Science.gov

Sample records for 1998-1999 oil industry

  1. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. Annual reports for 1997, 1998, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    The Roundtable was created in 1984 to provide a unique forum for dialog among top government, university, and industry leaders of the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas regarding issues, problems, and promising opportunities that are facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. These annual reports begin by describing the purpose, structure, and mode of operation of the Roundtable. There follow sections devoted to the council activities, major projects, and follow-up planning, and the activities of the Roundtable working groups. Meeting agendas and publications lists are also included.

  2. CACD Journal, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Pat Nellor, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This publication of the California Association for Counseling and Development for 1998-1999 supports the organizational goals of leadership, inquiry, discovery, excellence, and innovation. It attempts to identify the current issues of concern in the counseling field and to share research to help improve the professional learning community. As a…

  3. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The "Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999" is compiled from information supplied by the state's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Within each of these…

  4. Officers and Council, 1998-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    The 1998-1999 Council of the British Astronomical Association photographed on the steps of Burlington House, London, on 1999 May 26. Front row, left to right: Bob Marriott, Hazel McGee, Martin Mobberley, Nick James, Jonathan Shanklin, Ron Johnson; centre: Richard Miles, Gordon Taylor, Jacqueline Mitton, David Tucker, John Mason, Pat Barber, David Reid, Peter Hudson; back: Laurence Anslow, Guy Hurst, Lionel Mayling, Nick Hewitt, Owen Brazell, Tony Kinder, Mark Armstrong, Maurice Gavin. Photo by Hazel McGee and Linda Newton.

  5. Influenza activity in China: 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Yuanji, Guo

    2002-05-15

    During 1989-1999, influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes and B type viruses were still co-circulating in human population in China, while influenza A (H3N2) virus was predominant strain. The two antigenically and genetically distinguishable strains of influenza B virus were also still co-circulating in men in southern China. The antigenic analysis indicated that most of the H3N2 viruses were A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2)-like strain, the most of the H1N1 viruses were antigenically similar to A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) virus. However, most of the influenza B viruses were B/Beijing/184/93-like strain, but few of them were antigenically similar to B/Shandong/7/97 virus. In the summer of 1998, the influenza outbreaks caused by H3N2 subtype of influenza A virus occurred widely in southern China. Afterwards, during 1998-1999 influenza season, a severe influenza epidemic caused by H3N2 virus emerged in northern China. The morbidity was reached as high as 10% in Beijing area. It was interesting that during influenza, surveillance from 1998 to 1999, five strains of avian influenza A (H9N2) virus were isolated from outpatients with influenza-like illness in July-August of 1998, and another one was repeatedly isolated from a child suffering from influenza-like disease in November of 1999 in Guangdong province. The genetic analysis revealed that the five strains isolated in 1998 were genetically closely related to H9N2 viruses being isolated from chickens (G9 lineage virus), whereas, A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2) virus was a reassortant derived from reassortment between G9 and G1 lineage of avian influenza A (H9N2) viruses due to its genes encoding the HA, NA, NP and NS proteins, closely related to G9 lineage virus, the rest of the genes encoding the M and three polymerase (PB2, PB1 and PA) were closely related to G1 lineage strain of H9N2 virus. However, no avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has so far been isolated neither from in or outpatients with influenza-like disease in mainland China

  6. Review on international observations and researches of 1998 - 1999 Leonids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongyuan

    2001-06-01

    Great achievements have been gained from Leonid Meteor Shower observations and researches during the period of 1998 - 1999. In this paper, some results and progresses, including visual, radar, airborne, balloon observations, satellite safe monitoring and observations of Leonid impact on the moon and the lunar sodium tail, are presented briefly.

  7. Review of US medical school finances, 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Krakower, J Y; Coble, T Y; Williams, D J; Jones, R F

    2000-09-06

    Based on data from the Annual Medical School Questionnaire of the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, to which 100% of the 125 accredited allopathic US medical schools responded, we found that revenue supporting programs and activities of the 125 accredited medical schools in the United States totaled $39,761 million in 1998-1999. Three sources accounted for 79.3% of total revenues: practice plans ($13,724 million; 34.5%), grants and contracts ($11, 982 million; 30.1%), and hospital support ($5814 million; 14.6%). In the aggregate, total revenues increased by 7.4% between 1997-1998 and 1998-1999, a consequence at least in part due to a 2.9% increase in the number of full-time faculty. The largest increase in dollar amount came from grants and contracts ($1101 million; 10.2% increase). Revenue increases were not evenly distributed across the schools. Increases of 10% or more in key revenue sources-practice plans and hospital support-were reported by approximately one fourth of all schools. Another one fourth reported decreases in these same sources. JAMA. 2000;284:1127-1129

  8. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  9. Johnson Space Center Research and Technology Annual Report 1998-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, George W. S.

    2004-01-01

    As the principle center for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise, the Johnson Space Center (JSC) leads NASA development of human spacecraft, human support systems, and human spacecraft operations. An important element in implementing this mission, JSC has focused on developing the infrastructure and partnerships that enable the technology development for future NASA programs. In our efforts to develop key technologies, we have found that collaborative relationships with private industry and academia strengthen our capabilities, infuse innovative ideas, and provide alternative applications for our development projects. The American public has entrusted NASA with the responsibility for space technology development, and JSC is committed to the transfer of the technologies that we develop to the private sector for further development and application. It is our belief that commercialization of NASA technologies benefits both American industry and NASA through technology innovation and continued partnering. To this end, we present the 1998-1999 JSC Research and Technology Report. As your guide to the current JSC technologies, this report showcases the projects in work at JSC that may be of interest to U.S. industry, academia, and other government agencies (federal, state, and local). For each project, potential alternative uses and commercial applications are described. To aid in your search, projects are arranged according to the Major Product Groups used by CorpTech to classify and index types of industry. Some projects fall into multiple categories and are placed under the predominant category, for example, an artificial intelligence project is listed under the Computer Software category, while its function is to automate a process (Automation category).

  10. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  11. Economic Development Program, California Community Colleges: ED>Net 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Economic Development Coordination Network (EDNet).

    This report describes economic development programs operated by California Community Colleges during fiscal year 1998-1999. Report highlights include: (1) 60 of 107 community colleges (48 of 72 districts) operated an economic development program; (2) eight economic development programs engaged primarily in delivering training and technical…

  12. Minnesota's Fiscal Years 1998-1999 Budget: An Opportunity for Children & Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferys, Marcie

    This report presents the Children's Defense Fund's (CDF) recommendations for spending the fiscal year 1998-1999 Minnesota state budget surplus. The intent of the CDF plan is four-fold: (1) emphasizing long-term investments in children's well-being; (2) address children's immediate health and safety concerns; (3) contribute to the continued…

  13. Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges Statistical Data, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    This document presents the 1998-1999 statistical data for the following 15 Mississippi (MS) public community and junior colleges: Coahoma, Copiah-Lincoln, East Central, East MS, Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jones, Meridian, MS Delta, MS Gulf Coast, Northeast MS, Northwest MS, Pearl River, and Southwest MS. It begins with a list of State Board members…

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; House, Patricia L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (satellite and television) programs for students in grades 5-8. Each of the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series included a lesson, an educator guide, a student activity or experiment, and a web-based component. In March 1999, a mail (self-reported) survey (booklet) was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1,000 NASA CONNECT registrants. A total of 401 surveys (351 usable) were received by the established cut-off date. Most survey questions employed a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Survey topics included: (1) instructional technology and teaching, (2) instructional programming and technology in the classroom, (3) the NASA CONNECT program, (4) classroom use of computer technology, and (5) demographics. About 68% of the respondents were female, about 88% identified "classroom teacher" as their present professional duty, about 75% worked in a public school, and about 67% held a master's degree or master's equivalency. Regarding NASA CONNECT, respondents reported that: (1) they used the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series; (2) the stated objectives for each program were met (4.49); (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards (4.61); (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level (4.25); and (5) the programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology (4.45).

  15. The World Oil Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Christopher T.

    1976-01-01

    America's domestic petroleum industry and the international industry have been dominated by seven major firms. Although production costs decreased, sale prices soared with developing political-corporate interrelationships. (MR)

  16. Usual sources of cigarettes for middle and high school students--Texas, 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    2002-10-11

    Persons often begin smoking when they are minors (aged <18 years), and easy access to cigarettes might contribute to this behavior. Laws and regulations were in place in Texas during 1998-1999 to reduce minors' access to cigarettes by 1) prohibiting the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; 2) imposing fines against retailers caught selling cigarettes to minors; 3) prohibiting minors from purchasing, possessing, or using tobacco products; 4) limiting vending machines to adult-only locations; and 5) requiring tobacco retailers to ask for proof of identification from anyone attempting to purchase tobacco who appeared to be aged <27 years. To measure progress in reducing access to cigarettes among middle and high school students in Texas, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 1998 and 1999 Texas Youth Tobacco Survey (TYTS). This report summarizes the results of that survey, which indicate that during 1998-1999, reported access to cigarettes from stores and vending machines (commercial sources) decreased among middle school students from 13.2% to 5.3% and from 7.6% to 1.7%, respectively, but access from noncommercial and other sources (e.g., stealing cigarettes and "getting them some other way") increased from 8.3% to 12.3% and from 16.6% to 23.3%, respectively. Among high school students, most sources did not change. Educating retailers and actively enforcing laws governing youth access to tobacco as part of a comprehensive tobacco-control approach are required to reduce youth access to cigarettes.

  17. Report on Community College Classes Offered in Conjunction with High Schools (R7-1-709), FY 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This publication presents the first 1998-1999 Report on Community College Classes Offered in Conjunction with High Schools in Arizona. This report contains the following sections: (1) a map of Arizona Community College Campuses, Centers, and Extension Sites; (2) an outline of Rule R7-1-709: Community College Classes Offered in Conjunction with…

  18. Oil Industry Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The accompanying photos show two types of offshore oil platforms used by Exxon Corporation. In the upper photo is a leg-supported gravity platform; the other structure is a "jackettype" platform, built in sections, towed to sea and assembled on-site. In construction of platforms like these, Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas, conducts extensive structural investigations of decks, supporting members and other platform components, making use of the NASTRAN @ (NASA Structural Analysis) computer program. NASTRAN is a predictive tool which analyzes a computerized design and reports how the structure will react to a great many conditions it will encounter in its operational environment; in this case, NASTRAN studies the effects of waves, winds, ocean storms and other stress-inducing factors. NASTRAN allows Exxon Production Research to perform more complex and more detailed analysis than was possible with previous programs. The same program has also been used by Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, New Jersey, in analysis of pressure vessels, turbine components and composite building boards.

  19. The 1998-1999 seismic series at Deception Island volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Saccorotti, G.; Del Pezzo, E.; Abril, M.; Ortiz, R.

    2003-11-01

    During the 1998-1999 Antarctic summer the pattern of seismic activity at Deception Island volcano changed significantly. The change was characterized by the occurrence of an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. More than 2000 VT earthquakes with S-P times smaller than 4 s were recorded in the period January-February 1999. Pure volcanic events were also detected; especially long-period (LP) events, volcanic tremor and some hybrid events. Seismic monitoring was performed using two short-period small-aperture arrays, among other instruments. Based on their signal-to-noise ratios we selected 863 VT earthquakes, 350 LP events and tremor episodes, and 9 hybrid events for analysis. We estimated apparent slowness and back-azimuth for all events using the Zero Lag Cross-Correlation array technique. Combining this information with S-P times and other indirect evidence, we identified two different source regions. LP seismicity is located less than 1-1.5 km southwest of the Fumarole array site. These events are likely to have a hydrothermal origin. VT earthquakes and hybrid events are located at depths of 0.3-10 km in an area under the bay of Deception Island. The area extends from the Fumarole array to the northeast with epicentral distances that range from 0.5 to 12 km. Most hypocenters are clustered in a small volume of around 8 km 3. The sources of the LP seismicity and the VT earthquakes are spatially distinct, which indicates that they are not produced by the same mechanisms. Moment magnitude analyses of the VT earthquakes provide an average magnitude of 0.5 and very low average stress drop, around 1 bar. A study of first motion of the P-waves suggests that the events in this small source region should have a variety of source mechanisms. This is supported by the existence of families of events with the same waveforms. The occurrence of repeating fracture processes with low stress drop and small fault dimensions can be explained by the lubrication of pre

  20. The 1998-1999 Seismic Series At Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Saccorotti, G.; del Pezzo, E.; Abril, M.; Ortiz, R.; Martínez-Arévalo, C.

    During the 1998-1999 Antarctic summer, the pattern of seismic activity at Deception Island volcano suffered a significant change with respect to the previous years. This change was characterized by the occurrence of an intense swarm of local earthquakes. More than 2000 local earthquakes with S-P time smaller than 4 s were recorded in the period January-February 1999. Pure volcanic events have been also detected, spe- cially long period (LP) events and volcanic tremor, and some hybrid events. Seismic monitoring was performed using two short-period small-aperture arrays, among other instruments. We selected for the analysis 863 local earthquakes, 350 LP events and tremor episodes, and 9 hybrid events, based on their signal-to-noise ratios. Propaga- tion parameters (apparent slowness and back-azimuth) for all events were estimated using the zero lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) array technique. Combining this infor- mation with measures of S-P times and other indirect evidences, two different source regions have been identified. LP seismicity is located southwestward from the Fuma- role array site at distances smaller than 1-1.5 km. In this region we find the presence of glaciers, important fractures, and thermal anomalies, which supports the hypothesis of a hydrothermal origin. Local earthquakes and hybrid events are located in a region beneath Port Foster, the inner Bay of Deception Island. This region extends from the array site to the Northeast, between depths of 0.3 and 10 km. The epicentral distances range between 0.5 and 12 km. Most hypocenters are clustered in a small volume of around 8 km3 centered at 1.5 km depth and 1.5 km Northeast of the Fumarole ar- ray. The sources of the LP seismicity and the local earthquakes are spatially distinct, which indicates that they are not produced by the same mechanisms. Moment mag- nitude analyses of the local earthquakes show an energetic uniformity in the seismic series, with average magnitude of 0.5 and very low average

  1. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non –renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or ‘Fish oil’. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool. PMID:27252590

  2. Report on Attainment of Goals of the 1998-1999 Strategic Plan (1999-2000 Report for Performance Indicator 1E).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Clifton R.

    This report provides a summary on the attainment or progress of the goals and objectives established by Williamsburg Technical College (South Carolina) for the 1998-1999 academic year. Williamsburg Technical College established 10 major goals in support of its mission during this year. To varying degrees of success, all of these major goals have…

  3. Salmonella in healthy pigs: prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance observed during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Futagawa-Saito, K; Hiratsuka, S; Kamibeppu, M; Hirosawa, T; Oyabu, K; Fukuyasu, T

    2008-08-01

    To determine prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in healthy pigs, faecal samples from 6771 pigs on 73 farms collected during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 were examined. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 22 antimicrobials: benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, cephaloridine, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, fradiomycin, colistin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Farm-level and pig-level Salmonella prevalences were 35.5% and 2.2% in 1998-1999, and 35.7% and 3.3% in 2004-2005. Prevalence by growth stage was 2.4% for sows, 3.3% for weaned pigs, 2.7% for fattening pigs and 3.8% for finishing pigs. The predominant serotypes identified were Agona (28.4%), Typhimurium (17.9%) and Infantis (16.4%) in 1998-1999, and Typhimurium (32.5%), Anatum (24.6%) and Infantis (13.5%) in 2004-2005. Compared with the 1998-1999 isolates, the 2004-2005 isolates showed significantly higher rates of resistance to all the antimicrobials except tetracyclines (P<0.01 to P<0.05) and resistance to 2 antimicrobials [19.4% (13/67) vs. 39.7% (50/126), P<0.01]. This study provides national estimates of Salmonella prevalence in healthy pigs of different growth stages in Japan.

  4. A Reassessment of the Seismicity Related to the 1998-1999 Eruption of Colima Volcano, Western Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora-Camacho, A.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Espindola, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 1998-1999 activity of Colima volcano (19.514°N, 103.62°W, 3850 m a.s.l.) consisted of a climactic episode on 20 November, 1998. On this date, a dome formed on the small summit crater during the previous few days, collapsed generating block-and-ash flows. The event was preceded by almost twelve months of seismic activity, which continued afterwards for several more months. In a previous work (Zamora-Camacho et al., 2007; Pure Appl. Geophys. 164, 39-52) we analyzed the seismic activity occurred from 20 March, 1998 to 31 March, 1999. However the seismicity related to the activity did not dwindled down to pre-eruptive levels until January 2000. In this work we present the results of our analysis of the period March-December 1999, which completes the sequence of events related to the eruption. This analysis is of importance because constitutes the most complete study of the seismicity of an eruptive period of Colima volcano, in the sense that we determined most of the events recorded by the seismic net (RESCO) and located all of those that were amenable to location. The whole period of seismic activity consisted of more than 11,000 events of which 1156 belonging to the period March-December 1999 were located. Of this group 1082 have magnitude (Mc) between 1 and 3.5 and depths mostly in the 0-10 km range.

  5. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged.

  6. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  7. Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Gazea, Florea; Cicciarello, Giuseppe; Cotroneo, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the composition of bergamot oils obtained from plants grafted on the following rootstocks: sour orange, Carrizo citrange, trifoliate orange, Alemow, Volkamerian lemon, and Troyer citrange. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using rootstocks other than sour orange, checking their effect on the composition of the essential oil. Results are reported for analysis of 203 bergamot oils during the years 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000. The oils were analyzed by HRGC and HRGC/MS; 78 components were identified, and the results were in agreement with those reported in the literature for the Calabrian bergamot oils obtained from industry. Because of the quality of their essential oils, Alemow and Volkamerian lemon can be considered as substitutes for sour orange rootstocks.

  8. Emplacement of pyroclastic flows during the 1998 1999 eruption of Volcán de Colima, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo, R.; Macías, J. L.; Bursik, M. I.; Mora, J. C.; Gavilanes, J. C.; Cortes, A.

    2002-09-01

    , monolithologic, matrix-supported, and had a clast-supported steep front (ca. 1.5 to 2 m thick) composed of boulders up to 1.7 m in diameter. The juvenile lithic clasts had an average density of 1800 kg/m 3. The dilute pyroclastic flow emplaced overbank deposits, found on valley margins or beyond the tip of block-and-ash flow deposits. They consist from bottom to top of a massive medium to coarse sand-size flow layer (2-4 cm thick), a dune-bedded surge layer (2-10 cm thick), and a massive silt-size layer (0.5 cm thick). The total estimated volume of the pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during the 1998-1999 eruption is 24×10 5 m 3.

  9. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  10. Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabhani, Nader; Emami, Milad; Moghadam, A. B. Taghavi

    2011-12-01

    Micro and nano technologies have already contributed significantly to technological advances in a number of industries, including electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, materials and manufacturing, aerospace, photography and more recently the energy industries. Micro and nanotechnologies have the potential to introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industries such as exploration, drilling, production, refining and distribution. For example, nanosensors might provide more detailed and accurate information about reservoirs and smart fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling. This paper examines and documents applicable nanotechnology base products that can improve the competitiveness of the oil and gas industry. The future challenges of nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry are also discussed.

  11. Implications of Peak Oil for Industrialized Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Guy R.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2008-01-01

    The world passed the halfway point of oil supply in 2005. World demand for oil likely will severely outstrip supply in 2008, leading to increasingly higher oil prices. Consequences are likely to include increasing gasoline prices, rapidly increasing inflation, and subsequently a series of increasingly severe recessions followed by a worldwide…

  12. Wastewater treatment in the oil-shale industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.P.; Phillips, T.E.

    1980-08-01

    Because of the stringent state and federal standards governing the discharge of wastes into local waters and the limited water supplies in this area, an oil shale industry will probably reuse process effluents to the maximum extent possible and evaporate the residuals. Therefore, discharge of effluents into surface and ground waters may not be necessary. This paper reviews the subject of wastewater treatment for an oil shale industry and identifies key issues and research priorities that must be resolved before a large-scale commercial industry can be developed. It focuses on treatment of the waters unique to an oil shale industry: retort water, gas condensate, and mine water. Each presents a unique set of challenges.

  13. Political economy of the US oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Isser, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The political struggles over oil policy in the 1950s were contests between narrow economic interest groups to collect economic rents, as would be expected if government is considered to be just another forum for rent seeking behavior, with government intervention accepted as a norm. Conversely, the attempt to obtain decontrol of natural gas production during this period, during which consumer interests and pro-market ideology were important factors, presaged the oil politics of the 1970s. The significant impact of consumer interests on oil policy contradicts the expectations of public choice theorists that consumers will be disadvantaged in contests with well organized and wealthy interest groups. The ability of latent interest groups to influence policy when represented by politicians and private actors acting as political entrepreneurs was demonstrated during the 1970s as they dominated oil politics. Substantial economic rents, generated by the OPEC price increases, were transferred to consumers and refiners, while tax break were eliminated despite the economic resources available to producers. The pattern of distribution of those economic rents, as well as various tax breaks and exemptions from controls, was skewed toward small producers and refiners, reflecting a traditional ideological prejudice against big business. Econometric analysis revealed that ideology, party and oil production by constituents were the most important influences on congressional voting.

  14. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    PubMed

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  15. Tempo of Argentinian oil and gas industry quickens

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1988-08-01

    Exploration and production programs that the Argentinian Government has set in motion are making the country, which will host the next World Petroleum Congress, a more active and visible member of the international oil industry. A high, but possibly diminishing, inflation rate of about 15%/month, external financial debt, and the depressed price of oil are still drags on progress. But there are positive factors at work too. The government has recognized that it is in the country's self interest to entice technologically experienced foreign oil companies to search for and exploit its probably abundant oil and gas resources. The government's primary objective is to add enough output to its some 430,000 b/d production to eliminate crude oil imports. A good start on this will be made early next year when the country's first offshore field begins production.

  16. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  17. Genetic Characterization of Plasmid-Associated Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance Determinants in a Listeria monocytogenes Strain from the 1998-1999 Outbreak ▿

    PubMed Central

    Elhanafi, Driss; Dutta, Vikrant; Kathariou, Sophia

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are widely used as disinfectants in both food processing and medical environments. BC-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been implicated in multistate outbreaks of listeriosis and have been frequently isolated from food processing plants. However, the genetic basis for BC resistance in L. monocytogenes remains poorly understood. In this study, we have characterized a plasmid (pLM80)-associated BC resistance cassette in L. monocytogenes H7550, a strain implicated in the 1998-1999 multistate outbreak involving contaminated hot dogs. The BC resistance cassette (bcrABC) restored resistance to BC (MIC, 40 μg/ml) in a plasmid-cured derivative of H7550. All three genes of the cassette were essential for imparting BC resistance. The transcription of H7550 BC resistance genes was increased under sublethal (10 μg/ml) BC exposure and was higher at reduced temperatures (4, 8, or 25°C) than at 37°C. The level of transcription was higher at 10 μg/ml than at 20 or 40 μg/ml. In silico analysis suggested that the BC resistance cassette was harbored by an IS1216 composite transposon along with other genes whose functions are yet to be determined. The findings from this study will further our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to the elucidation of possible BC resistance dissemination in L. monocytogenes. PMID:20971860

  18. Community Update, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of ten issues of the newsletter "Community Update," containing articles on community and family involvement in education. Article topics include: a college education is necessary and possible; math and science study points out problems and positive solutions; the "America Reads Challenge"; meeting the…

  19. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  20. Physics-Driven Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In terms of sheer scale and financial investment and geographical footprint, nothing is bigger than the oil and gas industry. This ``mature industry'' employs a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21th. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, advanced 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To succeed at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most esoteric technology can take off in this industry if it honestly offers the best solution to a key problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. When the right breakthrough solution emerges, the resources to implement it can be almost limitless. However, the prevailing culture is conservative and brutally cost-driven: any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well will prevail, no matter how inelegant!

  1. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  2. Ethos and industry: a critical study of oil industry advertising from 1974-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzbard, G.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the advocacy advertising of the oil industry in general, and Mobil and Exxon Corporations in particular, during the years 1974-1984. The prospects of divestiture and nationalization of the industry, as a result of both gasoline shortages and exponential increases in profits which begin in the early seventies', created a profound concern by the majors that increasing public disaffection might result in legislation inimical to the industry. Mobil and Exxon's advertising attempted to provide a justification not only for their own operations, but for the entire American socio-economic system. The industry's value system was clearly reflected in its efforts to convince the public that its motives grew from an abiding commitment to the nation's well-being. The ideational underpinnings of oil industry discourse are traced through a rhetorical exploration of specific advertising campaigns. The study maintains that the weltanschauung of Big Oil is both directly and indirectly manifest in its advertising. An overall assessment of oil industry advertising is provided within a Burkean framework to treat of the textural elements of its discourse.

  3. Oil industry development and trade liberalization in the Western Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S.J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of oil industry developments in the Western Hemisphere with particular emphasis on Latin America since the inauguration of the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative by George Bush. The author discusses these developments in the context of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (concluded in 1989), and the negotiation in 1992 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This paper is concerned essentially with the oil industry and does not discuss the importance of natural gas for Canadian producers nor the fact that much of Latin American oil production (notably in Mexico) is associated with natural gas. The author examines the shift to trade and investment liberalization and privatization in the 1980s and early 1990s, especially in Latin America--where the most dramatic transformation has occurred. The author suggests that investment patterns in the industry have been only marginally related to trade liberalization, and have derived more from considerations of resource availability, exploration and development costs, market factors, and the general state of the international economy--all of which have contributed in the 1980s to significant restructuring and downsizing among a number of major corporations. The author also notes the important increase in an internal Latin American market, and the role of regional organizations such as ARPEL-the Association of Latin American State Oil Company Producers. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xueguang; Shao, Zhihua; Bao, Weijia; Rong, Qiangzhou

    2017-01-01

    With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry. PMID:28241460

  5. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xueguang; Shao, Zhihua; Bao, Weijia; Rong, Qiangzhou

    2017-02-23

    With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group's research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors' amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

  6. Stress and work ability in oil industry workers.

    PubMed

    Bresić, Jozo; Knezević, Bojana; Milosević, Milan; Tomljanović, Tomislav; Golubić, Rajna; Golubović, Rajna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2007-12-01

    This cross-sectional study conducted between March and June 2006 examined stress at work and work ability of 180 people with different workplaces within an oil company. Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers were invited to complete the "Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire--the Oil Industry Version and Work Ability Index (WAI) Questionnaire". The overall response rate was 69.4%, and the final sample size was 125 workers who completed the questionnaires (57 office, 41 laboratory, 27 oil-field workers). Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers differed significantly with respect to age (P<0.001). The oldest were oil-field workers and the youngest were office workers. The average WAI score for office workers was 44.9, for laboratory workers 43.2 and for field workers 39.7, indicating satisfying work ability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was still significant (P<0.001). Over 75% of all workers believed their job was stressful, but the perception of specific stressors depended on the workplace.

  7. Training using multimedia in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bihn, G.C.

    1997-02-01

    Multimedia is becoming a widely used and accepted tool in general education. From preschool to the university, multimedia is promising and delivering some very impressive results. Its application in specific industry segments, like oil and gas, is expected to proliferate within the very near future. In fact, many titles are already on the market or in development. The objective of this article is to present an overview of the current state of multimedia as used in petroleum industry training and to provide managers with a feel for not only the technology but, more importantly, what benefit the technology is expected to bring to their organization.

  8. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  9. New Skills for an Old Industry: Transforming the Oil Industry in a Former Soviet Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Explains how the existing workforce in Kazakhstan's oil industry is being upgraded in skills, knowledge, and competencies to bring them up to the standards of the West. Discusses the design phase, including career development plans, training plans, and business plans; job ladders and specifications; assessing skill levels; and an…

  10. A guide for the gas and oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist those in the natural gas and oil industry who may not be familiar with how the Federal government, particularly the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department), does business with private sector companies. Basic information is provided on what DOE is trying to do, why it wants to work with the natural gas and oil industry, how it can work with companies, who to contact, and where to inquire for further information. This last item is noteworthy because it is important for users of this guide to be able to access information about subjects that may interest them. Selected other Federal agencies and their activities related to those of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (FE or Fossil Energy) also are included in this document as Appendix A. This guide provides an address and/or phone number for every topic covered to prevent any information impasse. If a question is not adequately answered by the guide, please do not hesitate to contact the appropriate person or office. It is hoped that the information provided in this guide will lead to a better understanding of the mission, roles, and procedures of DOE and result in more and better cooperative working relationships between the natural gas and oil industry and DOE. Such relationships will provide a significant benefit to our Nation`s economic, technological, and energy security.

  11. Possible link between interannual variation of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) abundance in the North Pacific and the climate phase shift in 1998/1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ichii, Taro; Sakai, Mitsuo; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Toyoda, Takahiro; Masuda, Shuhei; Sugiura, Nozomi; Mahapatra, Kedarnath; Awaji, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between interannual variation in abundance of the autumn cohort of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) and ocean environmental changes in the central North Pacific was examined. We focused on the change in subsurface ocean state during the 1998/1999 climate shift. Changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the neon flying squid derived from long-term driftnet survey was compared to that in ocean environments related to the feeding conditions of the squid. A four-dimensional variational (4D-VAR) ocean data assimilation product was used as an accurate estimate of the dynamic state in the North Pacific. Correlation analysis indicated that the squid CPUE was highly related with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in winter. In January, the correlation field with the entrainment rate (ENT), the proxy for the nutrient-rich water supply entering the mixed layer, showed a good agreement with the main spawning and nursery ground of the autumn cohort (MSNGAC). The nutrient-rich water supply in the MSNGAC in early winter was mainly induced by the deepening of the mixed layer forced by surface latent heat cooling and turbulent mixing, while the basin-scale wind stress curl and the horizontal advection were less affected. These results suggest that the amount of newly supplied nutrient-rich water mass in early winter could affect the primary productivity throughout the winter and the resultant feeding conditions of the juvenile squid. We assumed that this process would determine the stock levels of the neon flying squid in the following summer. We further attempted to reconstruct the changes in neon flying squid CPUE during 1994-2006 by applying regression analysis to several parameters. The result showed that ENT, surface and subsurface temperatures, and the PDO index in February were good predictors for estimating the squid CPUE time series. In addition, the subsurface temperature in the MSNGAC in the preceding autumn was also a good predictor

  12. Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system.

  13. Applications of Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded gas resources and to improve the drilling process and oil and gas production by making it easier to separate oil and gas in the reservoir. Nanotechnology can make the oil and gas industry considerably greener. There are numerous areas in which nanotechnology can contribute to more-efficient, less-expensive, and more-environmentally sound technologies than those that are readily available. We identified the following possibilities of nanotechnology in the petroleum industry: 1-Nanotechnology-enhanced materials that provide strength to increase performance in drilling, tubular goods, and rotating parts. 2- Designer properties to enhance hydro-phobic to enhance materials for water flooding applications. 3- Nano-particulate wetting carried out using molecular dynamics 4- Lightweight materials that reduce weight requirements on offshore platforms 5- Nano-sensors for improved temperature and pressure ratings 6- New imaging and computational techniques to allow better discovery, sizing, and characterization of reservoirs.

  14. NORM management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  15. Outlook for the Development of Oil and Gas Industry in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pham, V. A.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Oil and gas industry makes a significant contribution to Gross Domestic Product of Vietnam. In 2015 it appeared to be in an intricate situation under the conditions of fall in oil prices caused by excess of supply over demand in the oil market. On the one hand, low prices for oil enable Vietnam as an importer to purchase more oil in the world market. On the other hand, the state company PetroVietnam loses a part of its customers in the domestic market. This tendency can lead to stagnation of the oil and gas industry in Vietnam under weak oil prices if the government does not take timely action.

