85% in 2002 in Oregon, and from 25% in 1997 to 82% in 2002 in Washington. Age-specific HZ incidence rates in KPNW during 1997-2002 were compared with published rates in the Harvard Community Health Plan (HCHP) during 1990-1992. The overall HZ incidence rate in KPNW during 1997-2002 (369/100,000 person-years) was slightly higher than HCHP's 1990-1992 rate when adjusted for age differences. For children 6-14 years old, KPNW's rates (182 for females, 123 for males) were more than three times HCHP's rates (54 for females, 39 for males). This increase appears to be associated with increased exposure of children to oral corticosteroids. The percentage of KPNW children exposed to oral corticosteroids increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 3.6% in 2002. Oregon residents had slightly higher steroid exposure rates during 1997-2002 than Washington residents. There were significant increases in HZ incidence rates in Oregon and Washington during 1997-2002 among children aged 10-17 years, associated with increased exposure to oral steroids. PMID:15816149

  6. Essential Map Concepts for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Barbara

    This paper discusses four key concepts to help preschool and primary grade children develop the ability to read and understand maps. Examples of student activities to develop each of the concepts are provided. The essential concepts are representation, symbolization, perspective, and scale. Representation is vital. Children must perceive that a…

  7. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  8. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

    This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…

  9. Content Analysis of Selected Features of K-8 Environmental Education Research Studies in Turkey, 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Tom; Ok, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze environmental education research (EER) in Turkey conducted in Grades K-8 and published over the years 1997-2007. Due to the fact that there had been no systematic reviews of EER in Turkey prior to this time period, it was more appropriate to explore the implications of the results of this review for research policies…

  10. Kentucky School and District Accountability Results. Accountability Cycle 3 (1994-95 to 1997-98). Briefing Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This briefing packet contains data on the school and district accountability results for Kentucky's state assessment system, the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System, for 1994-1995 through its last use in 1997-1998. The first section contains state and regional accountability indices by grade level, with number of students tested and…

  11. Thermal Models and 1--5mu M Photometry: Spring 1997 Loki Brightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Howell, R. R.; Dumas, C.

    1997-07-01

    Observations from 1.7 -- 4.8 microns obtained between March 12 and May 31 1997 from the IRTF in Hawaii and from the 72'' Perkins Telescope in Flagstaff, AZ, reveal that Io's volcano Loki was then active. Measurements from the Galileo NIMS instrument at the E6 encounter on February 20, 1997, show that the 3.5mu m flux from Loki was extremely low (R. Lopes-Gautier, personal communication). Our photometry at 3.5mu m shows that 20 days later the flux from Loki had increased dramatically to 72+/- 4GWmu m(-1) str(-1) (completely dominating the emission from Io at 3.5mu m) and that it monotonically brightened over the March -- April period, with the flux on April 29 being 94+/- 4GWmu m(-1) str(-1) . In contrast, disk-integrated 2.3:3.5mu m color temperatures, from the March 19 -- April 29 period decline monotonically, from 681+/- 20K to 607+/- 5K, suggesting that we were seeing spreading and cooling lava flows. This color temperature, =~ 650K, is remarkable only in that it is not elevated relative to the color temperature we find for Io when there are no bright hotspots (Spencer \\frenchspacing et al., 1997; Stansberry \\frenchspacing et al., 1997). Because most of the 3.5mu m flux from Io during this period was originating from Loki, the implication is that nearly all of the newly erupted material there had a temperature <= 650K. On April 29 we measured a disk-integrated 1.7:2.3mu m color temperature of 984+/- 24K. This color temperature also is not greater than values we obtain for a quiescent Io, suggesting a lack of high-temperature material at Loki. Models of 1--5mu m emission from lava flows (Howell, 1997; Stansberry \\frenchspacing et al., 1997) will be compared with these data and any additional observations obtained in June and July in order to explore in detail the temperature of the Loki lavas, the extent of the flows, limits on the area at Loki that might be occupied by lavas with T =~ 1000K, and the eruption rates associated with this brightening. Howell, R

  12. Essential Performance Objectives for Science Education. Grades K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Guidance for the development, assessment and/or improvement of science education programs in Michigan is provided in this handbook for teachers, administrators, and parents. It provides a philosophical foundation and curricular framework from which educators could construct comprehensive local science education programs. The nature of science is…

  13. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Professor Joseph M. DeSimone, developed surfactants that allow carbon dioxide to be a solvent for chemical manufacturing, replacing hazardous chemical solvents.

  15. 1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T. (Compiler); Benner, Steve M. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the presentation charts of talks given at the "1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop," held July 9-10, 1997, in Annapolis, Maryland. The workshop was attended by representatives from NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Defense, industry, and universities concerned with the the spacecraft contamination engineering and thermal control coatings. The workshop provided a forum for exchanging new developments in spacecraft contamination and coatings.

  16. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  17. 1997 NASA Academy in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Academy in Aeronautics at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) was a ten-week summer leadership training program conducted for the first time in the summer of 1997. Funding was provided by a contract between DFRC and Purdue University. Mr. Lee Duke of DFRC was the contract monitor, and Professor Dominick Andrisani was the principal investigator. Five student research associates participated in the program. Biographies of the research associates are given in Appendix 1. Dominick Andrisani served as Dean of the NASA Academy in Aeronautics. NASA Academy in Aeronautics is a unique summer institute of higher learning that endeavors to provide insight into all of the elements that make NASA aeronautical research possible. At the same time the Academy assigns the research associate to be mentored by one of NASA!s best researchers so that they can contribute towards an active flight research program. Aeronautical research and development are an investment in the future, and NASA Academy is an investment in aeronautical leaders of the future. The Academy was run by the Indiana Space Grant Consortium at Purdue in strategic partnership with the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. Research associates at the Academy were selected with help from the Space Grant Consortium that sponsored the research associate. Research associate stipend and travel to DFRC were paid by the students' Space Grant Consortium. All other student expenses were paid by the Academy. Since the Academy at DFRC had only five students the opportunity for individual growth and attention was unique in the country. About 30% of the working time and most of the social time of the students were be spent as a "group" or "team." This time was devoted to exchange of ideas, on forays into the highest levels of decision making, and in executing aeronautical research. This was done by interviewing leaders throughout the aerospace industry, seminars, working dinners, and informal

  18. The kinetics of T cell antigen receptor expression by subgroups of CD4+8+ thymocytes: delineation of CD4+8+3(2+) thymocytes as post- selection intermediates leading to mature T cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Cortical thymocytes from adult mice, separated on the basis of coexpression of CD4 and CD8 or of binding of high levels of peanut agglutinin (PNA), were subdivided according to the level of expression of the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex. The incidence of dividing cells in the resultant subpopulations was determined by DNA staining. Precursor-product relationships and the timing of TCR-CD3 acquisition were studied using continuous in vivo [3H]TdR labeling and radioautography. The extent of intrathymic selection for TCR specificity in the subpopulations was determined from the incidence of cells bearing V beta 6 or V beta 17a in different mouse strains. The majority of dividing CD4+8+ blast cells expressed extremely low levels of TCR-CD3, indicating that TCR expression and specificity selection generally occurred after division ceased. The [3H]TdR-labeling studies indicated that postdivision TCR expression was rapid, and that those nondividing cortical thymocytes which had not expressed significant levels of TCR by day 1, remained extremely low or negative for their entire 3.6-d lifespan. Small cortical thymocytes which expressed moderate levels of TCR-CD3, were predominantly an unselected population with a lifespan of 3.8 d. A small subgroup of CD4+8+ PNA+ cortical thymocytes expressing high levels of TCR-CD3 was identified as a nondividing intermediate between the small cortical thymocytes expressing moderate levels of TCR and mature medullary thymocytes. These intermediates showed a 1-d lag in [3H]TdR labeling, then a 3.4-d transit time. The cell flux through this intermediate subpopulation was approximately 10(6) cells/d, similar to the rate of turnover of mature thymocytes; thus, although only 3-4% of thymocytes progressed to this intermediate state, once reaching it most then progressed to full maturity. In accordance with this, the incidence of the V beta selection markers within the intermediate subpopulation indicated that both positive and negative

  19. The design and fabrication of multiple dichroic beamsplitters for the MIRI spectrometer (4.8-29μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Martyn; Hawkins, Gary; Olofsson, Goran

    2004-10-01

    The spectrometer sub-system of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) contains four channels which spectrally multiplex the incoming radiation. This incident radiation, spanning a wavelength range from 4.8 to 28.8μm is spectrally divided between the channels using sets of three dichroics combined in series along the optical trains. The four channels, with overlapping wavelengths 4.8-7.8, 7.4-11.9, 11.4-18.3 and 18.3-28.8μm, are in-turn each split into three wavelength ranges to provide the required resolving power with the available detector pixels. This splitting of the wavelengths within each channel is achieved using three separate sets of dichroics and diffraction gratings, mounted on two wheels. This paper describes the design of the dichroics together with a spectral performance model developed to simulate the system spectral throughput for each of the four channels of the MIRI instrument. Details of the spectral design, manufacture, testing and mounting of the dichroics are presented together with the opto-mechanical layout of the instrument.

  20. A new photosystem II reaction center component (4.8 kDa protein) encoded by chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, M; Inoue, Y

    1988-12-05

    The photosystem II reaction center complex, so-called D1-D2-cytochrome b-559 complex, isolated from higher plants contains a new component of about 4.8 kDa [(1988) Plant Cell Physiol. 29, 1233-1239]. The partial amino acid sequence of this component from spinach was determined after release of N-terminal blockage. The determined sequence matched an open reading frame (ORF36) of the chloroplast genome from tobacco and liverwort, which is located downstream from the psbK gene and forms an operon with psbK. The predicted product consists of 36 amino acid residues and has a single membrane-spanning segment. High homology between the tobacco and liverwort genes, and its presence in the reaction center complex suggest an important role for this component in the photosystem II complex. Since this gene corresponds to a part of the formerly designated psbI gene, we propose to revise the definition of psbI as the gene encoding the 4.8 kDa reaction center component.

  1. Theoretical investigation of a novel high density cage compound 4,8,11,14,15-pentanitro-2,6,9,13-tetraoxa-4,8,11,14,15-pentaazaheptacyclo[5.5.1.1(3,11).1(5,9)] pentadecane.

    PubMed

    Lin, He; Zhu, Shun-guan; Zhang, Lin; Peng, Xin-hua; Chen, Peng-yuan; Li, Hong-zhen

    2013-03-01

    A novel polynitro cage compound 4,8,11,14,15-pentanitro-2,6,9,13-tetraoxa-4,8,11,14,15-pentaazaheptacyclo [5.5.1.1(3,11).1(5,9)]pentadecane(PNTOPAHP) has been designed and investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-31(d) level. Properties, such as electronic structure, IR spectrum, heat of formation, thermodynamic properties and crystal structure have been predicted. This compound is most likely to crystallize in C2/c space group, and the corresponding cell parameters are Z = 8, a = 29.78 Å, b = 6.42 Å, c = 32.69 Å, α = 90.00°, β = 151.05°, γ = 90.00° and ρ = 1.94 g/cm(3). In addition, the detonation velocity and pressure have also been calculated by the empirical Kamlet-Jacobs equation. As a result, the detonation velocity and pressure of this compound are 9.82 km/s, 44.67 GPa, respectively, a little higher than those of 4,10-dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazaisowurtzitane(TEX, 9.28 km/s, 40.72 GPa). This compound has a comparable chemical stability to TEX, based on the N-NO(2) trigger bond length analysis. The bond dissociation energy ranges from 153.09 kJ mol(-1) to 186.04 kJ mol(-1), which indicates that this compound meets the thermal stability requirement as an exploitable HEDM.

  2. Grading for Understanding--Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I…

  3. Synthesis, properties and formation of (RCp)Co- and (RCp)Rh-stabilized[4.8]3cyclacene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kornmayer, Stefan C; Hellbach, Björn; Rominger, Frank; Gleiter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Metal-stabilized belts: A torus, 3, consisting of three four- and three eight-membered conjugated rings and stabilized by (RCp)Co- and (RCp)Rh- units, was generated by irradiation of [(RCp)Co(CO)(2)] and [(RCp)Rh(C(2)H(4))(2)], respectively, and 1.Eleven metal stabilized [4.8](3)cyclacene derivatives were synthesized. The substances were prepared in one-pot reactions by irradiation of a solution of 5,6,11,12-tetradehydro-dibenzo[a,e]cyclooctatetraene and the corresponding cobalt reagents or rhodium compounds. The resulting cyclacene derivatives reveal D(3h) symmetry in solution. In the solid state the hoop shaped systems crystallize in layers, which are intercalated with solvent layers. To unravel the mechanism of the one-pot reaction we isolated an intermediate, which shows almost planar cyclooctatetraene rings.

  4. Treatment with anti-LFA-1 alpha monoclonal antibody selectively interferes with the maturation of CD4- 8+ thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Revilla, C; González, A L; Conde, C; López-Hoyos, M; Merino, J

    1997-04-01

    Maturation of T lymphocytes in the thymus is driven by signals provided by soluble factors and by the direct interaction between thymocytes and stromal cells. Although the interaction between T-cell receptor (TCR) and major histocompalibility complex (MHC) molecules on stromal cells is crucial for T-cell development, other accessory molecules seem to play a role in this process. In order to better understand the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) molecules in thymocyte maturation, mice were treated from birth with saturating doses of non-cytolytic-specific monoclonal antibodies. The effect of this treatment on thymocyte subpopulations and the expression of CD3 and TCR-alpha beta by these cells was investigated by flow cytometry. Our data demonstrated that the effective saturation of LFA-1 alpha chain in the thymus, but not ICAM-I or LFA-I beta chain, selectively interfered with the maturation of CD8+ T cells, as manifested by a marked reduction in the frequency of CD4-8+ thymocytes expressing high levels of CD3 and TCR-alpha beta. This selective reduction was also observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and spleen cells. The analysis of the frequencies of various V beta TCR showed that CD4-8+ thymocytes were globally affected by the treatment. These results underline the importance of the interaction between LFA-1 and its ligands in the maturation of CD8+ T cells and document the existence of different molecular requirements for the differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  5. International Arctic Buoy Program Data Report. 1 January 1997-31 December 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    This report presents data collected by the International Arctic Buoy Program ( IABP ) between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 1997. The network of...automatic data buoys deployed by the IABP monitors synoptic scale fields of pressure, temperature, and ice motion throughout the Arctic Basin.