  16. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  17. Remote Sensing Application in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Oleg; Aloltsov, Alexander; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The main environmental problems of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (a federal subject of Russia) related to the activities of oil and gas industry (82 active companies which hold 77,000 oil wells). As on the 1st of January 2013 the subject produces more than 50% of all oil in Russia. The principle of environmental responsibility makes it necessary to minimize human impact and ecological impact. One of the most effective tools for environmental monitoring is remote sensing. The main advantages of such approach are: wide coverage of areas of interest, high temporal resolution, precise location, automatic processing, large set of extracted parameters, etc. Authorities of KhMAO are interested in regular detection of the impact on the environment by processing satellite data and plan to increase the coverage from 434.9 to 659.9 square kilometers with resolution not less than 10 m/pixel. Years of experience of our company shows the significant potential to expand the use of such remote sensing data in the solution of environmental problems. The main directions are: monitoring of rational use of associated petroleum gas (detection of all gas flares and volumes of burned gas), monitoring of soil pollution (detection of areas of oil pollution, assess of the extent of pollution, planning of reclamation activities and assessment of their efficiency, detection of potential areas of pipelines corrosion), monitoring of status of sludge pits (inventory of all sludge pits, assessment of their liquidation), monitoring of technogenic impact (detection of changes), upgrading of a geospatial database (topographic map of not less than 1:50000 scale). Implementation of modeling, extrapolation and remote analysis techniques based on satellite images will help to reduce unnecessary costs for instrumental methods. Thus, the introduction of effective remote monitoring technology to the activity of oil and gas companies promotes environmental responsibility of these companies.

  18. Withdrawal of 2016 Information Request for the Oil and Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is providing notice that it is withdrawing its requests that owners and operators in the oil and natural gas industry provide information on equipment and emissions at existing oil and gas operations.

  19. Determinants of Network News Coverage of the Oil Industry during the Late 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen; McMillan, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Examines which firms and products best predict media coverage of the oil industry. Reports that price variations in testing oil and gasoline correlate with the extent of news coverage provided by network television. (MM)

  20. Packaging design for the Greek olive oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouveli, A.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    Packaging is one of the most important elements that characterize product design. It does not only refer to the appearance of the product, that creates the first impression to the user, but it is a whole communication code. This has been identified by the enterprises involved and their competition is high. Nowadays, the most successful of them pay a great deal of attention on every day's trends concerning packaging design and try to apply these trends upon their own designs. The present paper describes the packaging design in today's industries and the existing trends. It will therefore reveal what makes a package design successful, from the company's perspective and how the company studies such factors in order to achieve the best result. Those factors and the research results are applied on the olive oil packaging industry, producing a final packaging design solution.

  1. Industrial hygiene sampling at Rio Blanco oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, M.; Garcia, L.L.; Vigil, E.A.; Royer, G.W.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-02-01

    The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC) facility, in its early stages of development, provided the unique opportunity to sample a Modified In-Situ (MIS) operation during the preparation phase of the first retort, during pyrolysis, and during preparation of a subsequent retort. Industrial hygiene measurements were made in the lowest (G) level (835 feet) of the mine, prior to and during the first 30 days of the Retort Zero burn. These measurements were designed to define and characterize potential inhalation exposures associated with the MIS shale oil recovery process. This information, along with bulk samples of oil shale materials and products, was provided for use in laboratory toxicological studies. Gas and vapor samples of the compounds of interest were all much below threshold limit values (TLV) both before and after retort zero ignition although slightly elevated after ignition. Airborne dust concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 mg/m/sup 3/ at sizes of 0.3- to 5.2-..mu..m mass median aerodynamic diameter and alpha quartz content ranged from 1.1 to 4.4 percent. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons were found in relatively low concentrations with the anthracene/phenanthrene mixture at the highest level of 0.6 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The wetness and ventilation in this mine apparently helped control airborne contaminant concentrations below their TLV values.

  2. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  3. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  4. Computational sciences in the upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Thomas C

    2016-10-13

    The predominant technical challenge of the upstream oil and gas industry has always been the fundamental uncertainty of the subsurface from which it produces hydrocarbon fluids. The subsurface can be detected remotely by, for example, seismic waves, or it can be penetrated and studied in the extremely limited vicinity of wells. Inevitably, a great deal of uncertainty remains. Computational sciences have been a key avenue to reduce and manage this uncertainty. In this review, we discuss at a relatively non-technical level the current state of three applications of computational sciences in the industry. The first of these is seismic imaging, which is currently being revolutionized by the emergence of full wavefield inversion, enabled by algorithmic advances and petascale computing. The second is reservoir simulation, also being advanced through the use of modern highly parallel computing architectures. Finally, we comment on the role of data analytics in the upstream industry.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'.

  5. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  6. Industry disputes administration report on oil and gas leasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Despite the Obama administration's efforts to make millions of acres of public lands available for oil and gas development, most of the acreage onshore and offshore of the contiguous United States remains idle, according to “Oil and gas lease utilization, onshore and offshore,” a 15 May report issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The report, which is being disputed by industry representatives, notes that 72% of the nearly 36 million leased offshore acres currently are inactive and that 50.6% of onshore leased acres (about 20.8 million acres) also are idle. “As part of the Obama administration's all-of- the-above energy strategy, we continue to make millions of acres of public lands available for safe and responsible domestic energy production on public lands and in federal waters,” said DOI secretary Ken Salazar. “These lands and waters belong to the American people, and they expect those energy supplies to be developed in a timely and responsible manner and with a fair return to taxpayers. We will continue to encourage companies to diligently bring production online quickly and safely on public lands already under lease.”

  7. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  8. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN-2050-AE78 Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials..., ``Regulation of Oil-Bearing ] Hazardous Secondary Materials from the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a... reconsider the final rule, ``Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials from the...

  9. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  10. 1998-1999 Patterns of Care Study process survey of national practice patterns using breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy in the management of Stage I-II breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Moughan, Jennifer; White, Julia; Winchester, David P.; Owen, Jean; Wilson, J. Frank

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: The Patterns of Care Study survey process evaluation has been an effective means of assessing the evaluation and treatment practices used by radiation oncologists in the United States for Stage I-II breast cancer. The current 1998-1999 report updates the previous 1989 and 1993-1994 analyses and reflects the recent changes in surgery and systemic therapy observed nationally in the management of early-stage disease. Methods and Materials: A weighted sample size of 71,877 patient records of women treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (RT) was obtained from a stratified two-stage sampling of 353 patient records. These cases were centrally reviewed from academic and private radiation oncology practices across the United States. The data collected included patient characteristics, clinical and pathologic factors, and surgical and RT details. The results were compared with those of previous Patterns of Care Study survey reports. Results: Of the patients in the current survey, 97% had undergone mammography before biopsy. A review of the primary tumor pathologic findings indicated improved quantification of an intraductal component from 7.0% in 1993-1994 to 20.4% in 1998-1999 (p = 0.01). The tumor characteristics were better defined, with estrogen and progesterone receptor measurement performed in 91.4% and 91.3% in the 1998-1999 survey vs. 83.7% and 80.3% in the 1989 survey, respectively (p = 0.03 and p = 0.002, respectively). Axillary dissection was performed in 82.2% in the present survey compared with 93.6% in the 1993-1994 survey (p = 0.0004); sentinel node biopsy was performed in 20.1% of the present cases. The use of CT for planning was increased in the current survey, with 22.9% cases CT planned vs. 9% in 1993-1994 (p = 0.10). In the present survey, 100% had received whole breast RT. When a supraclavicular field was added, the dose was prescribed to a specified depth in 67.5% of cases, most commonly 3 cm. When an axillary field was added

  11. Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.

    PubMed

    Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively.

  12. Case studies utilizing mobile on-site recycling of industrial oils for immediate reapplication{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.; Skidd, C.

    1995-09-01

    Since the early 1970s industrial oil users have sought effective and cost efficient methods of reducing the quantity of used oil entering our nations waste streams. Driven by environmental legislation and the ever growing cost and liability related to the handling and disposal of used oils, waste minimization has become the watchword of our times. Today`s industry is determined to eliminate waste by finding new methods to extend the useful life of their operating oils and fluids. The authors have seen the growth of a new service industry devoted to dealing with the complex problems of oil reclamation. Among these service organizations is a growing number of {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} mobile oil recycling companies. On-site services offer greater flexibility, speed and immediate emergency assistance. Additionally, they provide their clients with a high degree of environmental control. A physical analysis of recycled oil is given, showing the properties of viscosity, water content, and particle cleanliness for recycled oil approaches that of new oil. Outsourcing of fluids recycling via a mobile service provider has proven to be a cost effective and efficient means of extending the useful life of industrial fluids, while eliminating much of the cost and environmental concern related to used oil disposal. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. 77 FR 61026 - Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries AGENCY...-537, Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. DATES... commercial olive oil industry in the United States and major supplier countries, including production...

  14. Integration of geoscience and engineering in the oil industry - just a dream?

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, B Artur

    2003-11-20

    The past two decades of the twentieth century have been very 'rocky' for the oil industry, as shown by the overall negative perception of the oil companies by the general public. Fluctuating oil prices, many rounds of staff redundancies, environmental disasters and budget cuts supported the overall image of the oil industry as being 'the technology impaired and environmentally insensible giant'. But advances and positive changes have been quietly happening in most of the oil companies. In the twenty-first century, we will witness the metamorphosis of the oil and gas companies into energy businesses - the era of cleaner and safer oil and gas production, and alternative energy resources such as wind, solar and hydrogen is already underway.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  16. Analyzing the oil refining industry in developing countries: A comparative study of China and India

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, F.C.

    1994-12-31

    The oil refining industry is a critical link in the energy chain in many developing and industrialized countries, transforming crude oil into transport fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel), residual fuel oil (widely used as a fuel in industry and the electric power sector), and other products such as kerosine, frequently for lighting an cooking usages. Three to four decades ago, the demand for oil products in most developing countries was centered to a few large cities; thus, few refineries were built in these regions. But because of the astonishing economic growth in many developing nations, demand for oil products has increased rapidly. As a result, the refining industry has expanded rapidly in such countries, even in cases were there is no domestic crude oil production. Oil product demand and refinery expansion in Asian developing countries in particular have experienced significant growth. Between 1976 and 1993, oil product demand and refinery capacity in that region (excluding Japan) increased annually an average of 5.2 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively, whereas the comparable figures for the world as a whole remained virtually unchanged during the same period. The substantial gains in Asia`s crude oil production in the 1970s is believed to have facilitated this refinery expansion.

  17. Development of ultra-high erucic acid oil in the industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; van Loo, Eibertus N; Gruber, Jens; Fan, Jing; Guan, Rui; Frentzen, Margrit; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2012-09-01

    Erucic acid (22 : 1) is a major feedstock for the oleochemical industry. In this study, a gene stacking strategy was employed to develop transgenic Crambe abyssinica lines with increased 22 : 1 levels. Through integration of the LdLPAAT, BnFAE1 and CaFAD2-RNAi genes into the crambe genome, confirmed by Southern blot and qRT-PCR, the average levels of 18 : 1, 18 : 2 and 18 : 3 were markedly decreased and that of 22 : 1 was increased from 60% in the wild type to 73% in the best transgenic line of T4 generation. In single seeds of the same line, the 22 : 1 level could reach 76.9%, an increase of 28.0% over the wild type. The trierucin amount was positively correlated to 22 : 1 in the transgenic lines. Unlike high erucic rapeseed, the wild-type crambe contains 22 : 1 in the seed phosphatidylcholine and in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (5% and 8%, respectively). The transgenic line with high 22 : 1 had decreased 22 : 1 level in phosphatidylcholine, and this was negatively correlated with the 22 : 1 level at the sn-2 position of TAG. The significances of this study include (i) achieving an unprecedented level of 22 : 1 in an oil crop; (ii) disclosing mechanisms in the channelling of a triacylglycerol-specific unusual fatty acid in oil seeds; (iii) indicating potential limiting factors involved in the erucic acid biosynthesis and paving the way for further increase of this acid and (iv) development of an added value genetically modified oil crop having no risk of gene flow into feed and food crops.

  18. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  19. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 3. Causes of death of Scottish oil shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Cowie, H.; Middleton, W.G.; Seaton, A.

    1985-05-01

    The hazards of the Scottish oil shale industry are reported in three volumes. This volume addresses the cause of death for personnel in the oil shale industry. Skin cancer deaths showed a hazard significantly greater than unity. In comparing oil shale workers mortality with that of the population of 2 counties, an increase in death from bronchitis and emphysema was demonstrated. Comparisons of mortality within the study group to determine if any particular jobs in the industry were more hazardous than others showed no significant associations. There appeared to be a slight excess of prostrate cancer among retort workers. In a case-control study, no significant increase in relative hazard of lung cancer was found in association with workers or residents in areas of high shale activity. 21 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs. (DMC)

  20. The Mexican Oil Industry: Governance, Resource and Social Concerns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    Accessed October 16, 2011) 2 Ibid 3 Ignacio Quesada Morales, “ Pemex Business Strategy”, March 2011, http://contratos.pemex.com/portal/files/content...production, refining, etc. 10 That same year, Petroleos Mexicanos, or Pemex , the state owned oil company was created. 11 In 1940, a constitutional...JubaksJournal/TheOilSqueezeHasJustBegun.aspx?page=2 (Accessed October 14, 2011) 15 Jesse Bogan, “With Easy Oil Gone, Pemex Sobers Up”, Forbes, May 7, 2009

  1. Fatty acid profile of 25 plant oils and implications for industrial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of plant oils extracted from twenty-five alternative feedstocks were determined. This information was utilized to determine what industrial application(s) each oil is best suited for. The basis for the selection was the premise that FA composition influences properties o...

  2. Competency Based Education Curriculum for the Orientation and Safety Program of the Oil and Gas Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Career Center, Clarksburg, WV.

    This competency-based education curriculum for teaching the orientation and safety program for the oil and gas industry in West Virginia is organized into seven units. These units cover the following topics: introduction to oil and gas, first aid, site preparation, drilling operations, equipment familiarity, well completion, and preparation for…

  3. Oil industry and road traffic fatalities in contemporary Colombia.

    PubMed

    Tasciotti, Luca; Alejo, Didier; Romero, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the effects that oil extraction activities in Colombia have on the number of dead/injured people as a consequence of road-related accidents. Starting in 2004, the increasing exploitation of oil wells in some Colombian departments has worsened the traffic conditions due to the increased presence of trucks transporting crude oil from the wells to the refineries; this phenomenon has not been accompanied by an improvement in the road system with dramatic consequences in terms of road viability. The descriptive and empirical analysis presented here focuses on the period 2004-2011; results from descriptive statistics indicate a positive relationship between the presence of oil extraction activities and the number of either dead/injured people. Panel regressions for the period 2004-2011 confirm that, among other factors, the presence of oil-extraction activities did play a positive and statistical significant role in increasing the number of dead/injured people.

  4. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  5. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    PubMed

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-07-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  6. Real time EM waves monitoring system for oil industry three phase flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hajeri, S.; Wylie, S. R.; Shaw, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring fluid flow in a dynamic pipeline is a significant problem in the oil industry. In order to manage oil field wells efficiently, the oil industry requires accurate on line sensors to monitor the oil, gas, and water flow in the production pipelines. This paper describes a non-intrusive sensor that is based on an EM Waves cavity resonator. It determines and monitors the percentage volumes of each phase of three phase (oil, gas, and water) in the pipeline, using the resonant frequencies shifts that occur within an electromagnetic cavity resonator. A laboratory prototype version of the sensor system was constructed, and the experimental results were compared to the simulation results which were obtained by the use of High Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS) software package.

  7. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rita de Cássia F. S.; Almeida, Darne G.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills. PMID:25029542

  8. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

  9. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    SciTech Connect

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  10. [Outlook for 1997 in the global oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This section contains 4 small articles which deal with the global outlook on the following: worldwide drilling (Middle East leads the charge); offshore drilling (US Gulf remains hot); worldwide oil production (Producers meet the challenge); and the Canadian outlook (Canada prepares for another brisk year by Hans Maciej). Tables are provided for the 1997 forecast of drilling outside the US, the 1997 forecast of offshore drilling worldwide, world crude oil/condensate production by country in 1995 and 1996, and Canadian drilling forecasts.

  11. The impact of internet-connected control systems on the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Ruth T.

    In industry and infrastructure today, communication is a way of life. In the oil and gas industry, the use of devices that communicate with the network at large is both commonplace and expected. Unfortunately, security on these devices is not always best. Many industrial control devices originate from legacy devices not originally configured with security in mind. All infrastructure and industry today has seen an increase in attacks on their networks and in some cases, a very dramatic increase, which should be a cause for alarm and action. The purpose of this research was to highlight the threat that Internet-connected devices present to an organization's network in the oil and gas industry and ultimately, to the business and possibly even human life. Although there are several previous studies that highlight the problem of these Internet-connected devices, there remains evidence that security response has not been adequate. The analysis conducted on only one easily discovered device serves as an example of the ongoing issue of the security mindset in the oil and gas industry. The ability to connect to a network through an Internet-connected device gives a hacker an anonymous backdoor to do great damage in that network. The hope is that the approach to security in infrastructure and especially the oil and gas industry, changes before a major catastrophe occurs involving human life.

  12. Progress in modification of sunflower oil to expand its industrial value.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Saeed; Jamil, Nazia; Tariq, Sultan Ali; Khan, Maria; Kausar, Maria; Kaya, Yalcin

    2017-01-17

    Increasing the sunflower seed oil content as well as improving its quality makes it compatible for industrial demands. This is an important breeding objective of sunflower which increases its market value and ensures high returns for the producers. The present review focuses on determining the progress of improving sunflower seed oil content and modifying its quality by empirical and advanced molecular breeding methods. It is known that the sunflower oil content and quality have been altered through empirical selection methods and mutation breeding programmes in various parts of the world. Further improvement in seed oil content and its components (such as phytosterols, tocopherols and modified fatty acid profile) has been slowed down due to low genetic variation in elite germplasm and complex of hereditary traits. Introgression from wild species can be carried out to modify the fatty acids profile and tocopherol contents with linkage drags. Different transgenes introduced through biotechnological methods may produce novel long-chain fatty acids within sunflower oil. Bio-engineering of sunflower oil could allow it to be used in diverse industrial products such as bio-diesel or bio-plastics. These results showed that past and current trends of modifying sunflower oil quality are essential for its further expansion as an oilseed crop. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  14. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  15. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, T.; Bird, G.; Wallace, D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  16. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  18. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, T.; Lim, F. K. S.; Lee, J. S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land. PMID:27853605

  19. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    PubMed

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  20. Program of mining research, 1998--1999

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The paper contains: Reflections on 1998; Project summaries; Noise; Injury prevention, ergonomics, and human factors; Surface, sand and gravel, and stone mines; Hazard detection and warning devices; Ground control -- metal/nonmetal mines; Ground control -- coal mines; Explosion and fire detection and suppression; Methane detection; Electrical hazards; Emerging technologies; Surveillance; Construction; Training and education; and Communication activity.

  1. Infants and Toddlers, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four issues in the second volume of a quarterly journal for parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The May 1998 issue contains an article on Treasure Baskets which are designed for non-mobile babies who can sit up, an article discussing the personal growth of a Montessori teacher who became…

  2. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Sandy, Ed.; Norem, Ken, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "Alabama Counseling Association Journal" that make up volume 24. Articles in Issue 1 include: (1) "Learning Comes in Many Forms" (Holly Forester-Miller); (2) "Legislative, Legal, and Sociological Aspects of Alabama's Mental Health System" (David Gamble; Jamie S.…

  3. English Leadership Quarterly, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This journal, a publication of the National Council of Teachers of English Conference on English Leadership, publishes articles on topics of interest to those in positions of leadership in departments (elementary, secondary, or college) where English is taught. Articles in Volume 21, Number 1, August 1998 are: "Problem-Based Leadership: A…

  4. Financing Education in Minnesota, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota House of Representatives, St. Paul. Research Dept.

    This report provides an overview of educational financing in Minnesota. It describes how support for elementary and secondary education in the state comes through a combination of state-collected taxes and locally controlled property taxes. Revenue to the school districts is received in three major categories: state education-finance…

  5. Environmental Education Activities & Programs 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Denver, CO.

    This document features descriptions of interactive learning models and presentations in environmental education concerning groundwater, geology, the environment, weather, water activities, and interactive games. Activities include: (1) GW-Standard; (2) GW-w/no Leaky Underground Storage Tank (No UST); (3) GW-Karst; (4) GW-Landfill Models--Standard…

  6. Speak Out for Children, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the three issues of Volume 13 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1998 issue contains articles on joint custody and the reduction of parental conflict, access grant programs,…

  7. The structure of the international oil industry in the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Luciani, G.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis is given of the strategy of international oil companies in relation to the Arab world since the momentous changes in their respective positions in the 1970s and the policies of oil importing countries, including the limits of ''government to government'' deals. On this basis of this analysis, the author constructs alternative scenarios on the evolution of the industry that are based on further disintegration or reintegration. In the case of reintegration, he offers an in-depth definition of its political and strategic implications for OPEC, the relations between oil exporters and importers, and relations among the U.S., Europe, and the Arab world.

  8. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    PubMed

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  9. Radon concentrations in Algerian oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Hamlat, M S; Kadi, H; Djeffal, S; Brahimi, H

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of 222Rn in produced water, crude oil, natural gas (NG) and natural gas liquids (NGL) in on-shore Algeria were measured using scintillation cell techniques (Lucas cells) and electret ion chamber (EIC). The first method, active, is based on the use of a Lucas-type scintillation chamber in conjunction with a portable monitor (model Pylon AB-5); the second method, passive, using an EIC with a 4 l glass analysis bottle. The activities of 222Rn were in the range of 0.98-18.50 Bq/l for produced water, 0.02-0.3 Bq/g for crude oil, 40-1000 Bq/m(3) for NG and 300-2500 Bq/m(3) for NGL, respectively. These values are compared with concentrations reported for other countries.

  10. The influence of nitrate on microbial processes in oil industry production waters.

    PubMed

    Davidova, I; Hicks, M S; Fedorak, P M; Suflita, J M

    2001-08-01

    Sulfide accumulation due to bacterial sulfate reduction is responsible for a number of serious problems in the oil industry. Among the strategies to control the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is the use of nitrate, which can exhibit a variety of effects. We investigated the relevance of this approach to souring oil fields in Oklahoma and Alberta in which water flooding is used to enhance oil recovery. SRB and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) were enumerated in produced waters from both oil fields. In the Oklahoma field, the rates of sulfate reduction ranged from 0.05 to 0.16 microM S day(-1) at the wellheads, and an order of magnitude higher at the oil-water separator. Sulfide production was greatest in the water storage tanks in the Alberta field. Microbial counts alone did not accurately reflect the potential for microbial activities. The majority of the sulfide production appeared to occur after the oil was pumped aboveground, rather than in the reservoir. Laboratory experiments showed that adding 5 and 10 mM nitrate to produced waters from the Oklahoma and Alberta oil fields, respectively, decreased the sulfide content to negligible levels and increased the numbers of NRB. This work suggests that sulfate reduction control measures can be concentrated on aboveground facilities, which will decrease the amount of sulfide reinjected into reservoirs during the disposal of oil field production waters.

  11. Environmental Conservation. The Oil and Gas Industries, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC.

    Prepared in response to a Department of the Interior request, this report is a comprehensive study of environmental conservation problems as they relate to or have impact on the petroleum industry. It contains the general comments and conclusions of The National Petroleum Council based on an analysis of detailed data. For presentation of key…

  12. Fire Prevention and Control Training in the Oil Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edney, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Training for fire prevention and control in the petroleum industry is vital for all personnel, clerical and management as well as operators, maintenance men, and drivers. Basic training practices in Britain stressing safety, vigilance, preparation, and realistic exercises are described. (MF)

  13. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  14. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example.

  15. Technological properties of amazonian oils and fats and their applications in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Carolina Vieira; Rodrigues, Antonio Manoel da Cruz; de Oliveira, Pedro Danilo; da Silva, Dayala Albuquerque; da Silva, Luiza Helena Meller

    2017-04-15

    The application of lipids to food production is dependent on their physical, chemical, and nutritional properties. In this study, pracaxi oil, passion fruit oil, cupuassu fat, and palm stearin underwent physicochemical analyses and were combined at ratios of 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30 to assess their potential applications in the food industry. Pracaxi oil, passion fruit oil, and cupuassu fat had interesting fatty acid profiles from a nutritional standpoint, displaying the lowest atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices (0.02 and 0.14; 0.12 and 0.34; 0.16 and 0.65), respectively. Palm stearin had high thermal stability (7.23h). The primary applications of the blends obtained in this study are in table and functional margarine, particularly the pracaxi-stearin and passion fruit-stearin 40:60 and 50:50, pracaxi-cupuassu 60:40 and 70:30, and passion fruit-cupuassu 40:60 blends. The results suggest new industrial applications, especially for pracaxi and passion fruit oils, which are commonly applied in the cosmetic industry.

  16. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  17. Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M

    1992-01-01

    A worker in the rubber tyre industry is described with occupational asthma from exposure to a solution of tall oil, a pine resin, confirmed by specific inhalation challenge. This supports studies of contact dermatitis which have suggested abietic and dehydroabietic acid oxidants to be the cause of colophony induced allergic reactions.

  18. Working in verticalized platform vessel: an ergonomic approach in the oil industry.

    PubMed

    Garotti, Luciano; Mascia, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we point some aspects of workers activities in offshore units in the oil industry. These units became more verticalized and have a greater number of operating systems. Our goal is to present the main difficulties that workers face in these units.

  19. The Environmental Education Voice of the Oil and Forest Industries, 1958-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Nancy; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reported is the analysis of a stratified random sample of oil and forestry industry advertisements in selected magazines over a 20-year period. The objective of the research was to characterize the tenor of the imparted environmental messages and trends. (RE)

  20. [Evaluating efficiency of influenza vaccinal prevention among oil and gas industry workers].

    PubMed

    Bulanov, V E; Ivanov, A V; Shostak, G R

    2013-01-01

    Explore information about the incidence of employees of enterprises of the oil and gas industry with the influenza (SARS). The degree of influence of vaccination on the incidence of influenza, the number and structure of complications as a result of vaccination and their impact on efficiency. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of vaccination.

  1. The Impact of Post-Training on Job Performance in Nigera's Oil Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibieyi, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The Nigeria's oil industry has been criticized for some time now for its inability to render adequate services to the general public. This criticism is predicated on the fact that the standards of productivity in their services are low and that their facilities (i.e. the refineries) are not working up to capacity. This is evident in their…

  2. Engineering industrial oil biosynthesis: cloning and characterization of Kennedy pathway acyltransferases from novel oilseed species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, various industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories have developed and refined genetic engineering strategies aimed at manipulating lipid metabolism in plants and microbes. The goal of these projects is to produce renewable specialized oils that can effectively c...

  3. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  4. Broken trusts: The Texas Attorney General versus the oil industry, 1889-1909

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Jonathan Whitney

    The legal history of state antitrust enforcement and the oil industry in Texas illustrates how and why antitrust law contemplated complementary enforcement at the state and federal government level. Historians, economists, and lawyers have concentrated on federal antitrust law and enforcement, ignoring state efforts. Yet for most of the first twenty-five years following the enactment of the Sherman Antitrust Act, federal enforcement efforts were extremely limited, leaving the field to the states. Texas was one of several states that had strong antitrust laws, and whose attorneys general prosecuted antitrust violations with vigor. Political ambition was a factor in the decisions to investigate and prosecute cases against a highly visible target, the petroleum industry, but there was also a genuine belief in the goals of antitrust policy, and in the efficacy of enforcement of the laws. Enforcement efforts were also complicated by the fact that large oil companies provided vital commodities, articles of "prime necessity," to the citizens of Texas and following the discovery of large oil fields, played an increasingly important role in the economies of many Texas communities. The Texas Attorney General's antitrust enforcement efforts against the oil industry in this time of transition from an agricultural society to an industrial society provide insights into the litigation process, and reveal how well the rhetoric of trust-busting fit with the reality of antitrust enforcement. The antitrust crusade against the petroleum industry also highlights the changing roles of state government in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, particularly the Attorney General's Department. The experience of Texas undermines the view that federal action has always dominated antitrust enforcement efforts and that antitrust litigation against Standard Oil was ineffective and ineffectual. Rather, the Texas Attorney General's litigations and their results suggest that some states

  5. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    PubMed

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  6. Market entry mode and competency building of Western oil companies in the Russian up stream oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Paul M.

    This dissertation investigated the market entry and competency building strategies within the context of the Russian oil and gas industry. The study was designed to be of interest to business practitioners and academics given the growing importance of fossil fuel in the energy balance of the global economy and the importance of Russia as a supplier and purchaser in the international market. The study's mixed methodology provides an understanding on the environmental factors that are postulated to impact foreign direct investment flow into Russia and the oil and gas sector. A case study of a fictitiously named Western-Russo oil company was conducted to provide a deep understanding of how capability is viewed by Russian and Western employees and the factors that influences the implementation of a successful competency development program. The case was centered on the development of a Well-Site supervisor group within a Western-Russian oil company. Findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between corruption and foreign direct investment inflow into the Russian economy. The findings also showed that both Russian and Western employees in the oil and gas industry are less focused on nontechnical competency development issues, that Western employees are more orientated towards the bottom-line than Russian employees, and that both groups see operational management as a core competency. In the area of financial management and technology application, there were significant differences in the viewpoint of both groups. Western employees saw a stronger need for financial management and less need for technology application when compared to their Russian counterparts. The results have implications for Western business contemplating entering the Russian oil and gas industry. Western firms need to understand the key drivers that will help them overcome the social and cultural barriers between Western and Russian employees. The role of the company leader is very

  7. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters.

  8. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  9. The Oil Industries Fake Abundance Story: Is Distortion of the Truth Ever Appropriate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The oil industries and their cornucopian supporters (press, politicians, energy agencies) promote the story that in the oil is abundant and oil production will increase. The reality is that 1) World crude oil production has been on a plateau since 2005, in spite of new technology (fracking), record high prices (Brent Oil > 100 per barrel) and record spending on exploration and development (5.4 trillion over the past six years) and 2) The price of oil has risen steadily from 1999 to present. Typically when commodities are abundant the price tends to fall. How is this reality being distorted? 1) Resources are being equated with reserves (both are amounts), neither of which can be equated with each other or with production (a rate). 2) Crude oil (the price or which is rigorously defined by API density) has been redefined as total liquids, which includes substances (lease condensates, natural gas liquids, biofuels, refinery gains) which can not be used in the same way oil is or sold for the same price as oil. If what you are selling cannot be sold on the world market as crude oil, then it is not crude oil. 3) The demand for oil remains high, but World production is stagnant and World net-export production has been decreasing since 2005. Thus the price remains high and will only increase in the future. Growth in Global GDP is impacted by high-priced oil. How do you know unethical behavior when you see it? It has to do with intentionality and motivation. "Advocacy science" often reports data to support their cause. Is that unethical? Where is the divide between being an "Issue Advocate" and "Advocacy Science"? If data are reported poorly, is it unethical or just "bad science"? Do the same ethical standards apply to businesses (when profits are involved) and politicians (when elections are at stake)? Why would the definition of oil include NGL, condensates and refinery gains if not trying to inflate the numbers. The standards should be the same, but when there are no

  10. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Luis F; Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol.

  11. Lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around all industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, P.; Thakrar, B.; Walls, P.; Landon, M.; Falconer, S.; Grundy, C.; Elliott, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain after recent public and scientific concern of possible carcinogenic hazards of emissions from the petrochemical industry. METHODS: Small area study of the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies, 1974-91, within 7.5 km of all 11 oil refineries (grouped into seven sites) in Great Britain that were operational by the early 1970s and processed more than two million tonnes of crude oil in 1993. RESULTS: Combined analysis of data from all seven sites showed no significant (p < 0.05) increase in risk of these malignancies within 2 km or 7.5 km. Hodgkin's lymphoma, but no other malignancy, showed evidence (p = 0.02) of a decline in risk with distance from refineries, but there was an apparent deficit of cases of multiple myeloma near the refineries (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of association between residence near oil refineries and leukaemias, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A weak positive association was found between risk of Hodgkin's disease and proximity to major petrochemical industry, and a negative association with multiple myeloma, which may be chance findings within the context of multiple statistical testing.   PMID:10615289

  12. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  13. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Walid; Alkamali, Abdulqader

    2005-04-11

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This paper discusses the types, amounts, generation units, and the factors related to solid waste generation from a major oil and gas field in the United Arab Emirates (Asab Field). The generated amounts are calculated based on a 1-year data collection survey and using a database software specially developed and customized for the current study. The average annual amount of total solid waste generated in the studied field is estimated at 4061 t. Such amount is found equivalent to 650 kg/capita, 0.37 kg/barrel oil, and 1.6 kg/m3 of extracted gas. The average annual amount of hazardous solid waste is estimated at 55 t and most of which (73%) is found to be generated from gas extraction-related activities. The majority of other industrial non-hazardous solid waste is generated from oil production-related activities (41%), The present analysis does also provide the estimated generation amounts per waste type and class, amounts of combustible, recyclable, and compostable wastes, and the amounts dumped in uncontrolled way as well as disposed into special hazardous landfill facilities. The results should help the decision makers in evaluating the best alternatives available to manage the solid wastes generated from the oil and gas industries.

  14. Synthetic drilling fluids - a pollution prevention opportunity for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Burke, C.J.; Moses, D.O.

    1995-12-31

    Offshore oil and gas operators use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as {open_quotes}muds,{close_quotes} to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  15. An electromagnetic cavity sensor for multiphase measurement in the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hajeri, S.; Wylie, S. R.; Stuart, R. A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2007-07-01

    The oil and gas industry require accurate sensors to monitor fluid flow in pipelines in order to manage wells efficiently. The sensor described in this paper uses the different relative permittivity values for the three phases: oil, gas and water to help determine the fraction of each phase in the pipeline, by monitoring the resonant frequencies that occur within an electromagnetic cavity. The sensor has been designed to be non-intrusive. This is advantageous, as it will prevent the sensor being damaged by the flow through the pipeline and allow pigging, the technique used for cleaning rust and wax from the inside of the pipeline using blades or brushes.

  16. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  17. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production.

  18. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2011-04-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils.

  19. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  20. Value-added utilization of oil palm ash: a superior recycling of the industrial agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2009-12-30

    Concern about environmental protection has increased over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the infiltration of oil palm ash into the groundwater tables and aquifer systems which poses a potential risk and significant hazards towards the public health and ecosystems, remain an intricate challenge for the 21st century. With the revolution of biomass reutilization strategy, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of oil palm ash industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of oil palm ash in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy.

  1. Intensifying of the processes of mechanical separation of oil products from industrial waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kostova, I.

    1995-11-01

    The raised requirements for discharge of industrial effluents in the Black Sea and in the rivers lead to the development of more efficient technologies for additional treatment and improving the existing facilities. Pollutants with concentrations which are several times higher than the admissible rates according to the Bulgarian Standards, are found at many places along the Black Sea Coast. This is due to the imperfect construction of the water treatment facilities and their improper maintenance. Oil products are one of the main pollutants in water basins. The negative influence which they have on the ecological balance comes from the fact that they are among the most difficulty and slowly dissociating organic substances. They have negative impact on the physical and chemical qualities of water and obstruct the self-purification process disrupting its biological life. In this paper the opportunity to intensify the processes of mechanical separation of oil products from industrial waste water is discussed.

  2. Early considerations: NAFTA: Possible indications for Mexico's oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-20

    After rancorous debate in the US over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the treaty is scheduled to become effective January 1, 1994. The topic of energy was scarcely mentioned during all of the discussions because NAFTA is expected to have only a negligible effect on the US energy industry. But NAFTA is a trade agreement among three oil producers, and that is worth remembering. According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, the U.S. energy industry can expect marginal gains and a framework for future opportunities in Mexico's energy sector as NAFTA takes effect. In terms of energy, Mexico gains the most from NAFTA.

  3. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks.

  4. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    PubMed

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004).

  5. Prospects of Applying Vibration-Resistant Pressure Gauges in the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, S. P.; Cherentsov, D. A.; Gulyaev, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    The article presents justification for improving vibration protection of pressure gauges used in the oil and gas industry. A mathematical model of manometric tubular spring oscillations in a viscous medium is viewed. By the developed model, the authors have determined the impact of manometric spring geometric characteristics and damping fluid viscosity on oscillation attenuation parameters, as well as provided evaluation of the impact of the cross-sectional shape on the oscillation attenuation rate.

  6. Helicopter passenger survival suit standards in the UK offshore oil industry.

    PubMed

    Leese, W L; Norman, J N

    1979-02-01

    Special protective clothing for helicopter passengers in transit to and from installations in the U.K. offshore oil industry is considered essential. Such clothing is required to increase the survival chances in the unlikely event of a helicopter ditching. This paper discusses the nature of the threat to life in such an event and proposes standards for the specific protective clothing required to meet it. Test criteria are also outlined, to ensure that standards set are maintained.

  7. Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochefort, Line

    2013-04-01

    Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

  8. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained.

  9. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  10. Facilitating Oil Industry Access to Federal Lands through Interagency Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Jehn; Ben Grunewald

    2007-05-31

    Much of the environmental and technical data useful to the oil and gas industry and regulatory agencies is now contained in disparate state and federal databases. Delays in coordinating permit approvals between federal and state agencies translate into increased operational costs and stresses for the oil and gas industry. Making federal lease stipulation and area restriction data available on state agency Web sites will streamline a potential lessors review of available leases, encourage more active bidding on unleased federal lands, and give third-party operators independent access to data who otherwise may not have access to lease restrictions and other environmental data. As a requirement of the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of inventorying oil and natural gas resources beneath onshore federal lands and the extent and nature of any stipulation, restrictions, or impediments to the development of these resources. The EPCA Phase 1 Inventory resulted in a collection of GIS coverage files organized according to numerous lease stipulation reference codes. Meanwhile, state agencies also collect millions of data elements concerning oil and gas operations. Much of the oil and gas data nationwide is catalogued in the Ground Water Protection Council's (GWPC's) successfully completed Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS). The GWPC and the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Montana are implementing a pilot project where BLM lease stipulation data and RBDMS data will be displayed in a GIS format on the Internet. This increased access to data will increase bid activity, help expedite permitting, and encourage exploration on federal lands. Linking environmental, lease stipulation and resource inventory assessment data and making a GIS interface for the data available to industry and other agencies via the internet represents an important step in the GWPC strategy for all oil and gas regulatory e

  11. Effect of OPEC oil pricing on output, prices, and exchange rates in the United States and other industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisig, H.

    1981-01-01

    Following each major oil price increase, real gross national product (GNP) has fallen, unemployment and inflation have risen, and exchange rates have moved erratically. But how do oil price increases produce these effects. This paper discusses some of the macroeconomic consequences of too high and rising oil prices, and some of the policy options that might control these effects. It finds that the high and rising price of oil imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) burdens the industrial oil-importing countries in two ways. First, because total expenditures on oil rise relative to income, the potential real standard of living in oil-importing countries falls. Together, the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), for example, may have paid as much as $150 billion more for oil in 1979 than they would have paid in a competitive oil market. Second, the rising oil price increases unemployment and inflation in ways that are difficult for policymakers in oil-importing countries to manage; on the one hand, the rising oil price produces general inflation, and on the other hand, it depresses domestic demand and employment. Policymakers attempt to control part of the inflation, at the cost of increasing unemployment. The total loss in output from the 1974 to 1975 recession, though part of it may have followed from factors unrelated to oil, was about $350 billion.

  12. How a Physicist Can Add Value In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The talk will focus on some specific examples of innovative and fit-for-purpose physics applied to solve real-world oil and gas exploration and production problems. In addition, links will be made to some of the skills and areas of practical experience acquired in physics education and research that can prove invaluable for success in such an industrial setting with a rather distinct and unique culture and a highly-collaborative working style. The oil and gas industry is one of the largest and most geographically and organizationally diverse areas of business activity on earth; and as a `mature industry,' it is also characterized by a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21st. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To be successful at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most exotic or improbable technologies can take off in this industry if they honestly offer the best solution to a real problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. On the other hand, any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well would prevail, no matter how inelegant! The speaker started out in atomic spectroscopy (Harvard), post-doc'ed in laser cooling and trapping of ions for high-accuracy time and frequency metrology (NIST), and then jumped directly into Drilling Engineering with Schlumberger Corp. in Houston. Since then, his career has moved through applied electromagnetics, geological imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, some R and D portfolio

  13. Preventable disasters in the offshore oil industry: from Piper Alpha to Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article compares two industrial disasters in the offshore oil industry, the explosion and fire on Piper Alpha off the coast of Scotland in 1988, the world's worst offshore disaster, and the blowout and explosions on Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It attempts to answer a simple question: Given the enormity of the first tragedy and the careful analysis of its circumstances and causes, why were the lessons of previous failure not learned by this globally organized industry, in the very heartland in the United States? The answer tells us much about the ability of corporate capital to configure regulatory regimes in its own interests and to do so in a manner that continues to threaten the safety and well-being of its employees and the wider environment.

  14. Assessing drivers of export orientation in the subsea oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Aarstad, Jarle; Pettersen, Inger Beate; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short study was to identify the drivers of export orientation of firms in the subsea oil and gas industry in Western Norway. As the oil fields in the North Sea are approaching a stage of maturity, gaining knowledge of these drivers is crucial. An online survey was conducted of firms operating in the subsea oil and gas industry in the region. Consistent with previous research, the data reveal that product innovation and a majority share of international ownership increase firms' export rates. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes of subsea petroleum exports. The study moreover finds that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct exports than system providers, but international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors' export rates, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. A clear recommendation for managers and stakeholders is that they should encourage foreign investments throughout the value chain. The results of such a strategy appear to be especially positive for subcontractors.

  15. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  16. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  17. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  18. Subtask 1.23 - Mercury Removal from Barite the Oil Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holmes; Carolyn Nyberg; Katie Brandt; Kurt Eylands; Nathan Fiala; Grant Dunham

    2008-09-01

    Drilling muds are used by the oil and gas industry to provide a seal and to float rock chips to the surface during the drilling process. Barite (naturally occurring barium sulfate ore) is commonly used as a weighting agent additive in drilling muds because it is chemically nonreactive and has a high specific gravity (between 4.2 and 4.25 at 20 C). Because of environmental concerns, barite used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico must be certified to contain less than 1 mg/kg of mercury. Faced with these regulations, the U.S. Gulf Coast oil industry has looked to foreign sources of low-mercury barite, primarily India and China. These sources tend to have high-grade barite deposits and relatively inexpensive domestic transportation costs; as of late, however, U.S. purchasers have been forced to pay increasing costs for shipping to U.S. grinding plants. The objective of this project was to demonstrate two mercury removal techniques for high-mercury barite sources. Two barite samples of unique origins underwent processing to reduce mercury to required levels. The chemical treatment with dilute acid removed a portion of the mercury in both barite samples. The desired concentration of 1 mg/kg was achieved in both barite samples. An economic analysis indicates that thermal removal of mercury would not significantly add to the cost of barite processing, making higher-mercury barite a viable alternative to more expensive barite sources that contain lower concentrations of mercury.

  19. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  20. Precipitate containing norm in the oil industry: modelling and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Hamlat, M S; Kadi, H; Fellag, H

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the influence of factors that can affect the precipitate (scale) containing NORM (radium) in the oil industry is studied. From the experimental results, a mathematical model for calculating the precipitate is proposed. The statistical tests used to obtain this model show that precipitation: does not depend on the shaking velocity and contact time, depends on the temperature and mixing water ratio. Also, it depends on the interactions between temperature and mixing water ratio. The comparison of the experimental results and those obtained by the model appear to be in good agreement.

  1. [The preserving-health model of employees of oil and gas industry].

    PubMed

    Tsaĭzer, D V; Poteriaeva, E L; Antipov, S A

    2012-01-01

    The state of occupational health problem and occupational rate of accident in Russia has been studied. It has been set forward the innovation model of health care of employees in oil and gas industry based on integrated approach, which combines the medical examination practice, the objective appraisal of workplaces on working condition, use of new saving production technologies, providing the employees with the means of individual protection, teaching the personnel to occupational safety and health culture and the first medical aid. The received results approve the efficiency of application of this model.

  2. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  3. EPA compromises consistency in its coastal oil and gas industry cost-effectiveness analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis to estimate the cost of complying with each newly proposed set of industrial effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs). CE is defined as the incremental annualized cost of a pollution control option in an industry per incremental pound equivalent (PE) of pollutant removed annually by that control options. EPA`s guidelines for conducting the CE analysis require that all costs be expressed in 1981 dollars so that comparison to other industries can be done on a consistent basis. In the results of its CE analyses, EPA presents information showing $/PE values for all the industries for which it has done the CE analysis. These examples indicate that EPA is interested in maintaining consistency and comparability. EPA is not legally bound by the results of a CE analysis; however, if the $/PE for a proposed ELG is calculated to be significantly higher than the $/PEs for other comparable ELGs, EPA might reconsider its proposal. EPA`s approach of using an expanded pollutant list and revised weighting factors probably generates a more accurate estimate of the PEs removed for the coastal oil and gas industry, but in doing so, EPA loses the ability to equitably compare this CE analysis to the CE analyses that have been done for other industries. This shortcoming is particularly obvious since the offshore Ce analysis, evaluating a nearly identical waste stream, was completed just two years earlier. Given EPA`s concern over consistency and comparability to other industries, it may be appropriate to modify this approach for the coastal CE analysis. Another alternative that would allow EPA to reflect the newest toxicological information and still preserve consistency and comparability would be to recalculate all earlier CE analyses whenever new weighting factors are developed.

  4. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine L; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research.

  5. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christine L.; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research. PMID:25558125

  6. A speculative look at the future of the American Petroleum Industry based on a full-cycle analysis of the American Whale Oil Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    A full-cycle, industry-scale look at the American whaling industry of the 19th century suggests a number of comparisons with the American petroleum industry of the 20th century. Using the King Hubbert production profile for extraction industries as a guide, both industries show a similar business life span. An understanding of the history of American whaling will, perhaps, gives us a more complete understanding of the history of the American petroleum industry. The rise of the American whaling industry to the premier investment opportunity of its day is little known to most in today`s oil and gas industry. Yet, we all know that abundant and inexpensive crude oil was a key factor in its demise. From a careful study of the history of the American whaling industry a set of factors (or stages of transition), common to similar extraction industries, can be developed, which may help investors and workers determine the state of health of our industry: (1) defection of highly skilled personnel to other, comparable, technical industries; (2) discovery and initial development of a replacement commodity; (3) major calamity, which adversely affects the industry in terms of significant loss of working capital and/or resources; (4) loss of sufficient investment capital to continue resource addition; (5) rapid development of a replacement commodity with attendant decrease in per unit price to a position lower than the primary commodity; (6) significant loss of market share by the primary commodity; and (7) end of the primary commodity as a major economic force.

  7. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  8. Magnetotactic bacteria in microcosms originating from the French Mediterranean Coast subjected to oil industry activities.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Tapia, Nicolas; Bernadac, Alain; Joseph, Manon; Davidson, Sylvain; Wu, Long-Fei; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize nanosized magnetite or greigite crystals within cells and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical process. Despite decades of research, knowledge of MTB distribution and ecology, notably in areas subjected to oil industry activities, is still limited. In the present study, we investigated the presence of MTB in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast, which is subjected to intensive oil industry activities. Microcosms containing sediments/water (1:2, v/v) from several sampling sites were monitored over several weeks. The presence of MTB was revealed in five of eight sites. Diverse and numerous MTB were revealed particularly from one site (named CAR), whilst temporal variations of a homogenous magnetotactic cocci population was shown within the LAV site microcosm over a 4-month period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, and a novel genus from the LAV site was evidenced. Among the physicochemical parameters measured, a correlation was shown between the variation of MTB abundance in microcosms and the redox state of sulphur compounds.

  9. GIS and visualization: Environmental applications for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, S.R.J.; Rubertis, C. de

    1995-04-01

    As practitioners in the imperfect world of environmental and engineering studies, we see the current pace of rapid change in computer applications to our business as an opportunity to improve our more basic skills, rather than necessarily adopting whatever is the latest and greatest. In the oil and gas industry, for example, there have long been centers of computing excellence and sophistication, in areas such as remote sensing, exploration geology and process engineering. However, a wide suite of newly available, simple PC-based tools offer to revolutionize our routine work across the disciplines, and democratize what was hitherto the domain of the advanced computer specialist. Appropriately applied, such systems can vastly improve our efficiency and communications abilities. This paper suggests ways in which basic, low-cost computer tools such as user-friendly GIS and 3-D data visualization, can benefit a wide variety of applications, through examples and case studies drawn primarily from the oil and gas industry. These include: (1) facility siting for E&P operations, (2) emergency response and crisis management, (3) GIS-based data management for refineries, (4) contaminated site remediation and risk assessment. Examples of GIS studies using databases derived from remote sensing and other typical sources, will include links to environmental models and image libraries; 3-D modelling and computer animation techniques will also be illustrated.

  10. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part 5--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter Oil (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968.

  11. Cattle and the oil and gas industry in Alberta: A literature review with recommendations for environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to bring together a review of published information on the potential effects of upstream oil and gas industry operations on the cattle industry in Alberta, some indication of the probability of occurrence of these effects, and recommendations on how they might be avoided or mitigated. Based on reviews of scientific papers and industry good-practice manuals, the report describes: The sources and quantities of environmental contaminants generated by Alberta`s oil and gas industry, including normal operations, accidental releases, and the effects of aging infrastructure; the chemical composition of the products, materials, and wastes associated with the industry; the fate and transport of the contaminants through air, water, and soil; cattle operations in Alberta; the toxicology of oil and gas industry contaminants in cattle; and selected Alberta case studies of accidental releases and planned experiments. Conclusions and recommendations deal with critical information gaps and strategies for the sustainable management of cattle and oil/gas operations in the province.

  12. Emissions of industrial furnaces burning diesel fuel oils of various sulfur contents with NaCl - contained atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.Y.; Hsieh, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    A small furnace associated with an industrial automatic burner was employed in this study to investigate the influences of sulfur content of fuel oils burned with NaCl contained atmospheric air on the emission characteristics of marine or industrial power-plants. The sulfur contents of 0.3 wt% and 1.0 wt% were considered. Diesel fuel oil A which approximates ASTM No. 2 fuel oil was atomized by the inlet air added with NaCl of 1.5 ppm concentration and thereafter burned within the furnace. It was found that under this burning condition the CO, SO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} emissions increased with the addition of sulfur in the fuel oil. However, the gas temperature and NO{sub x} concentration were affected by the increase of sulfur content to only a minor extent. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Enterprise Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: An Analysis of Selected Fortune 500 Oil and Gas Companies' Reaction in 2009 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Violet C.; Ethridge, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, four of the top ten Fortune 500 companies were classified within the oil and gas industry. Organizations of this size typically have an advanced Enterprise Risk Management system in place to mitigate risk and to achieve their corporations' objectives. The companies and the article utilize the Enterprise Risk Management Integrated…

  15. Radiological impact of NORM generated by oil and gas industries in the kingdom of Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Husain, Husain; Sakhnini, Lama

    2017-02-01

    A study of the external background radiation in areas affected by NORM generated by oil and gas industrial activities has been performed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In this framework, two experimental residential areas, Awali and Riffa Views, were selected due to the presence of extensive oil and gas exploration and transportation. Additionally, two control residential areas, Isa Town and Al-Budaiya Village, were selected as they lack any industrial activities that would disrupt the radiation profile. The radiation dose rates were measured using Colibri Very Low Dose radiation survey meter with a built-in GPS. A total of 317 dose rates with their GPS coordinates were acquired. The lowest dose rate was 0.02 μSv/h acquired in Isa Town while the highest dose rate was 0.37 μSv/h acquired in Awali. Since there were no studies performed in the Kingdom to measure the average background radiation, the average external background radiation calculated from the control areas was used in this study which is 0.75 ± 0.31 mSv/y. The measured mean annual equivalent doses above the background radiation levels in Isa Town, Al-Budaiya, Riffa Views and Awali were -0.05 ± 0.05 mSv/y, 0.04 ± 0.04 mSv/y, 0.62 ± 0.13 mSv/y and 1.32 ± 0.35 mSv/y respectively. In other words, the radiation measurements were notably higher in the experimental areas. This was particularly true in south and southwestern Awali where the annual equivalent dose in some areas reached 2.49 mSv/y above average background levels. The geological constituent of the earth crust could be one source that contribute to overall background radiation. However, presence of NORM generated by extensive oil and gas operations and transportation is stronger justification for the higher radiation readings in the experimental areas than geological characteristic factor. Such high radiation values were found only near oil and gas installations and not in other locations of the same areas.

  16. Applications of Seasat to the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA satellite Seasat-A (to be launched in 1978) has applications to the offshore oil, gas, and mining industries including: (1) improvements in weather and wave forecasting, (2) studies of past wind and wave statistics for planning design requirements, and (3) monitoring ice formation, breakup, and movement in arctic regions. The primary geographic areas which will be monitored by Seasat-A include: the Beaufort Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. east coast, West Africa, Equatorial East Pacific, the Gulf of Alaska, and the North Sea. Seasat-A instrumentation used in ocean monitoring consists of a radar altimeter, a radar scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a microwave radiometer, and a visible and infrared radiometer. The future outlook of the Seasat program is planned in three phases: measurement feasibility demonstration (1978-1980), data accessibility/utility demonstration (1980-1983), and operational system demonstration (1983-1985).

  17. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  18. Treatment of oil-water emulsion from the machinery industry by Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Sun, Henghu; Li, Suqin; Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Liang, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    An oil-water emulsion from the machinery industry was treated using Fenton's reagent. The objective was to reduce the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of this waste stream so that it would meet the COD effluent limit of Chinese Standard JS-7740-95. The optimal [H2O2]/[Fe2+] ratio for COD removal was 3. An orthogonal experimental design was developed based on the optimal [H2O2]/[Fe2+] ratio to evaluate the significance of four parameters relevant to the treatment process, namely, H2O2 dosage, initial pH, oxidation time and coagulation pH. The influence of the four parameters on COD removal efficiency decreased as follows: H2O2 dosage>oxidation time>coagulation pH>initial pH. The COD removal efficiency was further investigated based on the most important single-factor parameter, which was H2O2 dosage, as discovered in the orthogonal test. A well-fitted empirical correlation was obtained from the single-factor analysis and up to 98% COD removal was attained using 50 mM H2O2. Using the doses and conditions identified in this study, the treated oil-water emulsion can be discharged according to Chinese Standard JS-7740-95.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of naphthenic acids in natural waters surrounding the Canadian oil sands industry.

    PubMed

    Ross, Matthew S; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Fennell, Jon; Davies, Martin; Johnson, James; Sliva, Lucie; Martin, Jonathan W

    2012-12-04

    The Canadian oil sands industry stores toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) in large tailings ponds adjacent to the Athabasca River or its tributaries, raising concerns over potential seepage. Naphthenic acids (NAs; C(n)H(2n-Z)O(2)) are toxic components of OSPW, but are also natural components of bitumen and regional groundwaters, and may enter surface waters through anthropogenic or natural sources. This study used a selective high-resolution mass spectrometry method to examine total NA concentrations and NA profiles in OSPW (n = 2), Athabasca River pore water (n = 6, representing groundwater contributions) and surface waters (n = 58) from the Lower Athabasca Region. NA concentrations in surface water (< 2-80.8 μg/L) were 100-fold lower than previously estimated. Principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished sample types based on NA profile, and correlations to water quality variables identified two sources of NAs: natural fatty acids, and bitumen-derived NAs. Analysis of NA data with water quality variables highlighted two tributaries to the Athabasca River-Beaver River and McLean Creek-as possibly receiving OSPW seepage. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of NA profiles in surface waters of the region, and demonstrates the need for highly selective analytical methods for source identification and in monitoring for potential effects of development on ambient water quality.

  20. [Factors associated with metabolic syndrome in administrative workers in the oil industry].

    PubMed

    Felipe-de-Melo, Elizabeth Regina Torres; da Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Pinto, Elisabete de Jesus

    2011-08-01

    This is a cross-sectional study seeking to identify the factors associated with metabolic syndrome in administrative workers of an oil company. A total of 1,387 workers were examined, including their anthropometric and biochemical data, lifestyle, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the First Set of Brazilian Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome. Factors associated with MS were examined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models and 15% of the workers had MS symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed that gender (OR=3.4; IC 95% 2.1- 5.5), age (OR=3.8; IC 95% 1.5-9.4) and smoking (current and past) (OR=1.6; CI 95% 1.2-2.3), were associated with metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the prevalence of MS in administrative workers of the oil industry is high, especially among males, smokers, ex-smokers and those aged 40 years or more. Possibly, the greatest value of this diagnosis is to make it possible to identify workers with severe metabolic changes, which would justify the implementation of immediate intervention to reduce the identified risk factors. In this sense, actions aiming to promote a healthy lifestyle can be developed by the companies, in order to enhance the health and quality of life of their employees.

  1. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  2. Oat (Avena sativa L.): Oil and Nutriment Compounds Valorization for Potential Use in Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.

  3. Applicability issues and compliance strategies for the proposed oil and gas industry hazardous air pollutant standards

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, N.; Winborn, K.A.; Grygar, W.W. II

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has targeted oil and natural gas transmission and storage facilities located across the United States for regulation under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program (proposed in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 [40 CFR 63], Subparts HH and HHH). The proposed NESHAP were published in the February 6, 1998 Federal Register and are expected to be promulgated in May 1999. These rules are intended to reduce Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted from oil and gas facilities. It is expected that these rules will require more than 400 major sources and more than 500 non-major sources (also referred to as area sources) to meet maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards defined in the NESHAP. The rules would regulate HAP emission from glycol dehydration units, storage vessels and various fugitive leak sources. This technical paper addresses the applicability issues and compliance strategies related to the proposed NESHAP. The applicability criteria for both rules differ from those promulgated for other source categories under 40 CFR 63. For example, individual unit throughput and/or HAP emission thresholds may exempt specific units from the MACT standards in the NESHAP. The proposed Subpart HH would apply not only to major sources, but also to triethylene glycol (TEC) dehydration units at area sources located in urban areas. For both proposed NESHAP all 199 HAP must be considered for the major source determinations, but only 15 specific HAP are targeted for control under the proposed standards. An overview of the HAP control requirements, exemption criteria, as well as initial and continued compliance determination strategies are presented. Several industry examples are included to assist industry develop compliance strategies.

  4. Mismanagement of Oil and Gas Resource Revenues in Africa: Lessons for Ghana’s Budding Oil and Gas Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    Angola, Empresa Publica (Sonangol E.P.), the national concessionaire and thus holder of mining rights for petroleum operations. These mining right...hide oil revenues. This can be achieved through for instance, the public listing of the fully or partially privatized companies on the stock market ...of oil prices and the effects that this has on the finances of a government. The instability of oil prices on the world market accounts for

  5. The oil and gas industry of coastal Louisiana and its effects on land use and other socioeconomic patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Donald W.; Place, John L.

    1983-01-01

    Louisiana's coastal wetlands, alone with their well-drained urbanized strips, have been significantly affected by the oil and gas industry. Onshore, more than 6,300 exploratory wells and more than 21,000 development wells were drilled in Louisiana's eight southernmost parishes between 1937 and 1977. Nearly all those wells were in wetlands or inland water bodies. The wetlands, totaling more than 2 million hectares (ha), extend inland to roughly latitude 30? N, and are about 15 percent forested swamp and 85 percent nonforested marsh. Inland waters within the Louisiana coastal zone total more than 1 million ha. Nearly all these waters are quite shallow. More than 235,000 ha of this coastal area is used for major activities associated with the extraction of oil and gas. Production in the eight southern parishes peaked in 1970 to 120 million m3 of oil and 172 billion m 3 of gas. Connecting extensive onshore fields--and also servicing offshore fields--are intricate networks of canals for pipelines and maritime traffic related to the oil and gas industry. Offshore, more than 2,400 drilling and production platforms had been installed by May of 1981. Oil production from wells in both Federal and State waters off Louisiana peaked at 71 million m3 in 1972. Offshore gas production continues to increase, with 131 billion m3, in 1979. Since the early 1950's southern Louisiana's population has shifted from remote rural areas in the marshes to the more densely settled areas on the natural levees and beach ridges where employment is available in oil-field support industries and businesses. In 1975, in the 14 primary settlement clusters within the coastal wetlands, more than 3,600 advertised business activities were connected directly to the oil and gas industry. This compares to about 1,200 such activities in 1955, at the start of offshore development. These businesses are listed as water transportation, transportation equipment, pipelines, chemicals, special trade contractors, and

  6. Development of the Oil Industry in Cameroon and Its Implications for Education and Training. IIEP Research Report No. 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Bikas C.; And Others

    A study analyzed how the oil industry in Cameroon developed and influenced the expansion, structure, and content of Cameroon's formal and nonformal education and training system. A survey of 213 employees and 8 enterprises was supplemented by a review of government reports and official published and unpublished documents. The economy of Cameroon…

  7. Synthesis of Azidohydrin from Hura crepitans Seed Oil: A Renewable Resource for Oleochemical Industry and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Göpfert, Andrea; Wolff, Thomas; Rao, B V S K; Prasad, R B N

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of petrochemicals by oleochemical feedstocks in many industrial and domestic applications has resulted in an increase in demand for biobased products and as such recognizing and increasing the benefits of using renewable materials. In line with this, the oil extracted from the seed of Hura crepitans was characterized by an iodine value of 120.10 ± 0.70 g Iodine/100 g and a saponification number of 210.10 ± 0.40 mg KOH/g with the dominant fatty acid being C18:2 (52.8 ± 0.10%). The epoxidised fatty acid methyl esters prepared from the oil were used to synthesise the azidohydrin with a yield of 91.20%. The progress of the reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and NMR. This showed the seed oil of Hura crepitans as a renewable resource that can be used to make valuable industrial and domestic products.

  8. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2014-05-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications.