  6. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities July 1, 1997 - December 31, 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Schuur, C.; Wagner, R.

    1998-08-11

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period July 1, 1997--December 31, 1997. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of Division publications and colloquia are included.

  7. A new naturally-occurring nanoporous copper sheet–silicate with 6{sup 4}8{sup 2} cages related to synthetic “CuSH” phases

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Mark D. Rumsey, Michael S.

    2013-07-01

    The structure of a new naturally-occurring nanoporous copper silicate of formula Na{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 20}·H{sub 2}O (disodium calcium dicopper octasilicate monohydrate) is reported and its relations to synthetic nanoporous “CuSH” compounds are discussed. The new phase is monoclinic C2/m with unit cell parameters a=12.2439(6) Å, b=15.7514(4) Å, c=10.6008(3) Å, β=125.623(2)°, and V=1661.87(10) Å{sup 3} (Z=4). The structure has been refined to R{sub 1}(all)=0.033, wR{sub 2}(all)=0.071, and GoF=1.090. In the double-sheet of SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra, 6{sup 4}8{sup 2} cages connect to form a chequer-board motif within which Na atoms and H{sub 2}O groups occupy channels. Each cage is occupied by 7-coordinated Na atom lying in a mirror plane. An intra-sheet corridor between the 6{sup 4}8{sup 2} cages is occupied by Na in 8-fold cuboidal coordination. The silicate skeleton is highly porous, with obvious channels and pathways for ion migration. The interlayer between double-sheets is occupied by CaO{sub 8}, CuO{sub 5} and NaO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O) polyhedra. CuO{sub 5} polyhedra occur as rows of edge-sharing Cu{sub 2}O{sub 9} pairs connected by NaO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O) octahedra and CaO{sub 8} square antiprisms. Both CuO{sub 5} and NaO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O) polyhedra are features shared with closely-related synthetic “CuSH” phases of interest to the solid-state chemistry community as potential nanoporous catalysts. However, Na{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 20}·H{sub 2}O is the only natural representative of this group of structures, and the only one to contain essential Ca. The discovery of Na{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 20}·H{sub 2}O points to a new group of CuSH-type phases containing alkaline-earth elements. Its close natural association and structural affinity with wesselsite SrCuSi{sub 4}O{sub 10} suggest the possibility of transformation between CuSH and gillespite-type phases, and thereby a route to synthesising alkaline-earth CuSH derivatives

  8. 17 CFR 4.8 - Exemption from certain requirements of rule 4.26 with respect to pools offered or sold in certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption from certain... under the Securities Act. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions...

  9. 17 CFR 4.8 - Exemption from certain requirements of rule 4.26 with respect to pools offered or sold in certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from certain... under the Securities Act. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions...

  10. 17 CFR 4.8 - Exemption from certain requirements of rule 4.26 with respect to pools offered or sold in certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption from certain... under the Securities Act. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions...

  11. 17 CFR 4.8 - Exemption from certain requirements of rule 4.26 with respect to pools offered or sold in certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption from certain... under the Securities Act. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions...

  12. 17 CFR 4.8 - Exemption from certain requirements of rule 4.26 with respect to pools offered or sold in certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption from certain... under the Securities Act. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions...

  13. Step-by-step synchronous variations of planetary natural processes in 1997-1998 and their uniform mechanism: phenomenon of "galloping of the core"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    satellite observations the secular trend of zonal coefficient of geopotentialJ2 is characterized by velocity J˙2=-3.70 × 10-11 1/yr (Cheng et al., 1999). In 1997-1998 the positive step in value of coefficient J2=2.5 × 10-10had place. Gravity. Daily gravity values corrected for air pressure, polar motion and tides have been obtained for the period October 1996 June 2000 on superconducting gravimeters (by Zerbini et al., 2002). The phenomenon of galloping of the core generated observed gravity burst (jump, step, glitch) in gravity variations at Medicine station in 1997-1998 with remarkable step about +5.5 mikrogalls. Global ocean. An action of this mechanism has caused appreciable spasmodic change of a level of ocean in same years. For periods of time: 1993.5-1997.0 and 1999.0 - 2002.0 on the base of Topex-Poseidon observations the following values of increase of mean sea level have been obtained: +2.75 mm/yr, +4.28 mm/yr. A positive step in mean sea level in galloping period 1997-1998 makes about 7.2 mm. Another characteristics have been determined from coastal observations: mean velocities before 1997 and after 1999 make +0.72 mm/yr and +0.60 mm/yr with a jump in 4.8 mm. Ocean hemispheres. On altimetry data velocities of increasing of mean sea levels in northern hemisphere have made about 0.0 mm/yr during 1993.0 - 1997.0 and 1.5 mm/yr after 1999.0 (Barkin et al., 2008). While in a southern hemisphere in both periods velocity of trend of mean sea level has made about 3.5 mm/yr. In northern hemisphere it is marked significant "altimetry" jump of a mean sea level in +15 mm in galloping years 1997-1998. In a southern hemisphere the jump of mean sea level is not swept up almost. We shall note, that under northern and southern hemispheres the oceanic areas located between parallels 60N - 820N and 820S - 60S here are meant. AAM. On the data of observations for period 1970.0 -1997.0 the axial angular momentum of atmosphere executes trend with positive velocity ḣ3 = á¹

  14. Earth Science Content Guidelines Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA.

    Teams of teachers, other science educators, and scientists selected from a national search for project writers have proposed using the following set of questions to guide the inclusion of earth science content into the kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum. The Essential Questions are organized in a K-12 sequence by six content areas: (1) Solid…

  15. Nutrition Education Curriculum. Third Grade Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Six major concepts form the framework for this third grade nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (identifying basic food groups, classifying processed foods into basic food groups, and identifying food varieties produced locally); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing how food…

  16. Nutrition Education Curriculum. First Grade Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Six major concepts form the framework for this first grade nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (identifying basic food groups and classifying processed foods into basic food groups); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing how food choices are related to a healthy body,…

  17. Nutrition Education Curriculum. Second Grade Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Six major concepts form the framework for this second grade nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (identifying basic food groups, classifying processed foods into basic food groups, and identifying food varieties produced locally); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing how…

  18. NREL photovoltaic program FY 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Hansen, A.; Smoller, S.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the NREL PV Program from October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997 (FY 1997). The NREL PV Program is part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE National Photovoltaics Program Plan for 1996--2000. The FY 1997 budget authority for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $39.3 million in operating funds and $0.4 million in capital equipment funds. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with $21.8 million (55% of PV funds) going to some 84 subcontractors. Cost sharing by industry added almost $8.8 million to the subcontract R and D activities with industry.

  19. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an…

  20. Conversations about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine; Gullen, James; Erickson-Guy, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Grades often are determined by the unspoken values and beliefs of an autonomous teacher, but technology is making grading practices more transparent to parents, students, and educators. The ability to view the grade books of teachers who are teaching the same course in the same district is increasingly raising questions and challenges to what were…

  1. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  2. The Meaning of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Serna E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that students see grades as an indicator of effort unconnected to the content of the course while teachers regard grades as a measure of achievement within a discipline. Discusses some of the current controversies and approaches concerning grades and how they relate to school reform. (MJP)

  3. Essential Medicines for Children.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Hoppu

    2017-02-09

    WHO defines Essential medicines as those that satisfy the priority health-care needs of the population (1). The right to Essential medicines has been considered an important component of the right to health. In the name of equity children should also have access to appropriate, available, affordable, and quality essential medicines they need, but children's essential medicines are too often missing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  5. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  6. An Effective Method for Building Meaning Vocabulary in Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; Boote, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary to primary grade children is essential. Previous studies of teaching vocabulary (word meanings) using story books in the primary grades reported gains of 20%-25% of word meanings taught. The present studies concern possible influences on word meaning acquisition during instruction (Study 1) and increasing the percentage and…

  7. Development of Science and Technology Literacy Materials at the Basic Level: Exemplar Materials. Revised during the Regional Workshop Organized within the Framework of Project 2000+: Scientific and Technological Literacy for All (Philippines, November 4-8, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This collection of science activities is designed to supplement traditional science education by encompassing an issues-based approach to helping students develop scientific and technological literacy. Each unit can be used within an existing teaching sequence and includes an introduction specifying scientific issues and educational objectives, a…

  8. Assessment: How Do I "Grade" without Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    1993-01-01

    Examines the A through F system of letter grades used in most schools, suggesting reasons why this framework is inadequate. Proposes a new assessment model which has children demonstrate that they can accomplish a given task on their own. (MDM)

  9. Geomechanical analysis of fluid injection and seismic fault slip for the Mw4.8 Timpson, Texas, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhiqiang; Eichhubl, Peter; Gale, Julia F. W.

    2016-04-01

    An earthquake sequence that culminated in a Mw4.8 strike-slip event near Timpson, east Texas, the largest reported earthquake to date in that region, had previously been attributed to wastewater injection starting 17 months before the onset of recorded seismic activity. To test if this earthquake sequence can be attributed to wastewater injection, we conducted coupled poroelastic finite element simulations to assess the spatial and temporal evolution of pore pressure and stress field in the vicinity of the injection wells and to calculate the Coulomb failure stress on the seismogenic fault as a function of the permeability of the injection layer, fault orientation, fault permeability, and orientation and magnitude of the in situ stress. We find that injection-induced fault slip is plausible within the range of selected model input parameters, with slip favored by low reservoir permeability, low fault permeability, and a favorable orientation of the fault relative to the in situ stress state. Other combinations of equally plausible input parameters predict no slip within 96 months of simulated injection. Under most favorable boundary conditions for fault slip, fault slip occurs 7 months after the start of injection. Our results highlight the importance of detailed geomechanical site characterization for robust fault stability assessment prior to wastewater injection.

  10. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. July, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    CNN Newsroom is a daily 15-minute commercial-free news program specifically produced for classroom use and provided free of charge to participating schools. This guide is designed to accompany the program for July 1997. Top stories include the following: Britain's hand over of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China; regulating business on the…

  11. TAMIU College Student Survey, November 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppock, Marjorie L.

    In fall 1997, students in a Social Science Research Methods class developed and administered a survey questionnaire to assess the degree of stress experienced by students at Texas A&M International University (TAMIU). Located in Laredo, TAMIU serves communities along the Texas-Mexico border. The student body includes many older students who…

  12. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C.

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of "The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "'Bridges of Understanding': UNESCO's Creation of a Fantasy for the American Public" (Michael H. Eaves and Charles F. Beadle, Jr.); "Developing a Communication Cooperative: A Student, Faculty, and Organizational Learning…

  13. The University of Hawaii Community Colleges, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Susan, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the seven issues of a newsletter concerned with Hawaiian Community Colleges published during 1997. Issue 1 discusses the Maui College Telethon and includes personal stories of academic success. Issue 2 examines distance education and includes descriptions of new programs and facilities for various Hawai'i colleges. Issue…

  14. Factbook on Arkansas Public Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report provides extensive statistical data on public higher education in Arkansas for the 1997-1999 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources and expenditure patterns. The report includes data on…

  15. State Issues Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This report profiles legislative action affecting pre-K-12 education in the 50 states during the 1997-98 school year. The information was collected from Lexis-Nexis, legislative staff, state newsletters, school board/teacher associations, and various media. The resulting report, compiled by the Education Commission of the States Information…

  16. The AMATYC Review, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "AMATYC Review" published during volume year 1997-1998. Designed as an avenue of communication for mathematics educators concerned with the views, ideas, and experiences of two-year college students and teachers, this journal contains articles on mathematics exposition and education, and regularly…

  17. Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

  18. Library Instruction and Information Literacy--1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Hannelore B.

    1998-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of titles published in 1997 (in English) lists materials dealing with information literacy, including instruction in the use of information resources, research, and electronic skills related to retrieving, using, and evaluating information. Titles are presented in the categories of Academic Libraries; Public Libraries;…

  19. U.S. Emissions Inventory 1997

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 1997 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 1995.