  9. Examining Convergence in the Cultural Value Orientations of Norwegians in the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Jennifer

    There is much debate in Norway as to whether Norwegian cultural values are being diluted by the increasing influx of international organizations. Little empirical work has been done to assess the effect of employment by international organizations on the cultural values of Norwegians. The aim of this study was to determine if individuals retain cultural values closest to their own nationality or the nationality of their employing organization. This objective was accomplished by comparing cultural value dimensions of Norwegians employed in organizations headquartered in one of five countries. Recruitment emails were sent to 612 possible participants and 160 individuals completed the survey completely, resulting in a sample size of N=160, a response rate of 26%. From the completed surveys, cultural dimension scores were calculated for each individual and group in the areas of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Using those cultural dimension scores, three groups of one-way ANOVA tests were run in accordance with the parameters of each of three research questions. Comparing Norwegians employed in local government or a Norwegian oil and gas company, a significant difference existed only for uncertainty avoidance (p=.0074). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in local government with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil companies resulted in significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0007), individualism (p=.0000), and uncertainty avoidance (p=.0000); however, there was not a statistically significant difference in masculinity scores between the two groups (p=.0792). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in a Norwegian oil and gas company with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil and gas companies also resulted in statistically significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0015), individualism (p=.0000), and

  10. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  11. The feasibility of effluent trading in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry. The evaluation leads to the conclusion that potential for effluent trading is very low in the exploration and production and distribution and marketing sectors; trading potential is moderate for the refining sector except for intraplant trades, for which the potential is high. Good potential also exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g., wetlands mitigation banking). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  12. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  13. Failing to Fix What is Found: Risk Accommodation in the Oil and Gas Industry.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse, Madelynn R D; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The present program of research synthesizes the findings from three studies in line with two goals. First, the present research explores how the oil and gas industry is performing at risk mitigation in terms of finding and fixing errors when they occur. Second, the present research explores what factors in the work environment relate to a risk-accommodating environment. Study 1 presents a descriptive evaluation of high-consequence incidents at 34 oil and gas companies over a 12-month period (N = 873), especially in terms of those companies' effectiveness at investigating and fixing errors. The analysis found that most investigations were fair in terms of quality (mean = 75.50%), with a smaller proportion that were weak (mean = 11.40%) or strong (mean = 13.24%). Furthermore, most companies took at least one corrective action for high-consequence incidents, but few of these corrective actions were confirmed as having been completed (mean = 13.77%). In fact, most corrective actions were secondary interim administrative controls (e.g., having a safety meeting) rather than fair or strong controls (e.g., training, engineering elimination). Study 2a found that several environmental factors explain the 56.41% variance in safety, including management's disengagement from safety concerns, finding and fixing errors, safety management system effectiveness, training, employee safety, procedures, and a production-over-safety culture. Qualitative results from Study 2b suggest that a compliance-based culture of adhering to liability concerns, out-group blame, and a production-over-safety orientation may all impede safety effectiveness.

  14. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.

  15. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Leslie C-L; Low, Eng-Ti L; Abdullah, Meilina O; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A A; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W; Brown, Clyde R; Kuek, Alex C S; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Shah, Shivam A; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  16. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A.; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T.; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W.; Brown, Clyde R.; Kuek, Alex C. S.; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Chaudhari, Hemangi G.; Shah, Shivam A.; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  17. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  18. [Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management.

  19. Regional resource depletion and industry activity: The case of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Stable and declining oil and gas prices have changed the industry's price expectations and, along with depletion of promising exploration prospects, has resulted in reduced exploration. Even with intensive additional exploration, production in most U.S. areas is expected to decline. What does this imply for the drilling and petroleum industry suppliers in particular regions? How should planners in government and the private sector project and incorporate the consequences of these changes in their strategies? This paper answers these questions for the industry operating in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Future oil and gas production, as well as demand for offshore drilling and production facilities, are shown to depend on the size distribution of undiscovered fields, their associated production costs, and oil and gas prices. Declining well productivity is a consequence of development of progressively smaller fields so that long-run drilling demand should not decline in proportion to the expected production decline. Calculations show a substantial payoff to the drilling industry, in terms of potential demand increases, if it can develop and implement cost reducing technologies. Implications of these results for other offshore producing areas such as the North Sea are also discussed. ?? 1986.

  20. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  1. Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

  2. Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".

    PubMed

    Vidaković-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D

    2002-10-01

    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed.

  3. Development of an operational digital photogrammetric system for the North Sea oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John

    1993-02-01

    The Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the North Sea has many requirements for three- dimensional measurements in air and underwater. A market audit found that use of conventional photogrammetry was being rejected for many applications because the information was not available fast enough. A development project was set up to replace the photographic cameras with a choice of video or high resolution digital electronic cameras, and the analysis system with a personal computer based image processing system. This solution is now in operation. The paper details the in-house development of the high resolution digital electronic camera and the personal computer based measurement hardware and software. It includes a discussion of the technological parameters, including the method for pixel for pixel correlation within the digital system, camera calibration techniques, the system algorithms, sub-pixel measurement and dimensional accuracy. It introduces the work that was carried out to make the final product acceptable to structural engineers, who now use it to transfer three- dimensional measurements to their CAD systems. It also looks at the work that is being carried out to transform the system into a closed loop control system for underwater robotic manipulators, which includes binary conversion, convolution filtering and tracking functions.

  4. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Anaerobic Microbial Processes and the Prospect for Methane Production from Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieg, Lisa

    In strict anaerobic environments, oxygen is essentially non-existent. However, anaerobic microorganisms may thrive in such environments by metabolising organic or inorganic energy and/or carbon sources while respiring alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, metals, or sulphate. Methanogenesis is the key electron accepting process in environments characterised by the absence of any electron acceptors other than CO2. Geological evidence has shown that most of the Earth's petroleum resources have been biodegraded over millennia, the extents to which likely depended on nutrient and water availability, temperature, and the requisite microorganisms (Röling et al., 2003; Head et al., 2003; Hallmann et al., 2008). Gases of biological origin including methane are believed to be primary byproducts of microbial oil metabolism in petroliferous deposits where oil quality has diminished due to the preferential consumption of valuable 'light' hydrocarbons (Head et al., 2003; Milkov and Dzou, 2007; Jones et al., 2008). While this phenomenon has enormous economic implications for recovering high-value light oil, it also sets the precedent for a potential alternate energy recovery strategy - that is, recovering energy as methane gas that is biologically produced as the result of methanogenic oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs that are at their economic limits.

  5. Palm oil derived trimethylolpropane triesters synthetic lubricants and usage in industrial metalworking fluid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Teck-Sin; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Choong, Thomas S Y; Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah; Syam, Azhari M

    2015-01-01

    Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance.

  6. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  7. Petroleum industry sensitivity and world oil market prices: The Nigerian example

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, T.Ch.U.

    1995-12-31

    Most empirical studies have focused on the demand side of energy with little or no attention to the supply side. To deal with this defect, this paper adopts a microanalytic approach to the problem of the individual oil firms to provide a basis for determining the effects of changes in such macro-variables as prices on their operations. However, instead of the familiar econometric approach to energy studies, a goal programming approach is adopted. Using a multinational oil company as a case study, the effects of change in crude oil prices are examined. The results, among other things, support the hypersensitivity of oil companies to changes in economic cycles, the price inelasticity of demand for crude oil in the short run, and a time lag between price change and the time an oil company responds to it. The management and policy implications of the results are also discussed. 28 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Water Use by Texas Oil and Gas Industry: A Look towards the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J.; Ritter, S. M.; Hebel, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Barnett Shale gas play, located in North Texas, has seen a relatively quick growth in the past decade with the development of new “frac” (aka, fracture stimulation) technologies needed to create pathways to produce gas from the very low permeability shales. This technology uses a large amount of fresh water (millions of gallons in a day or two on average) to develop a gas well. Now operators are taking aim at other shale gas plays in Texas including the Haynesville, Woodford, and Pearsall-Eagle Ford shales and at other tight formation such as the Bossier Sand. These promising gas plays are likely to be developed at an even steeper growth rate. There are currently over 12,000 wells producing gas from the Barnett Shale with many more likely to be drilled in the next couple of decades as the play expands out of its core area. Despite the recent gas price slump, thousands more wells may be drilled across the state to access the gas resource in the next few years. As an example, a typical vertical and horizontal well completion in the Barnett Shale consumes approximately 1.2 and 3.0 to 3.5 millions gallons of fresh water, respectively. This could raise some concerns among local communities and other surface water and groundwater stakeholders. We present a preliminary analysis of future water use by the Texas oil and gas industry and compare it to projections of total water use, including municipal use and irrigation. Maps showing large increase in total number of well completions in the Barnett Shale (black dots) from 1998 to 2008. Operators avoided the DFW metro area (center right on the map) until recently. Also shown are the structural limits of the Barnett Shale on its eastern boundaries.

  9. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  10. The use of near-infrared spectrometry in the olive oil industry.

    PubMed

    Armenta, S; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2010-06-01

    The enormous possibilities offered by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the (on/in/at-line) quality control process of olive fruits, pastes, and oils are summarized throughout this paper. Special attention has been paid to the combination of NIR and chemometric treatments for the on-line analysis of olive fruits and also for the quality parameters evaluation on olive oils and pastes which can enhance the production of a high quality olive oil and the selection of olive fruit with superior properties. The implementation of NIR sensors in olive mills with successful results has also been reviewed and the commercial olive fruit and oil analyzers highlighted.

  11. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  12. Anicteric hepatoxicity: a potential health risk of occupational exposures in Nigerian petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Literature abounds linking one’s job to certain unpalatable health outcomes. Since exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers, we embarked on this study to investigate the hepatic health effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry. Method Biochemical markers of liver functions were assayed in plasma, using Reflotron dry chemistry spectrophotometric system. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Result and conclusion Results showed that, bilirubin ranged 0.3-1.6 mg/dl with a mean of 0.66±0.20mg/dl among the oil workers as against 0.5-1.00mg/dl with a mean of 0.58±0.13mg/dl in non-oil workers, Alkaline phosphatase ranged 50.00-296.00u/l (mean: 126.21±39.49u/l) in oil workers as against 40.20-111u/l (mean: 66.83±18.54u/l) for non-oil workers, Aspartic transaminases (AST) ranged 5.80-140.20u/l (mean: 21.81±11.49u/l) in oil workers against 18.00-44.00u/l (mean: 26.89±6.99u/l) for non-oil workers, while Alanine transaminases (ALT) ranged 4.90-86.00u/l (mean: 22.14±11.28u/l) in oil workers as against 10.00-86.60u/l (mean: 22.30±10.22u/l) for the non-oil workers. A close study of the results revealed that although the mean values for all the studied parameters were still within the parametric reference ranges, however, relative to the referents, there were significant increases (P<0.05) in plasma bilirubin (though anicteric) and alkaline phosphatase that was not matched with a corresponding increase in the plasma transaminases, suggesting a possibility that toxic anicteric hepatoxicity is part of the potential health effects of sundry exposures in the Nigeria petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

  13. Reclamation problems and procedures for the oil industry and the canadian prairies

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, E.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures used in western Canada to enhance biodegradation of waste oil are analyzed. In the prairie region, brine spills are more damaging to soil than oil spills are/ reclamation efforts aimed at neutralizing brine spills have been ineffective. Manure application is more immediately beneficial than gypsum application/ however, more research is needed to develop reclamation techniques that would provide acceptable soil reclamation.

  14. Model-centered approach to early planning and design of an eco-industrial park around an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangping; Strømman, Anders H; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-07-01

    Industrial symbiosis promises environmental and economic gains through a utilization of the waste of some processes as a resource for other processes. Because of the costs and difficulties of transporting some wastes, the largest theoretical potential for industrial symbiosis is given when facilities are colocated in an eco-industrial park (EIP). This study proposes a model-centered approach with an eight-step procedure for the early planning and design of an eco-industrial park considering technical and environmental factors. Chemical process simulation software was used to model the energy and material flows among the prospective members and to quantify the benefits of integration among different firms in terms of energy and resources saved as compared to a reference situation. Process simulation was based on a combination of physical models of industrial processes and empirical models. The modeling allows for the development and evaluation of different collaboration opportunities and configurations. It also enables testing chosen configurations under hypothetical situations or external conditions. We present a case study around an existing oil and gas refinery in Mongstad, Norway. We used the approach to propose the colocation of a number of industrial facilities around the refinery, focused on integrating energy use among the facilities. An EIP with six main members was designed and simulated, matching new hypothetical members in size to the existing operations, modeling material and energy flows in the EIP, and assessing these in terms of carbon and hydrogen flows.

  15. Particle size distributions of oil mists in workplace atmospheres and their exposure concentrations to workers in a fastener manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chang, Chih-Ching; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2007-07-19

    This study was set out to characterize size distributions of oil mists in three workplace atmospheres of the forming, threading, and heat treatment in a fastener manufacturing industry and to assess their exposures to workers. Particle size segregating samplings were conducted on the workplace atmospheres of the three selected industrial processes by using the modified Marple 8-stage cascade impactor (m-Marple). We found that mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the fine mode and coarse mode fell to the range 0.309-0.501 microm and 8.16-13.0 microm, respectively. The fractions of inhaled particles exposed to different regions of the respiratory tracts found that the alveolar region was consistently higher than both head and tracheobronchial regions in all three studied exposure groups. Personal inhalable oil mist samplings were conducted on workers in the three selected processes revealed their exposure levels as: threading workers (2.11 mg/m3)>forming workers (1.58 mg/m3)>heat treatment workers (0.0801 mg/m3). The estimated respirable exposure concentrations for both forming and threading workers (1.34 mg/m3 and 1.40 mg/m3, respectively) were higher than the level known for "increased risk of pulmonary injury" (0.20 mg/m3) suggesting that appropriate control measures should be taken to reduce their exposures to the oil mists of the respirable fraction immediately.

  16. Biomethane potential of the POME generated in the palm oil industry in Ghana from 2002 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Richard; Glover, Kwasi

    2012-05-01

    The palm oil industry experienced significant improvement in its production level from 2002 to 2009 from the established companies, medium scale mills (MSM), small scale and other private holdings (SS and OPH) groups. However, the same cannot be said for treatment of the palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced. The quantity of crude palm oil (CPO) produced in Ghana from 2002 to 2009 and IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, specifically on industrial wastewater were used in this study. During this period about 10 million cubic metres of POME was produced translating into biomethane potential of 38.5 million m(3) with equivalent of 388.29 GW h of energy. A linear growth model developed to predict the equivalent carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions indicates that if the biomethane is not harnessed then by 2015 the untreated POME could produce 0.58 million tCO(2)-eq and is expected to increase to 0.70 million tCO(2)-eq by 2020.

  17. Evaluation of Oil-Industry Stimulation Practices for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Van Dyke; Leen Weijers; Ann Robertson-Tait; Norm Warpinski; Mike Mayerhofer; Bill Minner; Craig Cipolla

    2007-10-17

    fluid below fracturing gradients) (section 4.1 on page 50); b) zonal isolation methods (by use of perforated casing or packers) (section 4.2 on page 57); c) fracture re-orientation and fracture network growth techniques (e.g., by use of alternating high- and low-rate injections) (section 4.4 on page 74); and d) fluid diversion methods (by use of the SurgiFrac technique, the StimGun perforation technique, or stress shadowing). This project task is to be completed in the first project year, enabling the most promising techniques to be field tested and evaluated in the second project year. 3) Study the applicability of the methods listed above by utilizing several techniques (section 5 on page 75) including, but not limited to: a) Hydraulic Impedance Testing (HIT) to determine the location of open hydraulic fractures along a open-hole interval; b) pressure transient testing to determine reservoir permeability, pore pressure, and closure stress; and c) treatment well tilt mapping or microseismic mapping to evaluate fracture coverage. These techniques were reviewed for their potential application for EGS in the first project year (section 5.1 on page 75). This study also includes further analysis of any field testing that will be conducted in the Desert Peak area in Nevada for ORMAT Nevada, Inc. (section 5.2 on page 86), with the aim to close the loop to provide reliable calibrated fracture model results. Developed through its hydraulic fracture consulting business, techniques of Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. for stimulating and analyzing fracture growth have helped the oil and gas industry to improve hydraulic fracturing from both a technical and economic perspective. In addition to more than 30 years of experience in the development of geothermal energy for commercial power generation throughout the world, GeothermEx, Inc. brings to the project: 1) Detailed information about specific developed and potential EGS reservoirs, 2) experience with geothermal well design

  18. [Influence of low doses of ionizing irradiation on parameters of the non-specific immunologically-mediated resistance in persons working in the oil industry].

    PubMed

    Mamedov, G M; Aliev, F G

    2010-01-01

    The authors have determined blood parameters reflected condition of the non-specific immunologically-mediated resistance (NIR) in workers of the oil industry, including persons directly participated in oil wells exploration and exposed for long period of time to low doses of ionizing radiation. The article presents obtained results of the percentage of neutrophils and natural killer cells as well as the level of alpha-interferon in the blood serum. Obtained results demonstrated that parameters of NIR of oil industry workers were not substantively different from analogous parameters of healthy person living in the same region.

  19. Alkylphenol metabolites in fish bile as biomarkers of exposure to offshore oil industry produced water in feral fish.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Sundt, Rolf C; Sanni, Steinar; Sydnes, Magne O; Jonsson, Grete

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of low-concentration alkylphenol (AP) exposure in fish is relevant in connection with monitoring and risk assessment of offshore oil industry produced water (PW) discharges. Detection of AP markers in fish bile offers significantly greater sensitivity than detection of AP in tissues such as liver. Recent studies revealed that gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS) enabled a selective and sensitive analytical detection of PW AP in mixtures with unknown composition. A procedure consisting of enzymatic deconjugation of metabolites in fish bile followed by derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and then separation and quantification of derivatized AP using GC-EI-MS is presented. The use of this procedure as a possible recommended approach for assessment and biomonitoring of AP contamination in fish populations living down-current from offshore oil production fields is presented.

  20. Bioactive compounds with added value prepared from terpenes contained in solid wastes from the olive oil industry.

    PubMed

    Parra, Andres; Lopez, Pilar E; Garcia-Granados, Andres

    2010-02-01

    Starting from solid wastes from two-phase olive-oil extraction, the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and maslinic acid were isolated. These natural compounds were transformed into methyl olean-12-en-28-oate (5), which then was transformed into several seco-C-ring triterpene compounds by chemical and photolytic modifications. The triene seco-products were fragmented through several oxidative procedures to produce, simultaneously, cis- and trans-decalin derivatives, both potential synthons for bioactive compounds. The chemical behavior of the isolated fragments was investigated, and a suitable approach to several low-molecular-weight terpenes was performed. These are interesting processes for the value-addition to solid waste from the olive-oil industry.

  1. 77 FR 22226 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis Gas; Final... Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis Gas,'' published in the... From the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis...

  2. [Safety forms for industrial lubricating oils: a working proposal at the national level].

    PubMed

    Menichini, E; Reggiani, A; Rossi, L

    1989-01-01

    The health and safety data sheets for lubricating oils currently in use present considerable differences regarding the information they provide. Often, the information is either too generalized or incomplete--particularly on the chemical aspects of oils--and therefore the sheets are inadequate for the prevention and control of the occupational risks. For the purposes of harmonization, a data sheet has been prepared which takes into account the specific features of the products, and particularly the handling of confidential data. The most important oil manufacturers have been consulted, and they have agreed to use the data sheet in order to provide information on their products to the local health authorities. The widespread use of this data sheet should enable an easier comparison of the health and safety data of oils to be made, provide a better understanding of the information received and, consequently, evaluate the risks involved.

  3. Methane’s Role in Promoting Sustainable Development in the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The document summarizes a number of established methods to identify, measure and reduce methane emissions from a variety of equipment and processes in oil and gas production and natural gas processing and transmission facilities.

  4. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  5. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 3: Offshore oil and natural gas industry case study and generalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic benefits of improved ocean condition, weather and ice forecasts by SEASAT satellites to the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas in the offshore regions are considered. The results of case studies which investigate the effects of forecast accuracy on offshore operations in the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico are reported. A methodology for generalizing the results to other geographic regions of offshore oil and natural gas exploration and development is described.

  6. Toxic myopathy induced by industrial minerals oils: clinical and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Rossi, B; Siciliano, G; Giraldi, C; Angelini, C; Marchetti, A; Paggiaro, P L

    1986-12-01

    We report a case of subacute myopathy in a 47 years old man engaged on boiler maintenance at an oil-fired thermoelectric power station. The occupational history highlighted heavy exposure to inhalation of ash derived from mineral oil combustion and containing several elements, metals and metalloids, including vanadium and nickel. The presenting symptoms, clinical course and muscle histopathology suggest that exposure to toxic agents probably played an important part in the causation of the myopathy.

  7. The produced waters of oil deposits in Tomsk region: its use for iodine industrial production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovskii, V. V.; Zippa, E. V.; Syskina, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    In world practice, groundwater is the main raw material for iodine production. In the current geopolitical conditions, a significant part of the traditional areas of iodine production is located outside the Russian Federation. As iodine is biogenic by its origin, it associates with oil and petroleum water. Therefore, the produced waters of oil deposits of Western Siberia acquire the leading role as the raw-material base for iodine production.

  8. Emulsions of crude glycerin from biodiesel processing with fuel oil for industrial heating.

    PubMed

    Mize, Hannah E; Lucio, Anthony J; Fhaner, Cassie J; Pratama, Fredy S; Robbins, Lanny A; Karpovich, David S

    2013-02-13

    There is considerable interest in using crude glycerin from biodiesel production as a heating fuel. In this work crude glycerin was emulsified into fuel oil to address difficulties with ignition and sustained combustion. Emulsions were prepared with several grades of glycerin and two grades of fuel oil using direct and phase inversion emulsification. Our findings reveal unique surfactant requirements for emulsifying glycerin into oil; these depend on the levels of several contaminants, including water, ash, and components in MONG (matter organic non-glycerin). A higher hydrophile-lipophile balance was required for a stable emulsion of crude glycerin in fuel oil compared to water in fuel oil. The high concentration of salts from biodiesel catalysts generally hindered emulsion stability. Geometric close-packing of micelles was carefully balanced to mechanically stabilize emulsions while also enabling low viscosity for pumping and fuel injection. Phase inversion emulsification produced more stable emulsions than direct emulsification. Emulsions were tested successfully as fuel for a waste oil burner.

  9. SREB Fact Book on Higher Education 1998/1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.

    This volume provides comparative data highlighting significant trends affecting colleges and universities in 16 southern states Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The following trends are identified: (1)…

  10. Annual Report, 1998-1999: Serving Kentucky's Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. for Libraries and Archives, Frankfort.

    This 1998-99 annual report for the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives begins with messages from the state Cabinet Secretary of Education, Arts and Humanities and the State Librarian and Commissioner. The department's mission statement, vision statement, and core values/guiding principles are then presented. Objectives and focus group…

  11. AGS experiments -- 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999. Fifteenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, P.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a compilation of two-page summaries for AGS experiments for FY 1996, FY 1997, FY 1998, FY 1999. The bulk of the experiments are for high energy physics and nuclear physics programs. Also included are the run schedules for the AGS for each of those years and a listing of publications of AGS experiments for 1982--1999.

  12. FY 1998/1999 Defense Budget Review Descriptive Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    QA (L 0300k’M0w0C 0 042H u $ 3 _14JX co2 o-r4 LoV03>. b -d0-4 cl 4 :1 $4u - 00-4 V.40W03.00 tP ouo1 > - ’-20.-- j ý -0, faw lUa)00 )H =to-M V)-1 M...1 H.tm )f 0 r a)~G 1 4 , li -M A 41 )~ 414. I4 41 N U)4V - q14 a 4I 4J M0M 14 a4. m 90 c I v 04)O 0)aam . 0 A .4)0%0 41C VqM >. 4( 6)0 p 43 00 .4 01la

  13. Digital Library Federation: Annual Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC. Digital Library Federation.

    This annual report of the Digital Library Federation describes projects initiated in response to the following program priorities: (1) focus attention on libraries of materials that are born digital, including a social science data workshop and guides to quality in visual resource imaging; (2) integrate digital materials into the fabric of…

  14. Practitioner Research Briefs, 1998-1999 Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Adult Educators Research Network, Dayton.

    The collection of articles addresses current issues in adult and adult basic education in Virginia communities. Titles include: "Goal-Setting in the New River Valley: Teachers' Perceptions and Strategies" (Sue Barton); "What Happens When ESL Students Experience Authentic Work Situations?" (Pat Bowyer); "Orientation to…

  15. Innovator: A Tradition of Excellence through Innovation, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italia, Nancy, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents four Innovator newsletters from the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). Number one contains the following articles: "Focus on Globalization, Learning, and the Human Touch for 1998 Conference on Information Technology,""Internet-in-Education Project Exceeds Goals,""First…

  16. San Antonio College Factbook, 1998-1999. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio Coll., TX.

    This report provides general statistical information about San Antonio College (Texas). Section 1, Overview, offers a brief history, mission statement, outstanding former students, academic programs, and accreditation/affiliations. Twelve academic departments, offering 60 degree and certificate programs are identified. Section 2, Organizational…

  17. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stonecypher, R. Wess; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.; Farman, Brett M.

    2001-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the success of achieving the management objectives in the Umatilla River basin that are presented in the Master Plan and the Comprehensive Rehabilitation Plan. A substantial proportion of the production at UFH is reared in MI raceways. This system has not been thoroughly evaluated to determine the effects on Smolt-to-adult survival (SAS). In addition, the rearing strategies proposed for spring chinook salmon require an unusually extensive period of incubation in chilled well water. Extensive background and justification for UFH monitoring and evaluation is presented in Carmichael (1990). In this report, we present findings for the UFH Monitoring and Evaluation Project from 1 November 1998 to 31 October 1999. We designed our program to evaluate fish cultural practices, conduct rearing and survival studies, assess sport fisheries, and provide information for planning and coordination. Additional studies have been designed for fall chinook salmon to evaluate straying and the effects of tagging. We monitored the culture and performance of more than 3.2 million chinook salmon and steelhead produced at UFH in 1997-98 (Appendix Tables A1-8). Individual stock profiles, release, performance, and return data of previously released groups are presented in the following sections.

  18. Reserve Component JAG Corps Personnel Policies Handbook, 1998-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 5-8 5-9 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-2 6-4 6-2 6-5 6-3 6-6 6-3 6-7 6-3 Promotion Boards Promotion Passover Appeals Unit Vacancy Promotion SECTION VI...14107. 5-8. Promotion Passover Appeals. An officer has the right to appeal non-selection to the Army Board for Correction of Military Records. AR 15

  19. Glendale Community College Services Annual Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendale Community Coll., CA.

    This document presents the annual statistics on college services at Glendale Community College (GCC) in California. It begins with a summary of admissions and records, including a look at assessment and registration. Descriptions are provided about the College Services Division, the Disabled Students' Program & Services (DSP&S), and the…

  20. Workforce Education Institute. Final Report, Fiscal Year 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disario, Nancy; Pappalardo, Michele F.; Gonzalez, Manuel A.

    This project provided a year-long skill development Workforce Education Institute for 100 work force literacy providers and instructors in Pennsylvania. The institute included an intensive, 3-day summer workshop, 2 follow-up workshops, and a 2-day spring workshop designed to meet the individual needs of the participants. In evaluations submitted…

  1. Section on Cataloguing: Report of the Activities, 1998/1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Maria

    This paper reports on the activities of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Section on Cataloguing for 1998-99. The first part of the report introduces the aims of the Section. Membership, the standing committee, and officers are detailed in the second part. The third part provides information on the…

  2. Foundation for Child Development Annual Report, 1998/1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.

    This annual report details the activities of the Foundation for Child Development (FCD) for 1998-99. Beginning the report is a discussion of the history and mission of the foundation, its funding priorities, and application procedures. The report lists the members of the Council, Board of Directors, Officers, and staff. The joint statement of the…

  3. Annual Report to the Governor, FY 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This paper includes a brief statement regarding the progress of Arizona's community colleges during the past fiscal year and provides statistical information on finances, enrollment, employment, and educational programs. The paper contains the following sections: (1) philosophy of Arizona's community college system; (2) mission statement of the…

  4. Oil industry in Uganda: The socio-economic effects on the people of Kabaale Village, Hoima, and Bunyoro region in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyomugasho, Miriam

    This thesis examines the socio-economic effects of oil industry on the people of Kabaale Village, Hoima, and Bunyoro region in Uganda. The thesis analyses the current political economy of Uganda and how Uganda is prepared to utilize the proceeds from the oil industry for the development of the country and its people. In addition, the research examines the effects of industry on the people of Uganda by analyzing how the people of Kabaale in Bunyoro region were affected by the plans to construct oil refinery in their region. This field research was done using qualitative methods and the Historical Materialism theoretical framework guided the study. The major findings include; displacement of people from land especially women, lack of accountability from the leadership, and less citizen participation in the policy formulation and oil industry. Ugandans, East Africans and the wider Pan-African world need to re-organize their socio-economic structure to enable people own means of production; participate and form labor organizations. Additionally, there is a need for oil producing African countries to unite and setup and oil fund for resources and investment instead of relying on foreign multinationals or become rentier states.

  5. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial transformer oil by radiolytic and photolytic methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L

    2003-12-15

    Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main

  7. Implementation of a World Wide Web server for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, R.E.; Martin, F.D.; Emery, R.

    1996-10-01

    The Gas and Oil Technology Exchange and Communication Highway (GO-TECH) provides an electronic information system for the petroleum community for exchanging ideas, data, and technology. The PC-based system fosters communication and discussion by linking the oil and gas producers with resource centers, government agencies, consulting firms, service companies, national laboratories, academic research groups, and universities throughout the world. The oil and gas producers can access the GO-TECH World Wide Web (WWW) home page through modem links, as well as through the Internet. Future GO-TECH applications will include the establishment of virtual corporations consisting of consortia of small companies, consultants, and service companies linked by electronic information systems. These virtual corporations will have the resources and expertise previously found only in major corporations.

  8. Adding value to the oil cake as a waste from oil processing industry: production of lipase and protease by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Moftah, Omar Ali Saied; Grbavčić, Sanja; Zuža, Milena; Luković, Nevena; Bezbradica, Dejan; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Olive oil cake is a by-product from the olive oil processing industry and can be used for the lipase and protease production by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated, and the results showed that the supplementation of the substrate with maltose and starch as carbon sources and yeast extract as a nitrogen source significantly increased the lipase production. The best results were obtained with maltose, whereas rather low lipase and protease activities were found with glucose and oleic acid. Response surface methodology and a five-level-three-factor central composite rotatable design were used to evaluate the effects of the initial moisture content, inoculum size and fermentation time on both lipase and protease activity levels. A lipase activity value of ≈25 U g(-1) and a protease activity value of 110 U g(-1) were obtained under the optimized fermentation conditions. An alkaline treatment of the substrate appeared to be efficient, leading to increases of 39% and 133% in the lipase and protease production, respectively. The results showed that the olive cake could be a good source for enzyme production by solid state fermentation.

  9. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Dynamics of Alcanivorax spp. in Oil-Contaminated Intertidal Beach Sediments Undergoing Bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind K.; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D.; Jones, Martin D.; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Head, Ian M.

    The industrial revolution has led to significant increases in the consumption of petroleum hydrocarbons. Concomitant with this increase, hydrocarbon pollution has become a global problem resulting from emissions related to operational use, releases during production, pipeline failures and tanker spills. Importantly, in addition to these anthropogenic sources of hydrocarbon pollution, natural seeps alone account for about 50% of total petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the aquatic environment (National Research Council, 2003). The annual input from natural seeps would form a layer of hydrocarbons 20 molecules thick on the sea surface globally if it remained un-degraded (Prince, 2005). By contrast with natural seeps, many oil spills, e.g. Sea Empress (Milford Haven, UK), Prestige (Galicia, Spain), EXXON Valdez (Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA), released huge amounts of oil (thousands to hundreds of thousand tonnes; Table 24.1) in a locally confined area over a short period of time with a huge acute impact on the marine environment. These incidents have attracted the attention of both the general public and the scientific community due to their great impact on coastal ecosystems. Although many petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic, they are degraded by microbial consortia naturally present in marine ecosystems.