  20. State Higher Education Appropriations, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers Association.

    This report contains data on state funding for higher education for the 1997-1998 school year. State funding for higher education continued to grow in FY98 for the fifth straight year, increasing 6%, or $2.8 billion, over the prior fiscal year. The amount of support for higher education exceeded $49 billion, and the 1-year and 2-year percentage…

  1. Prison Suicides in Austria, 1975-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruehwald, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick; Eher, Reinhard; Gutierrez, Karin; Ritter, Kristina

    2000-01-01

    Examines the prison suicide phenomenon by evaluating all suicides occurring in Austrian prisons between 1975 and 1997 (N=220). Results reveal suicide rates for prisoners on remand and mentally ill prisoners are 8 times higher than that of the general population. Recommends that psychologists concentrate on the suicide prevention of high-risk…

  2. North Carolina Library Association 1997 Biennial Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Libraries, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides summaries of the presentations at the North Carolina Library Association's Biennial Conference, "Choose Quality, Choose Libraries," (Raleigh, NC, October 8-10, 1997). Some of the topics covered include library instruction, Internet access to public documents, outsourcing technical services, copyrights and the Internet, the…

  3. Child Rights Information Network Newsletter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purbrick, Becky, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These three newsletter issues communicate activities of the Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) and report on information resources and worldwide activities concerning children and child rights. The January 1997 issue profiles CRIN members in Costa Rica, Tanzania, Germany, and Switzerland; and provides updates on the activities of projects…

  4. IDEA 1997--"Inclusion Is the Law."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper stresses that the word "inclusion" is not used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that the law calls for students with disabilities to be provided with a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. Ten 1997-1999 court cases that address the placement of students with…

  5. The Journal for the Professional Counselor, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordan, Terry, Ed.; Goldin, Eugene, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This refereed journal addresses the interests of counselors in school, college, and agency settings and deals with current professional issues, theory, scientific research, and innovative programs and practices. The 1997 volume is comprised of issues number 1 and 2. Number 1 includes the following articles: "Group Counseling for Children of…

  6. Library of Michigan Annual Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    The Library of Michigan is the official state library agency of Michigan. This annual report, covering calendar 1997, provides the following information: names and positions of members of the Board of Trustees and members of the Board of Directors, as well as legislative council and alternate members; the Library mission; accomplishments of the…

  7. The Esalen Catalog, 1993-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esalen Inst., Big Sur, CA.

    This document consists of a compilation of the 14 issues of "The Esalen Catalog" published during the 5-year period 1993-1997. An earlier compilation (ED 347 118 in the ERIC database) covering the 30-year period 1962-1992, describes the geographic location, history, and purpose of the Esalen Institute. Esalen provides a forum in which…

  8. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997): A Tribute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Hans Eysenck, who died in September 1997, was one of the most well-known psychologists in the world. A believer that intelligence is genetically controlled, Eysenck recognized the need for scientific investigation in the study of intelligence and creativity. He was characterized by extraordinary creativity and commitment to his scientific message.…

  9. Child Day Care Center Licensing Study, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The 1997 Child Care Center Licensing Study contains an update of information compiled in 1991 by the Children's Foundation. The data was obtained from the central regulatory office of each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The study is organized in alphabetical order by states and territories. The…

  10. Multimedia Web Searching Trends: 1997-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, Huseyin C.

    2003-01-01

    Results from an analysis of 1,025,010 Excite queries from 2001 are compared to similar Excite datasets from 1997 to 1999. Overall, results indicate that multimedia Web searching is undergoing major changes as Web content and searching evolves. (AEF)

  11. SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Mary, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The four issues of the journal SKOLE published in 1997 contain articles, personal narratives, and interviews about small alternative schools, home schooling, educational history, the deficiencies of public education, and educational philosophy and innovations. Major articles include: "The Creatures They Are: Children Becoming Their Nature" (about…

  12. The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, James D., Ed.; Jablonski, Donna M., Ed.

    This Children's Defense Fund 1997 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by all sectors of society. The introduction discusses Americans' values and presents 25 tips for effective child advocacy. The report then details the following: (1) the impact of welfare reform on children…

  13. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. September 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    CNN Newsroom is a daily 15-minute news program specifically produced for classroom use and provided free to participating schools. These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for September 2-29, 1997, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student…

  14. Annual Site Environmental Report. Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1997. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs.

  15. Long Range Plan, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport. Office of Strategic Planning and Research.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1997-2000 in three parts. The first part describes long…

  16. Regional Technology Planning Workshop. Resource Manual, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Innovations in Education, Rapid City, SD.

    This Technology & Innovations in Education (TIE) workshop was presented on April 24 and 25, 1997, in Denver, CO, to help participants gain a big picture perspective of technology planning and related issues, understand a model for sound, practical technology planning, build capacity for leading a local planning effort, engage in the steps of the…

  17. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  18. English Leadership Quarterly, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These six theme issues of the "English Leadership Quarterly" represent those published during 1997 and part of 1998--volume 19 consists of the traditional four issues, while volume 20 consists of only two issues because of a change in publication schedule. Articles in volume 19 number 1 deal with theories, issues, and personal accounts on the…

  19. Parent News: A Compilation of 1997 Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 issues of "Parent News" (an electronic Internet magazine for parents, prepared for the National Parent Information Network) published during 1997. Each monthly issue contains feature articles describing the activities of the National Parent Information Network, summarizing research useful to parents,…

  20. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  1. Higher Education Funding Recommendations, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    This report summarizes recommendations by New Mexico's Commission on Higher Education for funding the state's two- and four-year colleges in fiscal year 1997-98. Following a preface reviewing the 3-year policy framework and priorities used by the Commission in making its funding recommendations, the first section provides a summary of the…

  2. Fantasy Quest: Summer Library Program 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieling, Kaileen R.; Hudspeth, Jean

    This document presents the 1997 Mississippi summer library program for children. Highlights include: planning a summer library program; promotion and tips on writing publicity releases; radio spots (samples); press releases (samples); a sample letter to parents; a general bibliography; selected promotional resources; supply sources; recipes. Also…

  3. Intelligence Essentials for Everyone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Larry Kahaner, Competitive Intelligence : From Black Ops to Boardrooms — How Businesses Gather, Analyze and Use Infor- mation to Succeed in the Global...32744.fm Page 2 Tuesday, June 22, 1999 9:42 AMauthorities. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals...SCIP, Competitive Intelligence Review, 8, No. 3 (Fall 1997), unnumbered 8th page. 5 SCIP, 1995 SCIP Membership Directory (Alexandria, VA: SCIP, 1995

  4. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  5. Short-term variability of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) at 4.8 AU from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Duffard, R.; Pozuelos, F.; Moreno, F.; Fernández-Valenzuela, E.

    2015-03-01

    Context. We observed comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) during six nights in February 2013 when it was at 4.8 AU from the Sun. At this distance and time the comet was not very active and it was theoretically possible to detect photometric variations likely due to the rotation of the cometary nucleus. Aims: The goal of this work is to obtain differential photometry of the comet inner coma using different aperture radii in order to derive a possible rotational period. Methods: Large field of view images were obtained with a 4 k × 4 k CCD at the f/3 0.77 m telescope of La Hita Observatory in Spain. Aperture photometry was performed in order to get relative magnitude variation versus time. Using calibrated star fields we also obtained ISON's R-magnitudes versus time. We applied a Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis to get possible periodicities for the observed brightness variations, directly related with the rotation of the cometary nucleus. Results: The comet light curve obtained is very shallow, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.03 ± 0.02 mag. A tentative synodic rotational period (single-peaked) of 14.4 ± 1.2 h for ISON's nucleus is obtained from our analysis, but there are other possibilities. We studied the possible effect of the seeing variations in the obtained periodicities during the same night, and from night to night. These seeing variations had no effect on the derived periodicity. We discuss and interpret all possible solutions for the rotational period of ISON's nucleus. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A52

  6. Evaluation of battery converters based on 4. 8-MW fuel cell demonstrator inverter. Final report. [Contains brief glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Electrical power conditioning is a critical element in the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems. This program evaluates the use of existing self-commutated converter technology (as developed by the Power Systems Division of United Technologies for the 4.8-MW Fuel Cell Demonstrator) with modification for use in battery energy storage systems. The program consists of three parts: evaluation of the cost and performance of a self-commutated converter modified to maintain production commonality between battery and fuel cell power conditioners, demonstration of the principal characteristics required for the battery application in MW-scale hardware, and investigation of the technical requirements of operation isolated from the utility system. A power-conditioning system consisting of a self-commutated converter augmented with a phase-controlled rectifier was selected and a preliminary design, prepared. A principal factor in this selection was production commonality with the fuel cell inverter system. Additional types of augmentation, and the use of a self-commutated converter system without augmentation, were also considered. A survey of advanced battery manufacturers was used to establish the dc interface characteristics. The principal characteristics of self-commutated converter operation required for battery application were demonstrated with the aid of an available 0.5-MW development system. A survey of five REA and municipal utilities and three A and E firms was conducted to determine technical requirements for operation in a mode isolated from the utility. Definitive requirements for this application were not established because of the limited scope of this study. 63 figures, 37 tables.

  7. The 17 May 2012 M4.8 earthquake near Timpson, East Texas: An event possibly triggered by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff; Ellsworth, William; Brown, Wesley A.; Brunt, Michael; Luetgert, Jim; MacDonald, Tim; Walter, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes our investigation of the 17 May 2012 MW-RMT4.8 earthquake near Timpson, Texas, the largest earthquake recorded historically in eastern Texas. To identify preshocks and aftershocks of the 17 May event we examined the arrivals recorded at Nacogdoches (NATX) 30 km from the 17 May epicenter, at nearby USArray Transportable Array stations, and at eight temporary stations deployed between 26 May 2012 and mid-2013. At NATX we identified seven preshocks, the earliest occurring in April 2008. Reliably located aftershocks recorded by the temporary stations lie along a 6 km long NW-SE linear trend corresponding to a previously mapped basement fault that extends across the highest-intensity (MMI VII) region of the 17 May main shock. Earthquakes in this sequence are relatively shallow—with focal depths ranging from 1.6 to 4.6 km. Evidence supporting these depths include: hypocentral locations of exceptionally well-recorded aftershocks, S-P intervals at the nearest stations, and comparisons of synthetics and observed seismograms. Within 3 km of the linear trend of aftershock activity there are two Class II injection disposal wells injecting at 1.9 km depth beginning in August 2006 and February 2007, with injection rates averaging 42,750 m3/mo and 15,600 m3/mo, respectively. Several observations support the hypothesis that fluid injection triggered the Timpson sequence: well-located epicenters are situated near a mapped basement fault and near high-volume injection wells, focal depths are at or below the depths of injection, and the earliest preshock (April 2008) occurred after the onset of injection in 2006.

  8. Cellular characterization of blastocysts derived from rabbit 4-, 8- and 16-cell embryos and isolated blastomeres cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tao, T; Niemann, H

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental potential of isolated rabbit blastomeres under various culture conditions to gain insight into their ability to form the two cell lineages of a viable blastocyst. Intact embryos at the 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell stages and blastomeres isolated from 4-, 8- and 16-cell rabbit embryos (1/4, 1/8 or 1/16 blastomeres respectively) were cultured in drops of one of three different media, each supplemented with either fetal calf serum (FCS), bovine serum albumin (BSA) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The effects of the extracellular matrix fibronectin (FN) on the development of isolated rabbit blastomeres were also investigated. Supplementation of the medium with FCS yielded a higher (P < 0.05) proportion of blastocysts than BSA or PVA, predominantly from 1/4 blastomeres. No major differences were found between the three basic culture media. In 1/4, 1/8 or 1/16 blastomeres, blastocyst formation rates were greater (P < 0.05) in groups cultured in matrix-free (54.5, 59.6 and 54.6% respectively) than in FN-coated groups (35.4, 46.0 and 26.1% respectively). Only in blastocysts derived from 1/4 blastomeres, were the numbers of inner cell mass (ICM) and total cells of blastocysts higher (P < 0.05) in FN-coated groups than in matrix-free groups (12.7 +/- 1.1 versus 8.5 +/- 0.7 ICM, 73.8 +/- 3. 7 versus 57.8 +/- 3.3 total cells). The percentage of blastocysts derived from single blastomeres with ICM cells decreased with increasing cell stage of the parent embryos in FN-coated (93.6, 78.3 and 44.0%, respectively) as well as matrix-free groups (96.2, 69.3 and 55.2%). In FN-coated groups, after 96 h (1/4) or 72 h (1/8 and 1/16) of culture, approximately 20-30% of blastomeres did not develop into normal blastocysts but formed sheets with 30-50 cells attached to the bottom of the dishes. These results indicate that the development of rabbit blastomeres shares important characteristics with those from mouse and domestic species and

  9. IUSSP activities. Committee on Historical Demography. Report: Conference on Asian Population History, Taipei, Taiwan, 4-8 January 1996.

    PubMed

    Osirike, A B

    1996-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the Asian Population History Conference held in Taipei, Taiwan, January 4-8, 1996. 41 papers were presented on seven themes: Asian population growth, epidemiological transition and public health, mortality trends in pretransitional populations, marriage patterns and demographic systems, fertility levels and trends in pretransitional Asian populations, migration and population distribution, and family systems. Papers were presented by Anthony Reid; Chris Wilson; Bruce Fetter; Sumit Guha; Sheila Zurbrigg; Timothy Dyson and Monica Das Gupta; Cameron Campbell; Robert Shepherd; Ann Jannetta; Chai-Bin Park, Eise Yokoyama, and Sadahiko Nozaki; Peter Boomgaard; Jose Antonio Ortega Osona; Osamu Saito; Ts'ui-jung Liu and Shi-yung Liu; Wen Shang Yang; Dallas Fernando; Bruce Caldwell; A. Francis Gealogo; S. Irudaya Rajan; Kiyoshi Hamano; Guo Songyi; Wang Feng and James Lee; Christopher Langford; Terence H. Hull; Paul K.C. Liu; Xizhe Peng and Yangfang Hou; Ken'ichi Tomobe; Nokiro O. Tsuya; Peter Xenos; Daniel Doeppers; Chaonan Chen and Su-fen Liu; Jiang Tao; Akira Hayami and Emiko Ochiai; Arthur P. Wolf and Chuang Ying-chang; Myron L. Cohen; Burton Pasternak; Zhongwei Zhao; Li-shou Yang, Arland Thornton, and Tamara Hareven; Chi-chun Yi and Yu-hsia Lu; Lai Huimin; Ding Yizhuang; and John Caldwell, who chaired the concluding session. John Caldwell concluded that the conference provided an impressive collection of findings on Asian population history. There was much more research possible, particularly research based on India's rich historical data archives. Research was needed to confirm the assertion that Asian mortality transition began after the two world wars. A focus on natural family planning methods used prior to the transition was suggested. International Union for Scientific Study of Population Committee Chairman David Reher suggested multidisciplinary research on Asian differences in fertility, mortality, and migration. Hayami and Ts

  10. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  11. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Christopher; Lockwoood, Jr., Neil

    1997-01-01

    In 1997 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) in conjunction with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) continued the implementation of a habitat and population enhancement project for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Habitat enhancement measures, as outlined in the recommendations from the 1996 annual report, were conducted during field season 1997. Fencing and planting of riparian areas and instream structures were implemented. As a precursor to these enhancement efforts, pre-assessments were conducted to determine the affects of the enhancement. Habitat quality, stream morphology and fish populations were pre-assessed. This season also began the first year of post-assessment monitoring and evaluation of measures implemented during 1996. The largemouth bass hatchery construction was completed in October and the first bass were introduced to the facility that same month. The first round of production is scheduled for 1998.

  12. Annual Procurement Report, Fiscal Year 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents summary data on all NASA procurement actions and detailed information on contracts, grants, agreements, and other procurements over $25,000 awarded by NASA during Fiscal Year 1997. The dollar value on procurements over $25,000 amounted to 98 percent of the total dollar value of procurement actions completed during Fiscal Year 1997. However, these larger procurements accounted for only 43 percent of the total actions. Procurement action, as used in this report means contractual actions to obtain supplies, services or construction which increase or decrease funds. A procurement action thus may be a new procurement or modifications such as supplemental agreements, change orders, or termination's to an existing contract that change the total amount of funds obligated. An obligation is a contractual commitment to pay for supplies or services that are specified in the contract. The Annual Procurement Report is also available via the internet on the Procurement homepage.

  13. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  14. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  15. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  16. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.

  17. Indonesia: The Economic Crisis 1997-1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Sabotage Should Be An International Crime, Third World Network Features, August 1997. 130 Paul Krugman , Currency Crises. 152 such a way...137 Paul Krugman , Currencies and Crises, p.xiv-xv, 1992, the MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. 157 158 V...Grauwe, Economic and Monetary Turmoil, Financial Times, February 20, 1998. Paul Krugman , Currencies and Crises, p.xiv-xv, 1992, the MIT Press

  18. Science and technology review, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.

    1997-10-01

    This month`s issue contains articles entitled Livermore Science and Technology Garner Seven 1997 R&D 100 Awards; New Interferometer Measures to Atomic Dimensions; Compact More Powerful Chips from Virtually Defect-free Thin Film Systems, A New Precision Cutting Tool; The Femtosecond Laser; MELD: A CAD Tool for Photonoics Systems, The Tiltmeter: Tilting at Great Depths to Find Oil; Smaller Insulators Handle Higher Voltage; and Compact Storage Management Software: The Next Generation.

  19. Site Annual Environmental Report for 1997 (SAER)

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Althouse, P.E; Brandstetter, E.R.; Christofferson, E.C.; Fields, B.C.; Gallegos, G.M.; Garcia, L.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Larson, J.M.; Tate, P.J.

    1998-09-01

    The Environmental Report 1997 is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as required by DOE Order 5400.1 and DOE Order 231.1, by the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The results of LLNL's environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public are presented in this publication.

  20. Weapons Systems, United States Army 1997.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    threats. Once a force has been projected into a region, it must be able to defend itself against deep strikes by the adver - sary. If the forward...currently being formulated by OSD and the Army for 1997-2001, will focus on technologies providing higher speed maneuver for day/night and adverse ...operating day or night, in adverse weather conditions, in the battlefield environments of dust, smoke, aerosols, and enemy countermea- sures. It

  1. Science and Technology Review, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.

    1997-12-01

    Featured articles in this issue cover progress in these areas: Advancing Technologies and Applications in Nondestructive Evaluation; Atomic Engineering with Multilayers; Marrying Astrophysics with the Earth; Continuing Work in Breast Cancer Detection Technologies. Furthermore, this issue lists patents issued to and/or the awards received by Laboratory employees. It also includes an index of the contents of all the issues published in calendar year 1997.

  2. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 1997/1998

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Annette

    1999-03-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source (ALS) activity report for 1997/98 discusses the following topics: Introduction and Overview; Science Highlights; Facility Report; Special Events; ALS Advisory Panels 1997/98; ALS Staff 1997/98 and Facts and Figures for the year.

  3. Essential medicines for children.

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Sri Ranganathan, Shalini

    2015-02-01

    Millions of children die every year before they reach the age of 5 years, of conditions largely treatable with existing medicines. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was launched in 1977 to make the most necessary drugs available to populations whose basic health needs could not be met by the existing supply system. During the first 30 years of the Model List of Essential Medicines, children's needs were not systematically considered. After adoption of the 'Better medicines for children' resolution by the World Health Assembly, things changed. The first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was drawn up by a Paediatric Expert Subcommittee and adopted in October 2007. The most recent, 4th Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was adopted in 2013. Data from country surveys show that access to essential medicines for children is still generally poor; much more work is needed.

  4. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  5. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  6. Summaries of FY 1997 engineering research

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This report documents the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Engineering Research Program for fiscal year 1997, it provides a summary for each of the program projects in addition to a brief program overview. The report is intended to provide staff of Congressional committees, other executive departments, and other DOE offices with substantive program information so as to facilitate governmental overview and coordination of Federal research programs. Of equal importance, its availability facilitates communication of program information to interested research engineers and scientists. The individual project summaries follow the program overview. The summaries are ordered alphabetically by name of institution; the table of contents lists all the institutions at which projects were sponsored in fiscal year 1997. Each project entry begins with an institutional-departmental heading. The names of investigators are listed immediately below the title. The funding level for fiscal year 1997 appears to the right of address. The summary description of the project completes the entry. A separate index of Principal Investigators includes phone number, fax number and e-main address, where available.

  7. Portsmouth annual environmental report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Portsmouth plant is one of two US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-managed uranium enrichment facilities in operation. As of July 1, 1993, responsibility for implementing environmental compliance at the facility was split between DOE, as site owner, and the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government-owned corporation formed by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to operate the nation`s uranium enrichment business. The management contractor for DOE in 1997 was Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, which was responsible for environmental restoration, waste management, removal of highly enriched uranium, and operation of nonleased facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE/PORTS). A new 5 1/2-year management and integration contract was awarded by DOE to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC on December 18, 1997. Bechtel Jacobs Company officially assumed management responsibilities on April 1, 1998, when the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems contract expired. Lockheed Martin Utility Services provides management services for USEC. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission assumed direct oversight of USEC operations, formerly a DOE function, in March 1997.

  8. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G.

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  10. Statewide and District Summaries: Report on Academic Performance of High School Graduates (ARS 15-1822), Fiscal Year 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This report provides statistics, in the form of charts and data tables, on Arizona high school graduates enrolling in nearby community colleges. A statewide summary indicates that 14,213 of these graduates enrolled in Arizona community colleges in 1997 and achieved a median grade point average (GPA) of 2.4 in their first terms. This document…

  11. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  12. What Is Fifth Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C.; Wallach, Christine

    2006-01-01

    One of the most consistent regularities observers would see in schools is the grouping of children by grade. The authors' work with schoolchildren causes them to ask, what is a grade beyond a group of children at a particular age? In this article, the authors share a glimpse of an activity involving inference and logical necessity that they…

  13. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  14. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  15. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the middle grades. They focus on Logo activities to sharpen visualization skills, use of spreadsheets, various uses of Apple microcomputer paddles, and writing a program from program output. All activities may be adapted for lower or higher grade levels. (JN)

  16. Growing beyond Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perchemlides, Natalia; Coutant, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Once students are asked to assess their own writing progress, they will begin to do their best for writing great prose instead of just great grades. Teachers will have to create a grade-free zone, allow students to set their own writing goals, provide a common language such as the Six Traits Model, and provide evaluation and instructional models…

  17. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  18. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  19. Making Grades More Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Pollio, Marty

    2016-01-01

    To expand and improve evidence of grading practices, we seized an opportunity presented by the implementation of standards-based grading practices at 11 high schools in Jefferson County Public Schools in Louisville, Ky. These high-needs schools faced substantial sanctions outlined by recently revised federal and state policies unless they made…

  20. Earth Science, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Public Schools, NY.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 7. SUBJECT MATTER: Earth science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material suggests a time schedule for the major units and gives details of the reference materials referred to in the text. The main text is presented in four columns: topical outline, basic understandings, suggested activities and…

  1. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  2. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  3. Upper Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-oriented teaching activities for the upper grades. They focus on the use of databases in history classes, checking taxes, examining aspects of the joystick button on Atari microcomputers, printing control using Logo, and a Logo program that draws whirling squares. All activities can be adapted for lower grades. (JN)

  4. Growth, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Er3+-Doped and Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals. The Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 56 mm×28 mm×9 mm and Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 52 mm×24 mm×8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal has much better optical properties than the Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material. PMID:22808214

  5. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  6. View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade seen at left distance. New Priest Grade at center and right distance. Looking west - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. Artifacts and essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic because of its provenance), but ordinary artifacts likewise receive value from their history (e.g., a worn and tattered blanket may have special value if it was one's childhood possession). Moreover, in some cases, object history may be thought to have causal effects on individual artifacts, much as an animal essence has causal effects. I review empirical support for these claims and consider the implications for both artifact concepts and essentialism. This perspective suggests that artifact concepts cannot be contained in a theoretical framework that focuses exclusively on similarity or even function. Furthermore, although there are significant differences between essentialism of natural kinds and essentialism of artifact individuals, the commonalities suggest that psychological essentialism may not derive from folk biology but instead may reflect more domain-general perspectives on the world. PMID:23976903

  8. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  9. [The 2014 consensus conference of the ISUP on Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Egevad, L; Amin, M; Delahunt, B; Srigley, J R; Humphrey, P A; Epstein, J I

    2016-02-01

    In 2005 the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) held a concensus conference on Gleason grading in order to bring this grading system up to the current state of contemporary practice; however, it became clear that further modifications on the grading of prostatic carcinoma were necessary. The International Society of Urological Pathology therefore held a further consensus conference in 2014 to clarify these points. This article presents the essential results of the Chicago grading meeting.

  10. History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve. 1997 Updated Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document is a revision of the California History-Social Science Curriculum first published in 1988. The framework represents an effort to strengthen education in the history-social science curriculum while building on the best practices contained in the previous document. The book addresses the goals of knowledge and cultural understanding…

  11. Adventuring with Books: A Booklist for Pre-K--Grade 6. 1997 Edition. NCTE Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Wendy K., Ed.

    This book contains descriptions of over 1,200 books published between 1993 and 1995, all chosen for their high quality and their interest to children, parents, teachers, and librarians. Materials described in the book include fiction, nonfiction, poetry, picture books, young adult novels, and interactive CD-ROMs. Individual book reviews in the…

  12. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  13. Potential for Significant Reductions in Dropout Rates: Analysis of an Entire 3rd Grade State Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Dorothyjean

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen percent of 1997-98 North Carolina 3rd graders were observed to drop out of high school. A series of logits predict probabilities of dropping out on determinants such as math and reading test scores, absenteeism, suspension, and retention, at the following grade levels: 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 9th. The same cohort and variables are used to…

  14. Curriculum Reform Movements and Science Textbooks: A Retrospective Examination of 6th Grade Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Over 50 years, two major reform efforts in science education took place. The purpose of the present study is to explore how the educational reforms were reflected in nine 6th grade science textbooks published in 1975, in 1985 and in 1997 in terms of (a) the materials used, (b) the contexts to which the electricity concept was related, (c) the type…

  15. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  16. Development of catching by children in kindergarten to grade 8: a multicohort longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E Michael; Butterfield, Stephen A; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine developmental change associated with catching by children in Grades Kindergarten through 8. Children's performance was tested on the Catching Subtest of the Ohio State University Scale of Intra Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA). More precisely, four cohorts of boys and girls in Grades K-8 (N = 340) from 1992 to 2000: in 1992 Grades K-8, in 1994 Grades 2-8, in 1996 Grades 4-8, and in 1998 Grades 6-8. In 2000, the original Kindergarten cohort was tested again. Data, analyzed by hierarchical nonlinear modeling, yielded significant differences in mean initial status (intercept) of all three cohorts, in mean growth rate (slope) for the K-8 cohort only, in initial status of the K-8 cohort, and for participants in baseball and softball.

  17. A National Study of Teaching and Assessing Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg; McClay, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article reports comprehensive findings from a national study of the teaching and assessment of writing in classrooms across ten Canadian provinces and two of three territories. Through interviews with 216 grade 4-8 teachers and observations and interviews in 22 classrooms (1 to 3 classrooms in each province), we gathered information about…

  18. Hospital advertising in California, 1991-1997.

    PubMed

    Town, Robert J; Currim, Imran

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the advertising behavior of California hospitals from 1991 to 1997. Using highly detailed hospital-level information, we found that hospital advertising in California increased dramatically: annual spending on advertising grew (inflation adjusted) more than sixfold over the period. In addition, advertising expenditures varied significantly across hospitals. We found that hospital advertising increased with market concentration; with the number of nearby potential patients; with the percentage of nearby patients insured through Medicare, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and indemnity insurance; and with chain affiliation. For-profit hospitals were not found to advertise more than their not-for-profit counterparts.

  19. The 1997 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 30th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 18-20, 1997. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, lithium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies, as well as various aspects of nickel electrode design.