  10. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  11. Exploring seed oil biosynthetic pathway in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), an important industrial crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella is currently being developed as a new industrial oilseed. Lesquerella is valued for its unusual hydroxy fatty acid (HFA), lesquerolic acid (20:1OH), which can be used as raw materials for numerous industrial products, such as lubricants, plasticizers and surfactants. As a step towards ge...

  12. Manufacturing Improvement Program for the Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain and Marketing Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Robert

    2016-09-28

    This project supported upgrades for manufacturing companies in the oil and natural gas supply chain in Oklahoma. The goal is to provide assistance that will lead to the improved efficiency advancement of the manufacturing processes currently used by the existing manufacturing clients. The basis for the work is to improve the economic environment for the clients and the communities they serve.

  13. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    PubMed

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  14. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  15. [The role of mutation of gene cyp1A1 and benzapilene in cytogenetic changes of urinary tract epitheliocytes in oil industry workers employed in the oil fields of the North of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Il'inskikh, N N; Il'inskikh, E N; Il'inskikh, I N; Iamkovaia, E V

    2011-01-01

    The examination of 477 oil industry workers and office personnel (control) employed in the oil fields of the North of Tomsk and Tyumen regions has detected increased number of epithelyocytes with micronuclei and an elevated urine level ofbenzapilene in workers employed in oil production. Especially pronounced changes of the above parameters were observed in men with mutant alleles Val of CYP1A1 gene. An enhanced mutation process in oil production workers may be due to a resultant action of different factors on human genome. Involved may be both mutagens and factors of comutagenic nature. The results obtained in this study suggest a conclusion about urgent need of introduction of new scientifically validated criteria of selection of personnel for oil production in the North of the West Siberia. Health examination of the applicants must include genotyping.

  16. Effect of asphaltene deposition on the internal corrosion in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios T, C.A.; Morales, J.L.; Viloria, A.

    1997-08-01

    Crude oil from Norte de Monagas field, in Venezuela, contains large amounts of asphaltenes. Some of them are very unstable with a tendency to precipitate. Because liquid is carried over from the separation process in the flow stations, asphaltenes are also present in the gas gathering and transmission lines, precipitating on the inner wall of pipelines. The gas gathering and transmission lines contain gas with high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, some H{sub 2}S and are water saturated; therefore, inhibitors are used to control internal corrosion. There is uncertainty on how inhibitors perform in the presence of asphaltene deposition. The purpose of this paper is to describe the causes that enhance asphaltene deposition in gas pipelines and present some results from an ongoing research project carried out by the Venezuelan Oil Companies.

  17. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. PMID:21637622

  18. [Evaluation of health status among workers in the oil mining industry and problems of primary prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Gimranova, G G

    2002-01-01

    Thorough medical examination covered 1,400 individuals who work with oil and gas extraction devices, are aged 20 to 58 and have length of service 5 to 30 years. Findings are high prevalence of locomotory disorders, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, signs of ear exposure to noise. The authors justified complex of primary prophylactic measures including work optimization, meticulous occupational selection, qualified medical control and sanative measures.

  19. South Pacific: Another slow year is ahead. [Oil and gas industry outlook in the South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, B. )

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the oil and gas exploration activities in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and New Zealand in the 1992--1993 period and projects the near-future market and development of these resources. It provides statistics on numbers of new wells drilled, footage involved, number or completions, and production information. The paper also describes the main geographical areas of exploration, types of exploration equipment involved.

  20. A systematic quality assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Anifowose, B; Lawler, D M; van der Horst, D; Chapman, L

    2016-12-01

    The global economy relies heavily on oil and gas resources. However, hydrocarbon exploitation projects can cause significant impacts on the environment. But despite the production of numerous Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) to identify/mitigate such impacts, no study has specifically assessed the quality of EISs for both onshore and offshore oil and gas projects, with tested hypotheses. To address this research gap, our paper, for the first time, develops a modified Lee and Colley evaluation model to assess the quality of 19 sampled oil and gas project EISs produced from 1998 to 2008 in Nigeria. Our findings show that Project Description and Communication of Results are the main areas of strength. However, Environmental Impact Prediction, and Project Decommissioning, were among the key areas requiring attention. A key finding, though, is that Mann-Whitney tests suggest that there is no evidence that the quality of EISs for the latter period (2004-2008) is higher than that of the earlier period (1998-2004). We suggest that periodic systematic review of the quality of submitted/approved EISs (c. every 3-5years) should be established to monitor trends in EIS quality and identify strong and weak areas. This would help to drive continual improvement in both the EIA processes and the resultant EISs of technical engineering projects. Such reviews have the potential to illuminate some of the underlying problems of, and solutions to, oil and gas exploration, production and transportation, and their related environmental impacts. This suggested change would also be useful internationally, including for the burgeoning exploration and production of unconventional hydrocarbon resources.

  1. The Strategy of Voluntary Certification in Italian Olive Oil Industry: Who and Why?

    PubMed

    Riganelli, Chiara; Marchini, Andrea

    2016-01-28

    The phenomenon of asymmetric information is central in the agri-food sector, in which often there is not full information transparency about product quality. This condition is particularly complex considering the high-end products. In order to reduce this information gap, a company can choose voluntarily to participate in certification programs that can be viewed also as a simplification of some organization issues. The research aims to understand the characteristics of firms oriented to use voluntary certifications as a tool to reduce information asymmetries between producers and final consumers. In particular, we want to consider two contexts of analysis: a structural one, considering some specific internal aspects and investment choices of the firms; a second one that takes into account some decisions related to market relationships. The study concerns small and medium olive oil company of Southern Italy. The results show significant values in both the two dimensions considered. Among the first one, there are significances in immaterial company investments but also in physical assets related to the olive oil process. There are several scientific developments relevant to the olive oil process and some of these patents have been reviewed in this paper. In the second part of analysis there are significances in some distribution channels as well as in the export activity. This work aims to contribute to the debate about the addressing of quality policy for a reduction of asymmetric information in the high-end products.

  2. Structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping for oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2015-03-01

    Crude oil is becoming more corrosive with higher sulfur concentration, chloride concentration, and acidity. The increasing presence of naphthenic acids in oils with various environmental conditions at temperatures between 150°C and 400°C can lead to different internal degradation morphologies in refineries that are uniform, non-uniform, or localized pitting. Improved corrosion measurement technology is needed to better quantify the integrity risk associated with refining crude oils of higher acid concentration. This paper first reports a consolidated review of corrosion inspection technology to establish the foundation for structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping. An approach under investigation is to employ flexible ultrasonic thin-film piezoelectric transducer arrays fabricated by the sol-gel manufacturing process for monitoring localized internal corrosion at temperatures up to 400°C. A statistical analysis of sol-gel transducer measurement accuracy using various time of flight thickness calculation algorithms on a flat calibration block is demonstrated.

  3. Afghanistans Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries: $488 Million in U.S. Efforts Show Limited Progress Overall, and Challenges Prevent Further Investment and Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Development Program (SGDP), we focused our audit solely on the Sheberghan Gas Generation Activity (SGGA), the off-budget portion of USAID’s hydrocarbon ...Industries Page 31 various departments of the hydrocarbon regulator. However, the contractor for USAID’s Sheberghan Gas Generation Activity (SGGA...Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction SIGAR 16-11 Audit Report Afghanistan’s Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries

  4. Recent Warming, Rather than Industrial Emissions of Bioavailable Nutrients, Is the Dominant Driver of Lake Primary Production Shifts across the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Jamie C.; Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wang, Xiaowa; Wiklund, Johan A.; Cooke, Colin A.; Evans, Marlene S.; Smol, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwaters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) are vulnerable to the atmospheric emissions and land disturbances caused by the local oil sands industry; however, they are also affected by climate change. Recent observations of increases in aquatic primary production near the main development area have prompted questions about the principal drivers of these limnological changes. Is the enhanced primary production due to deposition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from local industry or from recent climatic changes? Here, we use downcore, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a (VRS-chla) profiles (including diagenetic products) from 23 limnologically-diverse lakes with undisturbed catchments to characterize the pattern of primary production increases in the AOSR. Our aim is to better understand the relative roles of the local oil sands industry versus climate change in driving aquatic primary production trends. Nutrient deposition maps, generated using geostatistical interpolations of spring-time snowpack measurements from a grid pattern across the AOSR, demonstrate patterns of elevated total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and bioavailable nitrogen deposition around the main area of industrial activity. However, this pattern is not observed for bioavailable phosphorus. Our paleolimnological findings demonstrate consistently greater VRS-chla concentrations compared to pre-oil sands development levels, regardless of morphological and limnological characteristics, landscape position, bioavailable nutrient deposition, and dibenzothiophene (DBT)-inferred industrial impacts. Furthermore, breakpoint analyses on VRS-chla concentrations across a gradient of DBT-inferred industrial impact show limited evidence of a contemporaneous change among lakes. Despite the contribution of bioavailable nitrogen to the landscape from industrial activities, we find no consistency in the spatial pattern and timing of VRS-chla shifts with an industrial fertilizing signal. Instead

  5. Oil on the water: Government regulation of a carcinogen in the twentieth-century Lancashire cotton spinning industry.

    PubMed

    Higgins, David; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, mule spinners were prone to a chronic and sometimes fatal skin cancer (often affecting the groin). The disease had reached epidemic proportions by the 1920s, which necessitated action by the government, employers, and trade unions. In contrast to previous accounts, this article focuses on the government's reaction to mule spinners' cancer. Using official records in the National Archives, the slow introduction of health and safety measures by the government is explored in detail. Although obstructionism by the employers played a key role, one of the reasons for government inaction was the ambiguity of scientific research on engineering oils. On the other hand, prolonged scientific research suited a government policy that was framed around self regulation - a policy that had proved largely ineffective by the 1950s.

  6. Efficient conversion of crude glycerol from various industrial wastes into single cell oil by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Adam; Mituła, Paweł; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Mirończuk, Aleksandra M

    2016-05-01

    In this study, crude glycerol from various industries was used to produce lipids via wild type Yarrowia lipolytica A101. We tested samples without any prior purification from five different waste products; each contained various concentrations of glycerol (42-87%) as the sole carbon source. The best results for lipid production were obtained for medium containing glycerol from fat saponification. This reached 1.69gL(-1) (25% of total cell dry weight) with a biomass yield of 0.17gg(-1) in the flasks experiment. The batch cultivation in a bioreactor resulted in enhanced lipid production-it achieved 4.72gL(-1) with a biomass yield 0.21gg(-1). Moreover, the properly selected batch of crude glycerol provides a defined fatty acid composition. In summary, this paper shows that crude glycerol from soap production could be efficiently converted to single cell oil without any prior purification.

  7. A conceptual framework and practical guide for assessing fitness-to-operate in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Mark A; Hodkiewicz, Melinda R; Dunster, Jeremy; Kanse, Lisette; Parkes, Katharine R; Finnerty, Dannielle; Cordery, John L; Unsworth, Kerrie L

    2014-07-01

    The paper outlines a systemic approach to understanding and assessing safety capability in the offshore oil and gas industry. We present a conceptual framework and assessment guide for understanding fitness-to-operate (FTO) that builds a more comprehensive picture of safety capability for regulators and operators of offshore facilities. The FTO framework defines three enabling capitals that create safety capability: organizational capital, social capital, and human capital. For each type of capital we identify more specific dimensions based on current theories of safety, management, and organizational processes. The assessment guide matches specific characteristics to each element of the framework to support assessment of safety capability. The content and scope of the FTO framework enable a more comprehensive coverage of factors that influence short-term and long-term safety outcomes.

  8. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  9. Peanut oil stability and physical properties across a range of industrially relevant O/L ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic cultivars are becoming increasing prevalent in the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life compared to conventional cultivars. High oleic peanuts are typically defined as having oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratios = 9, whereas most traditional varieties have O/L ratios near 1...

  10. Peanut Oil Stability and Physical Properties Across a Range of Industrially Relevant O/L Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic cultivars are becoming increasing prevalent in the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life compared to conventional cultivars. High oleic peanuts are typically defined as having oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratios = 9, whereas most traditional varieties have O/L ratios near 1....

  11. New Method to Produce an Industrial Lubrication Fluid from Vegetable Oil-based Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The projected demand for industrial and automotive lubricants in the U.S. is ~2.6 billion gallons by 2017, where bio-based lubricants will play an increasing role, from a share of 0.6% today to a possible 1.2% by 2017. This is accompanied by the expected price increase to >$7.00/gallon which will g...

  12. Risk perception and safety in the UK offshore oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Flin, R.H.; Mearns, K.; Gordon, R.P.E.; Fleming, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a selection of the final results from a study of risk perception and safety attitudes in workers on UKCS offshore oil and gas platforms, which was sponsored by the HSE Offshore Safety Division, Amerada Hess, British Gas, BP, Conoco, Elf Enterprise and Total Oil Marine. The study was designed in conjunction with Dr Rundmo of Trondheim University who was carrying out a matched survey with Norwegian offshore workers for the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate`. A representative sample of 622 UKCS workers on six production platforms were surveyed about their job characteristics, perceived risks, safety attitudes, safety satisfaction, accidents and injuries and the Safety Case. The results indicate that the relative feelings of safety in relation to major hazards (e.g. explosion, blow-out) are aligned with QRA calculations. In general, the workforce feel safe but are aware of the hazards in their environment. Further analyses and statistical modelling indicates that organizational factors (e.g. management commitment to safety, safety attitudes) have the greatest direct effect on workers perception of risk and their satisfaction with safety measures. The British and Norwegian data sets are now being merged and preliminary findings will be mentioned. To explore the emerging issues further, a new study on human factors in UK offshore safety has just been launched with the support of OSD, OCA and six operating and contractor companies. A brief outline will be presented.

  13. [Comparative analysis of occupational health services practice of international companies of oil and gas industry and ILO Convention "Occupational Health Services"].

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, É V; Spiridonov, V L; Shatokhin, A S; Ékgardt, E V; Avdokhin, A V; Iakovlev, A P

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of current work practices of occupational health services of international companies of Russian oil & gas industry and provisions of ILO Convention 161 and Recommendation 171 "Occupational Health Services" has been carried out. Proposals for improvement and harmonization of labor legislation related to this problem have been formulated.

  14. A fractional differential equation for a MEMS viscometer used in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitt, A. D.; Goodwin, A. R. H.; Ronaldson, K. A.; Wakeham, W. A.

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed for a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) instrument that has been designed primarily to measure the viscosity of fluids that are encountered during oil well exploration. It is shown that, in one mode of operation, the displacement of the device satisfies a fractional differential equation (FDE). The theory of FDEs is used to solve the governing equation in closed form and numerical solutions are also determined using a simple but efficient central difference scheme. It is shown how knowledge of the exact and numerical solutions enables the design of the device to be optimised. It is also shown that the numerical scheme may be extended to encompass the case of a nonlinear spring, where the resulting FDE is nonlinear.

  15. Vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic waste from olive oil industry: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Benítez, E; Sainz, H; Melgar, R; Nogales, R

    2002-04-01

    The vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of dry olive cake, a lignocellulosic waste produced during the extraction of olive oil, either alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, was studied in a nine-month pilot scale experiment. Number and biomass of earthworms and enzyme activities were periodically monitored and relevant properties of the final products were determined. In the assayed substrates, the total biomass of earthworms increased at the end of the experimental period between 9 and 12-fold respectively in comparison with the earthworm biomass initially inoculated. The increase in hydrolytic enzymes and overall microbial activity during the vermicomposting process indicated the biodegradation of the olive cake and resulted in the disappearance of the initial phytotoxicity of the substrate. However, the recalcitrant lignocellulosic nature of the dry olive cake prevented suitable humification during the vermicomposting process. For this reason, in addition to organic amendments, other management procedures should be considered.

  16. Aerosol sampling and characterization in the developing US oil-shale industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Tillery, M.I.; Gonzales, M.; Garcia, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Aerosol sampling and characterization studies of workplace air were conducted at four demonstration-scale oil shale facilities located in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. These facilities consisted of an underground mining/aboveground retorting facility, two modified in situ retorting facilities with associated underground mining, and a true in situ retorting facility. Emphasis was placed on study of the retorting phase of operation at these facilities. Aerosol samples were collected on filter media by high volume air samplers, low volume portable sampling pumps with or without cyclone pre-separators, and cascade impactors. Samples were analyzed to determine total and respirable dust concentrations, particle size distributions, free silica content, total benzene or cyclohexane extractables, and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Total and respirable dust were observed to range from very low to very high concentrations, with significant free silica content. Measurable levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also observed at each of the facilities.

  17. Human and ecotoxicological impacts assessment from the Mexican oil industry in the Coatzacoalcos region, as revealed by the USEtox model.

    PubMed

    Morales-Mora, M A; Rodríguez-Pérez, B; Martínez-Delgadillo, S A; Rosa-Domínguez, E; Nolasco-Hipólito, C

    2014-01-01

    Human and ecotoxicological impacts were analyzed in the lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River (Veracruz, State in Mexico). High pollution levels of contaminants from the oil industry have been reported in natural streams and the Coatzacoalcos River and in their sediments. USEtox model was employed to evaluate environmental fate, exposure, and effect of nine organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and one of which was in the group of polychlorinated biphenyls), a heavy metal (lead), and the effect of the industrial wastewater emitted into the river, on the Coatzacoalcos region. Most of these compounds are highly toxic; they bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, mainly in the fatty tissues and can damage different organs and systemic targets such as the liver, kidney, hormonal system, nervous system, etc., of both humans and wildlife. The model estimates that 96% (3,247 kg/day) of organic compounds is transferred from the water into air, whereas only 4% (151 kg/day) remains in the water. In addition, it predicts that humans are mainly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners (28 and 153) by eating contaminated fish, due to PCBs accumulating in the fish fat tissue. The number of cases of cancer and noncancer (1 in 862 habitants per additional kilogram) is expected to have an increment due to the higher PCBs exposure of human population. Genetic damages in fishes, earthworms, and toads have been observed and related to higher exposure to organic compounds. The relationship between the field reported data and those one predicted by the USEtox model have been confirmed empirically by using the nonparametric correlation analysis (Spearman's rho). Based on the USEtox model, the environmental stress in the Coatzacoalcos industrial zone is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude over geometric mean of acute aquatic EC₅₀s. We think that USEtox model can be used to expand the number of substances that have the current water quality guidelines to

  18. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  19. Diagnostic study of job design in oil industry: Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.

    1986-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to diagnose the work situation of members of McMurray Independent Oil Workers (MIOW) Union, employed with Suncor, Inc., Fort McMurray and make recommendations for work improvements. Hackman and Oldham's Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and four scales of Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Form XII were used to collect data from MIOW Union members with a sample size of 50% of the population. Ninety-eight usable questionnaires were received back by the investigator. The major concepts measured included job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback from job, feedback from agents, and dealing with others), affective outcomes (motivation, job satisfaction, and growth satisfaction), supervisory behaviors (initiating structure, consideration, production emphasis, persuasiveness) and demographic variables. Data were analyzed by using MINITAB and SPSSX statistical packages. Greater consideration and emotional support on the part of supervisors could increase affective outcomes and satisfaction with supervision and should result in greater organizational effectiveness. The overall pattern of quality of work life appeared to be production-oriented characterized by lack of supervisory considerations and less conducive for greater organizational performance.

  20. Crises Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Niger Delta Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odemene, Glory C.

    The Niger Delta crises escalated beyond the borders of the Nigerian nation to become an issue that affected individuals and corporations around the world. This study led to the discovery of how the local crises escalated with international implications. This discovery was accomplished by addressing how the Niger Delta crises escalated from villages to international scenes, with notable impacts on the environment, health, safety, security, and financial segments of local, international, private, and corporate entities. Using Sweeny's crisis decision theory and Lazarus and Folkman's coping theory, the study considered the coping strategies of community members, the decisions, and actions they took in response to the management approaches of the government and the oil and gas companies (OGCs). This qualitative study utilized historical narrative to collect data by interviewing 4 participants who lived and worked in the region during the crises. NVivo was used for manual and automatic coding of data, as well as for categorization and connection of codes. Content analysis of identified codes and categories revealed the themes and trends in the experiences narrated by participants. Findings include the root causes, trend of escalation, and management strategies of the government and the OGCs that influenced the crises. These findings will help to influence policies and practices in the region and enhance effective management of current and emerging conflicts, with possibilities of restoring stability and security in the areas and in the nation at large.

  1. Outsourcing of common industry data within a major oil and gas exploration company

    SciTech Connect

    Hude, C.G. ); Glover, S. )

    1993-09-01

    Enhancing user productivity while reducing internal costs through improved accessibility and virtual elimination of data and software maintenance were the initial goals of this project. We achieved these objectives through the outsourcing of common well and production data with a major vendor. In this paper, we outline the changing internal business operations of a major oil company and its associated vendor relationship. The goals of this project were multifold: provide our users with real-time access to nationwide well and production data, eliminate data and system software maintenance and support, redeploy computer system resources and personnel for use elsewhere within the organization, and continue to provide users with the same level of service at less cost. We established a satisfactory interface between the users and the vendor database by employing existing technology. A mainframe-to-mainframe connection was established by installing a leased line between the two host sites. This allowed both companies to use existing network facilities with minimal modifications to each operating environment. This project was begun successfully in a relatively short time. Due to the success of this project, we are evaluating adding company proprietary data. However, because technology and requirements change, relational delivery of the data within a workstation/server environment can be addressed within this framework.

  2. Determination of amines used in the oil and gas industry (upstream section) by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kadnar, R

    1999-07-30

    During production and purification of crude oil and natural gas several different amines are used as chemicals or operating materials, e.g. film forming long chain amines as corrosion inhibitors, steam volatile amines for pH correction and corrosion protection, alkanolamines as absorbents in sour gas treatment plants, etc. For analytical checks, e.g. determination of corrosion inhibitor concentration in produced media, classical chemical methods are used predominantly, because most of them can be performed in small field laboratories. Some amines, especially the small molecular aliphatic and heterocyclic amines can also be determined by ion chromatography. In our laboratory two types of separation columns (IonPac CS10 and CS12A) were available for ion chromatographic separation. The analysis of the amines in low-salt-containing water, soft water or steam condensate can be performed without problems. The presence of alkali and/or alkaline earth ions in the sample can lead to coelution with these ions, to poor peak resolution or enhanced analysis times, depending on the chromatographic conditions. This work shows some examples of ion chromatography applications for the determination of low-molecular-mass ethanolamines, morpholine and piperazine and discusses the possible interferences and troubles caused by alkali and alkaline earth ions in the matrix.

  3. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.

  4. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions.

    PubMed

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2012-08-01

    Increased drilling in urban areas overlying shale formations and its potential impact on human health through decreased air quality make it important to estimate the contribution of oil and gas activities to photochemical smog. Flares and compressor engines used in natural gas operations, for example, are large sources not only of NOx but also offormaldehyde, a hazardous air pollutant and powerful ozone precursor We used a neighborhood scale (200 m horizontal resolution) three-dimensional (3D) air dispersion model with an appropriate chemical mechanism to simulate ozone formation in the vicinity ofa hypothetical natural gas processing facility, based on accepted estimates of both regular and nonroutine emissions. The model predicts that, under average midday conditions in June, regular emissions mostly associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility, assuming there are no other major sources of ozone precursors. Flare volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour ofnatural gas over a period of 2 hr can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone somewhatfurther (>8 km) downwind, once dilution overcomes ozone titration and inhibition by large flare emissions of NOx. The additional peak ozone from the hypothetical flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb about 16 km downwind. The enhancements of ambient ozone predicted by the model are significant, given that ozone control strategy widths are of the order of a few parts per billion. Degrading the horizontal resolution of the model to 1 km spuriously enhances the simulated ozone increases by reducing the effectiveness of ozone inhibition and titration due to artificial plume dilution.

  5. Exposure to PAH compounds among cokery workers in the oil shale industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kuljukka, T.; Vaaranrinta, R.; Peltonen, K.

    1996-05-01

    The exposure of Estonian cokery workers to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons at an oil shale processing plant was assessed by occupational hygiene and biomonitoring measurements. To assess the external dose of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were measured from the breathing zone of workers during a workshift. Skin contamination with pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene was assessed by skin wipe sampling. As a biomarker of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and as an integral of all possible absorption routes of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene concentration was measured from post-shift urine samples. Eighteen percent of the personal air samples exceeded the Finnish threshold limit value of benzo[a]pyrene (10 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). Mean values for benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene were 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 8.1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. Based on skin wipe sample analyses, the skin contamination was also obvious. The mean value of benzo[a]pyrene on the samples collected after the shift was 1.2 ng/cm{sup 2}. In control samples, benzo[a]pyrene was not found. The mean value of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration was 6.0 nmol/mmol creatinine for the exposed workers and 0.5 nmol/mmol creatinine for the controls. This study showed the usefulness of 1-hydroxypyrene as an indicator of internal dose of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. We concluded that the cokery workers at the Kohtla-Jaerve plant are exposed to high concentrations of polynuclear aromatic compounds. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared

  7. Kinetics of coffee industrial residue pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model and components separation of bio-oil by sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the kinetics of coffee industrial residue (CIR) pyrolysis, the effect of pyrolysis factors on yield of bio-oil component and components separation of bio-oil. The kinetics of CIR pyrolysis was analyzed using distributed activation energy model (DAEM), based on the experiments in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and it indicated that the average of activation energy (E) is 187.86kJ·mol(-1). The bio-oils were prepared from CIR pyrolysis in vacuum tube furnace, and its components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among pyrolysis factors, pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor on components yield of bio-oil, directly concerned with the volatilization and yield of components (palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid and caffeine). Furthermore, a new method (sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis) was put forward and applied to the components separation of bio-oil. Based on experiments, a solution of components separation of bio-oil was come out.

  8. Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

  9. Coenzyme Q10-containing composition (Immugen) protects against occupational and environmental stress in workers of the gas and oil industry.

    PubMed

    Korkina, Ludmila; Deeva, Irina; Ibragimova, Galina; Shakula, Alexander; Luci, Antonio; De Luca, Chiara

    2003-01-01

    The manual workers of the gas-and-oil extraction industry are exposed to hostile environmental and occupational conditions, resulting in elevated mortality and disability, due to chronic neurological and cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the degree of oxidative stress, often associated with these pathological features, in the blood of manual and office employees of Russian Siberian extraction plants, and their psycho-physiological conditions. Results showed increased levels of spontaneous (p < 0.05) and PMA-activated (p < 0.01) luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) in the white blood cells (WBC), and decreased peroxynitrite levels (p < 0.05) in the group of manual workers, and less markedly in the clerks and technicians working on spot, vs. a control group of city clerks. Superoxide release by WBC, and plasma/WBC membrane ubiquinol levels did not display major differences in the three groups. A relevant percentage of manual/office workers of extraction platforms presented impaired cardiovascular and neurological functions. The short term administration of a nutraceutical formulation based on coenzyme10, vitamin E, selenium, methionine and phospholipids led to significant improvement of cardiovascular parameters and psycho-emotional status, consistent with the normalization of LDCL and peroxynitrite production by WBC, with a good compliance to treatment confirmed by the increased blood levels of ubiquinol.

  10. Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N

    2010-10-01

    Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner.

  11. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.

  12. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole by solid-state fermentation of Eucalyptus waste from the essential oil industry using Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus.

    PubMed

    Omarini, Alejandra; Dambolena, José Sebastián; Lucini, Enrique; Jaramillo Mejía, Santiago; Albertó, Edgardo; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnological conversion of low-cost agro-industrial by-products, such as industrial waste or terpenes from the distillation of essential oils from plants into more valuable oxygenated derivatives, can be achieved by using microbial cells or enzymes. In Argentina, the essential oil industry produces several tons of waste each year that could be used as raw materials in the production of industrially relevant and value-added compounds. In this study, 1,8-cineole, one of the components remaining in the spent leaves of the Eucalyptus cinerea waste, was transformed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using the two edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus. As a result, two new oxygenated derivatives of 1,8-cineole were identified: 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2.2.2]octan-6-ol and 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2.2.2]octan-6-one. Additionally, changes in the relative percentages of other aroma compounds present in the substrate were observed during SSF. Both fungal strains have the ability to produce aroma compounds with potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Relocating and Characterizing the 10 Feb 2006 "Green Canyon" Gulf of Mexico Earthquake Using Oil-Industry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, J. A.; Dewey, J. W.; Blum, J.; Nettles, M.

    2007-12-01

    On 10 Feb 2006, a magnitude 5.2 earthquake occurred in the Green Canyon deep-water block of the Gulf of Mexico offshore Louisiana. At the time, this was the largest earthquake in the Northern Gulf of Mexico since at least the early 1970's. This earthquake is of particular interest to the oil industry because of its location in an area of significant underwater infrastructure development. The earthquake is also of interest to the earthquake seismology community because of its unusual intra-plate location and anomalous signature. The earthquake's radiated high-frequency body waves were unusually weak compared to its surface waves, and attempts to fit the earthquake with a typical double-couple source mechanism have been unsuccessful. The event could not be well located using traditional seismic monitoring networks because of the lack of any nearby observations, especially to the South. Two nearby oil-exploration seismic surveys did serendipitously record the event from the South, however: the BP-BHP Atlantis Ocean-Bottom-Node survey, and the CGG Green-Canyon phase VIII multi-client streamer survey. These surveys' instruments were not designed for recording frequencies below 5Hz, so the earthquake signals were weak -- much weaker than the high-frequency signals from the surveys' own airguns (which is what the instruments were designed to record). However, by low-pass filtering the data and beam-forming the arrays (of several hundred receivers each) we were able to extract usable earthquake arrivals. These new seismic observations were then used by the USGS in a first-arrival traveltime inversion to relocate the earthquake. We also measured the phase velocity and azimuth of the earthquake arrivals across the arrays, and used those azimuths as an independent method of estimating the event's location. The event was also recorded by a SeaStar Tension-Leg Platform, which reported an apparent local subsidence of the seafloor of\\ .8 inches associated with the event. We are

  14. A comparison of different regulatory approaches, analysis of the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaati, Sahar

    This paper explores the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations. Recognizing why oil sands and their development are significant, the background and development are reviewed first, and then the focus is shifted to look at its economics including the benefits, uncertainties and environmental costs of development. This paper examines how lawmakers in Canada have failed to meet their respective obligation. Drawing on environmental provisions, case law and legal scholars’ articles, books and reports, this paper examines the very problematic issue of oil sands regulation. It proposes to provide an in depth analysis of each regulatory forms and their application to the oil sands. It concludes that in order to solve the oil sands regulation challenges, a collaborative stringent enforcement of regulation from both federal and provincial governments, oil industry and public Pressure is required.

  15. Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs in a Changing Oil and Gas Industry: the Role of Flexibility. As the Oil Industry continues to shed jobs due to the global downturn in oil prices, one of the most vulnerable sectors to job loss are the middle-skilled workers such as the technicians and drill operators. We present options and ideas to mitigate the problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, K.