  20. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on Academic Performance of Students with Disabilities in Grades 6 through 12: A Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okilwa, Nathern S. A.; Shelby, Liz

    2010-01-01

    This synthesis examined the effects of peer tutoring on academic performance of students with disabilities in Grades 6 through 12. Twelve studies met all the criteria for this synthesis: (a) original studies, (b) published in peer-reviewed journals between 1997 and 2007, (c) investigated peer tutoring in special education students in Grades 6…

  1. Assigning Grades More Fairly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshier, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a simplified method for converting raw scores to standard scores and transforming them to "T-scores" for easy comparison of performance. Obtaining letter grades from T-scores is discussed. A reading list is included. (GH)

  2. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Prostatic Neoplasia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ... nih.gov/pubmed/26956509 . Pierorazio PM, Walsh PC, Partin AW, Epstein JI. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data ...

  3. Epidemic typhoid fever--Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-09-18

    Typhoid fever, a severe systemic illness transmitted through food or water, is caused by the bacterium Salmonella serotype Typhi. This report describes a major epidemic of typhoid fever in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, that resulted from contamination of the municipal water system. In Tajikistan, the Sanitary Epidemiologic Service (SES) maintains records for reportable diseases. Dushanbe (1997 population: 600,000) residents receive health care through assigned polyclinics; surveillance for reportable diseases is based on polyclinic records. A case of typhoid fever is defined as physician diagnosis or isolation of S. Typhi from stool, blood, or urine cultures. In February 1997, a sudden increase in the number of typhoid fever cases was identified by SES in Dushanbe, with approximately 2000 cases registered during a 2-week period. In March, the Ministry of Health of Tajikistan requested assistance from CDC. In collaboration with local authorities and nongovernmental partners, CDC reviewed epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance; conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for infection; and evaluated municipal drinking water quality, water wastage, and health-education campaigns.

  4. Advanced energy projects FY 1997 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) program is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts that are high risk, in terms of scientific feasibility, yet have a realistic potential for a high technological payoff. The concepts supported by the AEP are typically at an early stage of scientific development. They often arise from advances in basic research and are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. Some are based on discoveries of new scientific phenomena or involve exploratory ideas that span multiple scientific and technical disciplines which do not fit into an existing DOE program area. In all cases, the objective is to support evaluation of the scientific or technical feasibility of the novel concepts involved. Following AEP support, it is expected that each concept will be sufficiently developed to attract further funding from other sources to realize its full potential. Projects that involve evolutionary research or technology development and demonstration are not supported by AEP. Furthermore, research projects more appropriate for another existing DOE research program are not encouraged. There were 65 projects in the AEP research portfolio during Fiscal Year 1997. Eigheen projects were initiated during that fiscal year. This document consists of short summaries of projects active in FY 1997. Further information of a specific project may be obtained by contacting the principal investigator.

  5. Prison suicides in Austria, 1975-1997.

    PubMed

    Fruehwald, S; Frottier, P; Eher, R; Gutierrez, K; Ritter, K

    2000-01-01

    Suicide prevention in custody is hampered by the lack of funds and professional staff. In order to evaluate the prison suicide phenomenon, a study was conducted evaluating all suicides that occurred in Austrian prisons between 1975 and 1997 (n = 220). In addition to evaluating the number of male versus female suicides, the preferred suicide methods were studied, as well as suicide risk of different circumstances of custody. Suicide rates of distinguishable, important subgroups of prisoners were calculated. The suicide rate for prisoners on remand was 236.0 per 100,000, and for offenders classified as mentally ill it was 205.4 per 100,000. That is about 8 times higher than the suicide rate in Austria's general population (1975-1997: 24.6 per 100,000). The suicide rate for sentenced offenders was 81.3 per 100,000, about twice the suicide rate in Austria's general male population. We recommend that psychologists or psychiatrists concentrate on the suicide prevention of high-risk offenders after screening the newly admitted offenders for their propensity to suicide.

  6. Building Partnerships. Inter-American Foundation: 1997 in Review, October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-American Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This report summarizes 1997 activities of the Inter-American Foundation (IAF), an independent agency of the U.S. government. The IAF promotes equitable, participatory, and sustainable self-help development in Latin America and the Caribbean by awarding grants directly to local organizations, as well as by entering into partnerships with public-…

  7. Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1997 (Bibliography of Modern Foreign Language Instruction, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of this periodic bibliography published during 1997. All items listed are related to second language instruction and include recently-published resource materials, instructional materials, and literature on instructional methods and techniques, including research. Each citation contains basic bibliographic…

  8. The Indigenous World, 1997-98 = El Mundo Indigena, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erni, Christian, Ed.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, legal, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1997-98. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries in nine world regions. In the Arctic and North America, these…

  9. Research and VET Decision-Making: February 1997 Symposium (Melbourne, Australia, February 19-20, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chris Selby, Ed.

    This document contains the speaking notes, spoken comments, and prepared papers of the participants in a 1997 symposium on utilization of vocational education and training (VET) research in VET decision making in Australia. The document begins with the "Introduction" (Chris Selby Smith). The next six sections contain the speaking notes…

  10. 1997 Customer Satisfaction Survey Report: How Do We Measure Up? Technical Report. Survey Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurgood, Lori; Fink, Steven; Bureika, Rita; Scott, Julie; Salvucci, Sameena

    The 1997 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Customer Satisfaction survey was conducted to find out whether the NCES as an agency was responding to the needs of customers and to identify areas for improvement. Federal, state, and local education officials and academic researchers were asked about their satisfaction with NCES products…

  11. Nutritional essentiality of vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-02-01

    Evidence to support the essentiality of vanadium is inconclusive. Thus, it cannot be unequivocally stated that vanadium is an essential nutrient. The basis for this statement can be appreciated more fully if the following definitions are accepted. In this section, a substance is considered nutritionally essential if a dietary deficiency consistently results in a suboptimal biological function that is preventable or reversible by physiological amounts of the element. In this definition, physiological is construed as those quantities usually found in biological material. For vanadium, the usual amounts are measured in nanograms per gram, or parts per billion. The other term that should be defined is pharmacologic action. Here it means the effect of a relatively high dietary intake of a substance that alleviates an abnormality caused by something other than a nutritional deficiency.

  12. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed.

  13. How Consistent Are Course Grades? An Examination of Differential Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Differential grading occurs when students in courses with the same content and curriculum receive inconsistent grades across teachers, schools, or districts. It may be due to many factors, including differences in teacher grading standards, district grading policies, student behavior, teacher stereotypes, teacher quality, and curriculum adherence.…

  14. Effects of 1997-1998 El Nino on Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Min, W.; Read, W. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the 1997-1998 El Nino on tropospheric column ozone and tropospheric water vapor derived respectively from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Earth Probe and the Microwave Limb Scanning instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The 1997-1998 El Nino, characterized by an anomalous increase in sea-surface temperature (SST) across the eastern and central tropical Pacific Ocean, is one of the strongest El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of the century, comparable in magnitude to the 1982-1983 episode. The major impact of the SST change has been the shift in the convection pattern from the western to the eastern Pacific affecting the response of rain-producing cumulonimbus. As a result, there has been a significant increase in rainfall over the eastern Pacific and a decrease over the western Pacific and Indonesia. The dryness in the Indonesian region has contributed to large-scale burning by uncontrolled wildfires in the tropical rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo. Our study shows that tropospheric column ozone decreased by 4-8 Dobson units (DU) in the eastern Pacific and increased by about 10-20 DU in the western Pacific largely as a result of the eastward shift of the tropical convective activity as inferred from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data. The effect of this shift is also evident in the upper tropospheric water vapor mixing ratio which varies inversely as ozone (O3). These conclusions are qualitatively consistent with the changes in atmospheric circulation derived from zonal and vertical wind data obtained from the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation analyses. The changes in tropospheric column O3 during the course of the 1997-1998 El Nino appear to be caused by a combination of large-scale circulation processes associated with the shift in the tropical convection pattern and surface/boundary layer processes associated with

  15. Physical Education: Essential Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken, Ed.; Hardman, Ken, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is aimed primarily at under and postgraduate students pursuing entire programmes or discrete courses and modules in the broad area of physical education and sport in schools. It consists of a collection of what is considered to be essential readings in the sense that they are contributions from eminent authors on a breadth of salient…

  16. The Essential Leadership Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Richard K.; Banks, Patricia Anne

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to the Essential Leadership Model (ELM). The ELM provides a vocabulary and framework for clarifying and prioritizing the many complex and competing demands of the principalship. The ELM supports principals in identifying the critical needs of a school and the leadership knowledge, skills, and dispositions to meet…

  17. OCRWM annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the progress in the activities of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters include: Yucca Mountain site characterization project; Waste acceptance, storage and transportation project; Program management; Working with external parties; and Financial management. Also included in five appendices are: financial statements; key federal laws and regulations; fiscal year 1997 Congressional testimony and meetings with regulators and oversight bodies; OCREM publications for fiscal year 1997; and selected publications from other organizations during fiscal year 1997.

  18. 7 CFR 2900.3 - Essential agricultural uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... production of alcohol; and (3) Distillation of fuel-grade alcohol from food grains and other biomass by... food and fiber production: Essential Agricultural Uses Industry SIC No. and Industry Description Food and Natural Fiber Production 01Agricultural Production—Crops 02Agricultural...

  19. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  20. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  1. Teachers' Experiences of Unfair Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Fredrik; Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    Grading is often perceived as one of a teacher's most difficult tasks. Despite most teachers endeavoring to grade their students as objectively as possible, many students feel that they are subject to unfair grading. The aim of this study is to describe what it is about a teacher's grading that contributes to the perception of unfairness. This…

  2. Serving Grades Over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James K.

    This paper demonstrates a grade server that allows college students to access their grades over the Internet from the instructor's home page. Using a CGI (common gateway interface) program written in Visual Basic, the grades are read directly from an Excel spreadsheet and presented to the requester after he/she enters a password. The grade for…

  3. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  4. The Spirit That Moves Us: A Literature-Based Resource Guide. Teaching about Diversity, Prejudice, the Holocaust, and Human Rights. Volume 1: Grades K-4. Revised [and] The Spirit That Moves Us: A Literature-Based Resource Guide. Teaching about the Holocaust and Human Rights. Volume 2: Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petovello, Laura R.; Quenk, Rachel

    This two-volume resource guide includes lesson plans and bibliographical references for teaching about the Holocaust. The first volume, revised in 1999, covers grades K-4, and the second volume, published in 1997, covers grades 5-8. Each guide offers age-appropriate strategies and lesson plans for teaching students about the fundamental causes of…

  5. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  6. ISPAE Research Highlights 1995-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, Ken

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents ISPAE (Institute for Space Physics, Astrophysics and Education) research highlights from 1995-1997. The topics include: 1) High-Energy Astrophysics (Finding the smoking gun in gamma-ray bursts, Playing peekaboo with gamma ray bursts, and Spectral pulses muddle burst source study, Einstein was right: Black holes do spin, Astronomers find "one-man X-ray band", and Cosmic rays from the supernova next door?); 2) Solar Physics (Bright burst confirms solar storm model, Model predicts speed of solar wind in space, and Angry sunspots snap under the strain); 3) Gravitational Physics; 4) Tether Dynamics; and 5) Space Physics (Plasma winds blow form polar regions, De-SCIFERing thermal electrons, and UVI lets scientists see daytime aurora).

  7. Lyman Spitzer, Jr. (1914-1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, George B.

    1998-03-01

    Lyman Spitzer, Jr., the Bruce Medalist of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for 1973, died on 1997 March 31. An intrepid leader, he founded the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and was Principal Investigator on NASA's Copernicus Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. He established the theoretical foundations for the modern study of the interstellar medium and contributed to the theory of evolution of stellar clusters. His 1955 monograph, The Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (2d ed., 1962), his Diffuse Matter in Space (1968), and his Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium (1978) all became the standard references in their fields. The success of the Hubble Space Telescope is due in large part to his foresight and leadership in pursuing this project. An avid rock climber, Spitzer ascended many peaks around the world. His scientific achievements enriched astronomy for decades to come.

  8. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 81, 1997 July

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 81 lists 181 new meteorites. Noteworthy among these are a new lunar meteorite (Dar al Gani 262), four observed falls (Dong Ujimqin Qi, Galkiv, Mount Tazerzait, and Piplia Kalan), four irons (Albion, Great Sand Sea 003, Hot Springs, and Mont Dieu), two mesosiderites (Dong Ujimqin Qi and Lamont), an acapulcoite (FRO 95029), a eucrite (Piplia Kalan), two probably-paired ureilites (Dar al Gani 164 and 165), an R chondrite (Hammadah al Hamra 119), an ungrouped type-3 chondrite (Hammadah al Hamra 180), a highly unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (Wells, LL3.3), and a variety of carbonaceous and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites from Libya and Antarctica. All italicized abbreviations refer to addresses listed in the appendix. ?? Meteoritical Society, 1997.

  9. Paducah Site 1997 annual environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, located in McCracken County, Kentucky, has been producing enriched uranium since 1952. In July 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) leased the production areas of the site to the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC). A subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, Lockheed Martin Utility Services, manages the leased facilities for USEC. The DOE maintains responsibility for the environmental restoration, waste management, and depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder program activities at the plant through its management contractor. The purpose of this document is to summarize calendar year 1997 environmental monitoring activities for DOE activities at the Paducah Site managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The DOE requires all of its facilities to conduct and document such activities annually. This report does not include USEC environmental activities.

  10. Institutional plan. FY 1997-2002

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The FY 1997-2002 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) mission, strategic plan, core business areas, critical success factors, and the resource requirements to fulfill its mission in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. Of particular significance this year is the role of computing sciences in supporting a broad range of research activities, at Berkeley Lab in particular and throughout the entire Department of Energy system in general. The Institutional Plan is a management report for integration with the Department of Energy`s mission and programs and is an element of Department of Energy`s strategic management planning activities, developed through an annual planning process. The plan identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy`s program planning initiatives.

  11. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  13. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Annual 1997, Volume 2 contains annual summary statistics at national, regional, and state levels for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; power transactions; and demand-side management. Also included are data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity; gross generation; emissions; and supply and disposition of energy. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. 15 figs., 62 tabs.

  14. LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  15. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  16. Urban security annual report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The work during fiscal year 1997 focused in an effort titled ``Urban Security -- A High-Performance Computing Pilot Project.`` During this year a team was engaged representing five Laboratory divisions and a range of expertise including atmospheric and hydrologic modeling, software design, mathematics, geographic information systems (GIS), geology, and urban planning. One major part of the pilot project was to link regional atmospheric modeling with ground water models in order to assess vulnerability of urban water supplies to climate change. Another part of the pilot project was to model the transport of an airborne toxic gas, including effects of buildings on air flow, and to link this to traffic simulations for effective emergency response. Other activities were to establish connections with potential collaborators and funding agencies, as well as highlighting the project through presentations at professional meetings.

  17. Total Solar Eclipse of 1997 March 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1995-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 1997 March 9. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in eastern Kazakhstan and travels through Mongolia and eastern Siberia, where it swings northward to end at sunset in the Arctic Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Asia, the northern Pacific, and the northwest corner of North America. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 280 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  18. Charles L. Drake (1924”1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jack

    Charles Lum (Chuck) Drake, professor emeritus at Dartmouth College, president of AGU from 1984 to 1986, and surely one of the best known and most influential leaders of modern Earth science, passed away at his home in Norwich, Vermont, on July 8, 1997, a sudden victim of heart failure while working in his barn.“His overall contribution to Earth science was greater than that of anyone,” said one prominent scientist, aptly and succinctly describing Chuck's career as many of his colleagues might have done. Chuck was blessed with, and characterized by, a diversity of talents. He used those talents to contribute to almost every aspect of science and to life in general. In an era of narrow specialization in science, Chuck brought breadth and depth and understanding and wisdom, as well as the skills of a specialist, to the subject heloved—the study of Earth.

  19. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  20. The May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Simnett, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present results from the May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses quadrature, near sunspot minimum. Ulysses was at 5.1 AU, 100 north of the solar equator, and off the east limb. It was, by chance, also at the very northern edge of the streamer belt. Nevertheless, SWOOPS detected only slow, relatively smooth wind and there was no direct evidence of fast wind from the northern polar coronal hole or of mixing with fast wind. LASCO images show that the streamer belt at 10 N was narrow and sharp at the beginning and end of the two week observation interval, but broadened in the middle. A corresponding change in density, but not flow speed, occurred at Ulysses. Coronal densities derived from UVCS show that physical parameters in the lower corona are closely related to those in the solar wind, both over quiet intervals and in transient events on the limb. One small transient observed by both LASCO and UVCS is analyzed in detail.

  1. Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes 1997 Publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of publications of the Goddard Space Flight Center Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes for calendar year 1997. Each two-page entry is a cut-and-pasted extraction from a 1997 published journal article, book chapter, symposium or conference proceedings, or technical memorandum. This provides a quick, inexpensive way to communicate our research. If you wish further information, or a reprint, please contact the author of the article or the publisher. There are two sections, the first consisting of 76 journal articles and book chapters which are arranged according to the science priorities of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise: Land-Cover Change and Global Productivity Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate Prediction Natural Hazards Long-Term Climate Variability Atmospheric Ozone, and an additional category Sensor/Algorithm Development. * Each of these sections is preceded by a foreword. A second section, consisting of 52 other contributions (e.g. conference/symposium proceedings and technical memoranda), provides additional scientific information to the outside community. This document was initiated within the Earth Sciences Directorate at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to provide internal communication. We anticipate it will prove useful to visitors and other people interested in our research. This is our fifth annual document. The Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes is one of the major elements of the Earth Sciences Directorate at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific investigations within the Division range from theoretical to experimental research dealing with oceanic/physical oceanography, hydrologic, and cryospheric sciences. The Laboratory currently has a staff of 60 civil servants and approximately 138 visiting scientists, postdoctoral fellows, and contractors. At various times throughout the year, the Laboratory hosts additional personnel through NASA and Goddard sponsored enrichment programs for high school

  2. Algebra Readiness Outcomes of Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Measured Math Ability Compared to Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Teachers' Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The first pretest-posttest hypothesis was tested using the dependent t test. Null hypotheses for test score improvement over time were rejected for the end of fifth-grade pretest compared to ending sixth-grade posttest math Essential Learner Outcome scores converted to standard scores for randomly selected sixth-grade girls meeting measured test…

  3. Pharmacotherapy of Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Hedera, Peter; Cibulčík, František; Davis, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This has limited the development of effective pharmacotherapy. The current therapeutic armamentaria for ET represent the product of careful clinical observation rather than targeted molecular modeling. Here we review their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, dosing, and adverse effect profiles and propose a treatment algorithm. We also discuss the concept of medically refractory tremor, as therapeutic trials should be limited unless invasive therapy is contraindicated or not desired by patients. PMID:24385718

  4. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  6. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the quarterly report dated January 1-March 31, 1997 for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project. Topics covered in this report include AVOA modeling using paraxial ray tracing, AVOA modeling for gas- and water-filled fractures, 3-D and 3-C processing, and technology transfer material. Several presentations from a Geophysical Applications Workshop workbook, workshop schedule, and list of workshop attendees are also included.

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Math Essential Skill Screener Elementary Version (MESS-E).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Bagley, Donna L.; Hopper, James A.; Lee, Ramona M.; Panagopulos, Kathleen A.; Preller, Denise B.

    1998-01-01

    The Math Essential Skill Screener Elementary Version (MESS-E) is a screener devised to identify primary grade students at risk for math difficulties. Item analysis, interitem consistency, test-retest reliability, decision efficiency, and construct validity of the MESS-E were studied using four independent samples of boys and girls grades 1-3. The…

  8. Pheromone synthesis. Part 245: Synthesis and chromatographic analysis of the four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal, the male aggregation pheromone of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (1) were synthesized from the enantiomers of 2-methyl-1-butanol and citronellal. Enantioselective GC analysis enabled separation of (4R,8R)-1 and (4R,8S)-1 from a mixture of (4S,8R)-1 and (4S,8S)-1, when octakis- (2,3-di-O-methoxymethyl-6-O-t-butyldimet...

  9. Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mizukoshi, Izumi; Hanawa, Masanori

    2015-01-26

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate wireless transmission of optical intensity modulation/direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IM/DD-OFDM) signals in an underwater channel using a field programmable gate array based real-time transmitter. The real-time transmission of a 405 nm 1.45 Gbit/s optical OFDM signal through a 4.8 m underwater channel with an error vector magnitude of approximately 10% was successfully achieved.

  10. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  11. Source parameters of a M4.8 and its accompanying repeating earthquakes off Kamaishi, NE Japan: Implications for the hierarchical structure of asperities and earthquake cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Imanishi, K.; Okada, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-01-01

    We determine the source parameters of a M4.9 ?? 0.1 'characteristic earthquake' sequence and its accompanying microearthquakes at ???50 km depth on the subduction plate boundary offshore of Kamaishi, NE Japan. The microearthquakes tend to occur more frequently in the latter half of the recurrence intervals of the M4.9 ?? 0.1 events. Our results show that the microearthquakes are repeating events and they are located not only around but also within the slip area for the 2001 M4.8 event. From the hierarchical structure of slip areas and smaller stress drops for the microearthquakes compared to the M4.8 event, we infer the small repeating earthquakes rupture relatively weak patches in and around the slip area for the M4.8 event and their activity reflects a stress concentration process and/or change in frictional property (healing) at the area. We also infer the patches for the M4.9 ?? 0.1 and other repeating earthquakes undergo aseismic slip during their interseismic period. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Effect of diet and age on jejunal and circulating lymphocyte subsets in children with coeliac disease: persistence of CD4-8-intraepithelial T cells through treatment.

    PubMed

    Verkasalo, M A; Arató, A; Savilahti, E; Tainio, V M

    1990-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used to determine the relative numbers of T lymphocyte subsets in 61 jejunal biopsies and in peripheral blood of 35 children with coeliac disease, and of 13 healthy controls. The T cell numbers in the lamina propria were unaffected by a change from gluten-free to gluten containing diet in the patients. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (where the CD8 cells predominated) were significantly raised in patients taking gluten. Ten to 20% of the patients' intraepithelial CD3 (mature T) cells expressed neither CD8 nor CD4 surface antigens. This CD4 8 T cell population persisted through gluten elimination and challenge. The circulating lymphocyte subsets showed little variation with the diet although there was a marked increase in the proportion (14.9%) of CD4 8 T cells in patients during gluten elimination. In the histologically normal jejunal mucosa from control subjects, the age of the subject showed a positive correlation with villus intraepithelial CD3+ and CD8+ cells, and crypt intraepithelial CD4+ cells. No clear cut effect of age was observed on lamina propria lymphocyte counts of the controls, or on the lymphocyte counts in jejunal mucosa of the coeliac patients. The observed CD3+4-8- lymphocytes may represent activated cells unable to present their surface antigens, or they may be gamma delta-receptor bearing T cells, which could have a significant role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease.

  13. The National Study of the Changing Workforce, 1997. No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, James T.; Galinsky, Ellen; Swanberg, Jennifer E.

    The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) surveyed 2,877 employees regarding the relationship between workers' lives on and off the job and changes in the nature of work. The report also provides a historical perspective by comparing data from 1997 with data from the 1992 NSCW and from the U.S. Department of Labor's 1977 Quality of…

  14. 49 CFR 199.7 - Stand-down waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stand-down waivers. 199.7 Section 199.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Stand-down waivers. (a) Each operator who seeks a waiver under § 40.21 of this title from the...

  15. 49 CFR 199.7 - Stand-down waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stand-down waivers. 199.7 Section 199.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Stand-down waivers. (a) Each operator who seeks a waiver under § 40.21 of this title from the...

  16. 49 CFR 199.7 - Stand-down waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stand-down waivers. 199.7 Section 199.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Stand-down waivers. (a) Each operator who seeks a waiver under § 40.21 of this title from the...

  17. 49 CFR 199.7 - Stand-down waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stand-down waivers. 199.7 Section 199.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Stand-down waivers. (a) Each operator who seeks a waiver under § 40.21 of this title from the...

  18. 49 CFR 199.7 - Stand-down waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stand-down waivers. 199.7 Section 199.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Stand-down waivers. (a) Each operator who seeks a waiver under § 40.21 of this title from the...

  19. Statistical Summary of Missouri Higher Education, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    Extensive data tables present information on the public and independent institutions of higher education in Missouri for the year 1997-1998. Data tables are organized into the following categories: (1) preparation of enrolled freshmen, fall 1997, including distribution of American College Testing scores and high school rankings; (2) access,…

  20. Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This technical memorandum contains brief technical papers describing research and technology development programs sponsored by the Ames Research Center Director's Discretionary Fund during fiscal year 1997 (October 1996 through September 1997). Appendices provide administrative information for each of the sponsored research programs.

  1. Firth and Wagner (1997): New Ideas or a New Articulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M.; Lee, Junkyu; Roots, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This article begins with a review of second language acquisition research leading up to the 1997 article by Firth and Wagner. We argue that the Firth and Wagner article did not represent a new direction, but rather continued a type of argumentation that was already prevalent in the field at the time of the 1997 publication. We identify 3 issues as…

  2. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  3. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  4. Purpose-Driven Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  5. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  6. Career Education, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse City School District, NY.

    Part of the Syracuse (New York) city school district's guided occupational orientation program, the student workbook consists of information and question sheets suitable for grade 6 career education studies on topics in the labor field, including labor laws, wages, and unions; job applications and interviews; on-the-job training; and social…

  7. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  8. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the early grades. They include creating musical tones using Atari PILOT, a simulation of traffic lights, teacher-friendly password protection, drawing the alphabet using Logo, and using the Commodore 64's special character graphics. (JN)

  9. Elementary Science: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 2 science curriculum guide contains three activity units: (1) insects; (2) measuring; and (3) sink or float. Each unit contains a rationale, teacher background material, lesson plans, and lists of resources including books, audiovisual materials, resource persons, and science activity modules. The lesson plans list the science processes…

  10. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  11. Health, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

  12. Reader. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    This textbook is the fourth in the official reading series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. This grade 4 reader…

  13. EIGHTH GRADE ENGLISH CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHING EIGHTH-GRADE ENGLISH WAS DEVELOPED IN 1965 AT UNIVERSITY CITY, MISSOURI. FOUR UNITS ARE PRESENTED IN DETAILED OUTLINE FORM--"PAST THROUGH PROLOGUE,""GROWING UP,""WHAT IS HUMOR," AND "HEROES, REAL AND UNREAL." THREE OTHER UNITS ARE SUGGESTED BUT NOT OUTLINED--"VALUE AND…

  14. Graded SPSS Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary J.

    The attached materials have been developed for use on the CSU CYBER Computer's Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSONL). The assignments are graded in difficulty and gradually introduce new commands and require the practice of previously learned commands. The handouts begin with basic instructions for logging on; then XEDIT is taught…

  15. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  16. Career Awareness: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

  17. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  18. Health, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

  19. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  20. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  1. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  2. Identification of water ice on the Centaur 1997 CU26.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H; Cruikshank, D P; Pendleton, Y; Veeder, G J

    1998-05-29

    Spectra of the Centaur 1997 CU26 were obtained at the Keck Observatory on 27 October 1997 (universal time). The data show strong absorptions at 1.52 and 2.03 micrometers attributable to water ice on the surface of 1997 CU26. The reflectance spectrum of 1997 CU26 is matched by the spectrum of a mixture of low-temperature, particulate water ice and spectrally featureless but otherwise red-colored material. Water ice dominates the spectrum of 1997 CU26, whereas methane or methane-like hydrocarbons apparently dominate the spectrum of the Kuiper belt object 1993 SC, perhaps indicating different origins, thermal histories, or both for these two objects.