    2015-12-01

    Middle-skilled workers are those whose jobs require considerable skill but not an advanced degree. Nationwide, one-third of the projected job growth for 2010-2020 will require middle-skilled workers. The educational paths to these jobs include career and technical education (CTE), certificates and associate's degrees from community colleges, apprenticeship programs, and training provided by employers. In the oil industry, the demand is expected to about 150,000 jobs. In environmental restoration and monitoring, there will be a need for at least 15,000 middle-skilled workers. Examples of the types of jobs include geological and petroleum technicians, derrick and drill operators, and pump system and refinery operators for the oil and gas sector. For the environmental restoration and monitoring sector, the types of jobs include environmental science technicians, and forest (and coastal) conservation technicians and workers. However, all of these numbers will be influenced by the growth and contraction of the regional or national economy that is not uncommon in the private sector. Over the past year, for example, the oil and gas industry has shed approximately 75,000 jobs (out of a workforce of 600,000) here in the United States, due almost exclusively to the drop of oil prices globally. A disproportionate number of the lost jobs were among the middle-skilled workforce. Meanwhile, the recent settlements stemming from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are expected to create a surge of environmental restoration activity in the Gulf of Mexico region that has the potential to create thousands of new jobs over the next decade and beyond. Consequently, there is a need to develop education, training and apprenticeship programs that will help develop flexibility and complementary skill sets among middle-skilled workers that could help reduce the impacts of economic downturns and meet the needs of newly expanding sectors such as the environmental restoration field. This

  16. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  17. Levels of benzo(a)pyrene in oil shale industry wastes, some bodies of water in the Estonian S.S.R. and in water organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paalme, L P

    1979-01-01

    Data on the content of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale industry wastewater, the effectiveness of various effluent treatment processes (evaporation, extraction with butyl acetate, trickling filters, aeration tanks) in reducing the level of BP in oil shale wastewater, the level of BP in various bodies of water of Estonia, and in fish and other water organisms are reviewed. The quantitative determination of BP in concentrated diethyl ether extracts of water samples was carried out by ultraviolet and spectroluminescence procedures by use of the quasi-linear spectra at -196 degrees C in solid paraffins. It has been found that oil shale industry wastewater contains large amounts of BP. The most efficient purification process for removing the BP in oil shale industry phenol water is extraction with butyl acetate. The level of BP in the rivers of the oil shale industry area is comparatively higher than in other bodies of water of the Republic. The concentration of BP in the lakes of the Estonian S.S.R. is on the whole insignificant. Even the maximum concentration found in our lakes is as a rule less than the safety limit for BP in bodies of water (0.005 microgram/l). During water is treated at the waterworks. The effectiveness of the water treatment in reducing the level of BP varies from 11 to 88%. Filtration was found to be the most effective treatment. About 20 samples of fish from nine bodies of water in Estonia have been analyzed for content of BP. The average content of BP in the muscular tissue of various species of fish is as a rule less than 1 microgram/kg. There is no significant difference in the concentration of BP in sea and freshwater fish. There is no important difference in the content of BP in the organs of various fish. Fat fish contain more BP than lean ones. The weight (age) of fish does not influence the content of BP in the muscular tissue of fish. PMID:571803

  18. Testing and prediction of erosion-corrosion for corrosion resistant alloys used in the oil and gas production industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, Hernan E.

    The corrosion behavior of CRAs has been thoroughly investigated and documented in the public literature by many researchers; however, little work has been done to investigate erosion-corrosion of such alloys. When sand particles are entrained in the flow, the degradation mechanism is different from that observed for sand-free corrosive environment. There is a need in the oil and gas industry to define safe service limits for utilization of such materials. The effects of flow conditions, sand rate, pH and temperature on the erosion-corrosion of CRAs were widely studied. An extensive experimental work was conducted using scratch tests and flow loop tests using several experimental techniques. At high erosivity conditions, a synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion was observed. Under the high sand rate conditions tested, erosivity is severe enough to damage the passive layer protecting the CRA thereby enhancing the corrosion rate. In most cases there is likely a competition between the rates of protective film removal due to mechanical erosion and protective film healing. Synergism occurs for each of the three alloys examined (13Cr and Super13Cr and 22Cr); however, the degree of synergism is quite different for the three alloys and may not be significant for 22Cr for field conditions where erosivities are typically much lower that those occurring in the small bore loop used in this research. Predictions of the corrosion component of erosion-corrosion based on scratch test data compared reasonably well to test results from flow loops for the three CRAs at high erosivity conditions. Second order behavior appears to be an appropriate and useful model for representing the repassivation process of CRAs. A framework for a procedure to predict penetration rates for erosion-corrosion conditions was developed based on the second order model behavior observed for the re-healing process of the passive film of CRAs and on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations

  19. Recombinant endo-mannanase (ManB-1601) production using agro-industrial residues: Development of economical medium and application in oil extraction from copra.

    PubMed

    Kaira, Gaurav Singh; Panwar, Deepesh; Kapoor, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    Expression of pRSETA manb-1601 construct in Hi-Control Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells improved recombinant endo-mannanase (ManB-1601) production by 2.73-fold (1821±100U/ml). A low-cost, agro-industrial residue supplemented industrial medium for enhanced and economical production of ManB-1601 was developed in two mutual phases. Phase-I revealed the potential of various pre- (induction time: 5h, induction mode: lactose 0.5mM) and post-induction [peptone supplementation: 0.94%(w/v), glycerol 0.123%(v/v)] parameters for enhanced production of ManB-1601 and resulted in 4.61-fold (8406±400U/ml) and 2.53-fold (3.30g/l) higher ManB-1601 and biomass production, respectively. Under phase-II, economization of phase-I medium was carried out by reducing/replacing costly ingredients with solubilized-defatted flax seed meal (S-DFSM), which resulted in 3.25-fold (5926U/ml) higher ManB-1601 production. Industrial potential of ManB-1601 was shown in oil extraction from copra as enzyme treatment led to cracks, peeling, fracturing and smoothening of copra, which facilitated higher (18.75%) oil yield.

  20. Partial Reform Equilibrium in Russia: A Case Study of the Political Interests of and in the Russian Gas and Oil Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Rabekah

    While several theories abound that attempt to explain the obstacles to democracy in Russia, Joel Hellman's partial reform equilibrium model is an institutional theory that illustrates how weak institutions, combined with an instrumentalist cultural approach to the law and authoritarian-minded leadership, allowed the struggle over interests to craft and determine the nature of Russia's political structure. This thesis builds on the work of Hellman by using the partial reform theory to understand the evolution of interest infiltration and their impact on the formation of policies and institutions in favour of the elites or winners from 2004 to the present time period that allow them to wield law as a political weapon. The hypothesis posits that through their vested interests in state politics, the political and economic elites of the oil and gas industry have successfully stalled reform in Russia resulting in partial reform equilibrium. This is illustrated in a case study that was designed to collect the names, backgrounds, and social networks of gas and oil executives in order to determine how many of them have a history of, or are currently working as, ministers in the government or representatives in the Federation Council. The objective being to measure the degree to which gas and oil interests are present in government decision-making and conversely, the degree to which the government is present in the gas and oil industry. The thesis stresses the importance of institutional structure in determining Russia's political evolution, and uses vested interests as a primary source of structural institutional change, while also stressing on the social and international implications of this evolution.

  1. 75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... production of oil and natural gas. Background: Helium-3 is a non-radioactive isotope of Helium that is a byproduct of the decay of Tritium. Its main use is for neutron detection devices used in scientific...

  2. Method of evaluating the impact of ERP implementation critical success factors - a case study in oil and gas industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajic, Gordana; Stankovski, Stevan; Ostojic, Gordana; Tesic, Zdravko; Miladinovic, Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    The so far implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have in many cases failed to meet the requirements regarding the business process control, decrease of business costs and increase of company profit margin. Therefore, there is a real need for an evaluation of the influence of ERP on the company's performance indicators. Proposed in this article is an advanced model for the evaluation of the success of ERP implementation on organisational and operational performance indicators in oil-gas companies. The recommended method establishes a correlation between a process-based method, a scorecard model and ERP critical success factors. The method was verified and tested on two case studies in oil-gas companies using the following procedure: the model was developed, tested and implemented in a pilot gas-oil company, while the results were implemented and verified in another gas-oil company.

  3. Oil Industry, Solar Energy Industry, and Mining Occupations. Curriculum for Petroleum, Mining and Solar Energy Secretaries. July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Gloria E.

    This document is a packet of instructional materials for training secretaries and clerks for the petroleum, mining, and solar energy fields. Developed by Eastern New Mexico University and the New Mexico State Department of Vocational Education, and aimed at New Mexico industry, the curriculum is divided into three units of petroleum, mining, and…

  4. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999

    PubMed Central

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel, exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort. PMID:25671393

  5. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel; exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort.

  6. Extractive leviathan: The role of the government in the relationships between oil and gas industries and indigenous communities in the Arctic regions of Canada, United States and Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, Evgeniia

    This comparative research analyzes the extent to which the governments of Canada, the United States and Russia affect the relationships between the petroleum extractive industries and Indigenous peoples of the Arctic in order to protect Indigenous peoples from the negative impacts of oil and gas extraction. The hypothesis of this study is that the government can protect Indigenous communities only by providing for their participation in decision-making processes about oil and gas development. The comparative analysis showed that in comparison with Canada and the United States, Russia has the worst legal protection of Indigenous peoples in petroleum-extractive regions. The recognition of Aboriginal title by Canada and the U.S. allowed Indigenous communities the best opportunities to be involved in oil and gas development, whereas Russia failed to grant this recognition. Therefore, the recognition of land claims by the government is the best way to protect traditional lands and lifestyles of Indigenous peoples from the negative externalities of petroleum extraction.

  7. Triacylglycerols profiling in plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-07-11

    Optimized non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using acetonitrile-2-propanol gradient elution and the column coupling in the total length of 45 cm has been applied for the high resolution separation of plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics. Positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is used for the unambiguous identification and also the reliable quantitation with the response factors approach. Based on the precise determination of individual triacyglycerol concentrations, the calculation of average parameters important in the nutrition is performed, i.e. average carbon number, average double bond number, relative concentrations of essential, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results are reported in the form of both chromatographic fingerprints and tables containing relative concentrations for all triacylglycerols and fatty acids in individual samples. In total, 264 triacylglycerols consisting of 28 fatty acids with the alkyl chain length from 6 to 26 carbon atoms and 0 to 4 double bonds have been identified in 26 industrial important plant oils.

  8. NO sub x control for industrial boilers utilizing the NOxOUT process firing gas or oil, gas and fiberfuel or oil and fiberfuel

    SciTech Connect

    Confuorto, N. ); Sommerlad, R.E. ); Hofmann, J. ); Karpeles, R.S.; Zinsky, L.P. )

    1992-01-01

    As a result of recent legislation Garden State Paper Co., Inc., (GSP) a major producer of recycled newspaper, was required to develop a new disposal technique for its by-product fiber fines and deinking residuals sludge. The system chosen was not an alternative disposal technique but rather one that results in recycle as a recovered fuel in its own boilers. In order not to turn a water pollution solution into an air pollution problem, severe air emissions controls were employed. The recycled sludge after drying, known as Fiberfuel, will be burned in two GSP boilers in new burners. These burners have the capability of burning Fiberfuel in combination with gas or oil, and gas or oil alone. In order to minimize NO{sub x} emissions the two boilers were equipped with low-NO{sub x} burners and the NOxOUT Process, the first such commercial application of this process with Fiberfuel. This paper focuses on the successful design, implementation, and test plans of the NOxOUT with the various fuel combinations.

  9. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  10. Underwater robotic work systems for Russian arctic offshore oil/gas industry: Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-15

    The study was performed in association with Rosshelf, a shelf developing company located in Moscow. This volume involves developing an underwater robotic work system for oil exploration in Russia`s Arctic waters, Sea of Okhotsk and the Caspian Sea. The contents include: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Study Background; (3) Study Outline and Results; (4) Conclusions; (5) Separately Published Elements; (6) List of Subcontractors.

  11. Safe Drinking Water and Satisfaction with Environmental Quality of Life in Some Oil and Gas Industry Impacted Cities of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejechi, E. O.; Ejechi, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    The availability and safety of drinking water and the environmental quality of life was investigated in five cities located in an oil-producing area of Nigeria using questionnaire-based scales, discussion and laboratory tests. Polythene-packaged sachet water and commercial and non-commercial private boreholes largely met the drinking water…

  12. FACT SHEET: EPAS STRATEGY FOR REDUCING METHANE AND OZONE-FORMING POLLUTION FROM THE OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    January 14, 2015 -- As part of the Obama Administration's commitment to addressing climate change, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has outlined a series of steps it plans to take to address methane and smog-forming VOC emissions from the oil

  13. [The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in oil industry workers].

    PubMed

    Abdullaev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in employees of a sea oil and gas company is considered. The primary role of smoking in pathogenesis of COPD is confirmed Direct and indirect influence of smoking is enhanced by occupational and climatic factors leading to the development of persistent disturbances of ventilation.

  14. The toxicity and fate of phenolic pollutants in the contaminated soils associated with the oil-shale industry.

    PubMed

    Kahru, Anne; Maloverjan, Alla; Sillak, Helgi; Põllumaa, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols considered major pollutants in the oil-shale semi-coke dump leachates (up to 380 mg phenols/L) that contaminate the surrounding soils and pose a threat to the groundwater in the North-East of Estonia. However; despite high residual concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oil products in these soils, the concentration of phenols (especially their water-extractable fraction) was low, not exceeding 0.7 mg/kg dwt. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of biodegradation and aging on the decrease of hazard caused by phenolic pollution. The extractability of phenols (phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols) and their biodegradability by the microbial population was studied in the 13 soils sampled from the Estonian oil-shale region, territories of former gas stations, and from presumably non-polluted areas. Phenol, 5-methylresorcinol, p-cresol and resorcinol could be considered easily degradable in the soils as the microbial populations from majority of the soils studied were able to grow on mineral medium supplemented with these phenols as a single source of carbon. 2,3- and 2,4- and 3,4-dimethylphenols could be considered less easily biodegradable. The semi-coke dump leachate polluted soil (containing no dibasic phenols, 43 mg of monobasic phenols, 1348 mg of oil products and 35 mg of PAHs per g dwt) was analyzed chemically (HPLC) and toxicologically (Flash-Assay using Vibrio fischeri) for the leaching of phenols during shaking of soil-water slurries for 24 h. Only 5.8% of the total concentration of phenols was water-extractable, whereas about 50% of the leached amount was biodegraded by the soil microorganisms. Phenol and cresols were biodegraded by 80%, but the concentration of dimethylphenols practically did not change. The pollutants (measured as total water-extractable toxicity) were desorbed from the soil particles by the 8th h of extraction, whereas the toxicity of the aqueous

  15. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  16. Recovery Act: Develop a Modular Curriculum for Training University Students in Industry Standard CO{sub 2} Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R. C.; Stoudt, E. L.

    2013-05-31

    CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery, Sequestration, & Monitoring Measuring & Verification are topics that are not typically covered in Geoscience, Land Management, and Petroleum Engineering curriculum. Students are not typically exposed to the level of training that would prepare them for CO{sub 2} reservoir and aquifer sequestration related projects when they begin assignments in industry. As a result, industry training, schools & conferences are essential training venues for new & experienced personnel working on CO{sub 2} projects for the first time. This project collected and/or generated industry level CO{sub 2} training to create modules which faculties can utilize as presentations, projects, field trips and site visits for undergrad and grad students and prepare them to "hit the ground running" & be contributing participants in CO{sub 2} projects with minimal additional training. In order to create the modules, UTPB/CEED utilized a variety of sources. Data & presentations from industry CO{sub 2} Flooding Schools & Conferences, Carbon Management Workshops, UTPB Classes, and other venues was tailored to provide introductory reservoir & aquifer training, state-of-the-art methodologies, field seminars and road logs, site visits, and case studies for students. After discussions with faculty at UTPB, Sul Ross, Midland College, other universities, and petroleum industry professionals, it was decided to base the module sets on a series of road logs from Midland to, and through, a number of Permian Basin CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, CO{sub 2} Carbon Capture and Storage (CCUS) projects and outcrop equivalents of the formations where CO{sub 2} is being utilized or will be utilized, in EOR projects in the Permian Basin. Although road logs to and through these projects exist, none of them included CO{sub 2} specific information. Over 1400 miles of road logs were created, or revised specifically to highlight CO{sub 2} EOR projects. After testing a number of

  17. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    PubMed Central

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  18. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  19. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  20. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  1. Introduction to industrial crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While any seed oil can fill certain non-food applications, there are hundreds of seed oils containing a different complement of fatty acids that impart physical and chemical properties making the oil and associated fatty acids especially useful for industrial and other non-food uses. These differenc...

  2. The role of passive sampling in monitoring the environmental impacts of produced water discharges from the Norwegian oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Oen, Amy M P; Cornelissen, Gerard; Jonker, Michiel T O; Waarum, Ivar-Kristian; Eek, Espen

    2016-10-15

    Stringent and periodic iteration of regulations related to the monitoring of chemical releases from the offshore oil and gas industry requires the use of ever changing, rapidly developing and technologically advancing techniques. Passive samplers play an important role in water column monitoring of produced water (PW) discharge to seawater under Norwegian regulation, where they are used to; i) measure aqueous concentrations of pollutants, ii) quantify the exposure of caged organisms and investigate PW dispersal, and iii) validate dispersal models. This article summarises current Norwegian water column monitoring practice and identifies research and methodological gaps for the use of passive samplers in monitoring. The main gaps are; i) the range of passive samplers used should be extended, ii) differences observed in absolute concentrations accumulated by passive samplers and organisms should be understood, and iii) the link between PW discharge concentrations and observed acute and sub-lethal ecotoxicological end points in organisms should be investigated.

  3. [The influence of the oil and gas industry on environmental safety and population health in the Khanty-Mansiĭskiĭ Region - Iugra].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Vorob'ev, V O; Butorin, N N

    2013-01-01

    Production activities of oil and gas industry plants are related to technogenic impact on the environment, which has a high environmental risk. This is associated with low levels of environmental orientation of sheer technological processes of exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons and also used in this technical means, materials and chemical reagents. The main pollutants that deteriorate the toxic characteristics of drilling waste, are the most likely drilling fluids, mud flush agents and chemicals, which enter into their composition. Existing methods of disposal of drilling wastes are not effective, the technology of their use is often violated. Dumping drilling waste into water bodies and burying toxic waste in water protection areas under the guise of processed waste has been observed. In the region there are significantly exceeded the national average values rate of morbidity of allergic, cardiovascular, pulmonary and cancer diseases, mediated by environmental factors and new monofactorial and multifactorial diseases appear.

  4. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  5. Single cell oil production from a newly isolated Candida viswanathii Y-E4 and agro-industrial by-products valorization.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Ines; Kamoun, Omama; Trigui-Lahiani, Hèla; Hdiji, Anouar; Gargouri, Ali; Belghith, Hafedh; Guerfali, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel and added-value compounds production. To this end, new oleaginous yeast, Candida viswanathii Y-E4 was isolated, characterized and used for single cell oil (SCO) production. Physiologic and nutritional parameters optimization was carried out for improved biomass and lipid production. Y-E4 strain was able to use a wide range of substrates, especially C5 and C6 sugars as well as glycerol and hydrophobic substrates. The fatty acid profile analysis showed that oleic acid was the main component produced using different substrates. Batch and fed-bath fermentation were conducted using glucose as carbon source. Lipid production rate is twice higher in fed-batch culture providing a lipid content of 50 % (w/w). To minimize the SCO production cost, C. viswanathii Y-E4 was evaluated for its capacity to use different agro-industrial by-products for microbial oil production and changes in the fatty acid profile were monitored.

  6. Digging Deep for Meaning: A Critical Hermeneutic Analysis of CEO Letters to Shareholders in the Oil Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Anshuman; Mir, Raza

    2002-01-01

    Uses the methodology of critical hermeneutics to analyze Chief Executive Officers' letters to shareholders in the United States petroleum industry during the 1970s and 1980s. Suggests these letters were deployed to produce a certain attitude toward OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) among their readers that deflected attention of…

  7. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  8. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  9. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-value by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.

  10. Bioconversion of agro-industrial by-products in rhamnolipids toward applications in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Alves, Eliana; Domingues, M Rosário; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-02-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was optimized using low-cost substrates. The highest biosurfactant production (3.2 g/l) was obtained using a culture medium containing corn steep liquor (10% (v/v)) and molasses (10% (w/v)). The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water up to 30 mN/m, and exhibited a high emulsifying activity (E24=60%), with a critical micelle concentration as low as 50 mg/l. The biosurfactant produced in this alternative medium was characterized as a mixture of eight different rhamnolipid congeners, being the most abundant the mono-rhamnolipid Rha-C10-C10. However, using LB medium, nine different rhamnolipid congeners were identified, being the most abundant the di-rhamnolipid Rha-Rha-C10-C10. The rhamnolipid mixture produced in the alternative medium exhibited a better performance in removing oil from contaminated sand when compared with two chemical surfactants, suggesting its potential use as an alternative to traditional chemical surfactants in enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation.

  11. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; ...

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-valuemore » by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.« less

  12. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status.

  13. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  14. New geoscientific technology for the E and P industry. [Use of statistical data to help oil and gas exploration success

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    A valuable resource of computer technologies is available to address the rapidly expanding mass of information geoscientists encounter in interpreting geophysical, geologic and related data for the purpose of helping operators decide where and how to drill. Some of these new techniques have been recently described by operating and service companies in various technical meetings. A related problem--for which industry is working on a solution--is how to number wells to keep track of valuable data as cooperative surveys incorporate more and more separate properties. These considerations are the subjects of three following articles which cover: GIS--Geographic Information Systems, which facilitate spatial and descriptive data management and analysis--functions crucial to the E and P industry. GIS also holds promise as a primary management planning and decision-support tool.

  15. Conference preview and participant profiles. 18 GIS (geographic information systems) vendors match product capabilities against oil industry needs

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.E.; Fried, C.C.

    1989-10-01

    Operation Database/Petroleum GIS is designed to channel information between the petroleum industry and vendors of geographic information systems (GIS). This will be accomplished through standardized presentation of industry requirements and GIS vendor/product descriptions and demonstrations. The goal is increased awareness in both communities - vendors who know the special needs of the petroleum market, and energy professionals cognizant of how GIS may meet those needs. Geobyte is reporting results of the GIS phase in several issues: Vendors are working on a standard set of problems and tasks, which was published in August. This issue presents vendor-supplied descriptions of their products' features and capabilities. Solutions to the data and problem sets, with examples of output, will be presented in November during the National Computer Graphics Association's Mapping and GIS conference in Los Angeles, with publications scheduled for the December issue.

  16. Why Big Bad Oil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olien, Diana Davids; Olien, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the negative and hostile public opinion towards the oil industry, in general, and Standard Oil, in particular. Discovers that those most responsible for criticizing Standard Oil had an economic interest in doing so. Defends the company's record and refutes its critics' charges. (MJP)

  17. Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-14

    The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment.

  18. Productive reorganization, outsourcing, and work relations in the offshore oil industry in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Marcelo; Alvarez, Denise; Athayde, Milton; Suarez, José Diego; Pereira, Renata; Soares, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the intensive use of outsourcing and labor organizations on offshore oil platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The theoretical and methodological framework applied in our research is based on Ergonomics of Activity and the Psychodynamics of Work, from an ergological perspective. In addition to the more general trend of increasing precariousness, we highlight the potential loss of formal and informal knowledge resulting from the fragmentation of work collectives, as we consider the cohesion of these collectives to be a crucial element contributing to reliability in process operations. Increasing precariousness of work contributes to this fragmentation and one of its main causes is the uncontrolled increase in outsourcing of work. This situation has had nefarious consequences for workers' health and safety, suggesting that those who have adopted outsourcing as a labor management tool have failed to consider these harmful consequences as rigorously as necessary.

  19. Quality user support supporting quality users. [Historical trends and developments in computer support in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes how Oryx Energy Co. addressed problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs coupled with industry contraction. A successful user-support strategy is described. Characteristics of the program include (1) client-driven support, (2) empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role, (3) routine and ongoing modification of the support plan, (4) use of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line, and (5) integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  1. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection III. Methods of assessing animal exposure to contaminants from the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30, 2002. Researchers continued air monitoring in a subset of herds to the end of the study in fall 2002. Each sampling device was exposed for 1 month and then shipped to the laboratory for analysis. New samplers were installed and the shelters relocated, as necessary, to follow the movements of herd-management groups between pastures. Researchers linked the results of the air-monitoring analysis to individual animals for the relevant month. For the 205 herds examined at pregnancy testing in 2001, monthly mean exposures on the basis of all available data were as follows: sulfur dioxide, geometric mean (GM)=0.5 ppb, geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.2; hydrogen sulfide, GM=0.14 ppb, GSD=2.3; benzene, GM=0.247 microg/m3, GSD=2.5; and toluene, GM=0.236 microg/m3, GSD=2.7. Benzene and toluene were surrogates for volatile organic compound exposure. In addition to passive measurements of air quality, researchers obtained data from provincial regulatory agencies on the density of oil and gas field facilities and on flaring and venting from the surrounding facilities. They developed the data into additional measures of exposure that were linked to each animal at each location for each month of the study.

  2. The Relationship Between Seismicity and the Oil and Gas Industry in Western Alberta and Eastern B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Ghofrani, H.; Walker, D.; Cheadle, B.; Schultz, R.; Shcherbakov, R.; Tiampo, K. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Significantly increased production of hydrocarbons in North America is being driven by the development of unconventional resources whose commercial viability, in many cases, depends upon massive subsurface injection of fluids. Although relatively uncommon, elevated pore pressure from fluid injection of any kind can induce earthquake activity by activating slip on a proximal fault. In the western Canada sedimentary basin (which follows the Rocky Mountain foothills region and straddles the border between Alberta and B.C.), we find that hydraulic fracture treatment, wherein fluids are injected under high pressure in long laterally-drilled wells in order to induce localized fracturing of a rock formation, is the primary triggering mechanism of induced seismicity. This contrasts with the central U.S., where most induced seismicity has been attributed to large-scale wastewater injection into deep disposal wells. Our findings are based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of seismicity at the M≥3 level since 1985, along with a complete well database for the region, containing information on many thousands of oil and gas wells. Since 2010, most of the regional earthquakes of M≥3 are correlated in both time and space with hydraulic fracturing. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the observed correlations are extremely unlikely (<<1%) to have been obtained by chance. Improved understanding of regional variability in fault activation processes, accounting for operational and geological factors, will aid in the development and validation of predictive models for the time-dependent hazards from induced earthquakes.

  3. Antioxidant response in sesame plants grown on industrially contaminated soil: effect on oil yield and tolerance to lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2009-01-01

    The plants of sesame white (Sesamum indicum L. var. T55) grown on tannery sludge (TS) contaminated soil have shown that Cr level in the seeds was found below detection limits in 10% and 25% TS, however, the levels of Ni, Pb and Cd were found above the recommended limits. In roots, the level of antioxidants increased in the plants grown upto 35% TS at 30d over their respective controls. Total chlorophyll content increased significantly (p<0.5) in the plants (leaves) grown on lower sludge amendments (upto 35% TS at 30d and 25% TS at 60d) over their respective controls. In addition, the oil content increased (35% increase over control) in the plants grown on 35% TS. No significant change was observed in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a lipid peroxidation index, in the plants (upto 50% TS). The number of trichomes in the leaves of treated plants was found more than control. In lower and upper leaves surfaces, the anterior end of the trichomes was found acute tipped and bent downwards, whereas, the trichome tip was straight and blunt in control. The stomata on upper and lower surfaces of the leaves were found partially or totally closed in the plants grown on 100% TS as compared to control. The toxicity was observed at higher amendments which are evident from the observed morphological changes and decrease in chlorophyll content. This study concludes that it is not advisable to grow the plants on contaminated area, besides its healthy growth.

  4. Two schemes for production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01: Applying residues from soybean oil industry and silica sol-gel immobilized cells.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Lotfabad, Tayebe; Ebadipour, Negisa; Roostaazad, Reza; Partovi, Maryam; Bahmaei, Manochehr

    2017-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are the most common biosurfactants and P. aeruginosa strains are the most frequently studied microorganisms for the production of rhamnolipids. Eco-friendly advantages and promising applications of rhamnolipids in various industries are the major reasons for pursuing the economic production of these biosurfactants. This study shows that cultivation of P. aeruginosa MR01 in medium contained inexpensive soybean oil refinery wastes which exhibited similar levels and homologues of rhamnolipids. Mass spectrometry indicated that the Rha-C10-C10 and Rha-Rha-C10-C10 constitute the main rhamnolipids in different cultures of MR01 including one of oil carbon source analogues. Moreover, rhamnolipid mixtures extracted from different cultures showed critical micelle concentrations (CMC) in the range of ≃24 to ≃36mg/l with capability to reduce the surface tension of aqueous solution from 72 to ≃27-32mN/m. However, the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a gentler method in order to entrap the P. aeruginosa MR01 cells in mold silica gels. Immobilized cells can be utilized several times in consecutive fermentation batches as well as in flow fermentation processes. In this way, reusability of the cells may lead to a more economical fermentation process. Approximately 90% of cell viability was retained during the silica sol-gel immobilization and ≃84% of viability of immobilized cells was preserved for 365days of immobilization and storage of the cells in phosphate buffer at 4°C and 25°C. Moreover, mold gels showed good mechanical stability during the seven successive fermentation batches and the entrapped cells were able to efficiently preserve their biosurfactant-producing potential.

  5. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  6. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  7. Radiological source tracking in oil/gas, medical and other industries: requirements and specifications for passive RFID technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, Farid U.

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface sensors that employ radioisotopes, such 241Am-Be and 137Cs, for reservoir characterization must be tracked for safety and security reasons. Other radiological sources are also widely used in medicine. The radiological source containers, in both applications, are small, mobile and used widely worldwide. The nuclear sources pose radiological dispersal device (RDD) security risks. Security concerns with the industrial use of radionuclide sources is in fact quite high as it is estimated that each year hundreds of sealed sources go missing, either lost or stolen. Risk mitigation efforts include enhanced regulations, source-use guidelines, research and development on electronic tracking of sources. This report summarizes the major elements of the requirements and operational concepts of nuclear sources with the goal of developing automated electronic tagging and locating systems.

  8. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  9. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. obtained from an Algerian oilfield and chemical biocide THPS against sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium inducing corrosion in the oil industry.

    PubMed

    Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Touzi, Abdelkader; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Pauss, André; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-03-01

    The present study enlightens the role of the antagonistic potential of nonpathogenic strain B21 against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The inhibitor effects of strain B21 were compared with those of the chemical biocide tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS), generally used in the petroleum industry. The biological inhibitor exhibited much better and effective performance. Growth of SRB in coculture with bacteria strain B21 antagonist exhibited decline in SRB growth, reduction in production of sulfides, with consumption of sulfate. The observed effect seems more important in comparison with the effect caused by the tested biocide (THPS). Strain B21, a dominant facultative aerobic species, has salt growth requirement always above 5% (w/v) salts with optimal concentration of 10-15%. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B21 is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis DQ115802 (94.0% sequence similarity), Bacillus aidingensis DQ504377 (94.0%), and Bacillus salarius AY667494 (92.2%). Comparative analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data plus physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features of the novel isolate and related species of Bacillus indicated that strain B21 may represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, named Bacillus sp. (EMBL, FR671419). The results of this study indicate the application potential of Bacillus strain B21 as a biocontrol agent to fight corrosion in the oil industry.