  3. Identification of water ice on the Centaur 1997 CU26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Pendleton, Y.; Veeder, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    Spectra of the Centaur 1997 CU26 were obtained at the Keck Observatory on 27 October 1997 (universal time). The data show strong absorptions at 1.52 and 2.03 micrometers attributable to water ice on the surface of 1997 CU26. The reflectance spectrum of 1997 CU26 is matched by the spectrum of a mixture of low-temperature, particulate water ice and spectrally featureless but otherwise red-colored material. Water ice dominates the spectrum of 1997 CU26, whereas methane or methane-like hydrocarbons apparently dominate the spectrum of the Kuiper belt object 1993 SC, perhaps indicating different origins, thermal histories, or both for these two objects.

  4. Kennedy Space Center Annual Report, FY 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has a nearly 40-year tradition of excellence in processing and launching space vehicles and their payloads. The Center's outstanding record of achievements in America's space program has earned it an honored place in history and an essential role in the present; KSC also intends to play a vital part in the future of space exploration.

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D

    1998-06-01

    The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at http://lasers.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change provided a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated applications. We also

  6. Gender and Psychological Essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097

  7. Flood of March 1997 in southern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, K.S.; Vivian, S.A.; Diam, F.J.; Crecelius, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of up to 12 inches produced by thunderstorms during March 1-2, 1997 resulted in severe flooding throughout much of southern Ohio. Eighteen counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas. Cost estimates of damage in Ohio from the flooding are nearly $180 million. About 6,500 residences and more than 800 businesses were affected by flooding. Nearly 20,000 persons were evacuated, and 5 deaths were attributed to the flooding. Record peak stage and streamflow were recorded at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on Ohio Brush Creek near West Union and Shade River near Chester. The peak streamflow at these two locations exceeded the estimate of the 100-year-recurrence- interval peak streamflow. The recurrence intervals of peak stream flow at selected USGS streamflow gaging stations throughout southern Ohio ranged from less than 2 years to greater than 100 years. The most severe flooding in the State was generally confined to areas within 50 to 70 miles of the Ohio River. Many communities along the Ohio River experienced the worst flooding in more than 30 years.

  8. Center for beam physics 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Center for Beam Physics (CBP) is a multidisciplinary research and development unit in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California. At the heart of the Center`s mission is the fundamental quest for mechanisms of acceleration, radiation, transport, and focusing of energy and information. Special features of the Center`s program include addressing R&D issues needing long development time and providing a platform for conception, initiation, and support of institutional projects based on beams. The Center brings to bear a significant amount of diverse, complementary, and self-sufficient expertise in accelerator physics, synchrotron radiation, advanced microwave techniques, plasma physics, optics, and lasers on the forefront R&D issues in particle and photon beam research. In addition to functioning as a clearinghouse for novel ideas and concepts and related R&D (e.g., various theoretical and experimental studies in beam physics such as nonlinear dynamics, phase space control, laser-beam-plasma interaction, free-electron lasers, optics, and instrumentation), the Center provides significant support to Laboratory facilities and initiatives. This roster and annual report provides a glimpse of the scientists, engineers, technical support, students, and administrative staff that make up the CBP`s outstanding team and gives a flavor of their multifaceted activities during 1996 and 1997.

  9. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  10. XV-15 Tiltrotor Aircraft: 1997 Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan D.; Conner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    XV-15 acoustic test is discussed, and measured results are presented. The test was conducted by NASA Langley and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., during June - July 1997, at the BHTI test site near Waxahachie, Texas. This was the second in a series of three XV-15 tests to document the acoustic signature of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft for a variety of flight conditions and minimize the noise signature during approach. Tradeoffs between flight procedures and the measured noise are presented to illustrate the noise abatement flight procedures. The test objectives were to: (1) support operation of future tiltrotors by further developing and demonstrating low-noise flight profiles, while maintaining acceptable handling and ride qualities, and (2) refine approach profiles, selected from previous (1995) tiltrotor testing, to incorporate Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), handling qualities constraints, operations and tradeoffs with sound. Primary emphasis was given to the approach flight conditions where blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise dominates, because this condition influences community noise impact more than any other. An understanding of this part of the noise generating process could guide the development of low noise flight operations and increase the tiltrotor's acceptance in the community.

  11. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1989 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1989 Section 52.1989 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1989 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. (a... 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. The SIP revision also meets the requirements of Clean...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1989 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1989 Section 52.1989 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1989 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. (a... 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. The SIP revision also meets the requirements of Clean...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1989 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1989 Section 52.1989 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1989 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. (a... 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. The SIP revision also meets the requirements of Clean...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1989 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1989 Section 52.1989 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1989 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS....

  16. Does Grade Inflation Decrease the Reliability of Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Royce, Jr.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of grade inflation on the reliability of undergraduate grade point averages at a university was examined. It was shown that there has been some decline in reliability, but this is ameliorated by the use of plus and minus attachments to grades. (JKS)

  17. Site Annual Environmental Report for 1997 - Data Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Althouse, P.E.; Brandstetter, E.R.; Christofferson, E.C.; Fields, B.C.; Gallegos, G.M.; Garcia, L.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Larson, J.M.; Tate, P.J.

    1998-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1997 (called Volume 2 in previous years) was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Not all of the data in the Data Supplement tables have been reduced to the proper number of significant figures; however, summary data in both volumes are expressed using the proper number of significant figures. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other four chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup {minus}11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  18. Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Site atlas 1997. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine if the site is suitable for an underground repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Atlas is a tool used to cartographically display some of the Geographic Information System (GIS) data in the form of thematic map products. Essentially, the Site Atlas is a compilation of map products that are designed to illustrate the location and extent of site characterization studies. Additionally, the Site Atlas provides maps showing project administrative boundaries and basemaps in the vicinity of the project. The data are current through September 1997. The Atlas is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains GIS maps and supporting characteristic data for geology; stratigraphy; tectonics; volcanism; hydrology; geochemistry; environmental issues; paleontology; repository design; YMP boreholes, trenches, pits, pavements, and exposures; basemap features; and surface-based testing activities, and Part 2 contains 1:6,000- and 1:12,000-scale orthophotography basemaps and orthophotography-based hypsography maps (topographic data). This data is shown at a 50% reduction. The maps and orthophotographs in this Site Atlas are provided to YMP participants as an informational source only and are not for making precise measurements. The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description statement on each map identifies the quality status of the thematic data presented. The Site Atlas is not a comprehensive guide; it does not include all scientific features or studies undertaken for the YMP. The features presented are a small subset of the total work being conducted for the project.

  19. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  20. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  1. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  2. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  3. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  4. Seventh-Grade Social Studies versus Social Meliorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Jeff A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), in the state of North Carolina, has gone through considerable recent effort to revise, support, and assess their seventh-grade social studies curriculum in an effort to serve three goals: comply with the Common Core State Standards (Common Core), comply with the North Carolina Essential Standards…

  5. How Middle Grade Teachers Think about Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassmeyer, David; Edwards, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Algebraic reasoning is an essential habit of mind for building conceptual knowledge in K-12 mathematics, yet little is known about how middle school mathematics teachers think about algebraic reasoning. In this article we describe a research project examining how algebraic reasoning was considered by grades 6, 7, or 8 mathematics teachers in a…

  6. John Adams' essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Kavanagh, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    John Adams (1735-1826), one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, was the second President of the United States. Adams had tremor for many years, about which little has been written. We examined John Adams' penmanship over a 62-year period and studied his correspondence and diaries. It is not clear when Adams' tremor began, although in a diary entry dated 6 December 1760, when Adams was 25 years old, there is evidence of low-amplitude kinetic tremor. The tremor continued in his written correspondence, becoming more persistent over time. Later in life, the clarity of his written correspondence diminished, with greater decomposition of characters and a reduction in the size of individual characters. This finding raises some speculation as to whether Adams could have been developing some parkinsonism, although the evidence in favor of this is not compelling. The most likely diagnosis was essential tremor.

  7. Essential biodiversity variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  8. TQM: the essential concepts.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  9. Graded Causation and Defaults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    in philosophy and the law in part because of its connection with issues of moral and legal responsibility (see for example, Moore [2009] for a...viewpoints in the flower-watering example described in the introduction: (a) Beebee [2004] and Moore [2009], for example, argue against the existence...relevant sense) of his death. Moore [2009] uses this type of case to argue that our ordinary notion of actual causation is graded, rather than all-or

  10. A Comparison of Item Response Theory and Observed Score DIF Detection Measures for the Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Allan S.; Kim, Seock-Ho; Wollack, James A.

    This paper provides a review of procedures for detection of differential item functioning (DIF) for item response theory (IRT) and observed score methods for the graded response model. In addition, data from a test anxiety scale were analyzed to examine the congruence among these procedures. Data from Nasser, Takahashi, and Benson (1997) were…

  11. Self-Reported Resilient Behaviors of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Enrolled in an Emotional Intelligence Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Veronica; Johnson, Michael B.; Smith, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School counselors are in a unique position to help at-risk students. Research indicates that teaching resiliency skills and emotional intelligence is a promising venture (Bernard, 1997; Chavkin & Gonzalez, 2000; Henderson & Milstein, 2002). Seventy identified at-risk seventh and eighth grade students enrolled in the Teen Leadership Program…

  12. The Effects of a Teacher In-Service on Low-Achieving Grade 7 and 8 Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Xu, YunMei; Ford, John

    2008-01-01

    Previous research (e.g., Woodward & Baxter, 1997) found that Standards-based mathematics teaching provides marginal or no benefits for low achievers, in contrast with positive effects for middle and high ability students. A randomized quasi-experiment in 52 Canadian schools found that low achieving grade 7 and 8 students who received support…

  13. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter, October 1997--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1997 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. This is the eighth and final sampling event of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This program monitored the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond that had been used to store drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (the predecessor agency to the DOE) and Austral Oil Company (Austral).

  14. Research and development for the declassification productivity initiative. Quarterly report, January 1997--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonet, C.G. de

    1997-03-05

    The highlight for the first quarter was the presentation of research progress and findings at the DPI Symposium on March 5, 1997. Since that presentation, additional progress was slowed down due to the decreased budget funding for year two, and consequently, the decrease in time-effort of the principal investigators. This report summarizes the progress in each of the topical areas to date. A research article has been prepared for publication for the Optical Character Recognition project; two progress reports are included for the Logical Analysis project; and two progress reports for the Knowledge Representation project. Research activities for the Tipster Technology project will resume this fall.

  15. Understanding the molecular basis of histologic grade.

    PubMed

    Ignatiadis, M; Sotiriou, C

    2008-01-01

    Histologic grading in breast cancer is based on the evaluation of 3 morphologic features (tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic count), is essentially describing proliferation and differentiation in breast cancer, and is considered an important prognostic factor for this disease. It has been suggested that histologic grade 1 and 3 breast tumors are 2 different diseases that may have distinct molecular origins, pathogenesis and natural history. Different single markers like Ki-67, thymidine labeling index and S phase fraction/flow cytometry have been studied as markers of proliferation, but none of them, with the possible exception of Ki-67, is currently employed routinely in clinical practice. The advent of the powerful microarray technology has enabled scientists to comprehensively study proliferation in breast cancer on a genome-wide scale. A gene expression grade index (GGI) was developed that challenges the existence and clinical relevance of an intermediate grade 2 classification. The GGI could reclassify patients with histologic grade 2 tumors into 2 groups with high versus low risks of recurrence. GGI has also been used to define 2 clinically relevant subgroups in estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas. Finally, in the largest meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression and clinical data, 4 stable molecular subgroups of breast cancer have been identified, namely ER-/HER-, HER2+ and ER+/HER2-, which was divided into 2 subgroups (ER+/low proliferation and ER+/high proliferation). In this same meta-analysis, proliferation was shown to be the common driving force responsible for the performance of various breast cancer prognostic signatures.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II) complex with 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Yusoff, Latifah M.; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.; Ismail, Wafiuddin; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2014-09-03

    Nickel(II) complex have been synthesized by treating a 14-membered ring tetraaza macrocyclic compound, 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium, bromide (Me{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 4})Br{sub 2} with nickel acetate in metanol. The complex was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), and single crystal diffraction (X-ray). The nickel atom coordinates through four nitrogen atoms in the ligand. Square planar geometry has been proposed for this complex.

  17. All-polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells with 4.8% efficiency achieved by solution processing from a co-solvent.

    PubMed

    Earmme, Taeshik; Hwang, Ye-Jin; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Jenekhe, Samson A

    2014-09-17

    All-polymer solar cells with 4.8% power conversion efficiency are achieved via solution processing from a co-solvent. The observed short-circuit current density of 10.5 mA cm(-2) and external quantum efficiency of 61.3% are also the best reported in all-polymer solar cells so far. The results demonstrate that processing the active layer from a co-solvent is an important strategy in achieving highly efficient all-polymer solar cells.

  18. The Unbearable Importance of Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parini, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Grading is one of the primary venues of teaching. In this article, the author shares his experience of grading papers. He alleges that the hardest papers to grade are those where nothing is really "wrong" with the prose or the argument, where everything is "sort of" correct but nothing is vivid, nothing quite original. Students must learn in time…

  19. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  20. Field grading in capacitor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T. E.; Sarjeant, W. J.; Nunnally, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Some of the results of modeling electric fields in the margin of a bogey plastic film liquid impregnant capacitor are presented where effects of foil edge shape, different impregnants, and grading wires are examined. It is concluded that placement tolerance and connection problems make grading wires impractical and that folded foil edges are still the best solution to field grading.

  1. Clinton delivers bare bones plan for 1997 budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Congress and the White House have yet to finish negotiating and haggling over the U.S. federal budget for 1996, but the calendar and the law say that they ought to start thinking about 1997. On February 5, President Bill Clinton issued a preliminary budget plan for 1997 that reflected his fiscal priorities as they were last stated in January, before budget talks with congressional Republicans broke down. Required by law to propose a spending plan by the first Monday in February, Clinton delivered to Congress what he termed a "thematic document," one that gives a minimally detailed outline of how the federal government should spend the taxpayers' money in 1997.

  2. Organic analysis progress report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Steele, R.; Bellofatto, D.; Sharma, A.

    1998-04-01

    The Organic Analysis and Methods Development Task is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of the Organic Tank Waste Safety Project. The objective of the task is to apply developed analytical methods to identify and/or quantify the amount of particular organic species in tank wastes. In addition, this task provides analytical support for the Gas Generation Studies Task, Waste Aging, and Solubility Studies. This report presents the results from analyses of tank waste samples archived at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and received from the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC), which included samples associated with both the Flammable Gas and Organic Tank Waste Safety Programs. The data are discussed in Section 2.0. In addition, the results of analytical support for analyzing (1) simulated wastes for Waste Aging, (2) tank waste samples for Gas Generation, and (3) simulated wastes associated with solubility studies discussed in Sections 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0, respectively. The latter part of FY 1997 was devoted to documenting the analytical procedures, including derivation gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/FID for quantitation, ion-pair chromatography (IPC), IC, and the cation exchange procedure for reducing the radioactivity of samples. The documentation of analytical procedures is included here and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0 discusses other analytical procedures. The references are listed in Section 8.0 and future plans are discussed in Section 9.0. Appendix A is a preprint of a manuscript accepted for publication. Appendix B contains the cc mail messages and chain-of-custody forms for the samples received for analyses. Appendix C contains the test plan for analysis of tank waste samples.

  3. 1997 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Energy held its annual Technical Standards Program Workshop on July 8--10, 1997, at the Loews L`Enfant Plaza Hotel in Washington, DC. The workshop focused on aspects of implementation of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 [Public Law (PL) 104-113] and the related revision (still pending) to OMB Circular A119 (OMB A119), Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Standards. It also addressed DOE`s efforts in transitioning to a standards-based operating culture, and, through this transition, to change from a developer of internal technical standards to a customer of external technical standards. The workshop was designed to provide a forum to better understand how the new law is affecting Department activities. Panel topics such as ``Public Law 104-113 and Its Influence on Federal Agency Standards Activities`` and ``Update on Global Standards Issues`` provided insight on both the internal and external effects of the new law. Keynote speaker Richard Meier of Meadowbrook International (and formerly the Deputy Assistant US Trade Representative) addressed the subject of international trade balance statistics. He pointed out that increases in US export figures do not necessarily indicate increases in employment. Rather, increased employment results from product growth. Mr Meier also discussed issues such as the US migration to the sue of the metric system, the impact of budget limitations on Government participation in voluntary standards organizations, international standards ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, and DOE`s role in the worldwide transition from weapons production to cleanup.

  4. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  5. Assimilation is Essential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    Norman Bowen's 1922 paper, `The behavior of inclusions in igneous magmas', and its abridged version in The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks, are the classic papers on reaction between silicate melt and minerals. Bowen showed that dissolution of minerals in magma above its liquidus temperature is limited to a few percent of the melt mass, because the heat of fusion of silicates is much larger than the heat capacity of silicate melt. Thus, he proposed that for extensive reaction between melt and rock, there must be a link between dissolution of one phase and crystallization of another. Bowen's reasoning should be the starting point for all studies of igneous open systems. Nonetheless, Bowen reached some controversial conclusions. He wrote, `It is doubtful whether the presence of foreign matter is ever essential to the production of any particular type of differentiate'. This was during debate over the `calc-alkaline trend', with high Mg/(Mg+Fe), or Mg#, over a range of silica contents. Bowen reasoned that the calc-alkaline trend started with basalt, a primary melt, and ended with granite, the end-product of fractional crystallization, so the entire trend must be due to fractional crystallization. However, Clarence Fenner thought that fractional crystallization of basalt produced decreasing Mg# at nearly constant silica, a `tholeiitic trend'. For Fenner, the debate wasn't aboutgranite, but about intermediate, calc-alkaline andesites, (i.e., high Mg# andesite, 54 wt% < SiO2 < 63 wt%, Mg# > 0.45). This debate is still not resolved, but there are cases in which reaction of basaltic melt with granitic rock was essential in producing high Mg# andesites. Similarly, some high Mg# andesites arise via magma mixing, a kind of `incorporation of foreign matter'. Some high Mg# andesites are partial melts of peridotite, and some arise via melt-rock reaction in the mantle. The `andesite problem' has extra importance because continental crust has a high Mg# andesite composition. Bowen

  6. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has found very few side effects . Lavender and tea tree essential oils have been found to have ... aromatherapy, including those from Roman chamomile , geranium , lavender , tea tree , lemon , cedarwood , and bergamot . Each plant's essential ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: essential tremor

    MedlinePlus

    ... health and development? More about Mutations and Health Inheritance Pattern Essential tremor can be passed through generations in families, but the inheritance pattern varies. In most affected families, essential tremor appears ...

  8. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

  9. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Suárez, Carlos; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, María C

    2009-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego. In 1997, ulrasonography (US) was selected as the method of choice for the development of population surveys for epidemiological surveillance and early diagnosis in rural population. The aim of this work was to present the results of the epidemiological surveillance of CE by means of US in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina between 1997 and 2006. The ultrasonographic diagnostic was realized once a year. The population was stratified in children (4 to 17 years) and adults. From each individual, name, age, sex, actual residence and origin were registered. The images compatible with cysts were graded according to location, number and characteristics. A total of 1400 rural inhabitants were examined for CE. From the total of studied individuals, 27 (1.9%) exhibited images compatible with cysts on the abdominal ultrasound scan. Thirteen of these persons were finally diagnosed as having CE. The overall prevalence of CE was 0.9%. This value is in accordance with the decrease in the prevalence observed in the definitive host and the intermediate hosts (sheep and cattle). The absence of cases in children during the studied period, evidence no transmission of the disease to humans in the recent past.

  10. Cigarette, Cigar, and Marijuana Use Among High School Students - United States, 1997-2013.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Italia V; Kennedy, Sara M; Agaku, Israel; Jones, Sherry Everett; Bunnell, Rebecca; Caraballo, Ralph; Xu, Xin; Schauer, Gillian; McAfee, Tim

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Since 2010, the proportion of U.S. 12th grade students who reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days (21.4%) has surpassed the proportion reporting use of cigarettes during the preceding 30 days (19.2%).What is added by this report? During 1997–2013, the proportion of white, black, and Hispanic high school students overall who were exclusive cigarette or cigar users decreased 64%, from 20.5% to 7.4%. The proportion of white, black, and Hispanic students who were exclusive marijuana users more than doubled from 4.2% to 10.2%, and among cigarette or cigar users, marijuana use increased, with considerable increases identified among black and Hispanic students toward the end of the study period.What are the implications for public health practice? Despite significant declines since 1997, approximately 30% of white, black, and Hispanic U.S. high school students were current users of cigarettes, cigars, or marijuana in 2013. Policy and programmatic efforts might benefit from integrated approaches that focus on reducing the use of tobacco and marijuana among youths.

  11. Diversity of lanthanide(III)-organic extended frameworks with a 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid ligand: syntheses, structures, and magnetic and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wu-Fang; Wang, Yu-Ling; Shan, Zeng-Mei; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Tang, Jinkui

    2012-02-20

    A sulfonate-carboxylate ligand, 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H(4)-DSNDA), and eight new lanthanide coordination polymers {[Pr(4)(OH)(4)(DSNDA)(2)(H(2)O)(12)](H(2)O)(10)}(n) (1), [Ln(H(2)-DSNDA)(0.5)(DSNDA)(0.5)(H(2)O)(5)](n) (Ln = La(2), Nd(3), Sm(4), Eu(5), Gd(6), and Dy(7)), and {[Er(H-DSNDA)(H(2)O)(4)](H(2)O)}(n) (8) have been synthesized. Detailed crystal structures of these compounds have been investigated. Compound 1 has a 3D framework featuring the unique cubane-shaped [Pr(4)(μ(3)-OH)(4)] clusters and is a binodal 4,8-connected network with (4(16)·6(12))(4(4)·6(2))(2) topology. Compounds 2-7 are isostructural and have 2D layered structures. Compound 8 is also a 2D layer but belongs to different structural types. The luminescence behavior of compound Eu(5) shows that the π-rich aromatic organic ligands efficiently transfer the absorbed light energy to the Eu(III) ions, thus enhancing the overall luminescent properties of compound Eu(5). The magnetic properties of all compounds except for the diamagnetic La(2) compound have been investigated. In addition, elemental analysis, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis of these compounds are also described.

  12. Putative essential and core-essential genes in Mycoplasma genomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma, which was used to create the first "synthetic life", has been an important species in the emerging field, synthetic biology. However, essential genes, an important concept of synthetic biology, for both M. mycoides and M. capricolum, as well as 14 other Mycoplasma with available genomes, are still unknown. We have developed a gene essentiality prediction algorithm that incorporates information of biased gene strand distribution, homologous search and codon adaptation index. The algorithm, which achieved an accuracy of 80.8% and 78.9% in self-consistence and cross-validation tests, respectively, predicted 5880 essential genes in the 16 Mycoplasma genomes. The intersection set of essential genes in available Mycoplasma genomes consists of 153 core essential genes. The predicted essential genes (available from pDEG, tubic.tju.edu.cn/pdeg) and the proposed algorithm can be helpful for studying minimal Mycoplasma genomes as well as essential genes in other genomes.

  13. Putative essential and core-essential genes in Mycoplasma genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma, which was used to create the first “synthetic life”, has been an important species in the emerging field, synthetic biology. However, essential genes, an important concept of synthetic biology, for both M. mycoides and M. capricolum, as well as 14 other Mycoplasma with available genomes, are still unknown. We have developed a gene essentiality prediction algorithm that incorporates information of biased gene strand distribution, homologous search and codon adaptation index. The algorithm, which achieved an accuracy of 80.8% and 78.9% in self-consistence and cross-validation tests, respectively, predicted 5880 essential genes in the 16 Mycoplasma genomes. The intersection set of essential genes in available Mycoplasma genomes consists of 153 core essential genes. The predicted essential genes (available from pDEG, tubic.tju.edu.cn/pdeg) and the proposed algorithm can be helpful for studying minimal Mycoplasma genomes as well as essential genes in other genomes. PMID:22355572

  14. Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient

    PubMed Central

    SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

  15. Earth's Magnetosphere Responds to Magnetic Storm on Jan. 10, 1997

    NASA Video Gallery

    The simulation shows Earth's magnetosphere and its response to the onset of the January 10, 1997 magnetic storm, solar wind arriving from the left. The translucent surface represents the shape and ...

  16. Edward Mills Purcell, August 30, 1912-March 7, 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigden, John S.

    2011-03-01

    I discuss the life, education, personality, and contributions of Edward Mills Purcell (1912-1997) to physics, radio astronomy, astrophysics, biological physics, physics teaching and education, and to the nation.

  17. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SIXTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE AREA WINDOW, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING DEMOLITION OF WEST WALL, FACING WEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING DEMOLITION OF SOUTH WALL, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SIXTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR WEST OFFICE AREA THAT WAS ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FOURTEENTH FLOOR, SERVICE AREA DOOR NEAR ELEVATOR LOBBY, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING BEAM AND COLUMN CONNECTION NEAR SOUTHEAST CORNER, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR WEST OFFICE AREA THAT WAS ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL ELEVENTH FLOOR KITCHEN OF EXECUTIVE DINING AREA SHOWING ARCHED STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING BEAM AND COLUMN CONNECTION NEAR NORTHWEST CORNER, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SEVENTH FLOOR SOUTH OFFICE AREA SHOWING STRUCTURAL PIERS AND FLORESCENT LIGHTS, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SEVENTH FLOOR SOUTH OFFICE AREA SHOWING WOOD AND GLASS PARTITIONS, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIRST FLOOR DOORS TO THE CITY CLERK AND TAX & PERMIT DIVISION OFFICES, FACING NORTH. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 135. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP AT SPLIT, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE WING SHOWING PARTITIONS, WINDOWS AND RADIATOR, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SEVENTH FLOOR SOUTH OFFICE AREA SHOWING RADIATOR AND WINDOWS, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TENTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE WING SHOWING RADIATOR AND WINDOW, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. John Ash, ALA., Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, ALA., Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE WING SHOWING PARTITIONS, WINDOWS AND RADIATOR, FACING SOUTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Imation, developed DryView Imaging Systems, which use a special photographic film for medical imaging that replaces hazardous developer chemicals and water with heat.

  20. NASA's Microgravity Technology Report: Summary of Activities 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the 1997 NASA Microgravity Technology Report is to update the Microgravity Research Program's technology development policy and to present and assess current technology related activities and requirements identified within its research and technology disciplines.