  10. H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

  11. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  12. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics. PMID:25566212

  13. The effects of BaSO₄ loading on OPC cementing system for encapsulation of BaSO₄ scale from oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Hussein, O; Utton, C; Ojovan, M; Kinoshita, H

    2013-10-15

    The BaSO4 scales obtained from piping decontamination from oil and gas industries are most often classified as low level radioactive waste. These wastes could be immobilised by stable cement matrix to provide higher safety of handling, transportation, storage and disposal. However, the information available for the effects of the basic formulation such as waste loading on the fundamental properties is still limited. The present study investigated the effect of BaSO4 loading and water content on the properties of OPC-BaSO4 systems containing fine BaSO4 powder and coarse granules. The BaSO4 with different particle size had a marked effect on the compressive strength due to their different effects on hydration products formed. Introduction of fine BaSO4 powder resulted in an increased formation of CaCO3 in the system, which significantly contributed to the compressive strength of the products. Amount of water was important to control the CaCO3 formation, and water to cement ratio of 0.53 was found to be a good level to maintain a low porosity of the products both for fine BaSO4 powder and coarse BaSO4 granule. BaSO4 loading of up to 60 wt% has been achieved satisfying the minimum compressive strength of 5 MPa required for the radioactive wasteforms.

  14. Fatigue in seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry: effects of safety climate, psychosocial work environment and shift arrangement.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations.

  15. Automated analyser for monitoring the contents of hydrocarbons in gas emitted from exploratory bore-holes in the gas and oil industry

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, Wacław; Żwan, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    An automated analyser for total hydrocarbon contents and hydrocarbon composition (from methane to pentanes) was constructed and tested in both laboratory and field exploitation. It used two-channel analysis: continuous measurements of total hydrocarbon contents and periodic (90 or 150 s) composition analysis after separation of hydrocarbons on a gas chromatographic column. Flame ionization detectors were used in both channels. A simple 16-bit analogue-to-digital converter was used (4.8, practically four orders of magnitude), while the full measuring range (six orders of magnitude) was ensured by automatic dilution of the sample (or standard) with clean air. Full control of the operating (calibration/analyses) cycle was performed by microcomputer. An external programme, based on a computer provided with full information on the instrument operating conditions, presents the results of calibrations/analyses and enables them to be archived in a standard database used in the oil/gas drilling industry (N-LAB) by providing a suitable link. The instrument measuring range was 1 ppm to 100% with precision not worse than 5% at the detection limit. The analyser can operate autonomously for two months, recalibrating itself daily. PMID:18924624

  16. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  17. The impact of accounting methods on the association between unexpected earnings and abnormal returns: The case of oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardjono

    Full cost (FC) and successful efforts (SE) are two competing accounting methods that account for exploration and development expenditures in oil and gas industry. In 1977, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) abolished the FC method but the abolishment was overruled by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1978. Many studies have addressed the issue and focused on the market reaction to the uncertain status of the standard rather than on the information content of earnings. This study examines the extent to which the differences in variability of stock price responses to earnings announcements are associated with the FC and SE accounting methods. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the market reacts differently to the release of earnings by FC and SE firms. The study contributes to the current literature by comparing the earnings response coefficient (ERC) of FC and SE firms and providing an alternative model to measure unexpected earnings. The study examines cross-sectional differences in ERCs associated with firm-characteristics (such as accounting method and size) and compare the results with firm-specific differences in ERCs which have not been used in previous oil and gas studies. The larger sample, the longer sample period, and the different source of data position this study as a triangulation to previous ERC studies. The study finds that pooled cross-sectional estimation results support previous findings that ERCs for SE firms are significantly higher than those for FC firms especially for return intervals before (including) the earnings release date. However, ERCs for FC firms tend to be larger than those for SE firms when firm-specific estimations are performed. For return intervals immediately following the announcement date, the firm-specific ERCs for FC firms are significantly higher than those of SE firms. This study also finds that the unexpected earnings variances are not homogeneous across firms and the firm

  18. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) begins with a list of supporters, a letter from the chairman, and a message from the president. The major CLIR programs are then described: (1) Preservation and Access, including domestic and international activities; (2) Digital Libraries, including developing libraries…

  19. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

  20. Lake Pend Oreille Fishery Recovery Project, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Ament, William J.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-12-01

    The minimum water level of Lake Pend Oreille was raised from 625.1 m to 626.4 m elevation during the winter of 1998-99 in an attempt to recover the impacted kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery. This report covers the third year of testing higher winter levels. Hydroacoustic surveys and mid-water trawling were conducted in the fall of 1999 to assess the kokanee population. We estimated the abundance of each age class of kokanee as: 6.023 million age-0 (wild and hatchery fry), 883,000 age-1, 409,000 age-2, 579,000 age-3, 861,000 age-4, and 87,000 age-5. Wild fry abundance was estimated at 2.57 million fish. These originated from 43.1 million eggs spawned in the wild during the fall of 1998. The survival from wild spawned eggs to wild fry was, therefore, 6.0%. This was lower than the 9.6% survival rate calculated last year but was much higher than the 1.4% calculated in 1995 prior to changing lake levels. To date, years of higher winter lake elevations have out-performed years of full drawdown. Based on data collected during trawl sampling, the total number of eggs laid in the lake in the fall of 1999 was 74.8 million. Mean fecundity per female was 379 eggs. Hatchery personnel collected 22.4 million eggs, leaving 52.4 million eggs to be laid by wild fish in tributary streams and along the lake shoreline. These eggs will be used to assess wild kokanee survival during 2000. Peak counts of spawning kokanee were 3,500 fish on the shoreline and 16,400 fish in tributary streams. This represents only a fraction of the total kokanee spawning population. Opossum shrimp Mysis relicta increased slightly in the southern two sections of the lake but decreased in the northern end. Immature and mature shrimp (excluding young-of-the-year shrimp) densities averaged 302 shrimp/m{sup 2}, down from 426 shrimp/m{sup 2} the previous year. The relatively stable shrimp population was not thought to affect the outcome of the lake level testing.

  1. Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Practical Teaching Ideas, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Jeannette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This sixteenth volume of "Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Practical Teaching Ideas" contains numerous teaching ideas from English classrooms. Articles in number 1 are: "'Cricket' Contests as Class Exercises" (Rosemary Laughlin); "Body Biography Revisited" (Julie Medow); "Helping Students Keep in Touch" (Joyce Taaffe); "A Love Affair with Letter…

  2. Arctic Ozone Loss in Threshold Conditions: Match Observations in 1997/1998 and 1998/1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-16

    Kiihlungsborn, Germany. 8Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia , Madrid, Spain. 9Deutscher Wetterdienst, HohenpeiBenberg, Germany. 10Instituto Nacional de... Meteorologia , Tenerife, Spain. 11 Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, On- tario, Canada. 12Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels, Belgium...Nacional de Meteorologia , Apdo. 285, 28071 Madrid, Spain. (Jmin.Cisneros@inm.es) H. Claude, DWD, Observatory HohenpeiBenberg, Albin- Schwaiger-Weg 10

  3. South American Summer Monsoon of 1997/1998 and 1998/1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.-M.; Zhou, Jiayu

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that during El Nino years severe drought occurs in the area of Amazon and northeastern Brazil. According to the linear model result the reduced latent heating over the Amazon may lead to a weaker than normal upper tropospheric Bolivian high. As a result, some studies have suggested a weaker South American summer monsoon (SASM) during El Nino years. Using re-analysis. Zhou and Lau data found a statistically significant positive correlation between the tropical eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the strength of low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the tropical-subtropical Andes. Douglas also showed a strong LLJ at Santa Cruz, Bolivia during a special pilot balloon observation period in 1997/98 El Nino austral summer. Since this LLJ is an integral part of the monsoon system in the summertime, these results indicated that SASM could be stronger than normal in El Nino years. To clarify this issue, we conducted an investigation on SASM anomaly in the recent ENSO event of 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina In the following we first give a brief review on SASM and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over South America. Then, the impact of 1997-99 ENSO on the South American regional thermal structure and its dynamical consequences to SASM will be discussed.

  4. Forest surveys and wildfire assessment in the Los Alamos Region; 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Randy G. Balice; Jay D. Miller; Brian P. Oswald; Carl Edminster; Stephen R. Yool

    2000-06-01

    To better understand the structural characteristics of vegetation in the Los Alamos region, the authors conducted two years of field surveys and associated analyses. This report introduces field methods, lists the summarized field data, and discusses the results of preliminary spatial analyses. During 1998 and 1999, seventy-six terrestrial plant communities were sampled for topographic characteristics, soil surface features, and vegetational conditions. A nested, randomized design was used to select the plot locations and to guide the sampling of the plot. The samples included a variety of fuel types, including surface fuels and ground fuels, shrubby and small tree fuels, and overstory fuels. Species composition data were also collected. The fuels data were summarized by vegetation type and evaluated for the topographic and spatial relationships of major field categories. The results of these analyses indicate that many of the fuels categories depend on topographic factors in a linear and curvilinear fashion. In particular, middle elevations within the Los Alamos region tend to support more surface fuels and ground fuels, whereas large-diameter trees are most dense at higher elevations and are specific to community types at these elevations. Small-diameter trees occur in more dense stands at lower and middle elevations and on specific soil and topographic conditions. Areas that burned in 1954 were found to be relatively free of fuels. The implications are that the western portions of the Los Alamos region are at risk from wildfire during dry, summer periods.

  5. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program, 1998-1999 through 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze; Hale, Margaret; Kirshstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports that present a national profile of the Student Support Services (SSS) Program. It presents grantee data from 2000-01 and 2001-02 for the first time and includes data from earlier years for comparison purposes. The following are appended: (1) Response Rates and Data Issues; (2) Risk Factors of 1995-96…

  6. Human Exploration Ethnography of the Haughton-Mars Project, 1998-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During the past two field seasons, July 1988 and 1999, we have conducted research about the field practices of scientists and engineers at Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, with the objective of determining how people will live and work on Mars. This broad investigation of field life and work practice, part of the Haughton-Mars Project lead by Pascal Lee, spans social and cognitive anthropology, psychology, and computer science. Our approach involves systematic observation and description of activities, places, and concepts, constituting an ethnography of field science at Haughton. Our focus is on human behaviors-what people do, where, when, with whom, and why. By locating behavior in time and place-in contrast with a purely functional or "task oriented" description of work-we find patterns constituting the choreography of interaction between people, their habitat, and their tools. As such, we view the exploration process in terms of a total system comprising a social organization, facilities, terrain/climate, personal identities, artifacts, and computer tools. Because we are computer scientists seeking to develop new kinds of tools for living and working on Mars, we focus on the existing representational tools (such as documents and measuring devices), learning and improvization (such as use of the internet or informal assistance), and prototype computational systems brought to the field. Our research is based on partnership, by which field scientists and engineers actively contribute to our findings, just as we participate in their work and life.

  7. Tech Prep. South Dakota Career Activities for the Classroom, 4th Edition, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucker, Marsha, Comp.

    This document presents a sampling of projects and activities that have been implemented in Tech Prep training in South Dakota, or will be implemented during the upcoming school year. The projects and activities are categorized into 12 areas: career clusters; career units and activities; curriculum materials; employability skills; entrepreneurship;…

  8. New York State Forum for Information Resource Management: 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Forum for Information Resource Management.

    This annual report of the New York State Forum for Information Resource Management begins with a section that summarizes key activities for 1998-99, including partnerships with other organizations, sessions on the use of information in government and information security, programs on the challenges of electronic commerce for government,…

  9. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 1998 and 1999. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on eight complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on seven complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) the number of outmigrant wild rainbow-steelhead and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts; and (4) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP with respect to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids, (2) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (3) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity. Baseline information on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids will continue to be collected for several years prior to full implementation of the Hood River Production Program.

  10. Water quality monitoring of Sweetwater and Loveland reservoirs--Phase one results 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Sidhu, Jagdeep S.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to assess the overall health of the watershed feeding the Sweetwater Reservoir in southern San Diego County, California. The study focussed on monitoring for organic chemical contamination and the effects of construction and operation of State Route 125 on water quality. Three environmental compartments (air, water, and bed sediments) are being sampled regularly for chemical contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and major and trace elements. The study is divided into two phases. Phase I sampling is designed to establish baseline conditions for target compounds in terms of detection frequency and concentration in air, water, and bed sediments. Phase II sampling will continue at the established monitoring sites during and after construction of State Route 125 to assess chemical impact on water quality in the reservoir resulting from land-use changes and development in the watershed. This report describes the study design, the sampling and analytical methods, and presents the data results for the first year of the study, September 1998 to September 1999.

  11. High School Debate Topic, 1998-1999. Subject Bibliography (SB)043.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

    This 12-item annotated bibliography presents U.S. government documents suitable for use in preparation for a high school debate on the resolution that the United States should substantially change its foreign policy toward Russia. Items in the annotated bibliography address American-Ukranian nuclear relations; economic policy and trade practices;…

  12. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  13. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch);…

  14. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  15. Determination of biodegradability of phenolic compounds, characteristic to wastewater of the oil-shale chemical industry, on activated sludge by oxygen uptake measurement.

    PubMed

    Lepik, Riina; Tenno, Toomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of phenol, o-cresol and p-cresol individually and as bi-substrate mixtures at low initial substrate concentrations. Activated sludge was taken from the Kohtla-Järve wastewater treatment plant, Estonia, which is also treating phenolic wastewater from the oil-shale chemical industry and is considered to be acclimated to the phenolic compounds. Respirometric data have been used for evaluation of the kinetic parameters describing the bio-oxidation of substrates. Activated sludge was able to degrade phenol and p-cresol faster than o-cresol, showing better affinity to p-cresol. However, at higher concentrations, phenol and p-cresol exhibited also an inhibitory effect to the microorganisms. The highest values for maximum rate of oxygen uptake (V(O2,max)) were obtained for the bi-substrate system of phenol--p-cresol among the mixtures containing both substrates at equal concentrations from 0.005 mM to 0.050 mM. Concerning the systems containing one substrate at 0.1 mM and the other substrate varied in the abovementioned range, the highest V(O2,max) values were found for phenol--o-cresol(0.1 mM). The interaction parameters indicated that phenol had a stronger inhibition effect on the biodegradation of p-cresol than p-cresol had on the biodegradation of phenol. However, the obtained interaction parameters for systems of phenol--o-cresol indicated that o-cresol had a stronger inhibition effect on the biodegradation of phenol, which in turn had a mild inhibition or even enhancing effect on the biodegradation of o-cresol. In the case of a 1:1 mixture, phenol and o-cresol had a similar mild inhibition effect on each other's biodegradation.

  16. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-11-13

    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the induction periods and pronounced reduction in microbial load of stored biodiesel investigated herein. Thus, a suitable solvent system was devised for removing the major antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake, and the solvent extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved.

  17. Used Oil and Its Regulation in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    naphthalene; chlorinated benzenes; nitrosamines ; lead; barium; chromium and cadmium. .. .[A]II industrial oil will be listed as a hazardous waste based...Terminology of the Industry and Regulatory Efforts 8 (b) Data and Information Problems for Industry Study 10 (c) A Brief History of the Used Oil Industry ...Burning of Waste Fuel and Used Oil Fuel in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces 124 (b) EPA’s 1985 Proposed Recycled Used Oil Standards and Identification

  18. Multi Tasking Engine Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-21

    Petroleum Institute has standards for engine and gear oils but none for multipurpose lubricants of the type described above. The concept of...Transmission Oils (UTTOs) to satisfy this consumer market. Unfortunately, there are no industry-wide standards for these UTTOs as the American

  19. Fossil Energy: Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Detailed are the highlights of the history and technology of crude oil and its end products. Included also are some of the important programs that American industry and the Federal government are planning and undertaking in order to enhance the benefits of oil and make use of the limited available quantities as wisely as possible, both now and in…

  20. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Case Study - Proof of Concept that Oil Entrained in Marginal Reservoirs Can Be Bioconverted to Methane Gas as a Green Energy Recovery Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieg, Lisa

    Conventional oil recovery techniques such as water flooding typically remove only up to 40% of the oil present in reservoirs. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are considered tertiary strategies that may be applied to recover a greater volume of oil. In particular, the use of microorganisms to aid in oil production (microbial-enhanced oil recovery or MEOR) is considered a green energy recovery strategy since microbial processes do not require large amounts of energy input and can potentially produce large amounts of useful byproducts from inexpensive and renewable resources (Youssef et al., 2008). These byproducts can include the generation of biosurfactants, emulsifiers, acids, alcohols, and/or gases that can serve as agents for oil recovery. Recent reviews have summarised MEOR efforts undertaken since the 1950's with varying degrees of success (e.g. Jack, 1993; Belyaev et al., 2004; McInerney et al., 2005; Youssef et al., 2008). In MEOR schemes, petroleum reservoirs may be either stimulated with nutrients or inoculated with microorganisms with known activity to achieve desired effects (Youssef et al., 2008).

  1. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

  2. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection effect of

  3. Industry`s turnaround looks real

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the industry outlook for North American gas and oil industries. In a robust Canada, land sales are setting records, drilling is up, and output is rising beyond last year`s 21% growth. A perception among US operators that wellhead prices will remain stable is translating to increased spending. The USA, Canada, Mexico, Cuba are evaluated separately, with brief evaluations of Greenland, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rico. Data are presented on drilling activities.

  4. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  5. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biogas from solid waste residues of palm oil mill industry by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Suksong, Wantanasak; Kongjan, Prawit; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Imai, Tsuyoshi; O-Thong, Sompong

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the improvement of biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of oil palm biomass by optimizing of total solids (TS) contents, feedstock to inoculum (F:I) ratios and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Highest methane yield from EFB, OPF and OPT of 358, 280 and 324m(3)CH4ton(-1)VS, respectively, was achieved at TS content of 16%, C:N ratio of 30:1 and F:I ratio of 2:1. The main contribution to methane from biomass was the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest methane production of 72m(3)CH4ton(-1) biomass was achieved from EFB. Bacteria community structure in SS-AD process of oil palm biomass was dominated by Ruminococcus sp. and Clostridium sp., while archaea community was dominated by Methanoculleus sp. Oil palm biomass has great potential for methane production via SS-AD.

  6. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  7. Assistance to state underground injection control programs and the oil and gas industry with class 2 injection well data management and technology transfer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Paque, M.J.

    1995-11-23

    The Underground Injection Practices Research Foundation (UIPRF) administered a grant project funded by the US Department of Energy relating to Class 2 injection well operations in various primacy and direct implementation states throughout the country. This effort provided substantial benefits to state regulatory agencies and oil and gas producing companies. It enhanced the protection of the environment through the protection of ground water resources and improved oil and gas production operations within affected states. This project involved the following accomplishment: (1) Completed the design and installation of the only comprehensive, fully relational PC-Based Oil and Gas regulatory data management system (the Risk Based Data Management System) in the country. Additionally, training and data conversion was conduced and the RBDMS User`s Guide and the RBDMS Administrator`s Guide were completed. (2) State wide Area-Of-Review (AOR) workshop were held in California and Oklahoma and a national three-day workshop was held in Kansas City, Missouri where 24 state oil and gas agencies were represented.

  8. The mirage of oil protection

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes the historical background and structure of the U.S. oil industry and analyzes the failure of past policies designed to protect it. It argues against current proposals for reinstituting protection of the industry as harmful to consumers, the industry, and the nation as a whole. It also presents relevant statistics.

  9. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  10. Where is the coiled tubing wave headed. [The increased use of coiled tube drilling equipment in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, K. )

    1994-09-01

    In the late 1980s, the coiled tubing (CT) service market began a wave of growth and expansion unparalleled by other oil field services. In 1989, market growth was so rapid it was referred to as a ''CT revolution.'' The trend has continued through the early 1990s with annual growth rates of 20%--30%, while other oil field service markets have been stagnant or even shrinking. With the recent advent of open-hole CT drilling (CTD) and CT completions (CTC), the wave's momentum is increasing with no end in sight. Advances in CT manufacturing, fatigue prediction, larger-diameter tubing, CT logging and other CT equipment made in the late 1980s improved the reliability and effectiveness of CT services, triggering this wave of activity. The status of this technology is discussed along with the performance and reliability of coiled tubing drills.

  11. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  12. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  13. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Mark P.; Peru, Kerry M.; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L. Mark; Frank, Richard A.; Headley, John V.

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  14. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  15. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  16. Assessment of atmospheric assimilation potential for industrial development in an urban environment: Kochi (India).

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Chalapati Rao, C V

    2007-04-15

    The assimilation potential (assimilative capacity) of the atmosphere can be represented in two ways: one as the ventilation coefficient and the other as the dispersion potential of emission loads discharged into the region. In the present study, the atmospheric assimilation potential of a typical urban area in Kochi city has been determined with respect to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). The ventilation coefficient is directly proportional to the assimilation potential of the atmosphere and has been computed using meteorological parameters in all four seasons (winter, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon) of the years 1998-1999 represented by January, April, July and October respectively. The diurnal variation in ventilation coefficients shows that the assimilative capacity of the atmosphere is high during the afternoon and is reduced during the evening and morning in all the seasons. Among all the seasons, monsoon and post-monsoon have the poorest assimilative capacity throughout the day. In the second approach, the assimilation potential is estimated through dispersion modelling in terms of the concentration of pollutants, which is inversely proportional to the assimilative capacity of the atmosphere. The Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model for point sources has been used to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of SO(2) under three different industrial scenarios (type of industries existing in the Kochi region, refinery and power plant). The model predictions indicate that monsoon is the most critical season having maximum pollution, followed by summer and post-monsoon. Lowest pollution was observed in winter. The assimilative capacity in terms of the ventilation coefficient is very poor indicating high pollution potential in all the seasons. However, dispersion modeling suggests that if industrial development is planned properly, additional industrial sources can be accommodated by restricting the emission loads to be within the assimilation potential

  17. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  18. Energy Markets in the United States: The Influence of Politics, Regulations, and Markets on Energy Development in the Oil and Gas and Wind Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Karen Kay

    2011-12-01

    My dissertation focuses on the influence of politics, policies, and markets in determining oil and natural gas and wind energy development. In the first chapter, I examine the role of federal elected political influence and market factors in determining the acres of oil and natural gas leases issued on Bureau of Management (BLM) lands in the western United States between 1978 and 2008. I seek to determine if the political party and ideology of the federal political environment influence the number of acres that are leased and if there is disparate federal political influence in states that have a large amount of federal lands. Using a random effects Tobit model for a 17-state sample of the westernmost states in the contiguous United States, I find that more conservative federal political influence leads to additional leasing. The results are consistent across Senate committee leaders, Senate majority leadership, and the President's office. The further found that the influence of politics on leasing is not stronger in states with more federal lands. In the second chapter, I analyze the influence of state and federal political party changes and market factors on state oil and natural gas permitting. My findings, using a first-differenced empirical model for two samples, a 19-state sample, from 1990--2007, and a 14-state sample, from 1977--2007, indicate that the influence of state political party changes are trumped by economic factors. Oil and gas prices are the main drivers of permitting changes, while the state political party changes for the state legislatures and Governor's office are consistently not significant. In the third chapter I focus on the role of electricity markets and renewable energy regulation in wind development across the United States. My findings, using a random effects Tobit model with a 25-state sample, from 1994--2008, indicate that the implementation of state Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS), the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC

  19. Self-attenuation as a function of gamma ray energy in naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Millsap, D W; Landsberger, S

    2015-03-01

    Self-attenuation correction factors were experimentally determined using radioactive point sources in combination with a subject material of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) obtained from oil exploration waste products. The self-attenuation correction factors were taken across a range of gamma ray energies from 41.73 to 1408.0keV. It is noted that the greatest amount of self-attenuation occurs in the energy regime below 200keV and rises to near zero attenuation at higher energies for these types of samples. For the 46.5keV gamma ray of (210)Pb there can be an underestimation of 62%.

  20. Oil and the British economy

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, F.; Hall, S.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the 1976 discovery of North Sea oil, the British economy has floundered in the early 1980s. To uncover the reasons behind this predicament, the authors examine the North Sea oil sector, show the impact of its recent development on the British economy, and analyze the automatic responses of an economy to the development of such a new sector, the ''Kay debate,'' and the experience of six other countries with oil and the manufacturing industry.

  1. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  2. Classroom in the Oil Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jeanne

    1980-01-01

    Describes a petroleum production program created in Bradford, Pennsylvania, by oil company executives and local educators to answer the need of the regional oil industry for trained manpower. Discusses the need for the program, the search for qualified teachers, funding, and how one student feels about the program. (CT)

  3. Castor oil: Biosynthesis and Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil is unique among commodity oils in its fatty acid composition, which consists of 90% ricinoleate, (12-hydroxy-octadec-cis 9-enoate). The mid-chain hydroxyl group imparts physical and chemical properties that make it useful in many industrial applications. Among its uses are lithium grease,...

  4. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  5. Electrostatic precipitation of particulate emissions from the combustion of coal-oil-water and coal-water-slurry in an industrial packaged boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, C.G.; Dooher, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    The report discusses the results of a research project designed to determine electrostatic-precipitation performance in collecting particulate emissions from coal-oil-water or coal-water slurry fuels. Measurements made on a mobile electrostatic precipitator (ESP) showed that New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) could be met by appropriate design and operation. Coal-oil-water fuels required a specific collection area (SCA) of 340 sq ft/1,000 ACFM flue gas, while coal-water slurry fuel needed 500 sq ft/ACFM flue gas to comply with NSPS. Specific electrode power densities were 200 watts/1,000 ACFM flue gas. The mobile ESP accepted flue gas from a packaged fire-tube boiler converted to coal-slurry firing. The fully instrumented boiler produced a fly-ash high-in carbon content, especially when burning CWS fuel. The high carbon content influenced fly-ash resistivity vs. temperature curves and must be taken into account in designing an ESP for this kind of service.

  6. Opportunities in the industrial biobased products industry.

    PubMed

    Carole, Tracy M; Pellegrino, Joan; Paster, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 89 million metric t of organic chemicals and lubricants, the majority of which are fossil based, are produced annually in the United States. The development of new industrial bioproducts, for production in stand-alone facilities or biorefineries, has the potential to reduce our dependence on imported oil and improve energy security. Advances in biotechnology are enabling the optimization of feedstock composition and agronomic characteristics and the development of new and improved fermentation organisms for conversion of biomass to new end products or intermediates. This article reviews recent biotechnology efforts to develop new industrial bioproducts and improve renewable feedstocks and key market opportunities.

  7. Endoparasites in common eiders Somateria mollissima from birds killed by an oil spill in the northern Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Hussel, Birgit; Baekgaard, Henrik

    2006-05-01

    Mass mortalities of common eiders Somateria mollissima have been ascribed to high parasite loads. However, the actual role of parasites in mortalities is disputed as in the case of a mass mortality of eiders in the Wadden Sea in the winter of 1999/2000. A critical evaluation of the role of parasites in eider mass mortalities is hampered by (1) a lack of data on actual parasite loads of the birds involved, (2) missing regional data for comparison, and (3) a lack of unbiased samples: investigations are often based on dead beached individuals, which are presumably the more heavily infected birds of a population and thus more likely to die and be washed ashore. Although published data on parasite loads in birds of the winter 1999/2000 mortality are available, no data on background parasitism in eiders from the Wadden Sea exist, making an evaluation of the potential role of parasites in this mortality event difficult. By investigating endoparasites of 102 eiders affected by an oil spill in the northern Wadden Sea in winter 1998/1999, we provide a data set of background parasitism in wintering eiders from the Wadden Sea. We found 13 different parasite taxa with high prevalence values (% infected birds) in the acanthocephalan Profilicollis botulus, the nematode Amidostomum acutum, cestodes and trematodes. In some taxa we observed pronounced differences in prevalence values between juvenile eiders and adults, as well as between adult sexes. The parasite composition shows that bivalves, crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and other crustaceans are important sources of infections by being intermediate hosts. This is partly mirrored in the food content of eider stomachs where bivalves and crabs were predominantly found. Intensities of the acanthocephalan P. botulus, suspected of causing eider mortalities, were especially high in juveniles (1112 ± 416 ind per infected host), but lower in adult males (40 ± 7) and adult females (81 ± 18). However, no extraordinary mortality event was

  8. Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-04-15

    This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

  9. Oil & Natural Gas Technology A new approach to understanding the occurrence and volume of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico using petroleum industry well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Ann; Majumdar, Urmi

    2016-03-31

    The northern Gulf of Mexico has been the target for the petroleum industry for exploration of conventional energy resource for decades. We have used the rich existing petroleum industry well logs to find the occurrences of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We have identified 798 wells with well log data within the gas hydrate stability zone. Out of those 798 wells, we have found evidence of gas hydrate in well logs in 124 wells (15% of wells). We have built a dataset of gas hydrate providing information such as location, interval of hydrate occurrence (if any) and the overall quality of probable gas hydrate. Our dataset provides a wide, new perspective on the overall distribution of gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico and will be the key to future gas hydrate research and prospecting in the area.

  10. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  11. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  12. The Nigerian oil economy: From prosperity to glut

    SciTech Connect

    Onoh, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the development of Nigeria's oil industry. Onoh charts the changing course of Nigeria's economy and details the dramatic effect oil has had on domestic and international policies. He then assesses Nigeria's future in the oil industry both in light of her former policies and in the changing world economy.

  13. PTR-QMS versus PTR-TOF comparison in a region with oil and natural gas extraction industry in the Uintah Basin in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Veres, P.; Murphy, S. M.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Graus, M. G.; Koss, A.; Li, S.-M.; Li, R.; Yuan, B.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we compare volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements using a standard proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-QMS) with a new proton-transfer-reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF) during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study 2013 (UBWOS2013) field experiment in an oil and gas field in the Uintah Basin, Utah. The PTR-QMS uses a quadrupole, which is a mass filter that lets one mass to charge ratio pass at a time, whereas the PTR-TOF uses a time of flight mass spectrometer, which takes full mass spectra with typical 0.1 s-1 min integrated acquisition times. The sensitivity of the PTR-QMS in units of counts per ppbv (parts per billion by volume) is about a factor of 10-35 times larger than the PTR-TOF, when only one VOC is measured. The sensitivity of the PTR-TOF is mass dependent because of the mass discrimination caused by the sampling duty cycle in the orthogonal-acceleration region of the TOF. For example, the PTR-QMS on mass 33 (methanol) is 35 times more sensitive than the PTR-TOF and for masses above 120 amu less than 10 times more. If more than 10-35 compounds are measured with PTR-QMS, the sampling time per ion decreases and the PTR-TOF has higher signals per unit measuring time for most masses. For UBWOS2013 the PTR-QMS measured 34 masses in 37 s and on that timescale the PTR-TOF is more sensitive for all masses. The high mass resolution of the TOF allows for the measurements of compounds that cannot be separately detected with the PTR-QMS, such as oxidation products from alkanes and cycloalkanes emitted by oil and gas extraction. PTR-TOF masses do not have to be preselected, allowing for identification of unanticipated compounds. The measured mixing ratios of the two instruments agreed very well (R2 ≥ 0.92 and within 20%) for all compounds and masses monitored with the PTR-QMS.

  14. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in clams and sediments from an impacted estuary by the oil industry in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico: concentrations and bioaccumulation factors.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Páez-Osuna, F

    2009-12-01

    With the objective of estimating the temporal variation and bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Coatzacoalcos estuary, the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) were calculated. For this purpose, surficial sediments and clams from 14 selected sites were collected during three climatic seasons. In surficial sediments, highest levels of Cd and Cu were measured during the rainy season near to the industrial area of Minatitlan, while highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were registered during the windy season in sediments collected near to the industrial area of Coatzacoalcos. Considering all the sampling seasons and bivalve species, average metal concentrations followed the order Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. BSAF ranged from 0.01 (Pb) in Corbicula fluminea during the hot season to 25.1 (Cd) in Polymesoda caroliniana during the windy season. BSAF of Cd, Cu and Zn were higher during the windy season; in the case of Pb, the dry season was the time when such figure was more elevated. It can be stated that Polymesoda caroliniana is a net accumulator of Cd and Zn and a weak accumulator of Pb for the studied estuary.

  15. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  16. Rapid development of a castor cultivar with increased oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor seed oil contains 90% ricinoleic acid which has a wide range of industrial applications. Improvement in oil content would be of great benefit to castor growers and oil processers. Two cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection were conducted through screening for high oil content castor seeds u...

  17. Comparative analysis between native and reference cladocerans to assess the toxic effects of products used by the oil industry in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Mejía, Guillermo; Zavala-Olivares, Gerardo; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    In this study, native cladocerans, Scapholeberis armata freyi and Macrothrix elegans, were collected from the region and their offspring were used as test organisms to assess the effects of 18 corrosion and scale inhibitors, widely used to protect oil pipelines. Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia were used as international reference species, and their sensitivity was compared to native species and assessed with the reference toxicant Cr(VI). We also determined the correlation between the native and the reference species. Corrosion inhibitors were grouped according to their uses and acute toxicity gradient; those used for multifunction pipelines are considered moderately toxic (LC(50) of 10 to 100 mg/L), and the remainder as toxic (LC(50) between 1.0 and 10 mg/L). Scale inhibitors are considered non-toxic, since the LC(50) for the 4 species exceeded 2,000 mg/L. Sensitivity test to Cr(VI) indicated that M. elegans was the least sensitive species. There was a high correlation (> 90%) in sensitivity among M. elegans, D. magna, and C. dubia to the corrosion inhibitors used. Hence, it is feasible to use these native species from Southeast Mexico as substitutes of the typical reference species.

  18. Association between exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry and pathology of the immune, nervous, and respiratory systems, and skeletal and cardiac muscle in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Clark, Edward G

    2009-01-01

    To determine potential associations between emissions from oil and gas field facilities and the risk of lesions in the immune, nervous, and respiratory systems of beef calves, researchers examined tissue samples collected from 1,531 cases with exposure data, which included aborted fetuses, stillbirths, and calf mortalities from 203 cow-calf herds, by means of histopathology. The researchers prospectively measured exposure to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds by using air-monitoring data from passive monitors. They used the density of facilities surrounding each pasture as a second measure of exposure. Each tissue was classified by the presence or absence of a series of specified lesions, including those associated with degeneration, necrosis, infection, inflammation, anomaly, lympholysis (for lymphoid tissue), and proliferation (for the respiratory system). Exposure was not associated with the risk of lesions to tissues of either the immune or nervous system in calves that were aborted or died in spring 2002. Exposures to sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were not significantly associated with the risk of lesions to respiratory tissues in calves that were born alive in spring 2002. Increasing postnatal exposures to volatile organic compounds measured as benzene and toluene were associated with increased odds of respiratory lesions. The association between volatile organic compounds measured as benzene and respiratory lesions was significant for calves older than 3 weeks. During gestation, increasing exposure to sulfur dioxide was associated with increased odds of lesions in either the skeletal muscle or myocardium.

  19. Industrial Hardening Demonstration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    less severe conditions than thermal cracking (850’ - 950°F and 10 to 20 psi). Zeolitic or molecular sieve- base catalysts are used. Catalytic reforming...with Potential Industrial Hardening A-1 Participants B Post-Attack Petroleum Refining (and Production) B-1 from Crude Oil V List of Figures Number Page...the Key Worker Shelter 116 viii B-1 Proportions of the Products Obtained by Distillation B-2 of Six Crude Oils B-2 Generalized Flow Chart of the

  20. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  1. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  2. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  3. A regional view of urban sedimentary basins in Northern California based on oil industry compressional-wave velocity and density logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Compressional-wave (sonic) and density logs from 119 oil test wells provide knowledge of the physical properties and impedance contrasts within urban sedimentary basins in northern California, which is needed to better understand basin amplification. These wire-line logs provide estimates of sonic velocities and densities for primarily Upper Cretaceous to Pliocene clastic rocks between 0.1 - and 5.6-km depth to an average depth of 1.8 km. Regional differences in the sonic velocities and densities in these basins largely 1reflect variations in the lithology, depth of burial, porosity, and grain size of the strata, but not necessarily formation age. For example, Miocene basin filling strata west of the Calaveras Fault exhibit higher sonic velocities and densities than older but finer-grained and/or higher-porosity rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Great Valley Sequence. As another example, hard Eocene sandstones west of the San Andreas Fault have much higher impedances than Eocene strata, mainly higher-porosity sandstones and shales, located to the east of this fault, and approach those expected for Franciscan Complex basement rocks. Basement penetrations define large impedence contrasts at the sediment/basement contact along the margins of several basins, where Quaternary, Pliocene, and even Miocene deposits directly overlie Franciscan or Salinian basement rocks at depths as much as 1.7 km. In contrast, in the deepest, geographic centers of the basins, such logs exhibit only a modest impedance contrast at the sediment/basement contact at depths exceeding 2 km. Prominent (up to 1 km/sec) and thick (up to several hundred meters) velocity and density reversals in the logs refute the common assumption that velocities and densities increase monotonically with depth.

  4. Assessing inhalatory and dermal exposures and their resultant health-risks for workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Ying-Fang

    2008-10-01

    This study first assessed workers' inhalatory and dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists. Then, their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were estimated. Finally, control strategies were initiated from the health-risk management aspect. All threading workers in a fastener manufacturing plant were included. 16 inhalatory and 88 dermal PAH exposure samples were collected. Results show that the inhalatory gas phase total PAH exposure level (8.60 x 10(4) ng/m3) was much higher than that of particle phase (2.30 x 10(3) ng/m3). Workers' mean inhalatory exposure level (8.83 x 10(4) ng/m3) was lower, but its corresponding 1-sided upper 95% confidence level (UCL1,95% = 1.02 x 10(5) ng/m3) was higher than the time-weighted average permissible exposure level (PEL-TWA) regulated in Taiwan for PAHs (1.00 x 10(5) ng/m3). The mean whole body total PAHs dermal exposure levels was 5.44 x 10(6) ng/day and the top five exposed surface areas were lower arm, hand, upper arm, neck, and head/front. The estimated lifetime skin cancer risk (9.72 x 10(-3)) was lower than that of lung cancer risk (1.64 x 10(-2)), but both were higher than the significant risk level (10(-3)) defined by the US Supreme Court in 1980. The installation of a local exhaust ventilation system at the threading machine should be considered as the first priority measurement because both lung and skin cancer risks can be reduced simultaneously. If the personal protection equipment would be adopted in the future, both respiratory protection equipment and protective clothing should be used simultaneously.

  5. Screening of microbes for the production of polyol oils from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. More than 30.6 million tons of soybean oil were produced worldwide annually and the major use of this oil is for food products. Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA), e.g., castor oil, have many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plasti...

  6. All About Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. Some oils are used ... such as canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower) 1 Tbsp 3 tsp/14 g ...

  7. Co-composting of oil exhausted olive-cake, poultry manure and industrial residues of agro-food activity for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Sellami, F; Jarboui, R; Hachicha, S; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2008-03-01

    The co-composting of exhausted olive-cake with poultry manure and sesame shells was investigated. These organic solid wastes were watered by the confectionary wastewater which is characterized by its high content of residual sugars raising its COD. Four aerated windrows were performed to establish the effects of confectionary by-products on the compost process. Different mixtures of the agro-industrial wastes were used. During the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 70 days. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 14-17. The humidification of the windrows with the wastewater seemed to have accelerated the composting process in comparison to a windrow humidified with water. In addition, the organic matter degradation was enhanced to reach 55-70%. The application of the obtained composts to soil appeared to significantly improve the soil fertility. Indeed, field experiments showed an increase in potato yield; the production was 30.5-37.5 tons ha(-1), compared to 30.5 tons ha(-1) with farm manure.

  8. Evaluation of an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sp. C2 for biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Weixian; Qiao, Yaqin; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-02

    NOx, a significant portion of fossil fuel flue gases, are among the most serious environmental issues in the world and must be removed in an additional costly gas treatment step. This study evaluated the growth of the green alga Chlorella sp. C2 under a nitrite-simulated NOx environment and the removal rates of actual flue gas fixed salts (FGFSs) from Sinopec's Shijiazhuang refinery along with lipid production. The results showed that nitrite levels lower than 176.5 mM had no significant adverse effects on the cell growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella sp. C2, demonstrating that this green alga could utilize nitrite and NOx as a nitrogen source. High concentrations of nitrite (88.25-176.5 mM) also resulted in the accumulation of neutral lipids. A 60% nitrite removal efficiency was obtained together with the production of 33% algae lipids when cultured with FGFS. Notably, the presence of nitrate in the FGFS medium significantly enhanced the nitrite removal capability, biomass and lipid production. Thus, this study may provide a new insight into the economically viable application of microalgae in the synergistic combination of biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases and biodiesel production.

  9. Guide to oil waste-management alternatives for used oil, oily waste water, oily sludge, and other wastes resulting from the use of oil products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of a study of oil waste-management alternatives. The study includes regulations, established and emerging technologies, current practices, economics, and environmental impacts of oil waste management. The report focuses on methods of improving oil-waste recyclability and phasing out land disposal. The report includes recommendations for industrial oil-waste generators. It is the companion volume to 'Oil Waste Management Alternatives Symposia -- Conference Proceedings'.

  10. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  11. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  12. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  13. Chemical composition of scales generated from oil industry and correlation to radionuclide contents and gamma-ray measurements of (210)Pb.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-03-01

    Scale generated from the maintenance of equipment contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive materials may contain also chemical components that cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment. This study spotlights the characterisation of chemical pollutants in scales in relation to home-made comparison samples as no reference material for such waste exists. Analysis by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, with accuracy and precision better than 90%, revealed that barium was the most abundant element in scale samples, ranging from 1.4 to 38.2%. The concentrations of the toxic elements such as lead and chromium were as high as 2.5 and 1.2% respectively. Statistically, high correlation was observed between the concentration of Ba and Sr, sample density, radionuclide contents ((210)Pb and (226)Ra) and self-attenuation factor used for the radio-measurements. However, iron showed a reverse correlation. Interpretation of data with regards to the mineralogical components indicated that (226)Ra and (210)Pb co-precipitated with the insoluble salt Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4. Since both Ba and Sr have high Z, samples of high density (ρ) were accompanied with high values of self-attenuation correction factors (Cf) for the emitted radiation; correlation matrix of Pearson reached 0.935 between ρ and Cf. An attempt to eliminate the effect of the elemental composition and improve gamma measurements of (210)Pb activity concentration in scale samples was made, which showed no correction for self-attenuation was needed when sample densities were in the range 1.0-1.4 g cm(-3). For denser samples, a mathematical model was developed. Accurate determinations of radionuclide and chemical contents of scale would facilitate future Environmental Impact Assessment for the petroleum industry.

  14. Energy industries abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    The relationships between foreign governments and energy industries in many of the world's most important energy producing and consuming nations are examined. The history of hydrocarbon exploration and production is traced and the concessionary and other contractual arrangements entered into by foreign governments and international oil companies are reviewed. Petroleum legislation that was enacted, how government institutions gradually assumed more responsibility for energy matters, and how the former concessionaires adapted to accommodate this increased government participation in the energy sector is described.

  15. An Estimation of Profitability of Investment Projects in The Oil and Gas Industry Using Real Options Theory / Ocena Opłacalności Projektów Inwestycyjnych W Przemyśle Naftowym Z Wykorzystaniem Teorii Opcji Realnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowski, Piotr; Stopa, Jerzy

    2012-11-01

    Paper discusses issues relating to the valuation of investment efficiency in the oil and gas industry using a real options theory. The example of investment pricing using real options was depicted and it was confronted with the analysis executed with the use of traditional methods. Indicators commonly used to evaluate profitability of investment projects, based on a discounted cash flow method, have a few significant drawbacks, the most meaningful of which is staticity which means that any changes resulting from a decision process during the time of investment cannot be taken into consideration. In accordance with a methodology that is currently used, investment projects are analysed in a way that all the key decisions are made at the beginning and are irreversible. This approach assumes, that all the cash flows are specified and does not let the fact that during the time of investment there may appear new information, which could change its original form. What is also not analysed is the possibility of readjustment, due to staff managment's decisions, to the current market conditions, by expanding, speeding up/slowing down, abandoning or changing an outline of the undertaking. In result, traditional methods of investment projects valuation may lead to taking wrong decisions, e.g. giving up an owned exploitation licence or untimely liquidation of boreholes, which seem to be unprofitable. Due to all the above-mentioned there appears the necessity of finding some other methods which would let one make real and adequate estimations about investments in a petroleum industry especially when it comes to unconventional resources extraction. One of the methods which has been recently getting more and more approval in a world petroleum economics, is a real options pricing method. A real option is a right (but not an obligation) to make a decision connected with an investment in a specified time or time interval. According to the method a static model of pricing using DCF is

  16. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Albaladejo, Victor D.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest naturally-produced populations of spring chinook in the mid-Columbia River basin. The study of life history and natural escapement conducted from 1978 to 1985 (Lindsay et al. 1986) provided valuable information on production and productivity of the John Day River spring chinook. With the exception of two years since completion of the study in 1985 (1989 and 1995), spring chinook spawning surveys were conducted in index areas only and have not provided adequate information to assess age composition, progeny-to-parent production values, and estimate natural spawning escapement. The PATH project (Marmorek and Peters 1996) has identified the John Day basin spring chinook as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin. To meet the data needs as an index stock, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age composition, and smolt-to-adult survival are essential. There is need to determine the annual spawner escapement and age composition for the John Day basin spring chinook to provide us the ability to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. This need can be met by expanding the annual chinook spawning surveys, estimating the annual escapement, and determining age composition by scale pattern analyses. This project provides information as directed under two measures of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 4.3C specifies that the key indicator populations should be monitored to provide detailed stock status information. In addition, measure 7.1C identifies the need for collection of population status, life history, and other data on wild and naturally spawning populations. This project was developed in direct response to recommendations and needs of the PATH project, the Fish and Wildlife Program, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Multi-Year Implementation Plan.

  17. Only the Best: The Annual Guide to the Highest-Rated Educational Software and Multimedia, ASCD 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.

    This annual guide provides information on recommended software programs and multimedia applications for K-12 use. An introductory section describes the evaluation process and lists the highest-rated programs for 1998-99. The program entries are organized by the following subject areas: the arts, early childhood, health, language arts, mathematics,…

  18. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, P. F.; Rosa, A. P.; Rodrigues, S. G.; Rosa, E. S.; Monteiro, H. A.; Cruz, A. C.; Barros, V. L.; Souza, M. R.; Rosa, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes. PMID:11485676

  19. Measures of Inservice Professional Development: Suggested Items for the 1998-1999 Schools and Staffing Survey. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M.

    As the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) considers the redesign of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), it is appropriate to consider the information about inservice professional development (IPD) that would be suitable for inclusion in the SASS. Part I of this paper considers the various definitions of IPD and its evaluation,…

  20. Data Files and Electronic Code Book: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Revised. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, selected a nationally representative sample of approximately 22,000 kindergartners in the fall of 1998 and is following these children through the end of the fifth grade. Baseline data about these children, their families, and their kindergarten programs were collected…

  1. Communicating with New and Existing Markets. A Task Force of Howard Community College's 1998-1999 Commission on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

    This is a report from a task force formed by Howard Community College (Maryland) to examine existing and future markets. The task force also explored ways to use marketing strategies to attract potential customers to the college. The task force recommends that the college use its strengths to attract customers, such as its commitment to open…

  2. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240°C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85°C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63°C in 1889, 42–52°C from 1974 through 1991, and 77°C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98°C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3°C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring. During August–October 1999, several field trips were conducted in the vicinity of Anderson Springs to continue monitoring and sampling the thermal manifestations. The new fumarolic area had increased in temperature and in discharge intensity since 1998, and a zone of dead trees had developed on the steep bank directly west of the fumaroles. Ground temperatures and diffuse flow of CO2 flow through soils were measured in the area surrounding the main spring and new fumaroles and in the zone of tree-kill.

  3. Epidemiology of scalds in vulnerable groups in New South Wales, Australia, 1998/1999 to 2002/2003.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the recently introduced International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, code for hot tap water scalds was used to examine the epidemiology of these cases and other scalds injuries in children younger than 5 years of age and adults aged 65 years and older. Although the trunk was the most common area in which scalds occurred, young children were more likely to sustain head and neck scalds (15%, 95% confidence interval 10.8-18.3) because of hot tap water than older people (2%, 95% confidence interval 0.2-4.4). Hospital separation rates for hot water scalds decreased significantly during the study period in both boys (chi(2) = 15.6, df = 1, P < .001) and girls (chi(2) = 5.6, df = 1, P < .001) who were younger than 5 years of age, which might be attributable to the introduction of new standards regulating the provision of hot tap water to various buildings. The severity of scalds cases did not seem to be correlated with the length of hospital stay, which remained unchanged in both age groups.

  4. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in-river survival of PIT tagged hatchery chinook salmon smolts released at the Imnaha River acclimation facility to the Imnaha River Trap. (5) Determine arrival timing, travel time and estimated survival of PIT tagged hatchery and natural chinook salmon and natural and hatchery steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River to Snake and Columbia river dams.

  5. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  6. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish-Tagging System : Annual Report 1998-1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Peterson, Bradley W.; Nunnallee, Edmund P.; Jonasson, Bruce F.

    2000-09-01

    This report covers our work during 1998 and 1999 (FY99) on a project to expand and improve technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted the work. Timely and accurate information derived from PIT-tag technology is increasingly critical to resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of efforts to enhance survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. Continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in the NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan. The FY99 work was divided into individual projects that are covered separately in this report.

  7. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF EPA-CERTIFIED PHASE 2 WOODSTOVES, KLAMATH FALLS AND PORTLAND, OREGON: 1998/1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the condition and air emissions from old, phase-2-certified wood heaters installed in homes and used regularly for hoe heating since the 1992/1993 heating season or earlier. (NOTE: Wood stoves have been identified as a major source of ...

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1998-1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Danette L.; Knapp, Suzanne M.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2001-05-01

    Large runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and steelhead (O. mykiss) once supported productive Tribal and sport fisheries in the Umatilla River. By the 1920s, unscreened irrigation diversions, reduced in-stream flows, poor passage conditions, and habitat degradation had extirpated the salmon run and drastically reduced the summer steelhead run (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Reintroduction of chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) and enhancement of summer steelhead populations in the Umatilla River was initiated in the early and mid-1980s (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Measures to rehabilitate the fishery and improve flows in the Umatilla River are addressed in the original Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987). These include habitat enhancement, hatchery production, holding and acclimation facilities, flow enhancement, passage improvement, and natural production enhancement. Detailed scope and nature of the habitat, flow, passage, and natural production projects are in the Umatilla River basin fisheries restoration plans (CTUIR 1984; Boyce 1986). The Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) provides the framework for hatchery production and evaluation activities. Many agencies cooperate, coordinate, and exchange information in the Umatilla basin to ensure successful implementation of rehabilitation projects, including the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD), the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR), and local irrigation districts (West Extension, Hermiston, and Stanfield-Westland). The Umatilla River Operations Group and the Umatilla Management, Monitoring and Evaluation Oversight Committee coordinate river and fisheries management and research in the Umatilla River basin.

  9. Experimental Studies of Brines and Evaporites as Applied to Mars: Initial Results from 1998-1999 Runs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Bullock, M. A.; Mellon, M. T.; Woosley, C. R.; Zent, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    We are performing laboratory experiments to determine the concentrations and rates of dissolution of ions that could occur in closed, juvenile groundwater systems on Mars. Our approach is to incubate unaltered Mars-analog minerals in initially pure liquid water in contact with a Mars gas mixture for one year. At exponentially increasing time intervals, aliquots of the solutions at three different temperatures are extracted and analyzed using standard terrestrial laboratory geochemical techniques. Ultimately, our experiments will produce Mars analog brines which will be freeze dried to create evaporites. The physical and chemical properties of these evaporites will be compared with spacecraft remote sensing and in situ compositional and physical data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Aqueous extraction of corn oil after fermentation in the dry grind ethanol process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of annual worldwide production. Most commercial corn oil is obtained from corn germ that is a by-product of the wet milling industry. In recent years a new proce...

  11. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  12. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  13. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil comes from the nut (fruit) of the coconut palm. The oil of the nut is used to ... Gras de Noix de Coco, Coconut Fatty Acid, Coconut Palm, Coco Palm, Coconut, Cocos nucifera, Cocotier, Cold Pressed ...

  14. SYNTHETIC OIL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns a dicarboxylate-base synthetic oil with antiwear and antioxidation additives. The oil is prepared from the esterification of 2- or 3-methylcyclohexanol and 2-ethylhexanol with adipic acid. (Author)

  15. Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  16. Industry turns its attention south

    SciTech Connect

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

  17. Signs point to economic recovery and increased oil demand

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.

    1983-08-01

    A strengthening U.S. economy bodes well for the oil industry. Increased oil consumption, resulting from an expanding economy and somewhat lower oil prices, could have a major role in solidifying world oil prices at or near current levels through the end of 1983. A continuation of economic growth through 1984 and 1985 can be expected to put upward pressure on oil prices in those years.

  18. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  19. Prospecting for oil.

    PubMed

    Shields, David S

    2010-01-01

    From the 1770s to the 1880s agriculturists and cooks sought to develop culinary oils from plants. Thomas Jefferson's attempts to introduce the olive into the agriculture of the United States, as a partial substitute for lard in cookery and as a cheap oleo for the consumption of slaves, met with limited success, even in the southeast, because periodic freezes and high humidity thwarted the development of groves. Southern slaves from West Africa supplied their own oil, derived from benne (Sesamum indicum). Benne oil was merely one feature of an elaborate African-American cuisine employing sesame that included benne soup, benne and greens, benne and hominy, benne candy, and benne wafers. Only the last item has survived as a feature of regional and ethnic cookery. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, planter experimentalists began the commercial scale production of benne oil, establishing it as the primary salad oil and the second favored frying medium in the southern United States. It enjoyed acceptance and moderate commercial success until the refinement of cottonseed oil in the 1870s and 1880s. Cotton seed, a waste product of the south's most vital industry, was turned into a revenue stream as David Wesson and other scientists created a salad oil and frying medium designedly tasteless and odorless, and a cooking fat, hydrogenated cottonseed oil (Cottonlene or Crisco) that could cheaply substitute for lard in baking. With the recent recovery of regional foodways, both the olive and sesame are being revived for use in the neo-southern cookery of the twenty-first century.

  20. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  1. Oil pollution control: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, S.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Oil pollution has been a major environmental concern since the 1920s. The search for a solution has ranged from prevention to partial measures coupled with compensation and remedial action. Although recent measures appear to have 'solved' the problem, this book offers a different assessment of the efforts of governments and the oil and maritime industries. It also provides the first comprehensive story of control policies and practices, using primary and secondary sources, thus providing a unique perspective to current approaches. Numerous factors - personalities, state policies, developments in the oil and shipping industries, public agitation, and scientific studies - are identified in a framework useful for analyzing any environmental problem. The book concludes that oil pollution control sets the model for other marine pollution problems, with potentially alarming results.

  2. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  3. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1996-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high

  4. Exposure Standard for Fog Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-15

    28 DISTRIBUTION LIST ...................................................... 37 LIST OF TABLES 1. Exposure to oil mist in...Because contract numbers and order dates are not generally included in inventory lists , and the material in war reserves is classified, the quantities of...petroleum Industry indicat 2that while larger producers may use,.ests such as the modif-ed Ames assay or the FDA test for white oil purity,"m any

  5. Microfluidic Assessment of Frying Oil Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Xie, Shaorong; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wu, Zhizheng; Ru, Changhai; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of frying oil is important for the health of consumers. This paper reports a microfluidic technique for rapidly quantifying the degradation of frying oil. The microfluidic device generates monodispersed water-in-oil droplets and exploits viscosity and interfacial tension changes of frying oil samples over their frying/degradation process. The measured parameters were correlated to the total polar material percentage that is widely used in the food industry. The results reveal that the steady-state length of droplets can be used for unambiguously assessing frying oil quality degradation. PMID:27312884

  6. Microfluidic Assessment of Frying Oil Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mei; Xie, Shaorong; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wu, Zhizheng; Ru, Changhai; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of frying oil is important for the health of consumers. This paper reports a microfluidic technique for rapidly quantifying the degradation of frying oil. The microfluidic device generates monodispersed water-in-oil droplets and exploits viscosity and interfacial tension changes of frying oil samples over their frying/degradation process. The measured parameters were correlated to the total polar material percentage that is widely used in the food industry. The results reveal that the steady-state length of droplets can be used for unambiguously assessing frying oil quality degradation.

  7. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  8. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  9. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    PubMed

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality.

  11. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  12. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  13. Effects of oil prices and exchange rates on world oil consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.; Phillips, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    From 1980 to 1983, oil consumption in most industrial countries declined, even though the real dollar price of oil fell and world economic activity increased. A common explanation for this decline is that consumers continued to adjust to the sharp oil price increase occurring in 1979. A more-complete analysis reveals that exchange-rate movements have also reduced oil consumption. Because world oil prices are denominated in US dollars, movements in exchange rates can alter the price of oil faced by countries other than the United States. In fact, increases in the value of the dollar raised the effective price of oil for some major industrial countries to levels that were higher in 1983 than in 1980. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  14. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  15. Developing Alberta's oil sands, 1920--2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastko, Paul Anthony

    This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil sands industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to "manufacture" oil from the Alberta tar sands at less than $10 U.S. per barrel.

  16. OIL AND GAS FIELD EMISSIONS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an oil and gas field emissions survey. The production segment of the oil and gas industry has been identified as a source category that requires the development of more reliable emissions inventory methodologies. The overall purpose of the project was ...

  17. Pacific Crude Oil Demands: An International Concern.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Pacific Area as a whole has a great deficit in crude oil resources and, like much of the world, is heavily dependent upon the Middle East. In...spite of the great growth of industrial bases and refining capabilities, with their commensurate increase in requirements, crude oil production has not

  18. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  19. Dust Evaluation in the Cottonseed Oil Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    ZAMOX AFIT RESEARCH ASSESSMENT AFIT/CI/NR-81-75D The purpose of this questionnaire is to ascertain the value and/or contribution of research ...b. NO 3. The benefits of AFIT research can often be expressed by the equivalent value that your agency achieved/received by virtue of AFIT...terms of manpower and/or dollars? ( ) a. MAN-YEARS ( ) b. $ 4. Often it is not possible to attach equivalent dollar values to research , although the

  20. Source Determinations for Oil and Gas Industries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Source Determinations for Oil and Gas Industries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. National Standard Petroleum Oil Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1936-03-04

    largely according to the recommendations of a committee appointed by the American Petroleum Institute to represent the petroleum industry. In order to... Petroleum Institute , the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and the National Bureau of Standards, in December 1921, agreed to recommend that in the future only...overcome the confusion that has existed in the petroleum-oil industry by reason of the use of two so-called Baume scales for light liquids, the American

  3. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  4. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  5. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  6. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  7. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  8. The future of oil supply.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  9. Industrial enzymology: the application of enzymes in industry

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, T.; Reichelt, J.

    1982-01-01

    This reference book contains detailed data on kinetics of enzymes which relate mathematical models to actual industrial practice; comments on legislative thinking, toxicology, test systems, and guidance on industrial safety when working with enzymes; and explains the uses of enzymes for the following products or processes: potable alcohol, fuel alcohol, analytical applications, baking, brewing, dairy, detergents, effluents/by-products/biogas, flavors and colors, juice, leather, paper, plant tissues, proteins, starch, textiles, and wine. Seven biotechnical specialities are described: yeast processing, immobilized enzymes, membrane cleaning, glucose oxidase, edible oil processing, mineral oil/drilling muds, and dextranase and sugar processing. One chapter is devoted to a comparison of key characteristics of industrial enzymes by type and source. Another chapter lists enzyme groupings, specific data on suppliers, natural sources, current assays, and biochemical criteria. (CKK)

  10. Resources Work: Careers in Mining, Oil, and Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka

    2013-01-01

    This article describes occupations in the mining, oil, and gas extraction industry. The first section covers the industry's employment and outlook. The second section highlights some common occupations. The third section discusses pros and cons of the work. The fourth section describes how to start a career in mining or oil and gas. And the fifth…

  11. Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1988-01-01

    A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

  12. Updated edition of used oil guidebook available to help businesses manage and dispose of used oil properly

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.T.; Harris, C.; Cavanaugh, P.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: criminal liability; an update on insurance coverage issues; new information on industrial oils and recycling diesel fuel; an update on important regulatory developments such as underground storage tanks and the burning of used oil containing PCBs; and an analysis of recent court cases regarding the regulation of used oil as a hazardous waste.

  13. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  14. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  15. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-29

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  16. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  17. Quantification of TAG and DAG in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil by HPLC and MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses because of its high content (90%) of the hydroxy fatty acid, ricinoleic acid (OH1218:19). Lesquerella oil containing lesquerolic acid (Ls, OH1420:111, 56.5%) is potentially useful in industry. Ten diacylglycerols (DAG) and 74 triacylglycerols (TAG) in the seed oil...

  18. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  19. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  20. Replacing fossil oil with fresh oil – with what and for what?

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Anders S; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Green, Allan G; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2011-01-01

    Industrial chemicals and materials are currently derived mainly from fossil-based raw materials, which are declining in availability, increasing in price and are a major source of undesirable greenhouse gas emissions. Plant oils have the potential to provide functionally equivalent, renewable and environmentally friendly replacements for these finite fossil-based raw materials, provided that their composition can be matched to end-use requirements, and that they can be produced on sufficient scale to meet current and growing industrial demands. Replacement of 40% of the fossil oil used in the chemical industry with renewable plant oils, whilst ensuring that growing demand for food oils is also met, will require a trebling of global plant oil production from current levels of around 139 MT to over 400 MT annually. Realisation of this potential will rely on application of plant biotechnology to (i) tailor plant oils to have high purity (preferably >90%) of single desirable fatty acids, (ii) introduce unusual fatty acids that have specialty end-use functionalities and (iii) increase plant oil production capacity by increased oil content in current oil crops, and conversion of other high biomass crops into oil accumulating crops. This review outlines recent progress and future challenges in each of these areas. Practical applications: The research reviewed in this paper aims to develop metabolic engineering technologies to radically increase the yield and alter the fatty acid composition of plant oils and enable the development of new and more productive oil crops that can serve as renewable sources of industrial feedstocks currently provided by non-renewable and polluting fossil-based resources. As a result of recent and anticipated research developments we can expect to see significant enhancements in quality and productivity of oil crops over the coming decades. This should generate the technologies needed to support increasing plant oil production into the future